hgbook-gu / po / zh.po

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#
# Simplified Chinese translation for hgbook
# This file is distributed under the same license as the hgbook.
#
# Authors:
# Dongsheng Song <dongsheng.song@gmail.com>, 2009
#
# Check translation:
#    msgfmt --statistics -c -o zh.mo zh.po
#
# Please format your translation before commit:
#    msgcat --sort-by-file --width=80 -o zh_new.po zh.po
#    mv -f zh_new.po zh.po
#
# Dictionary:
# blame             追溯
# branch            分支
# changes           修改
# changeset         修改集
# checkout          检出
# remove            移除(从版本库删除)
# delete            删除(只从文件系统删除)
# filelog           文件日志
# patchset          补丁集
# pushing to        推到
# pulling from      拉自,抓取
# rename            改名
# repository        版本库
# revert            恢复
# revision          版本
# revlog            版本日志
# tag               标签
# tip               顶点
# undo              撤销
# unversioned       未版本控制
# updated           更新到,同步到(适用于旧版本)
# versioned         受版本控制
# working copy      工作副本
# identifiers	    标识符
# ...
#
msgid ""
msgstr ""
"Project-Id-Version: hgbook 1.2\n"
"POT-Creation-Date: 2009-11-04 14:06+0800\n"
"PO-Revision-Date: 2009-10-21 16:42+0800\n"
"Last-Translator: 宋冬生 <songdonogsheng@live.cn>\n"
"Language-Team: Simplified Chinese <i18n-zh@googlegroups.com >\n"
"MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
"Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8\n"
"Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
"X-Poedit-Language: Chinese\n"
"X-Poedit-Country: CHINA\n"
"X-Poedit-SourceCharset: utf-8\n"

#. type: Content of: <book><title>
#: ../en/00book.xml:42
msgid "Mercurial: The Definitive Guide"
msgstr "Mercurial 权威指南"

#. type: Content of: <book><subtitle>
#: ../en/00book.xml:47
msgid "Compiled from $rev_id$"
msgstr "编译自 $rev_id$"

#. type: Content of: <book><bookinfo>
#: ../en/00book.xml:49
msgid "<edition>1</edition> <isbn>9780596800673</isbn>"
msgstr "<edition>1</edition> <isbn>9780596800673</isbn>"

#. type: Content of: <book><bookinfo><authorgroup><author><firstname>
#: ../en/00book.xml:53
msgid "Bryan"
msgstr "Bryan"

#. type: Content of: <book><bookinfo><authorgroup><author><surname>
#: ../en/00book.xml:54
msgid "O'Sullivan"
msgstr "O'Sullivan"

#. type: Content of: <book><bookinfo>
#: ../en/00book.xml:58
msgid ""
"<editor> <firstname>Mike</firstname> <surname>Loukides</surname> </editor> "
"<copyright> <year>2006</year> <year>2007</year> <year>2008</year> <year>2009</"
"year> <holder>Bryan O'Sullivan</holder> </copyright>"
msgstr ""
"<editor> <firstname>Mike</firstname> <surname>Loukides</surname> </editor> "
"<copyright> <year>2006</year> <year>2007</year> <year>2008</year> <year>2009</"
"year> <holder>Bryan O'Sullivan</holder> </copyright>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><title>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:5
msgid "Migrating to Mercurial"
msgstr "迁移到 Mercurial"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:7
msgid ""
"A common way to test the waters with a new revision control tool is to "
"experiment with switching an existing project, rather than starting a new "
"project from scratch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:11
msgid ""
"In this appendix, we discuss how to import a project's history into "
"Mercurial, and what to look out for if you are used to a different revision "
"control system."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><title>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:16
msgid "Importing history from another system"
msgstr "从其它版本控制系统导入历史"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:18
msgid ""
"Mercurial ships with an extension named <literal>convert</literal>, which can "
"import project history from most popular revision control systems.  At the "
"time this book was written, it could import history from the following "
"systems:"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><thead><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:25 ../en/appA-svn.xml:369 ../en/ch01-intro.xml:416
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:627
msgid "Subversion"
msgstr "Subversion"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:28 ../en/ch01-intro.xml:532 ../en/ch01-intro.xml:628
msgid "CVS"
msgstr "CVS"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:31
msgid "git"
msgstr "git"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:34 ../en/ch01-intro.xml:630
msgid "Darcs"
msgstr "Darcs"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:37
msgid "Bazaar"
msgstr "Bazaar"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:40
msgid "Monotone"
msgstr "Monotone"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:43
msgid "GNU Arch"
msgstr "GNU Arch"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><thead><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:46 ../en/appA-svn.xml:370
msgid "Mercurial"
msgstr "Mercurial"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:50
msgid ""
"(To see why Mercurial itself is supported as a source, see <xref linkend="
"\"svn.filemap\"/>.)"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:53
msgid ""
"You can enable the extension in the usual way, by editing your <filename>~/."
"hgrc</filename> file."
msgstr ""
"你可以通过常用的方式,编辑<filename>~./hgrc</filename>文件来使用这个扩展。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:59
msgid ""
"This will make a <command>hg convert</command> command available.  The "
"command is easy to use.  For instance, this command will import the "
"Subversion history for the Nose unit testing framework into Mercurial."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><screen><prompt>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:64 ../en/appA-svn.xml:207 ../en/appA-svn.xml:212
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:213 ../en/appA-svn.xml:218 ../en/appA-svn.xml:224
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:229 ../en/appA-svn.xml:532
msgid "$"
msgstr "$"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><screen><userinput>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:64
msgid "hg convert http://python-nose.googlecode.com/svn/trunk"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:66
msgid ""
"The <literal>convert</literal> extension operates incrementally.  In other "
"words, after you have run <command>hg convert</command> once, running it "
"again will import any new revisions committed after the first run began.  "
"Incremental conversion will only work if you run <command>hg convert</"
"command> in the same Mercurial repository that you originally used, because "
"the <literal>convert</literal> extension saves some private metadata in a non-"
"revision-controlled file named <filename>.hg/shamap</filename> inside the "
"target repository."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:78
msgid ""
"When you want to start making changes using Mercurial, it's best to clone the "
"tree in which you are doing your conversions, and leave the original tree for "
"future incremental conversions.  This is the safest way to let you pull and "
"merge future commits from the source revision control system into your newly "
"active Mercurial project."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:86
msgid "Converting multiple branches"
msgstr "转换多个分支"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:88
msgid ""
"The <command>hg convert</command> command given above converts only the "
"history of the <literal>trunk</literal> branch of the Subversion repository.  "
"If we instead use the URL <literal>http://python-nose.googlecode.com/svn</"
"literal>, Mercurial will automatically detect the <literal>trunk</literal>, "
"<literal>tags</literal> and <literal>branches</literal> layout that "
"Subversion projects usually use, and it will import each as a separate "
"Mercurial branch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:98
msgid ""
"By default, each Subversion branch imported into Mercurial is given a branch "
"name.  After the conversion completes, you can get a list of the active "
"branch names in the Mercurial repository using <command>hg branches -a</"
"command>. If you would prefer to import the Subversion branches without "
"names, pass the <option>--config convert.hg.usebranchnames=false</option> "
"option to <command>hg convert</command>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:107
msgid ""
"Once you have converted your tree, if you want to follow the usual Mercurial "
"practice of working in a tree that contains a single branch, you can clone "
"that single branch using <command>hg clone -r mybranchname</command>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:114
msgid "Mapping user names"
msgstr "映射用户名称"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:116
msgid ""
"Some revision control tools save only short usernames with commits, and these "
"can be difficult to interpret.  The norm with Mercurial is to save a "
"committer's name and email address, which is much more useful for talking to "
"them after the fact."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:122
msgid ""
"If you are converting a tree from a revision control system that uses short "
"names, you can map those names to longer equivalents by passing a <option>--"
"authors</option> option to <command>hg convert</command>.  This option "
"accepts a file name that should contain entries of the following form."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:132
msgid ""
"Whenever <literal>convert</literal> encounters a commit with the username "
"<literal>arist</literal> in the source repository, it will use the name "
"<literal>Aristotle &lt;aristotle@phil.example.gr&gt;</literal> in the "
"converted Mercurial revision.  If no match is found for a name, it is used "
"verbatim."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:141
msgid "Tidying up the tree"
msgstr "清理目录树"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:143
msgid ""
"Not all projects have pristine history.  There may be a directory that should "
"never have been checked in, a file that is too big, or a whole hierarchy that "
"needs to be refactored."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:148
msgid ""
"The <literal>convert</literal> extension supports the idea of a <quote>file "
"map</quote> that can reorganize the files and directories in a project as it "
"imports the project's history.  This is useful not only when importing "
"history from other revision control systems, but also to prune or refactor a "
"Mercurial tree."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:155
msgid ""
"To specify a file map, use the <option>--filemap</option> option and supply a "
"file name.  A file map contains lines of the following forms."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:169
msgid ""
"The <literal>include</literal> directive causes a file, or all files under a "
"directory, to be included in the destination repository.  This also excludes "
"all other files and dirs not explicitely included.  The <literal>exclude</"
"literal> directive causes files or directories to be omitted, and others not "
"explicitly mentioned to be included."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:176
msgid ""
"To move a file or directory from one location to another, use the "
"<literal>rename</literal> directive.  If you need to move a file or directory "
"from a subdirectory into the root of the repository, use <literal>.</literal> "
"as the second argument to the <literal>rename</literal> directive."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:184
msgid "Improving Subversion conversion performance"
msgstr "改进 Subversion 的转换性能"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:186
msgid ""
"You will often need several attempts before you hit the perfect combination "
"of user map, file map, and other conversion parameters.  Converting a "
"Subversion repository over an access protocol like <literal>ssh</literal> or "
"<literal>http</literal> can proceed thousands of times more slowly than "
"Mercurial is capable of actually operating, due to network delays.  This can "
"make tuning that perfect conversion recipe very painful."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:195
msgid ""
"The <ulink url=\"http://svn.collab.net/repos/svn/trunk/notes/svnsync.txt"
"\"><command>svnsync</command></ulink> command can greatly speed up the "
"conversion of a Subversion repository.  It is a read-only mirroring program "
"for Subversion repositories.  The idea is that you create a local mirror of "
"your Subversion tree, then convert the mirror into a Mercurial repository."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:203
msgid ""
"Suppose we want to convert the Subversion repository for the popular "
"Memcached project into a Mercurial tree.  First, we create a local Subversion "
"repository."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><screen><userinput>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:207
msgid "svnadmin create memcached-mirror"
msgstr "svnadmin create memcached-mirror"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:209
msgid "Next, we set up a Subversion hook that <command>svnsync</command> needs."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><screen><userinput>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:212
msgid "echo '#!/bin/sh' > memcached-mirror/hooks/pre-revprop-change"
msgstr "echo '#!/bin/sh' > memcached-mirror/hooks/pre-revprop-change"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><screen><userinput>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:213
msgid "chmod +x memcached-mirror/hooks/pre-revprop-change"
msgstr "chmod +x memcached-mirror/hooks/pre-revprop-change"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:215
msgid "We then initialize <command>svnsync</command> in this repository."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><screen><userinput>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:218
msgid ""
"svnsync --init file://`pwd`/memcached-mirror \\ http://code.sixapart.com/svn/"
"memcached"
msgstr ""
"svnsync --init file://`pwd`/memcached-mirror \\ http://code.sixapart.com/svn/"
"memcached"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:221
msgid ""
"Our next step is to begin the <command>svnsync</command> mirroring process."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><screen><userinput>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:224
msgid "svnsync sync file://`pwd`/memcached-mirror"
msgstr "svnsync sync file://`pwd`/memcached-mirror"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:226
msgid ""
"Finally, we import the history of our local Subversion mirror into Mercurial."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><screen><userinput>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:229
msgid "hg convert memcached-mirror"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:231
msgid ""
"We can use this process incrementally if the Subversion repository is still "
"in use.  We run <command>svnsync</command> to pull new changes into our "
"mirror, then <command>hg convert</command> to import them into our Mercurial "
"tree."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:237
msgid ""
"There are two advantages to doing a two-stage import with <command>svnsync</"
"command>.  The first is that it uses more efficient Subversion network "
"syncing code than <command>hg convert</command>, so it transfers less data "
"over the network.  The second is that the import from a local Subversion tree "
"is so fast that you can tweak your conversion setup repeatedly without having "
"to sit through a painfully slow network-based conversion process each time."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><title>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:249
msgid "Migrating from Subversion"
msgstr "从 Subversion 迁移"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:251
msgid ""
"Subversion is currently the most popular open source revision control system. "
"Although there are many differences between Mercurial and Subversion, making "
"the transition from Subversion to Mercurial is not particularly difficult.  "
"The two have similar command sets and generally uniform interfaces."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:259
msgid "Philosophical differences"
msgstr "哲学的差别"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:261
msgid ""
"The fundamental difference between Subversion and Mercurial is of course that "
"Subversion is centralized, while Mercurial is distributed.  Since Mercurial "
"stores all of a project's history on your local drive, it only needs to "
"perform a network access when you want to explicitly communicate with another "
"repository. In contrast, Subversion stores very little information locally, "
"and the client must thus contact its server for many common operations."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:270
msgid ""
"Subversion more or less gets away without a well-defined notion of a branch: "
"which portion of a server's namespace qualifies as a branch is a matter of "
"convention, with the software providing no enforcement.  Mercurial treats a "
"repository as the unit of branch management."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><sect3><title>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:277
msgid "Scope of commands"
msgstr "命令作用域"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:279
msgid ""
"Since Subversion doesn't know what parts of its namespace are really "
"branches, it treats most commands as requests to operate at and below "
"whatever directory you are currently visiting.  For instance, if you run "
"<command>svn log</command>, you'll get the history of whatever part of the "
"tree you're looking at, not the tree as a whole."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:286
msgid ""
"Mercurial's commands behave differently, by defaulting to operating over an "
"entire repository.  Run <command>hg log</command> and it will tell you the "
"history of the entire tree, no matter what part of the working directory "
"you're visiting at the time.  If you want the history of just a particular "
"file or directory, simply supply it by name, e.g. <command>hg log src</"
"command>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:294
msgid ""
"From my own experience, this difference in default behaviors is probably the "
"most likely to trip you up if you have to switch back and forth frequently "
"between the two tools."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><sect3><title>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:301
msgid "Multi-user operation and safety"
msgstr "多用户操作与安全"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:303
msgid ""
"With Subversion, it is normal (though slightly frowned upon) for multiple "
"people to collaborate in a single branch.  If Alice and Bob are working "
"together, and Alice commits some changes to their shared branch, Bob must "
"update his client's view of the branch before he can commit.  Since at this "
"time he has no permanent record of the changes he has made, he can corrupt or "
"lose his modifications during and after his update."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:312
msgid ""
"Mercurial encourages a commit-then-merge model instead.  Bob commits his "
"changes locally before pulling changes from, or pushing them to, the server "
"that he shares with Alice.  If Alice pushed her changes before Bob tries to "
"push his, he will not be able to push his changes until he pulls hers, merges "
"with them, and commits the result of the merge.  If he makes a mistake during "
"the merge, he still has the option of reverting to the commit that recorded "
"his changes."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:321
msgid ""
"It is worth emphasizing that these are the common ways of working with these "
"tools. Subversion supports a safer work-in-your-own-branch model, but it is "
"cumbersome enough in practice to not be widely used.  Mercurial can support "
"the less safe mode of allowing changes to be pulled in and merged on top of "
"uncommitted edits, but this is considered highly unusual."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><sect3><title>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:331
msgid "Published vs local changes"
msgstr "已发布的修改与本地修改"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:333
msgid ""
"A Subversion <command>svn commit</command> command immediately publishes "
"changes to a server, where they can be seen by everyone who has read access."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:337
msgid ""
"With Mercurial, commits are always local, and must be published via a "
"<command>hg push</command> command afterwards."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:341
msgid ""
"Each approach has its advantages and disadvantages.  The Subversion model "
"means that changes are published, and hence reviewable and usable, "
"immediately.  On the other hand, this means that a user must have commit "
"access to a repository in order to use the software in a normal way, and "
"commit access is not lightly given out by most open source projects."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:349
msgid ""
"The Mercurial approach allows anyone who can clone a repository to commit "
"changes without the need for someone else's permission, and they can then "
"publish their changes and continue to participate however they see fit.  The "
"distinction between committing and pushing does open up the possibility of "
"someone committing changes to their laptop and walking away for a few days "
"having forgotten to push them, which in rare cases might leave collaborators "
"temporarily stuck."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:362
msgid "Quick reference"
msgstr "快速参考"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><title>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:365
msgid "Subversion commands and Mercurial equivalents"
msgstr "Subversion 命令与 Mercurial 对照表"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><thead><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:371
msgid "Notes"
msgstr "备注"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:376
msgid "<command>svn add</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn add</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:377
msgid "<command>hg add</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg add</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:381
msgid "<command>svn blame</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn blame</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:382
msgid "<command>hg annotate</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg annotate</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:386
msgid "<command>svn cat</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn cat</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:387
msgid "<command>hg cat</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg cat</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:391
msgid "<command>svn checkout</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn checkout</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:392 ../en/appA-svn.xml:409
msgid "<command>hg clone</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg clone</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:396
msgid "<command>svn cleanup</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn cleanup</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:397 ../en/appA-svn.xml:472
msgid "n/a"
msgstr "n/a"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:398
msgid "No cleanup needed"
msgstr "不需要清理"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:401
msgid "<command>svn commit</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn commit</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:402
msgid "<command>hg commit</command>; <command>hg push</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg commit</command>; <command>hg push</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:404
msgid "<command>hg push</command> publishes after commit"
msgstr "提交后使用 <command>hg push</command> 发布"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:408 ../en/appA-svn.xml:413
msgid "<command>svn copy</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn copy</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:410
msgid "To create a new branch"
msgstr "创建新补丁"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:414
msgid "<command>hg copy</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg copy</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:415
msgid "To copy files or directories"
msgstr "复制文件或目录"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:418
msgid "<command>svn delete</command> (<command>svn remove</command>)"
msgstr "<command>svn delete</command> (<command>svn remove</command>)"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:420
msgid "<command>hg remove</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg remove</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:424
msgid "<command>svn diff</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn diff</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:425
msgid "<command>hg diff</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg diff</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:429
msgid "<command>svn export</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn export</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:430
msgid "<command>hg archive</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg archive</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:434
msgid "<command>svn help</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn help</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:435
msgid "<command>hg help</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg help</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:439
msgid "<command>svn import</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn import</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:440
msgid "<command>hg addremove</command>; <command>hg commit</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg addremove</command>; <command>hg commit</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:445 ../en/appA-svn.xml:450
msgid "<command>svn info</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn info</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:446
msgid "<command>hg parents</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg parents</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:447
msgid "Shows what revision is checked out"
msgstr "显示检出的版本信息"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:451
msgid "<command>hg showconfig paths.parent</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg showconfig paths.parent</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:453
msgid "Shows what URL is checked out"
msgstr "显示检出的 URL"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:456
msgid "<command>svn list</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn list</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:457
msgid "<command>hg manifest</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg manifest</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:461
msgid "<command>svn log</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn log</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:462
msgid "<command>hg log</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg log</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:466
msgid "<command>svn merge</command>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:467
msgid "<command>hg merge</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg merge</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:471
msgid "<command>svn mkdir</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn mkdir</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:473
msgid "Mercurial does not track directories"
msgstr "Mercurial 不跟踪目录"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:476
msgid "<command>svn move</command> (<command>svn rename</command>)"
msgstr "<command>svn move</command> (<command>svn rename</command>)"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:478
msgid "<command>hg rename</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg rename</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:482
msgid "<command>svn resolved</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn resolved</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:483
msgid "<command>hg resolve -m</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg resolve -m</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:487
msgid "<command>svn revert</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn revert</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:488
msgid "<command>hg revert</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg revert</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:492
msgid "<command>svn status</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn status</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:493
msgid "<command>hg status</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg status</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:497
msgid "<command>svn update</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn update</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:498
msgid "<command>hg pull -u</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg pull -u</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><title>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:508
msgid "Useful tips for newcomers"
msgstr "新手需要了解的技巧"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:510
msgid ""
"Under some revision control systems, printing a diff for a single committed "
"revision can be painful. For instance, with Subversion, to see what changed "
"in revision 104654, you must type <command>svn diff -r104653:104654</"
"command>. Mercurial eliminates the need to type the revision ID twice in this "
"common case. For a plain diff, <command>hg export 104654</command>. For a log "
"message followed by a diff, <command>hg log -r104654 -p</command>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:519
msgid ""
"When you run <command>hg status</command> without any arguments, it prints "
"the status of the entire tree, with paths relative to the root of the "
"repository.  This makes it tricky to copy a file name from the output of "
"<command>hg status</command> into the command line.  If you supply a file or "
"directory name to <command>hg status</command>, it will print paths relative "
"to your current location instead.  So to get tree-wide status from "
"<command>hg status</command>, with paths that are relative to your current "
"directory and not the root of the repository, feed the output of <command>hg "
"root</command> into <command>hg status</command>.  You can easily do this as "
"follows on a Unix-like system:"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><screen><userinput>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:532
msgid "hg status `hg root`"
msgstr "hg status `hg root`"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:5
msgid "Mercurial Queues reference"
msgstr "Mercurial 队列参考"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:8
msgid "MQ command reference"
msgstr "MQ 命令参考"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:10
msgid ""
"For an overview of the commands provided by MQ, use the command <command role="
"\"hg-cmd\">hg help mq</command>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:14
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qapplied</command>&emdash;print applied patches"
msgstr "<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qapplied</command>—显示已应用的补丁"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:17
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qapplied</command> command prints the current "
"stack of applied patches.  Patches are printed in oldest-to-newest order, so "
"the last patch in the list is the <quote>top</quote> patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:24
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qcommit</command>&emdash;commit changes in the "
"queue repository"
msgstr "<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qcommit</command>—提交队列中的修改"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:27
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qcommit</command> command commits any "
"outstanding changes in the <filename role=\"special\" class=\"directory\">.hg/"
"patches</filename> repository.  This command only works if the <filename role="
"\"special\" class=\"directory\">.hg/patches</filename> directory is a "
"repository, i.e. you created the directory using <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg "
"qinit <option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qinit-opt\">-c</option></command> or ran "
"<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg init</command> in the directory after running "
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qinit</command>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:39
msgid ""
"This command is shorthand for <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg commit --cwd .hg/"
"patches</command>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:43
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qdelete</command>&emdash;delete a patch from the "
"<filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file"
msgstr ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qdelete</command>—从文件 <filename role=\"special"
"\">series</filename> 中删除补丁"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:48
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qdelete</command> command removes the entry "
"for a patch from the <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file in the "
"<filename role=\"special\" class=\"directory\">.hg/patches</filename> "
"directory.  It does not pop the patch if the patch is already applied.  By "
"default, it does not delete the patch file; use the <option role=\"hg-ext-mq-"
"cmd-qdel-opt\">-f</option> option to do that."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:57 ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:109 ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:167
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:207 ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:274
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:345 ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:414
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:492
msgid "Options:"
msgstr "选项:"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:59
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qdel-opt\">-f</option>: Delete the patch file."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:66
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qdiff</command>&emdash;print a diff of the "
"topmost applied patch"
msgstr "<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qdiff</command>—显示最新应用补丁的差异"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:69
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qdiff</command> command prints a diff of the "
"topmost applied patch. It is equivalent to <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg diff -"
"r-2:-1</command>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:75
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qfold</command>&emdash;move applied patches into "
"repository history"
msgstr ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qfold</command>&emdash;将已应用的补丁提交到版本库"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:78
msgid ""
"The <command>hg qfinish</command> command converts the specified applied "
"patches into permanent changes by moving them out of MQ's control so that "
"they will be treated as normal repository history."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:85
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qfold</command>&emdash;merge (<quote>fold</"
"quote>) several patches into one"
msgstr ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qfold</command>—将多个补丁合并(<quote>折叠</"
"quote>)成一个"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:88
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qfold</command> command merges multiple "
"patches into the topmost applied patch, so that the topmost applied patch "
"makes the union of all of the changes in the patches in question."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:93
msgid ""
"The patches to fold must not be applied; <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qfold</"
"command> will exit with an error if any is.  The order in which patches are "
"folded is significant; <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg qfold a b</command> means "
"<quote>apply the current topmost patch, followed by <literal>a</literal>, "
"followed by <literal>b</literal></quote>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:101
msgid ""
"The comments from the folded patches are appended to the comments of the "
"destination patch, with each block of comments separated by three asterisk "
"(<quote><literal>*</literal></quote>) characters.  Use the <option role=\"hg-"
"ext-mq-cmd-qfold-opt\">-e</option> option to edit the commit message for the "
"combined patch/changeset after the folding has completed."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:111
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qfold-opt\">-e</option>: Edit the commit message "
"and patch description for the newly folded patch."
msgstr ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qfold-opt\">-e</option>:为新创建的补丁编辑提交信"
"息和补丁说明。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:116
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qfold-opt\">-l</option>: Use the contents of the "
"given file as the new commit message and patch description for the folded "
"patch."
msgstr ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qfold-opt\">-l</option>: 使用给定文件的内容作为创"
"建补丁新的提交信息和补丁说明。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:121
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qfold-opt\">-m</option>: Use the given text as "
"the new commit message and patch description for the folded patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:129
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qheader</command>&emdash;display the header/"
"description of a patch"
msgstr "<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qheader</command>—显示补丁头部描述"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:133
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qheader</command> command prints the header, "
"or description, of a patch.  By default, it prints the header of the topmost "
"applied patch. Given an argument, it prints the header of the named patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:140
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qimport</command>&emdash;import a third-party "
"patch into the queue"
msgstr "<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qimport</command>—将第三方补丁导入队列"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:143
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qimport</command> command adds an entry for "
"an external patch to the <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file, "
"and copies the patch into the <filename role=\"special\" class=\"directory\">."
"hg/patches</filename> directory.  It adds the entry immediately after the "
"topmost applied patch, but does not push the patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:151
msgid ""
"If the <filename role=\"special\" class=\"directory\">.hg/patches</filename> "
"directory is a repository, <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qimport</command> "
"automatically does an <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg add</command> of the "
"imported patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:159
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qinit</command>&emdash;prepare a repository to "
"work with MQ"
msgstr "<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qinit</command>—为使用 MQ 配置版本库"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:162
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qinit</command> command prepares a repository "
"to work with MQ.  It creates a directory called <filename role=\"special\" "
"class=\"directory\">.hg/patches</filename>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:169
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qinit-opt\">-c</option>: Create <filename role="
"\"special\" class=\"directory\">.hg/patches</filename> as a repository in its "
"own right.  Also creates a <filename role=\"special\">.hgignore</filename> "
"file that will ignore the <filename role=\"special\">status</filename> file."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:179
msgid ""
"When the <filename role=\"special\" class=\"directory\">.hg/patches</"
"filename> directory is a repository, the <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qimport</"
"command> and <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qnew</command> commands "
"automatically <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg add</command> new patches."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:188
msgid "<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qnew</command>&emdash;create a new patch"
msgstr "<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qnew</command>—创建新补丁"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:191
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qnew</command> command creates a new patch.  "
"It takes one mandatory argument, the name to use for the patch file.  The "
"newly created patch is created empty by default.  It is added to the "
"<filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file after the current topmost "
"applied patch, and is immediately pushed on top of that patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:199
msgid ""
"If <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qnew</command> finds modified files in the "
"working directory, it will refuse to create a new patch unless the <option "
"role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qnew-opt\">-f</option> option is used (see below).  This "
"behavior allows you to <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qrefresh</command> your "
"topmost applied patch before you apply a new patch on top of it."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:209
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qnew-opt\">-f</option>: Create a new patch if "
"the contents of the working directory are modified.  Any outstanding "
"modifications are added to the newly created patch, so after this command "
"completes, the working directory will no longer be modified."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:216
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qnew-opt\">-m</option>: Use the given text as "
"the commit message. This text will be stored at the beginning of the patch "
"file, before the patch data."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:225
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qnext</command>&emdash;print the name of the next "
"patch"
msgstr "<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qnext</command>—显示下个补丁的名称"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:228
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qnext</command> command prints the name name "
"of the next patch in the <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file "
"after the topmost applied patch.  This patch will become the topmost applied "
"patch if you run <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qpush</command>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:237
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qpop</command>&emdash;pop patches off the stack"
msgstr "<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qpop</command>—删除堆栈顶部的补丁"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:240
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qpop</command> command removes applied "
"patches from the top of the stack of applied patches.  By default, it removes "
"only one patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:244
msgid ""
"This command removes the changesets that represent the popped patches from "
"the repository, and updates the working directory to undo the effects of the "
"patches."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:248
msgid ""
"This command takes an optional argument, which it uses as the name or index "
"of the patch to pop to.  If given a name, it will pop patches until the named "
"patch is the topmost applied patch.  If given a number, <command role=\"hg-"
"ext-mq\">qpop</command> treats the number as an index into the entries in the "
"series file, counting from zero (empty lines and lines containing only "
"comments do not count).  It pops patches until the patch identified by the "
"given index is the topmost applied patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:258
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qpop</command> command does not read or write "
"patches or the <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file.  It is thus "
"safe to <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qpop</command> a patch that you have "
"removed from the <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file, or a "
"patch that you have renamed or deleted entirely.  In the latter two cases, "
"use the name of the patch as it was when you applied it."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:267
msgid ""
"By default, the <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qpop</command> command will not "
"pop any patches if the working directory has been modified.  You can override "
"this behavior using the <option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qpop-opt\">-f</option> "
"option, which reverts all modifications in the working directory."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:276
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qpop-opt\">-a</option>: Pop all applied "
"patches.  This returns the repository to its state before you applied any "
"patches."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:281
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qpop-opt\">-f</option>: Forcibly revert any "
"modifications to the working directory when popping."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:286
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qpop-opt\">-n</option>: Pop a patch from the "
"named queue."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:291
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qpop</command> command removes one line from "
"the end of the <filename role=\"special\">status</filename> file for each "
"patch that it pops."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:298
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qprev</command>&emdash;print the name of the "
"previous patch"
msgstr "<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qprev</command>—显示上个补丁的名称"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:301
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qprev</command> command prints the name of "
"the patch in the <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file that comes "
"before the topmost applied patch. This will become the topmost applied patch "
"if you run <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qpop</command>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:310
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qpush</command>&emdash;push patches onto the stack"
msgstr "<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qpush</command>—增加补丁到堆栈"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:313
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qpush</command> command adds patches onto the "
"applied stack.  By default, it adds only one patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:317
msgid ""
"This command creates a new changeset to represent each applied patch, and "
"updates the working directory to apply the effects of the patches."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:321
msgid "The default data used when creating a changeset are as follows:"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:324
msgid ""
"The commit date and time zone are the current date and time zone.  Because "
"these data are used to compute the identity of a changeset, this means that "
"if you <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qpop</command> a patch and <command role="
"\"hg-ext-mq\">qpush</command> it again, the changeset that you push will have "
"a different identity than the changeset you popped."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:332
msgid ""
"The author is the same as the default used by the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg "
"commit</command> command."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:336
msgid ""
"The commit message is any text from the patch file that comes before the "
"first diff header.  If there is no such text, a default commit message is "
"used that identifies the name of the patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:341
msgid ""
"If a patch contains a Mercurial patch header, the information in the patch "
"header overrides these defaults."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:347
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qpush-opt\">-a</option>: Push all unapplied "
"patches from the <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file until "
"there are none left to push."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:353
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qpush-opt\">-l</option>: Add the name of the "
"patch to the end of the commit message."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:357
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qpush-opt\">-m</option>: If a patch fails to "
"apply cleanly, use the entry for the patch in another saved queue to compute "
"the parameters for a three-way merge, and perform a three-way merge using the "
"normal Mercurial merge machinery.  Use the resolution of the merge as the new "
"patch content."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:365
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qpush-opt\">-n</option>: Use the named queue if "
"merging while pushing."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:370
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qpush</command> command reads, but does not "
"modify, the <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file.  It appends "
"one line to the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg status</command> file for each "
"patch that it pushes."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:378
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qrefresh</command>&emdash;update the topmost "
"applied patch"
msgstr "<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qrefresh</command>—更新最新的补丁"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:382
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qrefresh</command> command updates the "
"topmost applied patch.  It modifies the patch, removes the old changeset that "
"represented the patch, and creates a new changeset to represent the modified "
"patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:388
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qrefresh</command> command looks for the "
"following modifications:"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:391
msgid ""
"Changes to the commit message, i.e. the text before the first diff header in "
"the patch file, are reflected in the new changeset that represents the patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:396
msgid ""
"Modifications to tracked files in the working directory are added to the "
"patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:399
msgid ""
"Changes to the files tracked using <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg add</command>, "
"<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg copy</command>, <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg "
"remove</command>, or <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg rename</command>.  Added "
"files and copy and rename destinations are added to the patch, while removed "
"files and rename sources are removed."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:408
msgid ""
"Even if <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qrefresh</command> detects no changes, it "
"still recreates the changeset that represents the patch.  This causes the "
"identity of the changeset to differ from the previous changeset that "
"identified the patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:416
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qrefresh-opt\">-e</option>: Modify the commit "
"and patch description, using the preferred text editor."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:421
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qrefresh-opt\">-m</option>: Modify the commit "
"message and patch description, using the given text."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:426
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qrefresh-opt\">-l</option>: Modify the commit "
"message and patch description, using text from the given file."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:434
msgid "<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qrename</command>&emdash;rename a patch"
msgstr "<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qrename</command>—改名补丁"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:437
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qrename</command> command renames a patch, "
"and changes the entry for the patch in the <filename role=\"special\">series</"
"filename> file."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:441
msgid ""
"With a single argument, <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qrename</command> renames "
"the topmost applied patch.  With two arguments, it renames its first argument "
"to its second."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:448
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qseries</command>&emdash;print the entire patch "
"series"
msgstr "<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qseries</command>—显示补丁序列"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:451
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qseries</command> command prints the entire "
"patch series from the <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file.  It "
"prints only patch names, not empty lines or comments.  It prints in order "
"from first to be applied to last."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:459
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qtop</command>&emdash;print the name of the "
"current patch"
msgstr "<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qtop</command>—显示当前补丁的名称"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:462
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qtop</command> prints the name of the topmost "
"currently applied patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:467
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qunapplied</command>&emdash;print patches not yet "
"applied"
msgstr "<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qunapplied</command>—显示尚未应用的补丁"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:471
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qunapplied</command> command prints the names "
"of patches from the <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file that "
"are not yet applied.  It prints them in order from the next patch that will "
"be pushed to the last."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:479
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg strip</command>&emdash;remove a revision and "
"descendants"
msgstr "<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg strip</command>—删除一个版本及其后继"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:482
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg strip</command> command removes a revision, "
"and all of its descendants, from the repository.  It undoes the effects of "
"the removed revisions from the repository, and updates the working directory "
"to the first parent of the removed revision."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:488
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg strip</command> command saves a backup of the "
"removed changesets in a bundle, so that they can be reapplied if removed in "
"error."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:494
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-opt-strip\">-b</option>: Save unrelated changesets that are "
"intermixed with the stripped changesets in the backup bundle."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:498
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-opt-strip\">-f</option>: If a branch has multiple heads, "
"remove all heads."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:501
msgid "<option role=\"hg-opt-strip\">-n</option>: Do not save a backup bundle."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:508
msgid "MQ file reference"
msgstr "MQ 文件参考"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:511
msgid "The <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file"
msgstr "<filename role=\"special\">序列</filename>文件"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:514
msgid ""
"The <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file contains a list of the "
"names of all patches that MQ can apply.  It is represented as a list of "
"names, with one name saved per line.  Leading and trailing white space in "
"each line are ignored."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:520
msgid ""
"Lines may contain comments.  A comment begins with the <quote><literal>#</"
"literal></quote> character, and extends to the end of the line.  Empty lines, "
"and lines that contain only comments, are ignored."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:525
msgid ""
"You will often need to edit the <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> "
"file by hand, hence the support for comments and empty lines noted above.  "
"For example, you can comment out a patch temporarily, and <command role=\"hg-"
"ext-mq\">qpush</command> will skip over that patch when applying patches.  "
"You can also change the order in which patches are applied by reordering "
"their entries in the <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:534
msgid ""
"Placing the <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file under revision "
"control is also supported; it is a good idea to place all of the patches that "
"it refers to under revision control, as well.  If you create a patch "
"directory using the <option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qinit-opt\">-c</option> "
"option to <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qinit</command>, this will be done for "
"you automatically."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:544
msgid "The <filename role=\"special\">status</filename> file"
msgstr "<filename role=\"special\">状态</filename>文件"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:547
msgid ""
"The <filename role=\"special\">status</filename> file contains the names and "
"changeset hashes of all patches that MQ currently has applied.  Unlike the "
"<filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file, this file is not intended "
"for editing.  You should not place this file under revision control, or "
"modify it in any way.  It is used by MQ strictly for internal book-keeping."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><title>
#: ../en/appC-srcinstall.xml:5
msgid "Installing Mercurial from source"
msgstr "从源代码安装 Mercurial"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><title>
#: ../en/appC-srcinstall.xml:8
msgid "On a Unix-like system"
msgstr "类 Unix 系统"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appC-srcinstall.xml:10
msgid ""
"If you are using a Unix-like system that has a sufficiently recent version of "
"Python (2.3 or newer) available, it is easy to install Mercurial from source."
msgstr ""
"如果你使用类 Unix 系统,并且有足够新的 Python (2.3 更新),从源代码安装 "
"Mercurial 就很容易了。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appC-srcinstall.xml:14
msgid ""
"Download a recent source tarball from <ulink url=\"http://www.selenic.com/"
"mercurial/download\">http://www.selenic.com/mercurial/download</ulink>."
msgstr ""
"从 <ulink url=\"http://www.selenic.com/mercurial/download\">http://www."
"selenic.com/mercurial/download</ulink> 下载最新的源代码。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appC-srcinstall.xml:17
msgid "Unpack the tarball:"
msgstr "解压:"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appC-srcinstall.xml:20
msgid ""
"Go into the source directory and run the installer script.  This will build "
"Mercurial and install it in your home directory."
msgstr "进入源代码目录,执行安装教本。这会构建 Mercurial,安装到你的家目录。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appC-srcinstall.xml:27
msgid ""
"Once the install finishes, Mercurial will be in the <literal>bin</literal> "
"subdirectory of your home directory.  Don't forget to make sure that this "
"directory is present in your shell's search path."
msgstr ""
"安装完成后,Mercurial 就位于家目录的 <literal>bin</literal> 子目录。不要忘记将"
"这个目录加入到你的可执行文件搜索路径中。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appC-srcinstall.xml:32
msgid ""
"You will probably need to set the <envar>PYTHONPATH</envar> environment "
"variable so that the Mercurial executable can find the rest of the Mercurial "
"packages.  For example, on my laptop, I have set it to <literal>/home/bos/lib/"
"python</literal>.  The exact path that you will need to use depends on how "
"Python was built for your system, but should be easy to figure out.  If "
"you're uncertain, look through the output of the installer script above, and "
"see where the contents of the <literal>mercurial</literal> directory were "
"installed to."
msgstr ""
"你可能需要设置环境变量 <envar>PYTHONPATH</envar>,以便 Mercurial 可执行文件能"
"找到 Mercurial 包。例如,在我的笔记本电脑中,必须设置为 <literal>/home/bos/"
"lib/python</literal>。你需要使用的路径依赖于 Python 的构建方式,这很容易找出"
"来。如果你不确定,仔细察看上面的安装脚本输出,检查包含 <literal>mercurial</"
"literal> 目录的内容的安装位置。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><title>
#: ../en/appC-srcinstall.xml:44
msgid "On Windows"
msgstr "Windows 系统"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appC-srcinstall.xml:46
msgid ""
"Building and installing Mercurial on Windows requires a variety of tools, a "
"fair amount of technical knowledge, and considerable patience.  I very much "
"<emphasis>do not recommend</emphasis> this route if you are a <quote>casual "
"user</quote>.  Unless you intend to hack on Mercurial, I strongly suggest "
"that you use a binary package instead."
msgstr ""
"在 Windows 中构建和安装 Mercurial 需要各种工具,相当多的技术背景,以及足够的耐"
"心。如果你是一个<quote>初级用户</quote>,我<emphasis>很不赞成</emphasis>这个方"
"法。我强烈建议你使用二进制安装包,除非你想深入研究 Mercurial 本身。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appC-srcinstall.xml:53
msgid ""
"If you are intent on building Mercurial from source on Windows, follow the "
"<quote>hard way</quote> directions on the Mercurial wiki at <ulink url="
"\"http://www.selenic.com/mercurial/wiki/index.cgi/WindowsInstall\">http://www."
"selenic.com/mercurial/wiki/index.cgi/WindowsInstall</ulink>, and expect the "
"process to involve a lot of fiddly work."
msgstr ""
"If you are intent on building Mercurial from source on Windows, follow the "
"<quote>hard way</quote> directions on the Mercurial wiki at <ulink url="
"\"http://www.selenic.com/mercurial/wiki/index.cgi/WindowsInstall\">http://www."
"selenic.com/mercurial/wiki/index.cgi/WindowsInstall</ulink>, and expect the "
"process to involve a lot of fiddly work."

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><title>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:5
msgid "Open Publication License"
msgstr "开放出版协议"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:7
msgid "Version 1.0, 8 June 1999"
msgstr "版本 1.0,1999 年 6 月 8 日。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><title>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:10
msgid "Requirements on both unmodified and modified versions"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:13
msgid ""
"The Open Publication works may be reproduced and distributed in whole or in "
"part, in any medium physical or electronic, provided that the terms of this "
"license are adhered to, and that this license or an incorporation of it by "
"reference (with any options elected by the author(s) and/or publisher) is "
"displayed in the reproduction."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:20
msgid "Proper form for an incorporation by reference is as follows:"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><blockquote><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:24
msgid ""
"Copyright (c) <emphasis>year</emphasis> by <emphasis>author's name or "
"designee</emphasis>. This material may be distributed only subject to the "
"terms and conditions set forth in the Open Publication License, v<emphasis>x."
"y</emphasis> or later (the latest version is presently available at <ulink "
"url=\"http://www.opencontent.org/openpub/\">http://www.opencontent.org/"
"openpub/</ulink>)."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:33
msgid ""
"The reference must be immediately followed with any options elected by the "
"author(s) and/or publisher of the document (see <xref linkend=\"sec:opl:"
"options\"/>)."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:37
msgid ""
"Commercial redistribution of Open Publication-licensed material is permitted."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:40
msgid ""
"Any publication in standard (paper) book form shall require the citation of "
"the original publisher and author. The publisher and author's names shall "
"appear on all outer surfaces of the book. On all outer surfaces of the book "
"the original publisher's name shall be as large as the title of the work and "
"cited as possessive with respect to the title."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><title>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:49
msgid "Copyright"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:51
msgid ""
"The copyright to each Open Publication is owned by its author(s) or designee."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><title>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:56
msgid "Scope of license"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:58
msgid ""
"The following license terms apply to all Open Publication works, unless "
"otherwise explicitly stated in the document."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:62
msgid ""
"Mere aggregation of Open Publication works or a portion of an Open "
"Publication work with other works or programs on the same media shall not "
"cause this license to apply to those other works. The aggregate work shall "
"contain a notice specifying the inclusion of the Open Publication material "
"and appropriate copyright notice."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:69
msgid ""
"<emphasis role=\"bold\">Severability</emphasis>. If any part of this license "
"is found to be unenforceable in any jurisdiction, the remaining portions of "
"the license remain in force."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:74
msgid ""
"<emphasis role=\"bold\">No warranty</emphasis>. Open Publication works are "
"licensed and provided <quote>as is</quote> without warranty of any kind, "
"express or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of "
"merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose or a warranty of non-"
"infringement."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><title>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:83
msgid "Requirements on modified works"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:85
msgid ""
"All modified versions of documents covered by this license, including "
"translations, anthologies, compilations and partial documents, must meet the "
"following requirements:"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:90
msgid "The modified version must be labeled as such."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:93
msgid ""
"The person making the modifications must be identified and the modifications "
"dated."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:96
msgid ""
"Acknowledgement of the original author and publisher if applicable must be "
"retained according to normal academic citation practices."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:100
msgid "The location of the original unmodified document must be identified."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:103
msgid ""
"The original author's (or authors') name(s) may not be used to assert or "
"imply endorsement of the resulting document without the original author's (or "
"authors')  permission."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><title>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:111
msgid "Good-practice recommendations"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:113
msgid ""
"In addition to the requirements of this license, it is requested from and "
"strongly recommended of redistributors that:"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:118
msgid ""
"If you are distributing Open Publication works on hardcopy or CD-ROM, you "
"provide email notification to the authors of your intent to redistribute at "
"least thirty days before your manuscript or media freeze, to give the authors "
"time to provide updated documents. This notification should describe "
"modifications, if any, made to the document."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:125
msgid ""
"All substantive modifications (including deletions) be either clearly marked "
"up in the document or else described in an attachment to the document."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:129
msgid ""
"Finally, while it is not mandatory under this license, it is considered good "
"form to offer a free copy of any hardcopy and CD-ROM expression of an Open "
"Publication-licensed work to its author(s)."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><title>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:137
msgid "License options"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:139
msgid ""
"The author(s) and/or publisher of an Open Publication-licensed document may "
"elect certain options by appending language to the reference to or copy of "
"the license.  These options are considered part of the license instance and "
"must be included with the license (or its incorporation by reference) in "
"derived works."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:147
msgid ""
"To prohibit distribution of substantively modified versions without the "
"explicit permission of the author(s). <quote>Substantive modification</quote> "
"is defined as a change to the semantic content of the document, and excludes "
"mere changes in format or typographical corrections."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:154
msgid ""
"To accomplish this, add the phrase <quote>Distribution of substantively "
"modified versions of this document is prohibited without the explicit "
"permission of the copyright holder.</quote> to the license reference or copy."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:160
msgid ""
"To prohibit any publication of this work or derivative works in whole or in "
"part in standard (paper)  book form for commercial purposes is prohibited "
"unless prior permission is obtained from the copyright holder."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:165
msgid ""
"To accomplish this, add the phrase <quote>Distribution of the work or "
"derivative of the work in any standard (paper) book form is prohibited unless "
"prior permission is obtained from the copyright holder.</quote> to the "
"license reference or copy."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><title>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:5
msgid "Preface"
msgstr "序言"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:8
msgid "Technical storytelling"
msgstr "技术背景"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:10
msgid ""
"A few years ago, when I wanted to explain why I believed that distributed "
"revision control is important, the field was then so new that there was "
"almost no published literature to refer people to."
msgstr ""
"数年之前,当我想解释为什么我相信分布式版本控制非常重要的时候,这个领域实在太新"
"了,几乎没有公开的文献供人们参考。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:15
msgid ""
"Although at that time I spent some time working on the internals of Mercurial "
"itself, I switched to writing this book because that seemed like the most "
"effective way to help the software to reach a wide audience, along with the "
"idea that revision control ought to be distributed in nature.  I publish the "
"book online under a liberal license for the same reason: to get the word out."
msgstr ""
"虽然在那个时候,我已经在Mercurial的内核上花了一些时间,我转而写这本书是因为我"
"发现这可能是帮助软件吸引更多用户,和让大家接受版本控制本质上就应该是分布式的最"
"有效的方式,我把这本书在网上以自由许可的方式发布也是基于同样的原因:让大家都了"
"解。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:23
msgid ""
"There's a familiar rhythm to a good software book that closely resembles "
"telling a story: What is this thing? Why does it matter? How will it help me? "
"How do I use it? In this book, I try to answer those questions for "
"distributed revision control in general, and for Mercurial in particular."
msgstr ""
"一本好的关于软件的书应该和讲故事类似:这是个什么东西?为什么需要它?它会怎样帮"
"助我?我怎么使用它?本书中,我会为分布式版本控制回答这些问题,特别是"
"Mercurial。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:31
msgid "Thank you for supporting Mercurial"
msgstr "谢谢你支持 Mercurial"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:33
msgid ""
"By purchasing a copy of this book, you are supporting the continued "
"development and freedom of Mercurial in particular, and of open source and "
"free software in general. O'Reilly Media and I are donating my royalties on "
"the sales of this book to the Software Freedom Conservancy (<ulink url="
"\"http://www.softwarefreedom.org/\">http://www.softwarefreedom.org/</ulink>)  "
"which provides clerical and legal support to Mercurial and a number of other "
"prominent and worthy open source software projects."
msgstr ""
"通过购买此书,你支持了开源和自由软件的持续发展和自由,特别是Mercurial。"
"O'Reilly Media和我将本书的收入捐献给Software Freedom Conservancy (<ulink url="
"\"http://www.softwarefreedom.org/\">http://www.softwarefreedom.org/</ulink>) ,"
"这个组织为Mercurial和其他一些有潜力和价值的开源软件项目提供了办公和法律支持。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:45
msgid "Acknowledgments"
msgstr "致谢"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:47
msgid ""
"This book would not exist were it not for the efforts of Matt Mackall, the "
"author and project lead of Mercurial.  He is ably assisted by hundreds of "
"volunteer contributors across the world."
msgstr ""
"没有Matt Mackall,Mercurial项目的开发者和领导的努力,这本书不可能存在。他得到"
"了全球数以百计的志愿者的帮助。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:52
msgid ""
"My children, Cian and Ruairi, always stood ready to help me to unwind with "
"wonderful, madcap little-boy games.  I'd also like to thank my ex-wife, "
"Shannon, for her support."
msgstr ""
"我的孩子Cian和Ruairi总是站在我旁边帮我解决奇妙的疯狂小男孩游戏。我同样也要感谢"
"我的前妻Shannon的帮助。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:56
msgid ""
"My colleagues and friends provided help and support in innumerable ways.  "
"This list of people is necessarily very incomplete: Stephen Hahn, Karyn "
"Ritter, Bonnie Corwin, James Vasile, Matt Norwood, Eben Moglen, Bradley Kuhn, "
"Robert Walsh, Jeremy Fitzhardinge, Rachel Chalmers."
msgstr ""
"我的同事和朋友以各种方式提供了帮助和支持,这里的名单非常不全:Stephen Hahn, "
"Karyn Ritter, Bonnie Corwin, James Vasile, Matt Norwood, Eben Moglen, Bradley "
"Kuhn, Robert Walsh, Jeremy Fitzhardinge, Rachel Chalmers."

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:62
msgid ""
"I developed this book in the open, posting drafts of chapters to the book web "
"site as I completed them.  Readers then submitted feedback using a web "
"application that I developed.  By the time I finished writing the book, more "
"than 100 people had submitted comments, an amazing number considering that "
"the comment system was live for only about two months towards the end of the "
"writing process."
msgstr ""
"我以开放的方式完成了本书,当我完成各章的草稿后,就将其放在了网上。读者可以使用"
"我开发的一个网络程序提交反馈。到我完成本书时,有100多人提交了评论。考虑到评论"
"系统是在写作完成之前两个月才开放的,这是一个惊人的数字。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:70
msgid ""
"I would particularly like to recognize the following people, who between them "
"contributed over a third of the total number of comments.  I would like to "
"thank them for their care and effort in providing so much detailed feedback."
msgstr ""
"我特别希望认识以下人员,他们中有的人提交了超过总数三分之一的评论。我要感谢他们"
"的关心和努力,提供了那么多详细的反馈。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:75
msgid ""
"Martin Geisler, Damien Cassou, Alexey Bakhirkin, Till Plewe, Dan Himes, Paul "
"Sargent, Gokberk Hamurcu, Matthijs van der Vleuten, Michael Chermside, John "
"Mulligan, Jordi Fita, Jon Parise."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:80
msgid ""
"I also want to acknowledge the help of the many people who caught errors and "
"provided helpful suggestions throughout the book."
msgstr "我同样要感谢许多在书中找出错误和提供了有帮助的建议的人。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:84
msgid ""
"Jeremy W. Sherman, Brian Mearns, Vincent Furia, Iwan Luijks, Billy Edwards, "
"Andreas Sliwka, Paweł Sołyga, Eric Hanchrow, Steve Nicolai, Michał Masłowski, "
"Kevin Fitch, Johan Holmberg, Hal Wine, Volker Simonis, Thomas P Jakobsen, Ted "
"Stresen-Reuter, Stephen Rasku, Raphael Das Gupta, Ned Batchelder, Lou Keeble, "
"Li Linxiao, Kao Cardoso Félix, Joseph Wecker, Jon Prescot, Jon Maken, John "
"Yeary, Jason Harris, Geoffrey Zheng, Fredrik Jonson, Ed Davies, David "
"Zumbrunnen, David Mercer, David Cabana, Ben Karel, Alan Franzoni, Yousry "
"Abdallah, Whitney Young, Vinay Sajip, Tom Towle, Tim Ottinger, Thomas "
"Schraitle, Tero Saarni, Ted Mielczarek, Svetoslav Agafonkin, Shaun Rowland, "
"Rocco Rutte, Polo-Francois Poli, Philip Jenvey, Petr Tesałék, Peter R. "
"Annema, Paul Bonser, Olivier Scherler, Olivier Fournier, Nick Parker, Nick "
"Fabry, Nicholas Guarracino, Mike Driscoll, Mike Coleman, Mietek Bák, Michael "
"Maloney, László Nagy, Kent Johnson, Julio Nobrega, Jord Fita, Jonathan March, "
"Jonas Nockert, Jim Tittsler, Jeduan Cornejo Legorreta, Jan Larres, James "
"Murphy, Henri Wiechers, Hagen Möbius, Gábor Farkas, Fabien Engels, Evert Rol, "
"Evan Willms, Eduardo Felipe Castegnaro, Dennis Decker Jensen, Deniz Dogan, "
"David Smith, Daed Lee, Christine Slotty, Charles Merriam, Guillaume Catto, "
"Brian Dorsey, Bob Nystrom, Benoit Boissinot, Avi Rosenschein, Andrew Watts, "
"Andrew Donkin, Alexey Rodriguez, Ahmed Chaudhary."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:111
msgid "Conventions Used in This Book"
msgstr "本书的约定"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:113
msgid "The following typographical conventions are used in this book:"
msgstr "本书使用如下的印刷约定:"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:118
msgid "Italic"
msgstr "斜体"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:121
msgid ""
"Indicates new terms, URLs, email addresses, filenames, and file extensions."
msgstr "标识新术语,URL,电子邮件地址,文件名称与扩展名。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:127
msgid "<literal>Constant width</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>等宽</literal>"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:130
msgid ""
"Used for program listings, as well as within paragraphs to refer to program "
"elements such as variable or function names, databases, data types, "
"environment variables, statements, and keywords."
msgstr ""
"用于程序列表,以及段内引用的程序元素,例如变量、函数名称、数据库、数据类型、环"
"境变量、声明和关键字。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:138
msgid "<userinput>Constant width bold</userinput>"
msgstr "<userinput>等宽粗体</userinput>"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:141
msgid "Shows commands or other text that should be typed literally by the user."
msgstr "标识命令或者其它用户应该逐字输入的文本。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:147
msgid "<replaceable>Constant width italic</replaceable>"
msgstr "<replaceable>等宽斜体</replaceable>"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:150
msgid ""
"Shows text that should be replaced with user-supplied values or by values "
"determined by context."
msgstr "标识应该被用户提供的值或者取决于上下文的值替换的文本。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><tip><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:157
msgid "This icon signifies a tip, suggestion, or general note."
msgstr "此图标表示提示,建议或者一般的的注释。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><caution><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:162
msgid "This icon indicates a warning or caution."
msgstr "此图标表示警告。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:167
msgid "Using Code Examples"
msgstr "使用样例代码"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:169
msgid ""
"This book is here to help you get your job done. In general, you may use the "
"code in this book in your programs and documentation. You do not need to "
"contact us for permission unless you’re reproducing a significant portion of "
"the code. For example, writing a program that uses several chunks of code "
"from this book does not require permission. Selling or distributing a CD-ROM "
"of examples from O’Reilly books does require permission.  Answering a "
"question by citing this book and quoting example code does not require "
"permission. Incorporating a significant amount of example code from this book "
"into your product’s documentation does require permission."
msgstr ""
"本书的目的是帮助你完成工作。基本上,你可以将书中的代码用于你的程序或文档。无需"
"取得我们的许可,除非你直接复制大量的代码。举例来说,在程序中使用几段书中的代码"
"无需许可。出售或发布含有O'Reilly书中示例的CD-ROM则需经许可。引用本书中的叙述或"
"示例代码来回答问题无需许可。将书中的大量代码合并到你的产品文档中则需经许可。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:181
msgid ""
"We appreciate, but do not require, attribution. An attribution usually "
"includes the title, author, publisher, and ISBN. For example: “<emphasis>Book "
"Title</emphasis> by Some Author. Copyright 2008 O’Reilly Media, Inc., 978-0-"
"596-xxxx-x.”"
msgstr ""
"虽然我们并不要求在引用本书的时候做版权归属声明,但如果你这样做了,我们将非常感"
"激。版权归属声明通常包含标题,作者,发行者和ISBN。例如: “<emphasis>书名</"
"emphasis> 某人著。 版权所有 2008 O’Reilly Media,Inc., 978-0-596-xxxx-x。”"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:187
msgid ""
"If you feel your use of code examples falls outside fair use or the "
"permission given above, feel free to contact us at <email>permissions@oreilly."
"com</email>."
msgstr ""
"如果你觉得你对书中示例代码的使用超出了正常范围,或者不符合以上描述的许可,尽管"
"用电子邮件跟我们联系:<email>permissions@oreilly.com</email>。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:193
msgid "Safari® Books Online"
msgstr "Safari® 在线书库"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><note><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:196
msgid ""
"When you see a Safari® Books Online icon on the cover of your favorite "
"technology book, that means the book is available online through the O’Reilly "
"Network Safari Bookshelf."
msgstr ""
"如果你在喜欢的技术图书的封面上看见Safari® Books Online的图标,这表示你你可以通"
"过O'Reilly Network Safari Bookshelf在网上使用此书。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:202
msgid ""
"Safari offers a solution that’s better than e-books. It’s a virtual library "
"that lets you easily search thousands of top tech books, cut and paste code "
"samples, download chapters, and find quick answers when you need the most "
"accurate, current information. Try it for free at <ulink role=\"orm:hideurl:"
"ital\" url=\"http://my.safaribooksonline.com/?portal=oreilly\">http://my."
"safaribooksonline.com</ulink>."
msgstr ""
"Safari提供了一个比电子书更好的解决方案。它是一所虚拟图书馆,你可以在上面轻松搜"
"索上千种顶级的技术书籍,剪切和复制示例代码,下载章节,当你需要最准确、最新的信"
"息时,让你更快地找到答案。可以通过下面链接免费试用<ulink role=\"orm:hideurl:"
"ital\" url=\"http://my.safaribooksonline.com/?portal=oreilly\">http://my."
"safaribooksonline.com</ulink>。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:211
msgid "How to Contact Us"
msgstr "联系我们"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:213
msgid ""
"Please address comments and questions concerning this book to the publisher:"
msgstr "关于本书的任何问题或评论请发邮件给出版商:"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><simplelist><member>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:217
msgid "O’Reilly Media, Inc."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><simplelist><member>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:219
msgid "1005 Gravenstein Highway North"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><simplelist><member>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:221
msgid "Sebastopol, CA 95472"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><simplelist><member>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:223
msgid "800-998-9938 (in the United States or Canada)"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><simplelist><member>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:225
msgid "707-829-0515 (international or local)"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><simplelist><member>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:227
msgid "707 829-0104 (fax)"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:230
msgid ""
"We have a web page for this book, where we list errata, examples, and any "
"additional information. You can access this page at:"
msgstr ""
"我们将提供一个关于本书的主页,在那上面提供勘误表、示例以及其它附加信息。你可以"
"从这里访问到它:"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><simplelist><member>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:235
msgid ""
"<ulink url=\"http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/&lt;catalog page&gt;\"></ulink>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><remark>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:239
msgid "Don’t forget to update the &lt;url&gt; attribute, too."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:242
msgid "To comment or ask technical questions about this book, send email to:"
msgstr "关于本书的任何技术问题或评论请发邮件给出版商:"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><simplelist><member>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:246
msgid "<email>bookquestions@oreilly.com</email>"
msgstr "<email>bookquestions@oreilly.com</email>"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:249
msgid ""
"For more information about our books, conferences, Resource Centers, and the "
"O’Reilly Network, see our web site at:"
msgstr ""
"如果想了解关于我们的图书、会议、资源中心以及O'Reilly Network的更多信息,可以浏"
"览以下站点:"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><simplelist><member>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:253
msgid "<ulink url=\"http://www.oreilly.com\"></ulink>"
msgstr "<ulink url=\"http://www.oreilly.com\"></ulink>"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:5
msgid "How did we get here?"
msgstr "写在前面"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:8
msgid "Why revision control? Why Mercurial?"
msgstr "为什么使用版本控制? 为什么使用 Mercurial?"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:10
msgid ""
"Revision control is the process of managing multiple versions of a piece of "
"information.  In its simplest form, this is something that many people do by "
"hand: every time you modify a file, save it under a new name that contains a "
"number, each one higher than the number of the preceding version."
msgstr ""
"版本控制是管理一些信息的多个版本的过程。它最简单的形式莫过于:每次你修改一个文"
"件后都重新命名保存,文件名中包含一个数字,每次修改后这个数字都增加。这通常是许"
"多人手工完成的。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:16
msgid ""
"Manually managing multiple versions of even a single file is an error-prone "
"task, though, so software tools to help automate this process have long been "
"available.  The earliest automated revision control tools were intended to "
"help a single user to manage revisions of a single file.  Over the past few "
"decades, the scope of revision control tools has expanded greatly; they now "
"manage multiple files, and help multiple people to work together.  The best "
"modern revision control tools have no problem coping with thousands of people "
"working together on projects that consist of hundreds of thousands of files."
msgstr ""
"然而,手工管理即使是一个文件的多个版本也是很容易出错的,所以很早就有软件工具来"
"使这个过程自动化。最早的自动化软件管理工具的目标是帮助一个用户管理一个文件的版"
"本。在过去的几十年里,版本控制工具的范围得到极大扩展;现在它们可以管理多个文"
"件,帮助许多人一起工作。最新的版本控制工具可以支持上包含成数十万个文件,几千个"
"人一起工作的项目。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:27
msgid ""
"The arrival of distributed revision control is relatively recent, and so far "
"this new field has grown due to people's willingness to explore ill-charted "
"territory."
msgstr ""
"分布式版本控制是最近才出现的,但是由于人们愿意探索新的疆域,目前这一新的领域已"
"经得到了长足的发展"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:31
msgid ""
"I am writing a book about distributed revision control because I believe that "
"it is an important subject that deserves a field guide. I chose to write "
"about Mercurial because it is the easiest tool to learn the terrain with, and "
"yet it scales to the demands of real, challenging environments where many "
"other revision control tools buckle."
msgstr ""
"我写这本关于分布式版本控制的书是因为我相信这个领域应该有一个指南。我选择"
"Mercurial是因为它是在这个领域中学习最容易上手的工具,并且它能够满足真实的,挑"
"战性的环境的要求,而其他版本控制工具只能望而兴叹。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:39
msgid "Why use revision control?"
msgstr "为什么使用版本控制?"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:41
msgid ""
"There are a number of reasons why you or your team might want to use an "
"automated revision control tool for a project."
msgstr ""
"为什么你或者你的团队可能需要在项目中使用自动化版本控制工具呢?有很多理由。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:46
msgid ""
"It will track the history and evolution of your project, so you don't have "
"to.  For every change, you'll have a log of <emphasis>who</emphasis> made it; "
"<emphasis>why</emphasis> they made it; <emphasis>when</emphasis> they made "
"it; and <emphasis>what</emphasis> the change was."
msgstr ""
"因为它能记录你的项目的历史和演化,所以你不必再给每个变更都记录日志,<emphasis>"
"谁</emphasis>做的;<emphasis>为什么</emphasis>他们这样做;<emphasis>什么时候</"
"emphasis>做的;做了<emphasis>什么</emphasis>修改。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:53
msgid ""
"When you're working with other people, revision control software makes it "
"easier for you to collaborate.  For example, when people more or less "
"simultaneously make potentially incompatible changes, the software will help "
"you to identify and resolve those conflicts."
msgstr ""
"当你和其他人一起工作的时候,版本控制工具让你合作的更容易。例如,当许多人或多或"
"少的同时进行有可能冲突的修改的时候,软件可以帮助你确定和解决这些冲突。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:59
msgid ""
"It can help you to recover from mistakes.  If you make a change that later "
"turns out to be in error, you can revert to an earlier version of one or more "
"files.  In fact, a <emphasis>really</emphasis> good revision control tool "
"will even help you to efficiently figure out exactly when a problem was "
"introduced (see <xref linkend=\"sec:undo:bisect\"/> for details)."
msgstr ""
"它能帮助你修正错误。如果你做了一个修改,但是后来发现这是个错误,你能恢复到一个"
"或者多个文件以前的版本。实际上,一个<emphasis>相当</emphasis>好的版本控制工具"
"甚至会帮助你找出什么什么是时候引入的这个问题(详细信息参考<xref linkend=\"sec:"
"undo:bisect\"/>)。 "

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:66
msgid ""
"It will help you to work simultaneously on, and manage the drift between, "
"multiple versions of your project."
msgstr "它能帮助你同时工作于项目的多个版本,并管理它们的差异。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:71
msgid ""
"Most of these reasons are equally valid&emdash;at least in theory&emdash;"
"whether you're working on a project by yourself, or with a hundred other "
"people."
msgstr ""
"大多数这些理由都是等效的&emdash;至少在理论上&emdash;不管你是一个人做项目还是和"
"几百个人一起。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:76
msgid ""
"A key question about the practicality of revision control at these two "
"different scales (<quote>lone hacker</quote> and <quote>huge team</quote>) is "
"how its <emphasis>benefits</emphasis> compare to its <emphasis>costs</"
"emphasis>.  A revision control tool that's difficult to understand or use is "
"going to impose a high cost."
msgstr ""
"版本控制在在不同尺度上(<quote>单个黑客</quote>和<quote>一个大项目组</quote>)"
"实践的一个关键问题是它的<emphasis>性价</emphasis>比怎么样。一个很难理解和使用"
"的版本控制工具会让你的代价很高。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:84
msgid ""
"A five-hundred-person project is likely to collapse under its own weight "
"almost immediately without a revision control tool and process. In this case, "
"the cost of using revision control might hardly seem worth considering, since "
"<emphasis>without</emphasis> it, failure is almost guaranteed."
msgstr ""
"如果没有版本控制工具和过程,一个五百人的项目很快就可能就将自己压垮。在这种情况"
"下,版本控制的代价基本上不用考虑,因为没有它,失败几乎是一定的。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:91
msgid ""
"On the other hand, a one-person <quote>quick hack</quote> might seem like a "
"poor place to use a revision control tool, because surely the cost of using "
"one must be close to the overall cost of the project.  Right?"
msgstr ""
"另一方面,一个人的<quote>快速编程</quote>看起来并不适合使用版本控制工具,因为"
"使用一个版本控制工具的代价就是整个项目的代价,对吧?"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:96
msgid ""
"Mercurial uniquely supports <emphasis>both</emphasis> of these scales of "
"development.  You can learn the basics in just a few minutes, and due to its "
"low overhead, you can apply revision control to the smallest of projects with "
"ease.  Its simplicity means you won't have a lot of abstruse concepts or "
"command sequences competing for mental space with whatever you're "
"<emphasis>really</emphasis> trying to do.  At the same time, Mercurial's high "
"performance and peer-to-peer nature let you scale painlessly to handle large "
"projects."
msgstr ""
"Mercurial的独特之处就是它<emphasis>同时</emphasis>支持这两种尺度的开发。你可以"
"在几分钟之内学会基本的使用,因为代价很小,你可以很方便的在最小的项目上应用版本"
"管理。它的简洁性意味着不会有很多艰深的概念和命令干扰你<emphasis>真正</"
"emphasis>的工作。同时,Mercurial高性能和点对点的特性可以让你轻易的应对大的项"
"目。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:106
msgid ""
"No revision control tool can rescue a poorly run project, but a good choice "
"of tools can make a huge difference to the fluidity with which you can work "
"on a project."
msgstr ""
"没有一个版本控制工具能拯救一个糟糕的项目,但是在项目中选择好的工具会大大的提高"
"效率,正是工欲善其事,必先利其器。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:113
msgid "The many names of revision control"
msgstr "版本控制的别名"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:115
msgid ""
"Revision control is a diverse field, so much so that it is referred to by "
"many names and acronyms.  Here are a few of the more common variations you'll "
"encounter:"
msgstr ""
"版本控制是一个各自为政的领域,以至于有很多名称和缩略语,下面是你可能遇到的一些"
"常用的术语:"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:119
msgid "Revision control (RCS)"
msgstr "版本控制(RCS)"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:120
msgid "Software configuration management (SCM), or configuration management"
msgstr "软件配置管理(SCM),或配置管理"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:122
msgid "Source code management"
msgstr "源代码管理"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:123
msgid "Source code control, or source control"
msgstr "源代码控制,或源控制"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:125
msgid "Version control (VCS)"
msgstr "版本控制(VCS)"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:127
msgid ""
"Some people claim that these terms actually have different meanings, but in "
"practice they overlap so much that there's no agreed or even useful way to "
"tease them apart."
msgstr ""
"有些人声称这些术语有不同的含义,但实际上它们的含义太重叠了,根本没有一致的,甚"
"至有用的方式来区别它们。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:135
msgid "About the examples in this book"
msgstr "本书的例子"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:137
msgid ""
"This book takes an unusual approach to code samples.  Every example is "
"<quote>live</quote>&emdash;each one is actually the result of a shell script "
"that executes the Mercurial commands you see.  Every time an image of the "
"book is built from its sources, all the example scripts are automatically "
"run, and their current results compared against their expected results."
msgstr ""
"本书采用了一种非同寻常的示例编程方法。每个例子都是<quote>活的</quote>&emdash;"
"每一个示例都是一个shell脚本执行的实际结果,这个脚本执行了你看到的Mercurial命"
"令。每次从源代码构建本书的映像时,所有的示例脚本都自动执行,然后将预期结果和实"
"际执行结果比较。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:144
msgid ""
"The advantage of this approach is that the examples are always accurate; they "
"describe <emphasis>exactly</emphasis> the behavior of the version of "
"Mercurial that's mentioned at the front of the book.  If I update the version "
"of Mercurial that I'm documenting, and the output of some command changes, "
"the build fails."
msgstr ""
"这种方法的优点是每个例子都是永远精确的,它们是本书前面描述的Mercurial版本的"
"<emphasis>实际</emphasis>运行结果。如果我更新了描述的Mercurial的版本,同时有些"
"命令的输出变化了,创建就会失败。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:151
msgid ""
"There is a small disadvantage to this approach, which is that the dates and "
"times you'll see in examples tend to be <quote>squashed</quote> together in a "
"way that they wouldn't be if the same commands were being typed by a human.  "
"Where a human can issue no more than one command every few seconds, with any "
"resulting timestamps correspondingly spread out, my automated example scripts "
"run many commands in one second."
msgstr ""
"这种方法也有小的缺点,就是你在示例中看见的日期和时间被<quote>压缩</quote>了,"
"看起来这些命令不是人输入的。人不可能再一秒之内执行一条以上的命令,相应的时间戳"
"都应该展开,我的自动化脚本中一秒之内可以执行很多命令。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:159
msgid ""
"As an instance of this, several consecutive commits in an example can show up "
"as having occurred during the same second.  You can see this occur in the "
"<literal role=\"hg-ext\">bisect</literal> example in <xref linkend=\"sec:undo:"
"bisect\"/>, for instance."
msgstr ""
"举例来说,示例中的几个连续的提交可能显示发生于同一秒之内。你可以在<literal "
"role=\"hg-ext\">bisect</literal> 示例中看到例子<xref linkend=\"sec:undo:bisect"
"\"/>。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:165
msgid ""
"So when you're reading examples, don't place too much weight on the dates or "
"times you see in the output of commands.  But <emphasis>do</emphasis> be "
"confident that the behavior you're seeing is consistent and reproducible."
msgstr ""
"所以当你研究这些例子的时候,不要太注意命令输出的日期和时间。但是<emphasis>要</"
"emphasis>保证你看到的结果是一致的和可以再现的。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:173
msgid "Trends in the field"
msgstr "版本控制的发展趋势"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:175
msgid ""
"There has been an unmistakable trend in the development and use of revision "
"control tools over the past four decades, as people have become familiar with "
"the capabilities of their tools and constrained by their limitations."
msgstr ""
"在过去的四十年中,随着人们越来越熟悉他们的工具的能力和限制,开发和使用版本控制"
"工具出现了明确的趋势。 "

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:180
msgid ""
"The first generation began by managing single files on individual computers.  "
"Although these tools represented a huge advance over ad-hoc manual revision "
"control, their locking model and reliance on a single computer limited them "
"to small, tightly-knit teams."
msgstr ""
"第一代软件开始于在个人计算机,人们用这些软件管理单个文件。虽然这些工具比手工管"
"理版本有了巨大的飞跃。但是加锁模型和依赖于单个计算机限制了他们使用范围,只用于"
"小的,组织严密的团队。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:186
msgid ""
"The second generation loosened these constraints by moving to network-"
"centered architectures, and managing entire projects at a time.  As projects "
"grew larger, they ran into new problems.  With clients needing to talk to "
"servers very frequently, server scaling became an issue for large projects.  "
"An unreliable network connection could prevent remote users from being able "
"to talk to the server at all.  As open source projects started making read-"
"only access available anonymously to anyone, people without commit privileges "
"found that they could not use the tools to interact with a project in a "
"natural way, as they could not record their changes."
msgstr ""
"第二代软件放松了这些限制,因为它们采用了以网络为中心的结构,并且能够一次管理整"
"个项目。随着项目增长,又出现了新的问题。客户需要频繁的和服务器交互,服务器的可"
"伸缩性成为大项目的主要问题。不可靠的网络会妨碍客户和服务器的交互。随着开源项目"
"开始开放只读权限给匿名用户,没有提交权限的用户发现他们不能以自然的方式使用工具"
"和项目交互,因为他们不能记录他们的修改。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:198
msgid ""
"The current generation of revision control tools is peer-to-peer in nature.  "
"All of these systems have dropped the dependency on a single central server, "
"and allow people to distribute their revision control data to where it's "
"actually needed.  Collaboration over the Internet has moved from constrained "
"by technology to a matter of choice and consensus.  Modern tools can operate "
"offline indefinitely and autonomously, with a network connection only needed "
"when syncing changes with another repository."
msgstr ""
"新一代的版本控制工具本质上是点对点的。所有的这些系统都抛弃了对单个中央服务器的"
"依赖,允许用户将他们的版本控制数据发布到任何需要的地方。通过互联网的协作摆脱了"
"技术的限制,走向选择和审查。现代的工具可以进行自治的,不受限制的离线操作。只需"
"要在有网络的时候和其他的版本库同步即可。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:210
msgid "A few of the advantages of distributed revision control"
msgstr "分布版本控制的优点"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:213
msgid ""
"Even though distributed revision control tools have for several years been as "
"robust and usable as their previous-generation counterparts, people using "
"older tools have not yet necessarily woken up to their advantages.  There are "
"a number of ways in which distributed tools shine relative to centralised "
"ones."
msgstr ""
"与它们的上一代竞争者相比,虽然分布式版本控制工具多年来已经很稳定和实用了,但是"
"旧的工具的使用者还没有完全了解它们的优点,分布式的工具在很多方面明显由于集中式"
"的工具。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:220
msgid ""
"For an individual developer, distributed tools are almost always much faster "
"than centralised tools.  This is for a simple reason: a centralised tool "
"needs to talk over the network for many common operations, because most "
"metadata is stored in a single copy on the central server.  A distributed "
"tool stores all of its metadata locally.  All else being equal, talking over "
"the network adds overhead to a centralised tool.  Don't underestimate the "
"value of a snappy, responsive tool: you're going to spend a lot of time "
"interacting with your revision control software."
msgstr ""
"对于个人开发者,分布式工具几乎永远比集中式工具快的多。原因很简单:集中式工具的"
"很多操作需要网络交互,因为大部分元数据都只在中央服务器上有一份拷贝。而一个分布"
"式工具将所有的元数据保存在本地。其他的相同,通过网络的交互增加了集中式工具的负"
"担。不要低估了反应迅速的工具的价值:你要花很多时间和你的版本控制软件交互。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:231
msgid ""
"Distributed tools are indifferent to the vagaries of your server "
"infrastructure, again because they replicate metadata to so many locations.  "
"If you use a centralised system and your server catches fire, you'd better "
"hope that your backup media are reliable, and that your last backup was "
"recent and actually worked.  With a distributed tool, you have many backups "
"available on every contributor's computer."
msgstr ""
"分布式工具对你的服务器结构并不感冒,因为他们在将元数据复制到很多地方。如果你的"
"集中式系统和你的服务器着火了,你最好希望你的备份介质是可靠的,同时你最后的备份"
"是最近的,而且还能用。而对于分布式工具,你在贡献者的计算机上有很多备份。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:239
msgid ""
"The reliability of your network will affect distributed tools far less than "
"it will centralised tools.  You can't even use a centralised tool without a "
"network connection, except for a few highly constrained commands.  With a "
"distributed tool, if your network connection goes down while you're working, "
"you may not even notice.  The only thing you won't be able to do is talk to "
"repositories on other computers, something that is relatively rare compared "
"with local operations.  If you have a far-flung team of collaborators, this "
"may be significant."
msgstr ""
"网络的可靠性对分布式工具的影响要远远小于集中式工具。如果没有网络你根本不能使用"
"集中式工具,除了少数几个功能有限命令。而对于分布式工具,即使在你工作的时候网络"
"瘫痪了,你可能根本不会注意到。你不能做的事情仅仅是不能和其它计算机上的版本库交"
"互了,这种情况在本地操作相当罕见。而如果你的团队有异地的人员,那这就很有可能"
"了。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:250
msgid "Advantages for open source projects"
msgstr "开源项目的优点"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:252
msgid ""
"If you take a shine to an open source project and decide that you would like "
"to start hacking on it, and that project uses a distributed revision control "
"tool, you are at once a peer with the people who consider themselves the "
"<quote>core</quote> of that project.  If they publish their repositories, you "
"can immediately copy their project history, start making changes, and record "
"your work, using the same tools in the same ways as insiders.  By contrast, "
"with a centralised tool, you must use the software in a <quote>read only</"
"quote> mode unless someone grants you permission to commit changes to their "
"central server.  Until then, you won't be able to record changes, and your "
"local modifications will be at risk of corruption any time you try to update "
"your client's view of the repository."
msgstr ""
"如果你喜欢一个开源项目并且决定准备开始改进它,同时这个项目使用分布式版本控制工"
"具的话,你立刻可以和其他人一样认为自己成为项目的<quote>核心</quote>。如果他们"
"发布了他们的版本库,你可以立即拷贝他们的项目。开始修改,记录你自己的工作,和内"
"部人员一样使用同样的工具。相比之下,如果使用集中式工具,除非有人给你向中央服务"
"器提交修改的权限,你只能用只读的方式使用软件。这样,你就不能记录你的修改,而且"
"当你从版本库更新的时候,本地的修改随时有崩溃的可能。 "

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:268
msgid "The forking non-problem"
msgstr "分支不是问题"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:270
msgid ""
"It has been suggested that distributed revision control tools pose some sort "
"of risk to open source projects because they make it easy to <quote>fork</"
"quote> the development of a project.  A fork happens when there are "
"differences in opinion or attitude between groups of developers that cause "
"them to decide that they can't work together any longer.  Each side takes a "
"more or less complete copy of the project's source code, and goes off in its "
"own direction."
msgstr ""
"有人说分布式版本控制工具给开源项目带来了某种风险,因为在项目的发展过程中很容易"
"出现<quote>分支</quote>。当不同组的开发人员有不同的意见和看法,决定不再一起工"
"作的时候,就会产生新的分支,每个组的人都或多或少的获得项目代码的完整拷贝,然后"
"向自己的方向发展。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:280
msgid ""
"Sometimes the camps in a fork decide to reconcile their differences. With a "
"centralised revision control system, the <emphasis>technical</emphasis> "
"process of reconciliation is painful, and has to be performed largely by "
"hand.  You have to decide whose revision history is going to <quote>win</"
"quote>, and graft the other team's changes into the tree somehow. This "
"usually loses some or all of one side's revision history."
msgstr ""
"有时候,不同分支的阵营决定协调他们之间的分歧。如果使用了集中式版本控制系统 "
"<emphasis>技术</emphasis>上的问题使协调过程非常痛苦,大部分需要手动解决。你必"
"须决定那个版本历史<quote>赢</quote>了,然后将其它团队的更改合并到代码中。这通"
"常造成别的团队某些或者全部版本历史丢失。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:289
msgid ""
"What distributed tools do with respect to forking is they make forking the "
"<emphasis>only</emphasis> way to develop a project.  Every single change that "
"you make is potentially a fork point.  The great strength of this approach is "
"that a distributed revision control tool has to be really good at "
"<emphasis>merging</emphasis> forks, because forks are absolutely fundamental: "
"they happen all the time."
msgstr ""
"分布式工具认为分支是项目开发的<emphasis>唯一</emphasis>方式。每个单独的变更都"
"是潜在的分支点。这种方法的巨大力量在于,分布式版本控制工具非常善于<emphasis>合"
"并</emphasis>分支,因为分支是非常基本的操作:它们随时都在发生。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:298
msgid ""
"If every piece of work that everybody does, all the time, is framed in terms "
"of forking and merging, then what the open source world refers to as a "
"<quote>fork</quote> becomes <emphasis>purely</emphasis> a social issue.  If "
"anything, distributed tools <emphasis>lower</emphasis> the likelihood of a "
"fork:"
msgstr ""
"如果所有的人在任何时候的做任何工作都这样使用合并和分支,那么对开源世界来讲,"
"<quote>分支</quote>就变成了<emphasis>纯粹</emphasis>的社会事件。如果真的有什么"
"影响到话,就是分布式工具<emphasis>降低</emphasis>了分支的可能性:"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:305
msgid ""
"They eliminate the social distinction that centralised tools impose: that "
"between insiders (people with commit access) and outsiders (people without)."
msgstr ""
"消除了集中式工具带来的社会级别:有内部人员(有提交权限)和外部人员(没有权限)"
"之分。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:309
msgid ""
"They make it easier to reconcile after a social fork, because all that's "
"involved from the perspective of the revision control software is just "
"another merge."
msgstr ""
"在社会性分支之后很容易和解,因为从版本控制工具的角度来讲这仅仅是一次新的合并而"
"已。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:314
msgid ""
"Some people resist distributed tools because they want to retain tight "
"control over their projects, and they believe that centralised tools give "
"them this control.  However, if you're of this belief, and you publish your "
"CVS or Subversion repositories publicly, there are plenty of tools available "
"that can pull out your entire project's history (albeit slowly) and recreate "
"it somewhere that you don't control.  So while your control in this case is "
"illusory, you are forgoing the ability to fluidly collaborate with whatever "
"people feel compelled to mirror and fork your history."
msgstr ""
"有些人拒绝分布式工具因为他们想保持对项目的控制,他们相信集中式工具会给他们这种"
"控制。如果你这种想法,并你将CVS或者Subversion版本库向大众发布了,那么别人可用"
"现有的很多工具将整个项目的历史抓取出来(可能很慢),在其它你控制不了的地方重建"
"版本库。这时你的控制只不过是一种幻觉罢了,一些人被迫从你的版本库创建映像和分"
"支,而你失去了和他们协作的机会。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:329
msgid "Advantages for commercial projects"
msgstr "商业项目的优点"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:331
msgid ""
"Many commercial projects are undertaken by teams that are scattered across "
"the globe.  Contributors who are far from a central server will see slower "
"command execution and perhaps less reliability.  Commercial revision control "
"systems attempt to ameliorate these problems with remote-site replication add-"
"ons that are typically expensive to buy and cantankerous to administer.  A "
"distributed system doesn't suffer from these problems in the first place.  "
"Better yet, you can easily set up multiple authoritative servers, say one per "
"site, so that there's no redundant communication between repositories over "
"expensive long-haul network links."
msgstr ""
"遍布全球的团队正在进行许多商业项目。远离中央服务器的贡献者会发现执行命令速度很"
"慢同时不怎么可靠。商业的版本控制系统改善这个问题的办法就是让你购买远程复制插"
"件,这通常很昂贵,并且很难管理。分布式系统首先不会有这样的问题。其次,你可以很"
"容易的建立多个授权服务器,假设每个站点一个,这样可以避免在昂贵的长途线路上的冗"
"余的通讯。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:343
msgid ""
"Centralised revision control systems tend to have relatively low "
"scalability.  It's not unusual for an expensive centralised system to fall "
"over under the combined load of just a few dozen concurrent users.  Once "
"again, the typical response tends to be an expensive and clunky replication "
"facility.  Since the load on a central server&emdash;if you have one at "
"all&emdash;is many times lower with a distributed tool (because all of the "
"data is replicated everywhere), a single cheap server can handle the needs of "
"a much larger team, and replication to balance load becomes a simple matter "
"of scripting."
msgstr ""
"集中式的版本控制系统的扩展性相对较低。只要不多的并行用户的组合负载就可以将一个"
"昂贵的中央服务器压垮。同样,典型的反应就是昂贵笨重的复制设备。因为中央服务器的"
"最大负载&emdash;如果你有的话&emdash;比分布式工具低很多(因为所有的数据要北复制"
"到其它地方),一个廉价的服务器就可以满足一个相当大的团队的要求,为平衡负载而进"
"行的复制只需要简单的脚本就够了。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:355
msgid ""
"If you have an employee in the field, troubleshooting a problem at a "
"customer's site, they'll benefit from distributed revision control. The tool "
"will let them generate custom builds, try different fixes in isolation from "
"each other, and search efficiently through history for the sources of bugs "
"and regressions in the customer's environment, all without needing to connect "
"to your company's network."
msgstr ""
"如果你有员工需要在客户方解决问题,那么他们会受益于分布式版本控制。工具允许他们"
"创建定制的环境,互相独立的尝试不同的解决方案。并且可以高效的从历史代码中查找"
"bug的根源,在客户环境中进行回归,所有的这些都不需要连接公司的网络。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:366
msgid "Why choose Mercurial?"
msgstr "为什么选择 Mercurial?"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:368
msgid ""
"Mercurial has a unique set of properties that make it a particularly good "
"choice as a revision control system."
msgstr "Mercurial是一个非常好的版本控制系统,因为它有很多独一无二的特点。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:371
msgid "It is easy to learn and use."
msgstr "它易学易用。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:372
msgid "It is lightweight."
msgstr "它轻量级。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:373
msgid "It scales excellently."
msgstr "它扩展性很好。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:374
msgid "It is easy to customise."
msgstr "它很容易定制。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:377
msgid ""
"If you are at all familiar with revision control systems, you should be able "
"to get up and running with Mercurial in less than five minutes.  Even if not, "
"it will take no more than a few minutes longer.  Mercurial's command and "
"feature sets are generally uniform and consistent, so you can keep track of a "
"few general rules instead of a host of exceptions."
msgstr ""
"如果你熟悉版本控制系统,你在五分钟之内只能就可以使用Mercurial工作了。即使你不"
"熟悉,也不过是再多花几分钟。Mercurial的命令和功能集非常统一一致,你只要遵守几"
"个通用的规则就够了,很少有例外。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:384
msgid ""
"On a small project, you can start working with Mercurial in moments. Creating "
"new changes and branches; transferring changes around (whether locally or "
"over a network); and history and status operations are all fast.  Mercurial "
"attempts to stay nimble and largely out of your way by combining low "
"cognitive overhead with blazingly fast operations."
msgstr ""
"在很小的项目上,你马上就可以使用Mercurial开始工作。创建新的修改和分支;到处交"
"换修改(不管本机还是通过网络);获取历史和状态数据非常快。Mercurial努力保持小"
"巧灵活,在眨眼之间就能完成操作。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:391
msgid ""
"The usefulness of Mercurial is not limited to small projects: it is used by "
"projects with hundreds to thousands of contributors, each containing tens of "
"thousands of files and hundreds of megabytes of source code."
msgstr ""
"不仅小的项目可以使用Mercurial:有成百上千的贡献者的项目也在使用它,这些项目每"
"个都有上万个文件和几百兆的源码。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:396
msgid ""
"If the core functionality of Mercurial is not enough for you, it's easy to "
"build on.  Mercurial is well suited to scripting tasks, and its clean "
"internals and implementation in Python make it easy to add features in the "
"form of extensions.  There are a number of popular and useful extensions "
"already available, ranging from helping to identify bugs to improving "
"performance."
msgstr ""
"如果觉得Mercurial的核心功能不能满足要求,你很容易在现有基础上开发。Mercurial非"
"常适合于脚本任务,它的核心简洁,并且用Python实现,用扩展的方式增加新的功能非常"
"方便,现在已经有很多流行和有用的扩展了,像帮助你确定bug或者提高性能等。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:406
msgid "Mercurial compared with other tools"
msgstr "Mercurial 与其它工具的比较"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:408
msgid ""
"Before you read on, please understand that this section necessarily reflects "
"my own experiences, interests, and (dare I say it) biases.  I have used every "
"one of the revision control tools listed below, in most cases for several "
"years at a time."
msgstr ""
"在你继续阅读之前,请理解本节完全反映了我的个人经验,兴趣,和偏好(我敢说)。下"
"面列的每个版本控制工具我都使用过,大多数情况下都用过好几年。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:418
msgid ""
"Subversion is a popular revision control tool, developed to replace CVS.  It "
"has a centralised client/server architecture."
msgstr ""
"Subversion是一个流行的版本控制工具,是用来替代CVS的,它采用的是集中式的客户/服"
"务器结构。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:422
msgid ""
"Subversion and Mercurial have similarly named commands for performing the "
"same operations, so if you're familiar with one, it is easy to learn to use "
"the other.  Both tools are portable to all popular operating systems."
msgstr ""
"Subversion和Mercurial相同操作的命令的命名上非常相似,所以如果你熟悉一个,很容"
"易学会另外一个,两个工具都可以在大多数平台上运行。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:427
msgid ""
"Prior to version 1.5, Subversion had no useful support for merges. At the "
"time of writing, its merge tracking capability is new, and known to be <ulink "
"url=\"http://svnbook.red-bean.com/nightly/en/svn.branchmerge.advanced."
"html#svn.branchmerge.advanced.finalword\">complicated and buggy</ulink>."
msgstr ""
"在1.5版之前,Subversion对合并的支持并不好。在我写本书的时候,它刚新增了并跟踪"
"的功能,出名的<ulink url=\"http://svnbook.red-bean.com/nightly/en/svn."
"branchmerge.advanced.html#svn.branchmerge.advanced.finalword\">复杂和容易出错"
"</ulink>。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:433
msgid ""
"Mercurial has a substantial performance advantage over Subversion on every "
"revision control operation I have benchmarked.  I have measured its advantage "
"as ranging from a factor of two to a factor of six when compared with "
"Subversion 1.4.3's <emphasis>ra_local</emphasis> file store, which is the "
"fastest access method available.  In more realistic deployments involving a "
"network-based store, Subversion will be at a substantially larger "
"disadvantage.  Because many Subversion commands must talk to the server and "
"Subversion does not have useful replication facilities, server capacity and "
"network bandwidth become bottlenecks for modestly large projects."
msgstr ""
"在我测量过的每个版本控制操作上Mercurial都比Subversion有很大的性能优势。差距从"
"两个数量级到六个数量级不等,我用的是Subversion 1.4.3的<emphasis>ra_local</"
"emphasis>文件存储方式,这是已知的最快的存取方式了。在实际的部署中包括网络存"
"储,那么Subversion的劣势更大。因为很多Subversion命令必须和主机交互,并且因为"
"Subversion没有好的复制机制,使得对于中的等大小的项目而言,服务器容量和网络带宽"
"成为主要瓶颈。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:446
msgid ""
"Additionally, Subversion incurs substantial storage overhead to avoid network "
"transactions for a few common operations, such as finding modified files "
"(<literal>status</literal>) and displaying modifications against the current "
"revision (<literal>diff</literal>).  As a result, a Subversion working copy "
"is often the same size as, or larger than, a Mercurial repository and working "
"directory, even though the Mercurial repository contains a complete history "
"of the project."
msgstr ""
"另外,Subversion以在客户端使用了更多存储空间的方法,换取降低几个常用操作的网络"
"负载,例如查找修改过的文件(<literal>status</literal>)和显示对于当前版本的更"
"改(<literal>diff</literal>)。结果Subversion的工作副本经常和Mercurial的版本库"
"和工作目录一样大,或者更大,虽然Mercurial的版本库包括了项目的完整历史。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:456
msgid ""
"Subversion is widely supported by third party tools.  Mercurial currently "
"lags considerably in this area.  This gap is closing, however, and indeed "
"some of Mercurial's GUI tools now outshine their Subversion equivalents.  "
"Like Mercurial, Subversion has an excellent user manual."
msgstr ""
"Subversion有很多的第三方工具支持。Mercurial现在在这方面稍微欠缺。然而差距正在"
"逐渐缩小,实际上一些有Mercurial的GUI工具比Subversion类似工具还略胜一筹。和"
"Mercurial一样,Subversion也有完善的用户手册。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:462
msgid ""
"Because Subversion doesn't store revision history on the client, it is well "
"suited to managing projects that deal with lots of large, opaque binary "
"files.  If you check in fifty revisions to an incompressible 10MB file, "
"Subversion's client-side space usage stays constant The space used by any "
"distributed SCM will grow rapidly in proportion to the number of revisions, "
"because the differences between each revision are large."
msgstr ""
"Subversion并不在客户端存储版本历史,所以它很适合管理那些有很多大的二进制文件的"
"项目。如果你对一个未压缩的10MB文件检入了五十次,Subversion客户端的占用的磁盘空"
"间基本上保持不变。而对于分布式SCM软件,磁盘空间会随着版本数量的增加成而迅速增"
"长,因为每个版本之间的差异非常大。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:471
msgid ""
"In addition, it's often difficult or, more usually, impossible to merge "
"different versions of a binary file.  Subversion's ability to let a user lock "
"a file, so that they temporarily have the exclusive right to commit changes "
"to it, can be a significant advantage to a project where binary files are "
"widely used."
msgstr ""
"另外,合并不同版本的二进制文件非常困难,换句话说,基本上不可能。Subversion提供"
"了锁定功能,用户可以锁定一个文件,这样他就取得了对这个文件临时的独占的提交权,"
"这对于广泛使用二进制文件的项目而言是个明显优势。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:478
msgid ""
"Mercurial can import revision history from a Subversion repository. It can "
"also export revision history to a Subversion repository.  This makes it easy "
"to <quote>test the waters</quote> and use Mercurial and Subversion in "
"parallel before deciding to switch.  History conversion is incremental, so "
"you can perform an initial conversion, then small additional conversions "
"afterwards to bring in new changes."
msgstr ""
"Mercurial可以从Subversion的版本库中导入历史版本。它也可以向Subversion的版本库"
"输出历史版本。这样在决定转换之前很容易先<quote>试一下水</quote>,同时并行的使"
"用Mercurial和Subversion。版本史的转换是递增的,你可以先构造一个初始版本,每次"
"有了新的更改后加入一个小的转换。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:490 ../en/ch01-intro.xml:629
msgid "Git"
msgstr "Git"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:492
msgid ""
"Git is a distributed revision control tool that was developed for managing "
"the Linux kernel source tree.  Like Mercurial, its early design was somewhat "
"influenced by Monotone."
msgstr ""
"Git是为了管理Linux内核代码而开发的一个分布式版本控制工具。它和Mercurial一样在"
"设计上受了Monotone的影响。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:497
msgid ""
"Git has a very large command set, with version 1.5.0 providing 139 individual "
"commands.  It has something of a reputation for being difficult to learn.  "
"Compared to Git, Mercurial has a strong focus on simplicity."
msgstr ""
"Git有非常大的命令集,1.5.0版本提供了139个单独的命令。它以难学而闻名于世。与Git"
"相比,Mercurial力求简洁。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:502
msgid ""
"In terms of performance, Git is extremely fast.  In several cases, it is "
"faster than Mercurial, at least on Linux, while Mercurial performs better on "
"other operations.  However, on Windows, the performance and general level of "
"support that Git provides is, at the time of writing, far behind that of "
"Mercurial."
msgstr ""
"就性能而言,Git非常快。在很多情况下它都比Mercurial快,至少是在Linux上,但"
"Mercurial在其它操作上有优势。而在Windows上,Git不管是性能还是提供的支持,都比"
"Mercurial差很多,至少在本书写作的时候是这样。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:509
msgid ""
"While a Mercurial repository needs no maintenance, a Git repository requires "
"frequent manual <quote>repacks</quote> of its metadata.  Without these, "
"performance degrades, while space usage grows rapidly.  A server that "
"contains many Git repositories that are not rigorously and frequently "
"repacked will become heavily disk-bound during backups, and there have been "
"instances of daily backups taking far longer than 24 hours as a result.  A "
"freshly packed Git repository is slightly smaller than a Mercurial "
"repository, but an unpacked repository is several orders of magnitude larger."
msgstr ""
"Mercurial的版本库不需要维护,但Git的版本库需要频繁的手工维护,将其元数据"
"<quote>repacks</quote>,如果不这样做,性能就会下降,磁盘空间也会迅速增加。有多"
"个Git版本库的服务器需要严格和频繁的重新打包,否则在备份的时候就会成为严重的瓶"
"颈,曾经有过运行每日备份超过24小时的例子。一个新打包的Git版本库比Mercurial稍小"
"一些,但是未打包的版本库则会大几个数量级。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:520
msgid ""
"The core of Git is written in C.  Many Git commands are implemented as shell "
"or Perl scripts, and the quality of these scripts varies widely. I have "
"encountered several instances where scripts charged along blindly in the "
"presence of errors that should have been fatal."
msgstr ""
"Git的核心由C语言编写,许多Git命令是用shell或者perl脚本实现的,这些脚本的质量差"
"别很大。我碰到过好几次这样的情况,明明已经出现了致命错误了,脚本还在盲目的执"
"行。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:526
msgid "Mercurial can import revision history from a Git repository."
msgstr "Mercurial可以从Git的版本库中导入版本历史。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:534
msgid ""
"CVS is probably the most widely used revision control tool in the world.  Due "
"to its age and internal untidiness, it has been only lightly maintained for "
"many years."
msgstr ""
"CVS可能是世界上使用最广泛的版本控制工具。因为它是太古老和内部实现很混乱,许多"
"年来都处于维护状态。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:538
msgid ""
"It has a centralised client/server architecture.  It does not group related "
"file changes into atomic commits, making it easy for people to <quote>break "
"the build</quote>: one person can successfully commit part of a change and "
"then be blocked by the need for a merge, causing other people to see only a "
"portion of the work they intended to do.  This also affects how you work with "
"project history.  If you want to see all of the modifications someone made as "
"part of a task, you will need to manually inspect the descriptions and "
"timestamps of the changes made to each file involved (if you even know what "
"those files were)."
msgstr ""
"CVS采用的是集中式客户/服务器结构。它不会将相关的文件变更一起作为原子提交,这使"
"得它很容易<quote>破坏构建</quote>:一个人成功的提交了一部分更改,然后要停下来"
"处理合并,这使得其他人只能看见他们的部分工作。这样也会影响你和项目历史的工作方"
"式。如果你想看到其他人针对他的那部分任务做的全部修改,你必须手动检查每个受影响"
"的文件的变更描述和时间戳(假如你知道是哪些文件)。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:550
msgid ""
"CVS has a muddled notion of tags and branches that I will not attempt to even "
"describe.  It does not support renaming of files or directories well, making "
"it easy to corrupt a repository.  It has almost no internal consistency "
"checking capabilities, so it is usually not even possible to tell whether or "
"how a repository is corrupt.  I would not recommend CVS for any project, "
"existing or new."
msgstr ""
"CVS的分支和标签的概念实在是太混乱了,我都不想给你介绍。它也不支持文件和目录的"
"重命名。这使得版本库非常容易崩溃。它几乎没任何的内部一致性检查功能,所以通常你"
"不可能知道版本库是不是崩溃了。不管是新项目还是老项目,我都不推荐使用CVS。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:558
msgid ""
"Mercurial can import CVS revision history.  However, there are a few caveats "
"that apply; these are true of every other revision control tool's CVS "
"importer, too.  Due to CVS's lack of atomic changes and unversioned "
"filesystem hierarchy, it is not possible to reconstruct CVS history "
"completely accurately; some guesswork is involved, and renames will usually "
"not show up.  Because a lot of advanced CVS administration has to be done by "
"hand and is hence error-prone, it's common for CVS importers to run into "
"multiple problems with corrupted repositories (completely bogus revision "
"timestamps and files that have remained locked for over a decade are just two "
"of the less interesting problems I can recall from personal experience)."
msgstr ""
"Mercurial可以导入CVS的版本历史。然而,这里面有很多限制;对其版本控制工具的CVS"
"导入程序也是一样。因为CVS缺少原子更改并且不支持文件系统层次的版本控制,所以不"
"可能完全精确的重建CVS的历史。有些需要猜测,重命名通常发现不了。因为CVS的很多的"
"高级管理功能必须手动完成,因此非常容易出错。碰到崩溃的版本库,CVS导入程序通常"
"会出现很多问题(完全伪造的版本时间戳,若干文件被锁定十多年,这是我个人经历的两"
"个不太有趣的问题)。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:572
msgid "Mercurial can import revision history from a CVS repository."
msgstr "Mercurial可以从CVS版本库导入版本历史。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:578
msgid "Commercial tools"
msgstr "商业工具"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:580
msgid ""
"Perforce has a centralised client/server architecture, with no client-side "
"caching of any data.  Unlike modern revision control tools, Perforce requires "
"that a user run a command to inform the server about every file they intend "
"to edit."
msgstr ""
"Perforce采用的是集中式客户/服务器结构,客户端不缓存任何数据。和现代的版本控制"
"工具不同,每次想要编辑的一个文件,用户必须运行一个命令通知Perforce服务器。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:586
msgid ""
"The performance of Perforce is quite good for small teams, but it falls off "
"rapidly as the number of users grows beyond a few dozen. Modestly large "
"Perforce installations require the deployment of proxies to cope with the "
"load their users generate."
msgstr ""
"对于小的团队而言,Perforce相当好,但是当用户数目超过数十个以后,性能急剧下降。"
"中等大小Perforce安装需要部署代理来处理用户产生的负载。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:595
msgid "Choosing a revision control tool"
msgstr "选择版本控制工具"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:597
msgid ""
"With the exception of CVS, all of the tools listed above have unique "
"strengths that suit them to particular styles of work.  There is no single "
"revision control tool that is best in all situations."
msgstr ""
"除了CVS之外,以上列出的所有工具都各有所长,没有一个版本控制工具适合所有情况。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:602
msgid ""
"As an example, Subversion is a good choice for working with frequently edited "
"binary files, due to its centralised nature and support for file locking."
msgstr ""
"比如说,因为采用集中式的结构并且支持文件锁定,Subversion非常适合频繁编辑二进制"
"文件的场合。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:606
msgid ""
"I personally find Mercurial's properties of simplicity, performance, and good "
"merge support to be a compelling combination that has served me well for "
"several years."
msgstr ""
"我已经使用Mercurial很多年了,个人认为它有简洁,高性能,良好的合并支持诸多特"
"点。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:614
msgid "Switching from another tool to Mercurial"
msgstr "从其它工具切换到 Mercurial"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:616
msgid ""
"Mercurial is bundled with an extension named <literal role=\"hg-ext"
"\">convert</literal>, which can incrementally import revision history from "
"several other revision control tools.  By <quote>incremental</quote>, I mean "
"that you can convert all of a project's history to date in one go, then rerun "
"the conversion later to obtain new changes that happened after the initial "
"conversion."
msgstr ""
"Mercurial包括一个叫<literal role=\"hg-ext\">convert</literal>的扩展,它可以递"
"增的从几个其他的版本控制工具导入版本历史。 <quote>增量</quote>的意思是你可以在"
"某天将整个项目历史转换,以后再次进行转换获得初始版本以后新增的变更。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:624
msgid ""
"The revision control tools supported by <literal role=\"hg-ext\">convert</"
"literal> are as follows:"
msgstr "<literal role=\"hg-ext\">convert</literal> 支持的版本控制工具有:"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:632
msgid ""
"In addition, <literal role=\"hg-ext\">convert</literal> can export changes "
"from Mercurial to Subversion.  This makes it possible to try Subversion and "
"Mercurial in parallel before committing to a switchover, without risking the "
"loss of any work."
msgstr ""
"另外<literal role=\"hg-ext\">convert</literal>可以从Mercurial向Subversion导出"
"历史,这可以让你在切换之前让Mercurial和Subversion并行工作,而不会丢失任何工"
"作。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:638
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-convert\">convert</command> command is easy to "
"use.  Simply point it at the path or URL of the source repository, optionally "
"give it the name of the destination repository, and it will start working.  "
"After the initial conversion, just run the same command again to import new "
"changes."
msgstr ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-convert\">convert</command>命令非常简单。只要给出源版本"
"库的URL或者路径,给出目标版本库的名称(可选),它就开始工作了。第一次转换之"
"后,只要运行同样的命令就可以导入新的变更。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:647
msgid "A short history of revision control"
msgstr "版本控制简史"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:649
msgid ""
"The best known of the old-time revision control tools is SCCS (Source Code "
"Control System), which Marc Rochkind wrote at Bell Labs, in the early 1970s.  "
"SCCS operated on individual files, and required every person working on a "
"project to have access to a shared workspace on a single system.  Only one "
"person could modify a file at any time; arbitration for access to files was "
"via locks.  It was common for people to lock files, and later forget to "
"unlock them, preventing anyone else from modifying those files without the "
"help of an administrator."
msgstr ""
"最有名史前的版本控制工具是SCCS(源代码控制系统),它是由Marc Rochkind于七十年"
"代在贝尔实验室完成的。SCCS只能控制单个文件,这就要求项目组人员只能使用一个系统"
"上的共享工作空间。任何时候一个文件只能由一个人修改;通过加锁来保证。人们很容易"
"锁定一个文件,然后忘了解锁,没有管理员的帮助,任何人都不能修改那些文件。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:660
msgid ""
"Walter Tichy developed a free alternative to SCCS in the early 1980s; he "
"called his program RCS (Revision Control System).  Like SCCS, RCS required "
"developers to work in a single shared workspace, and to lock files to prevent "
"multiple people from modifying them simultaneously."
msgstr ""
"Walter Tichy在八十年代早期开发了一个开源的SCCS替代软件;他称之RCS(版本控制系"
"统)。和SCCS一样,RCS要求开发人员在一个共享的工作空间工作,同时锁定文件,以防"
"止多个人他同时修改。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:666
msgid ""
"Later in the 1980s, Dick Grune used RCS as a building block for a set of "
"shell scripts he initially called cmt, but then renamed to CVS (Concurrent "
"Versions System).  The big innovation of CVS was that it let developers work "
"simultaneously and somewhat independently in their own personal workspaces.  "
"The personal workspaces prevented developers from stepping on each other's "
"toes all the time, as was common with SCCS and RCS. Each developer had a copy "
"of every project file, and could modify their copies independently.  They had "
"to merge their edits prior to committing changes to the central repository."
msgstr ""
"八十年代后期,Dick Grune在RCS的基础上开发了一套脚本,他开始称之为cmt,后来又改"
"名为CVS(并行版本系统)。CVS的最大的创新在于让开发人员可以在自己的工作空间里同"
"时而且独立的工作。私人的工作空间防止了开发人员总是互相干扰,这在SCCS和RCS的使"
"用中很常见。项目中的每个文件,开发者都有自己的拷贝,可以独立的修改自己的拷贝。"
"他们可以在提交到中央版本库之前合并更改。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:677
msgid ""
"Brian Berliner took Grune's original scripts and rewrote them in C, releasing "
"in 1989 the code that has since developed into the modern version of CVS.  "
"CVS subsequently acquired the ability to operate over a network connection, "
"giving it a client/server architecture.  CVS's architecture is centralised; "
"only the server has a copy of the history of the project. Client workspaces "
"just contain copies of recent versions of the project's files, and a little "
"metadata to tell them where the server is.  CVS has been enormously "
"successful; it is probably the world's most widely used revision control "
"system."
msgstr ""
"Brian Berliner接管了Grune的脚本,用C重写了一遍,并在1989年发布了这些代码,现在"
"的CVS就是从那时逐渐发展起来的。CVS随后增加了网络的功能,形成了客户/服务器结"
"构。CVS的结构是集中式的;仅在服务器上保存一份项目的历史拷贝。客户工作空间仅包"
"含项目中的文件的最近版本的拷贝,一些元数据告诉它们服务器的地址。CVS获得了极大"
"成功;它可能是世界上应用最广泛的版本控制系统。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:688
msgid ""
"In the early 1990s, Sun Microsystems developed an early distributed revision "
"control system, called TeamWare.  A TeamWare workspace contains a complete "
"copy of the project's history.  TeamWare has no notion of a central "
"repository.  (CVS relied upon RCS for its history storage; TeamWare used "
"SCCS.)"
msgstr ""
"90年代早期,Sun公司开发了一个早期的分布式版本控制系统,叫做TeamWeare。TeamWare"
"的工作空间包括项目历史的完整拷贝。TeamWare没有中央版本库的概念。(CVS使用RCS存"
"储其历史,TeamWare使用SCCS。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:695
msgid ""
"As the 1990s progressed, awareness grew of a number of problems with CVS.  It "
"records simultaneous changes to multiple files individually, instead of "
"grouping them together as a single logically atomic operation.  It does not "
"manage its file hierarchy well; it is easy to make a mess of a repository by "
"renaming files and directories.  Worse, its source code is difficult to read "
"and maintain, which made the <quote>pain level</quote> of fixing these "
"architectural problems prohibitive."
msgstr ""
"在90年代中,随着时间的流逝,CVS逐渐暴露出很多问题。它对多个文件同时发生的变更"
"不能一起记录,不能按照层次管理文件;对目录和文件的重命名很容易破坏版本库。更糟"
"的是,它的源代码很难阅读和维护,修复这些架构上的问题的非常困难。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:705
msgid ""
"In 2001, Jim Blandy and Karl Fogel, two developers who had worked on CVS, "
"started a project to replace it with a tool that would have a better "
"architecture and cleaner code.  The result, Subversion, does not stray from "
"CVS's centralised client/server model, but it adds multi-file atomic commits, "
"better namespace management, and a number of other features that make it a "
"generally better tool than CVS. Since its initial release, it has rapidly "
"grown in popularity."
msgstr ""
"2001年,原来维护过CVS的两个开发者Jim Blandy和Karl Fogel,开始了一个新项目,其"
"目标是替代CVS,新的软件将采用更好的架构和更整洁的代码。于是Subversion诞生了,"
"它并保留了CVS集中式的客户/服务器模型,但是增加了多文件原子提交,更好的命名空间"
"管理,和其他一些功能。总而言之,它比CVS好的多。Subversion在发布后迅速流行起"
"来。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:714
msgid ""
"More or less simultaneously, Graydon Hoare began working on an ambitious "
"distributed revision control system that he named Monotone. While Monotone "
"addresses many of CVS's design flaws and has a peer-to-peer architecture, it "
"goes beyond earlier (and subsequent) revision control tools in a number of "
"innovative ways.  It uses cryptographic hashes as identifiers, and has an "
"integral notion of <quote>trust</quote> for code from different sources."
msgstr ""
"大概相同时间,Graydon Hoare开始了一个野心勃勃的分布式版本控制项目,他称之为"
"Monotone。Monotone解决了很多CVS设计上的漏洞并且采用了点对点的架构,它在创新方"
"面比以前(和以后)的版本控制系统走的更远。它使用加密哈希作为标识符,并且对于不"
"同源的代码有了完整的 <quote>信任</quote>概念。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:723
msgid ""
"Mercurial began life in 2005.  While a few aspects of its design are "
"influenced by Monotone, Mercurial focuses on ease of use, high performance, "
"and scalability to very large projects."
msgstr ""
"Mercurial诞生于2005年。设计方面受了Monotone的一些影响,Mercurial的目标是易用,"
"高性能,对大的项目的良好扩展性。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:5
msgid "A tour of Mercurial: the basics"
msgstr "Mercurial 教程: 基础知识"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:8
msgid "Installing Mercurial on your system"
msgstr "安装 Mercurial"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:10
msgid ""
"Prebuilt binary packages of Mercurial are available for every popular "
"operating system.  These make it easy to start using Mercurial on your "
"computer immediately."
msgstr ""
"对于每种流行的操作系统,都有已经构建的二进制软件包。这让在你的计算机上开始使"
"用 Mercurial 变得很容易。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:15
msgid "Windows"
msgstr "Windows"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:17
msgid ""
"The best version of Mercurial for Windows is TortoiseHg, which can be found "
"at <ulink url=\"http://bitbucket.org/tortoisehg/stable/wiki/Home\">http://"
"bitbucket.org/tortoisehg/stable/wiki/Home</ulink>.  This package has no "
"external dependencies; it <quote>just works</quote>.  It provides both "
"command line and graphical user interfaces."
msgstr ""
"Windows 中最好的 Mercurial 版本是TortoiseHg,它的主页地址是 <ulink url="
"\"http://bitbucket.org/tortoisehg/stable/wiki/Home\">http://bitbucket.org/"
"tortoisehg/stable/wiki/Home</ulink>。这个软件没有外部依赖,它可以<quote>独立工"
"作</quote>,同时提供了命令行和图形用户界面。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:27
msgid "Mac OS X"
msgstr "Mac OS X"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:29
msgid ""
"Lee Cantey publishes an installer of Mercurial for Mac OS X at <ulink url="
"\"http://mercurial.berkwood.com\">http://mercurial.berkwood.com</ulink>."
msgstr ""
"Lee Cantey 为  Mac OS X 在 <ulink url=\"http://mercurial.berkwood.com"
"\">http://mercurial.berkwood.com</ulink> 发布了 Mercurial 安装程序。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:35
msgid "Linux"
msgstr "Linux"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:37
msgid ""
"Because each Linux distribution has its own packaging tools, policies, and "
"rate of development, it's difficult to give a comprehensive set of "
"instructions on how to install Mercurial binaries.  The version of Mercurial "
"that you will end up with can vary depending on how active the person is who "
"maintains the package for your distribution."
msgstr ""
"由于每种 Linux 发行版都有自己的包管理工具,开发策略和进度,从而很难给出安装 "
"Mercurial 二进制包的全面说明。你安装的 Mercurial 版本,在很大程度上依赖于你所"
"使用的发行版的 Mercurial 维护者的活跃程度。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:44
msgid ""
"To keep things simple, I will focus on installing Mercurial from the command "
"line under the most popular Linux distributions.  Most of these distributions "
"provide graphical package managers that will let you install Mercurial with a "
"single click; the package name to look for is <literal>mercurial</literal>."
msgstr ""
"为了让事情简单,我会致力于说明在最流行的 Linux 发行版中,从命令行安装 "
"Mercurial 的方法。这些发行版都提供了图形界面的包管理器,让你通过点击鼠标安装 "
"Mercurial;寻找的包名称是 <literal>mercurial</literal>。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:52
msgid "Ubuntu and Debian:"
msgstr "Ubuntu 与 Debian:"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:54
msgid "Fedora:"
msgstr "Fedora:"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:56
msgid "OpenSUSE:"
msgstr "OpenSUSE:"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:58
msgid "Gentoo:"
msgstr "Gentoo:"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:64
msgid "Solaris"
msgstr "Solaris"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:66
msgid ""
"SunFreeWare, at <ulink url=\"http://www.sunfreeware.com\">http://www."
"sunfreeware.com</ulink>, provides prebuilt packages of Mercurial."
msgstr ""
"位于 <ulink url=\"http://www.sunfreeware.com\">http://www.sunfreeware.com</"
"ulink> 的 SunFreeWare 提供了 Mercurial 的二进制安装包。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:75
msgid "Getting started"
msgstr "开始"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:77
msgid ""
"To begin, we'll use the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg version</command> command "
"to find out whether Mercurial is installed properly.  The actual version "
"information that it prints isn't so important; we simply care whether the "
"command runs and prints anything at all."
msgstr ""
"首先,我们使用 <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg version</command> 命令检查 "
"Mercurial 是否已经正确安装。它打印出来的实际版本信息并不重要;我们只关心它是否"
"能够运行,打印出信息。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:86
msgid "Built-in help"
msgstr "内置帮助"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:88
msgid ""
"Mercurial provides a built-in help system.  This is invaluable for those "
"times when you find yourself stuck trying to remember how to run a command.  "
"If you are completely stuck, simply run <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg help</"
"command>; it will print a brief list of commands, along with a description of "
"what each does.  If you ask for help on a specific command (as below), it "
"prints more detailed information."
msgstr ""
"Mercurial 内置了帮助系统。当你不记得如何执行一个命令时,它会给你重要的帮助。如"
"果你完全没有头绪,那就直接运行 <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg help</command>;它"
"会给出命令的简短列表,还描述了每个命令的作用。如果你需要具体命令的帮助(下述),"
"它会给出更详细的信息。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:99
msgid ""
"For a more impressive level of detail (which you won't usually need) run "
"<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg help <option role=\"hg-opt-global\">-v</option></"
"command>.  The <option role=\"hg-opt-global\">-v</option> option is short for "
"<option role=\"hg-opt-global\">--verbose</option>, and tells Mercurial to "
"print more information than it usually would."
msgstr ""
"要获得更多的详细信息(通常不需要),可以执行 <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg help "
"<option role=\"hg-opt-global\">-v</option></command>。选项 <option role=\"hg-"
"opt-global\">-v</option> 是 <option role=\"hg-opt-global\">--verbose</option> "
"的短格式,告诉 Mercurial 要打印通常不需要的更多信息。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:110
msgid "Working with a repository"
msgstr "使用版本库"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:112
msgid ""
"In Mercurial, everything happens inside a <emphasis>repository</emphasis>.  "
"The repository for a project contains all of the files that <quote>belong to</"
"quote> that project, along with a historical record of the project's files."
msgstr ""
"在Mercurial中,所有的操作都在<emphasis>版本库</emphasis>中进行。项目的版本库包"
"括了属于该项目的所有文件和这些文件的历史记录。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:118
msgid ""
"There's nothing particularly magical about a repository; it is simply a "
"directory tree in your filesystem that Mercurial treats as special. You can "
"rename or delete a repository any time you like, using either the command "
"line or your file browser."
msgstr ""
"版本库没有什么神秘的地方;仅仅是你系统中的一个目录树,Mercurial会将它们特殊处"
"理。你可以在任何喜欢的时候使用命令行或者文件浏览器删除版本库或者给它改名。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:125
msgid "Making a local copy of a repository"
msgstr "创建版本库的工作副本"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:127
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Copying</emphasis> a repository is just a little bit special.  "
"While you could use a normal file copying command to make a copy of a "
"repository, it's best to use a built-in command that Mercurial provides.  "
"This command is called <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg clone</command>, because "
"it makes an identical copy of an existing repository."
msgstr ""
"<emphasis>拷贝</emphasis>版本库有点特殊。虽然你可以使用文件拷贝命令来复制一般"
"版本库,最好还是用Mercurial内置的命令。这个命令叫做 <command role=\"hg-cmd"
"\">hg clone</command>,因为它创建了一个原来版本库的拷贝。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:136
msgid ""
"One advantage of using <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg clone</command> is that, "
"as we can see above, it lets us clone repositories over the network.  Another "
"is that it remembers where we cloned from, which we'll find useful soon when "
"we want to fetch new changes from another repository."
msgstr ""
"如上所示,使用<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg clone</command>的好处在于它能够让你"
"通过网络克隆版本库。另外一个好处你它会记得这个版本库是从哪里克隆的,稍后会看"
"到,当我们想从其他的版本库获取新的变更的时候这点这会非常有用。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:142
msgid ""
"If our clone succeeded, we should now have a local directory called <filename "
"class=\"directory\">hello</filename>.  This directory will contain some files."
msgstr ""
"如果我们克隆成功,我们会得到一个本地目录,叫做 <filename class=\"directory"
"\">hello</filename>。这个目录会包括一些文件。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:148
msgid ""
"These files have the same contents and history in our repository as they do "
"in the repository we cloned."
msgstr "这个版本库中的文件和我们刚才克隆的版本库中的文件相同的内容和版本历史"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:151
msgid ""
"Every Mercurial repository is complete, self-contained, and independent.  It "
"contains its own private copy of a project's files and history.  As we just "
"mentioned, a cloned repository remembers the location of the repository it "
"was cloned from, but Mercurial will not communicate with that repository, or "
"any other, unless you tell it to."
msgstr ""
"每个Mercurial版本库都是完整的,自包含的,独立的。它包含了项目文件的一份私有拷"
"贝和全部历史。我们刚才已经提到,克隆的版本库会记住它克隆的那个版本库的地址,但"
"是Mercurial不会和那个或者其他任何一个版本库通信,除非你给它命令。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:158
msgid ""
"What this means for now is that we're free to experiment with our repository, "
"safe in the knowledge that it's a private <quote>sandbox</quote> that won't "
"affect anyone else."
msgstr ""
"这意味着,我们可以随意的在我们的版本库中做实验,非常安全,因为它是一个私有的"
"<quote>沙盒</quote>,不会影响任何人。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:164
msgid "What's in a repository?"
msgstr "什么是版本库?"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:166
msgid ""
"When we take a more detailed look inside a repository, we can see that it "
"contains a directory named <filename class=\"directory\">.hg</filename>.  "
"This is where Mercurial keeps all of its metadata for the repository."
msgstr ""
"当我们仔细观察版本库内部时,我们会发现它有一个叫<filename class=\"directory"
"\">.hg</filename>的目录。这就是Mercurial为版本库保存所有元数据的地方。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:173
msgid ""
"The contents of the <filename class=\"directory\">.hg</filename> directory "
"and its subdirectories are private to Mercurial.  Every other file and "
"directory in the repository is yours to do with as you please."
msgstr ""
"目录<filename class=\"directory\">.hg</filename>中的内容和其子目录是Mercurial"
"私有的。版本库中的其他任何文件和目录你都可以随意操作。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:179
msgid ""
"To introduce a little terminology, the <filename class=\"directory\">.hg</"
"filename> directory is the <quote>real</quote> repository, and all of the "
"files and directories that coexist with it are said to live in the "
"<emphasis>working directory</emphasis>.  An easy way to remember the "
"distinction is that the <emphasis>repository</emphasis> contains the "
"<emphasis>history</emphasis> of your project, while the <emphasis>working "
"directory</emphasis> contains a <emphasis>snapshot</emphasis> of your project "
"at a particular point in history."
msgstr ""
"介绍一点术语, <filename class=\"directory\">.hg</filename>目录是<quote>真正的"
"</quote>版本库,所有其他的文件和目录称为<emphasis>工作目录</emphasis>一个简单"
"的区分的方法就是<emphasis>版本库</emphasis>中包含了项目的<emphasis>历史</"
"emphasis>,而 <emphasis>工作目录</emphasis>则是项目组一个特定历史点上的"
"<emphasis>快照</emphasis>。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:194
msgid "A tour through history"
msgstr "回溯历史"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:196
msgid ""
"One of the first things we might want to do with a new, unfamiliar repository "
"is understand its history.  The <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command> "
"command gives us a view of the history of changes in the repository."
msgstr ""
"对于一个新的,我们不熟悉的版本库,我们想做的第一件事就是了解它的历史。命令"
"<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command>可以让我们浏览版本库中的历史变更。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:203
msgid ""
"By default, this command prints a brief paragraph of output for each change "
"to the project that was recorded.  In Mercurial terminology, we call each of "
"these recorded events a <emphasis>changeset</emphasis>, because it can "
"contain a record of changes to several files."
msgstr ""
"缺省情况下,这个命令对项目中记录的每个变更都输出一段简介,在Mercurial的术语"
"中,我们将这些记录的事件成为<emphasis>变更集</emphasis>,因为每个记录都可能包"
"括几个文件的变更。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:209
msgid ""
"The fields in a record of output from <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</"
"command> are as follows."
msgstr ""
" <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command>输出记录的各个字段的意义如下。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:213
msgid ""
"<literal>changeset</literal>: This field has the format of a number, followed "
"by a colon, followed by a hexadecimal (or <emphasis>hex</emphasis>)  string.  "
"These are <emphasis>identifiers</emphasis> for the changeset.  The hex string "
"is a unique identifier: the same hex string will always refer to the same "
"changeset in every copy of this repository. The number is shorter and easier "
"to type than the hex string, but it isn't unique: the same number in two "
"different clones of a repository may identify different changesets."
msgstr ""
"<literal>changeset</literal>:这个字段包括一个数字,接着一个冒号,然后是是一个"
"十六进制字符串。这是这个变更的<emphasis>标识符</emphasis>。十六进制字符串是唯"
"一标识符:在这个版本库的任何一个拷贝中,同一个字符串总是对应同一个变更集。数字"
"更短并且比十六进制字符串更容易书写,但它不是唯一的:一个版本库的两个不同的的克"
"隆中的同一个数字可能对应不同的变更集。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:224
msgid ""
"<literal>user</literal>: The identity of the person who created the "
"changeset.  This is a free-form field, but it most often contains a person's "
"name and email address."
msgstr ""
"<literal>user</literal>:这个字段标识是谁创建了这个变更集。这个字段格式可以自"
"由定义,通常是一个人的姓名加上电子邮件地址。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:228
msgid ""
"<literal>date</literal>: The date and time on which the changeset was "
"created, and the timezone in which it was created.  (The date and time are "
"local to that timezone; they display what time and date it was for the person "
"who created the changeset.)"
msgstr ""
"<literal>date</literal>:这是变更集创建的日期和时间,还有时区。(日期和时间是"
"相对于时区的;他们显示了创建变更的人的日期和时间。)"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:233
msgid ""
"<literal>summary</literal>: The first line of the text message that the "
"creator of the changeset entered to describe the changeset."
msgstr "<literal>summary</literal>:创建者对该变更集的描述的第一行文本信息。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:237
msgid ""
"Some changesets, such as the first in the list above, have a <literal>tag</"
"literal> field.  A tag is another way to identify a changeset, by giving it "
"an easy-to-remember name. (The tag named <literal>tip</literal> is special: "
"it always refers to the newest change in a repository.)"
msgstr ""
"有些变更集,像上面的第一个,有一个<literal>标签</literal>字段。标签是区分变更"
"集的另外一种方法,给它一个容易记得名字。(叫做<literal>tip</literal>的标签有特"
"殊意义:总是指向版本库中的最新的变更。)"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:245
msgid ""
"The default output printed by <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command> is "
"purely a summary; it is missing a lot of detail."
msgstr ""
"缺省情况下,<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command>的输出仅仅是个摘要,没有"
"更详细的信息。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:249
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"fig:tour-basic:history\"/> provides a graphical "
"representation of the history of the <filename class=\"directory\">hello</"
"filename> repository, to make it a little easier to see which direction "
"history is <quote>flowing</quote> in.  We'll be returning to this figure "
"several times in this chapter and the chapter that follows."
msgstr ""
"<xref linkend=\"fig:tour-basic:history\"/>以图形化方式显示了版本库<filename "
"class=\"directory\">hello</filename>的历史,这样很容易看出历史的<quote>流向</"
"quote>。在本章和下面的章节中,我们会多次使用这个图。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><figure><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:258
msgid ""
"Graphical history of the <filename class=\"directory\">hello</filename> "
"repository"
msgstr "版本库 <filename class=\"directory\">hello</filename> 的历史图"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><figure>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:260 ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:61
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:207 ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:290
msgid "<placeholder type=\"mediaobject\" id=\"0\"/>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><figure><mediaobject>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:261
msgid ""
"<imageobject><imagedata fileref=\"figs/tour-history.png\"/></imageobject>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><mediaobject><textobject><phrase>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:262 ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:63
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:95 ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:182
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:209 ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:279
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:59 ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:108
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:198 ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:292
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:347 ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:362
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:403 ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:423
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:469 ../en/ch06-collab.xml:316
#: ../en/ch09-undo.xml:344 ../en/ch09-undo.xml:391 ../en/ch09-undo.xml:464
#: ../en/ch09-undo.xml:502 ../en/ch09-undo.xml:658 ../en/ch09-undo.xml:682
#: ../en/ch09-undo.xml:700 ../en/ch09-undo.xml:714 ../en/ch09-undo.xml:727
#: ../en/ch12-mq.xml:413
msgid "XXX add text"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:267
msgid "Changesets, revisions, and talking to other people"
msgstr "变更集,版本,与其它用户交互"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:270
msgid ""
"As English is a notoriously sloppy language, and computer science has a "
"hallowed history of terminological confusion (why use one term when four will "
"do?), revision control has a variety of words and phrases that mean the same "
"thing.  If you are talking about Mercurial history with other people, you "
"will find that the word <quote>changeset</quote> is often compressed to "
"<quote>change</quote> or (when written)  <quote>cset</quote>, and sometimes a "
"changeset is referred to as a <quote>revision</quote> or a <quote>rev</quote>."
msgstr ""
"英语是一种非常随便的语言,计算机史上也向来以混乱的术语为荣(如能用四个词为什么"
"要用一个呢?),就版本控制而言,有很多词和短语有相同的意思。如果你和别人讨论"
"Mercurial版本库的历史,你会发现<quote>变更集</quote>这个词常常被简化成<quote>"
"变更</quote>或者(写的时候)<quote>cset</quote>,有时候变更集也指一个<quote>版"
"本</quote>或者<quote>rev</quote>。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:280
msgid ""
"While it doesn't matter what <emphasis>word</emphasis> you use to refer to "
"the concept of <quote>a changeset</quote>, the <emphasis>identifier</"
"emphasis> that you use to refer to <quote>a <emphasis>specific</emphasis> "
"changeset</quote> is of great importance. Recall that the <literal>changeset</"
"literal> field in the output from <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command> "
"identifies a changeset using both a number and a hexadecimal string."
msgstr ""
"实际上,用哪个<emphasis>词</emphasis>来描述<quote>变更集</quote>的概念并不重"
"要,重要的是如何用<emphasis>标识符</emphasis>来标识<quote>一个<emphasis>特定的"
"</emphasis>变更集</quote>。回忆一下<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command>命"
"令的输出,<literal>changeset</literal>字段里用一个数字和一个十六进制字符串来标"
"识一个变更集。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:289
msgid ""
"The revision number is a handy notation that is <emphasis>only valid in that "
"repository</emphasis>."
msgstr "版本号是一个方便的标识,它仅在<emphasis>当前版本库中有效</emphasis>。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:292
msgid ""
"The hexadecimal string is the <emphasis>permanent, unchanging identifier</"
"emphasis> that will always identify that exact changeset in <emphasis>every</"
"emphasis> copy of the repository."
msgstr ""
"十六进制字符串是<emphasis>永久的,不变的标识</emphasis>,它在该版本库的所有拷"
"贝中都指向同一个变更集。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:298
msgid ""
"This distinction is important.  If you send someone an email talking about "
"<quote>revision 33</quote>, there's a high likelihood that their revision 33 "
"will <emphasis>not be the same</emphasis> as yours.  The reason for this is "
"that a revision number depends on the order in which changes arrived in a "
"repository, and there is no guarantee that the same changes will happen in "
"the same order in different repositories. Three changes <literal>a,b,c</"
"literal> can easily appear in one repository as <literal>0,1,2</literal>, "
"while in another as <literal>0,2,1</literal>."
msgstr ""
"这个区别很重要。如果你通过邮件和别人讨论<quote>版本33</quote>,很有可能他们的"
"版本33和你的<emphasis>不一样</emphasis>。原因在于版本号依赖于相应变更进入版本"
"库的顺序。,不能保证同一个变更在不同的版本库中会有相同的次序。有可能三个变更"
"<literal>a,b,c</literal>在一个版本库中的次序是<literal>0,1,2</literal>,而在另"
"外一个版本库中则变成<literal>0,2,1</literal>"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:310
msgid ""
"Mercurial uses revision numbers purely as a convenient shorthand.  If you "
"need to discuss a changeset with someone, or make a record of a changeset for "
"some other reason (for example, in a bug report), use the hexadecimal "
"identifier."
msgstr ""
"Mercurial使用版本号纯粹是为了有些命令的方便,如果你要和别人讨论变更集,或者由"
"于某些原因为一个变更集做记录(如在bug报告中),请使用十六进制标识符。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:318
msgid "Viewing specific revisions"
msgstr "查看指定版本"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:320
msgid ""
"To narrow the output of <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command> down to a "
"single revision, use the <option role=\"hg-opt-log\">-r</option> (or <option "
"role=\"hg-opt-log\">--rev</option>) option.  You can use either a revision "
"number or a hexadecimal identifier, and you can provide as many revisions as "
"you want."
msgstr ""
"如果只想用<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command>查看一个版本的日志使用"
"<option role=\"hg-opt-log\">-r</option>(或者<option role=\"hg-opt-log\">--"
"rev</option>)选项。版本号和十六进制标识符都可以来指定版本,可以一次指定任意多"
"个版本。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:329
msgid ""
"If you want to see the history of several revisions without having to list "
"each one, you can use <emphasis>range notation</emphasis>; this lets you "
"express the idea <quote>I want all revisions between <literal>abc</literal> "
"and <literal>def</literal>, inclusive</quote>."
msgstr ""
"如果你想显示几个版本历史,但是不想一个一个的列出来,可以使用 <emphasis>范围标"
"记</emphasis>;它会显示包括<literal>abc</literal>和<literal>def</literal>,以"
"及它们之间的所有版本的版本历史。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:337
msgid ""
"Mercurial also honours the order in which you specify revisions, so <command "
"role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log -r 2:4</command> prints 2, 3, and 4. while <command "
"role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log -r 4:2</command> prints 4, 3, and 2."
msgstr ""
"Mercurial还可以指定版本的输出顺序,如<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log -r 2:4</"
"command>输出2,3,4。而<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log -r 4:2</command>则输出"
"4,3,2。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:344
msgid "More detailed information"
msgstr "更详细的信息"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:346
msgid ""
"While the summary information printed by <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</"
"command> is useful if you already know what you're looking for, you may need "
"to see a complete description of the change, or a list of the files changed, "
"if you're trying to decide whether a changeset is the one you're looking for. "
"The <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command> command's <option role=\"hg-opt-"
"global\">-v</option> (or <option role=\"hg-opt-global\">--verbose</option>) "
"option gives you this extra detail."
msgstr ""
"当你知道你在找那个版本的时候,<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command>输出的"
"摘要是非常有用的,但有时候你不知道要找哪个版本,你想看到变更的完整描述,或者修"
"改过的文件的列表,<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command>命令的<option role="
"\"hg-opt-global\">-v</option>(<option role=\"hg-opt-global\">--verbose</"
"option>)选项会给出更详细的信息。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:358
msgid ""
"If you want to see both the description and content of a change, add the "
"<option role=\"hg-opt-log\">-p</option> (or <option role=\"hg-opt-log\">--"
"patch</option>) option.  This displays the content of a change as a "
"<emphasis>unified diff</emphasis> (if you've never seen a unified diff "
"before, see <xref linkend=\"sec:mq:patch\"/> for an overview)."
msgstr ""
"如果你想同时看到变更的描述和内容,增加<option role=\"hg-opt-log\">-p</option>"
"(<option role=\"hg-opt-log\">--patch</option>)选项。这会将变更的内容以"
"<emphasis>unified diff</emphasis>的格式显示(如果你不知道unified diff,请参考"
"<xref linkend=\"sec:mq:patch\"/>。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:368
msgid ""
"The <option role=\"hg-opt-log\">-p</option> option is tremendously useful, so "
"it's well worth remembering."
msgstr "<option role=\"hg-opt-log\">-p</option>选项非常有用,所以一定要记住。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:375
msgid "All about command options"
msgstr "命令选项"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:377
msgid ""
"Let's take a brief break from exploring Mercurial commands to discuss a "
"pattern in the way that they work; you may find this useful to keep in mind "
"as we continue our tour."
msgstr ""
"我们休息一下,先不讨论Mercurial命令了,而是来看看它们工作的模式;这对以后的学"
"习会非常有帮助。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:381
msgid ""
"Mercurial has a consistent and straightforward approach to dealing with the "
"options that you can pass to commands.  It follows the conventions for "
"options that are common to modern Linux and Unix systems."
msgstr ""
"Mercurial处理传递给它的命令选项的方法简单一致。它遵从现代Linux和Unix对选项的处"
"理习惯。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:388
msgid ""
"Every option has a long name.  For example, as we've already seen, the "
"<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command> command accepts a <option role=\"hg-"
"opt-log\">--rev</option> option."
msgstr ""
"每个选项有一个长名。例如,我们已经看到了,<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</"
"command>命令接受<option role=\"hg-opt-log\">--rev</option>选项。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:394
msgid ""
"Most options have short names, too.  Instead of <option role=\"hg-opt-log\">--"
"rev</option>, we can use <option role=\"hg-opt-log\">-r</option>.  (The "
"reason that some options don't have short names is that the options in "
"question are rarely used.)"
msgstr ""
"大多数选项还有短名,除了使用<option role=\"hg-opt-log\">--rev</option>,我们还"
"可以用<option role=\"hg-opt-log\">-r</option>。(有些选项没有短名的原因是他们"
"很少用到。)"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:401
msgid ""
"Long options start with two dashes (e.g.  <option role=\"hg-opt-log\">--rev</"
"option>), while short options start with one (e.g. <option role=\"hg-opt-log"
"\">-r</option>)."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:407
msgid ""
"Option naming and usage is consistent across commands.  For example, every "
"command that lets you specify a changeset ID or revision number accepts both "
"<option role=\"hg-opt-log\">-r</option> and <option role=\"hg-opt-log\">--"
"rev</option> arguments."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:414
msgid ""
"If you are using short options, you can save typing by running them together. "
"For example, the command <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log -v -p -r 2</command> "
"can be written as <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log -vpr2</command>."
msgstr ""
"如果使用短选项,你可以把它们放在一起以减少输入。例如,命令<command role=\"hg-"
"cmd\">hg log -v -p -r 2</command> 可以写成 <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log -"
"vpr2</command>。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:421
msgid ""
"In the examples throughout this book, I usually use short options instead of "
"long.  This simply reflects my own preference, so don't read anything "
"significant into it."
msgstr ""
"在本书的例子中,我通常使用短选项,很少用长选项。这仅仅是我个人的习惯,你不一定"
"要这样。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:425
msgid ""
"Most commands that print output of some kind will print more output when "
"passed a <option role=\"hg-opt-global\">-v</option> (or <option role=\"hg-opt-"
"global\">--verbose</option>) option, and less when passed <option role=\"hg-"
"opt-global\">-q</option> (or <option role=\"hg-opt-global\">--quiet</option>)."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><note><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:432
msgid "Option naming consistency"
msgstr "选项命名的一致性"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><note><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:434
msgid ""
"Almost always, Mercurial commands use consistent option names to refer to the "
"same concepts.  For instance, if a command deals with changesets, you'll "
"always identify them with <option role=\"hg-opt-log\">--rev</option> or "
"<option role=\"hg-opt-log\">-r</option>.  This consistent use of option names "
"makes it easier to remember what options a particular command takes."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:445
msgid "Making and reviewing changes"
msgstr "创建和复审变更"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:447
msgid ""
"Now that we have a grasp of viewing history in Mercurial, let's take a look "
"at making some changes and examining them."
msgstr ""
"现在我们已经对查看Mercurial的版本历史有了一些了解,现在我们开始做些修改并且检"
"查这些修改。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:451
msgid ""
"The first thing we'll do is isolate our experiment in a repository of its "
"own.  We use the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg clone</command> command, but we "
"don't need to clone a copy of the remote repository.  Since we already have a "
"copy of it locally, we can just clone that instead.  This is much faster than "
"cloning over the network, and cloning a local repository uses less disk space "
"in most cases, too<placeholder type=\"footnote\" id=\"0\"/>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para><footnote><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:458
msgid ""
"The saving of space arises when source and destination repositories are on "
"the same filesystem, in which case Mercurial will use hardlinks to do copy-on-"
"write sharing of its internal metadata.  If that explanation meant nothing to "
"you, don't worry: everything happens transparently and automatically, and you "
"don't need to understand it."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:468
msgid ""
"As an aside, it's often good practice to keep a <quote>pristine</quote> copy "
"of a remote repository around, which you can then make temporary clones of to "
"create sandboxes for each task you want to work on.  This lets you work on "
"multiple tasks in parallel, each isolated from the others until it's complete "
"and you're ready to integrate it back.  Because local clones are so cheap, "
"there's almost no overhead to cloning and destroying repositories whenever "
"you want."
msgstr ""
"说句题外话,保留远程版本库的一份<quote>原始</quote>拷贝是一个很好的习惯,这样"
"你就可以为每个任务都创建临时的克隆作为沙盒。直到认务完成并且你准备好提交到版本"
"库, 每个任务都和其他的独立,这样你可以并行工作。因为本地的克隆很方便,在任何时"
"候克隆和销毁一个版本库都只有很小的开销。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:477
msgid ""
"In our <filename class=\"directory\">my-hello</filename> repository, we have "
"a file <filename>hello.c</filename> that contains the classic <quote>hello, "
"world</quote> program."
msgstr ""
"在我们的<filename class=\"directory\">my-hello</filename>版本库中,有一个叫"
"<filename>hello.c</filename>的文件,它包含了经典的<quote>hello, world</quote>"
"程序。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:483
msgid "Let's edit this file so that it prints a second line of output."
msgstr "我们编辑这个文件,让它打印第二行输出。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:488
msgid ""
"Mercurial's <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg status</command> command will tell us "
"what Mercurial knows about the files in the repository."
msgstr ""
"Mercurial的<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg status</command>命令能告诉我们它对版本"
"库中的文件有多少了解。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:494
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg status</command> command prints no output for "
"some files, but a line starting with <quote><literal>M</literal></quote> for "
"<filename>hello.c</filename>.  Unless you tell it to, <command role=\"hg-cmd"
"\">hg status</command> will not print any output for files that have not been "
"modified."
msgstr ""
"<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg status</command>命令对有些文件没有输出信息,但是对"
"文件<filename>hello.c</filename>,有一行以<quote><literal>M</literal></quote>"
"为开头的输出。除非你明确告诉它,命令<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg status</"
"command>不会输出那些没有修改的文件的信息。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:501
msgid ""
"The <quote><literal>M</literal></quote> indicates that Mercurial has noticed "
"that we modified <filename>hello.c</filename>.  We didn't need to "
"<emphasis>inform</emphasis> Mercurial that we were going to modify the file "
"before we started, or that we had modified the file after we were done; it "
"was able to figure this out itself."
msgstr ""
"<quote><literal>M</literal></quote>表明Mercurial已经发现我们修改了"
"<filename>hello.c</filename>。我们不需要在改文件之前,或者在修改完之后"
"<emphasis>通知</emphasis>Mercurial;它自己能处理。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:509
msgid ""
"It's somewhat helpful to know that we've modified <filename>hello.c</"
"filename>, but we might prefer to know exactly <emphasis>what</emphasis> "
"changes we've made to it.  To do this, we use the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg "
"diff</command> command."
msgstr ""
"知道文件<filename>hello.c</filename>被修改了很有用,但有时候我们想知道做了"
"<emphasis>什么</emphasis>样的修改。这时,我们应该使用 <command role=\"hg-cmd"
"\">hg diff</command>命令。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:518 ../en/ch12-mq.xml:187
msgid "Understanding patches"
msgstr "理解补丁"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><tip><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:520
msgid ""
"Remember to take a look at <xref linkend=\"sec:mq:patch\"/> if you don't know "
"how to read output above."
msgstr "如果你不知道如何理解以上信息,请参考<xref linkend=\"sec:mq:patch\"/>。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:526
msgid "Recording changes in a new changeset"
msgstr "在新修改集中记录修改"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:528
msgid ""
"We can modify files, build and test our changes, and use <command role=\"hg-"
"cmd\">hg status</command> and <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg diff</command> to "
"review our changes, until we're satisfied with what we've done and arrive at "
"a natural stopping point where we want to record our work in a new changeset."
msgstr ""
"我们可以修改文件,创建并测试我们的修改,使用命令<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg "
"status</command>和<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg diff</command>复审修改,直到我们"
"对修改满意,同时也达到了一个自然的停止点,然后用一个新的变更集记录我们的工作。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:535
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg commit</command> command lets us create a new "
"changeset; we'll usually refer to this as <quote>making a commit</quote> or "
"<quote>committing</quote>."
msgstr ""
"我们用命令<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg commit</command>创建新的变更集;我们通常"
"把这个称为<quote>做一次提交</quote>或者<quote>提交</quote>。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:541
msgid "Setting up a username"
msgstr "配置用户名称"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:543
msgid ""
"When you try to run <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg commit</command> for the "
"first time, it is not guaranteed to succeed.  Mercurial records your name and "
"address with each change that you commit, so that you and others will later "
"be able to tell who made each change.  Mercurial tries to automatically "
"figure out a sensible username to commit the change with.  It will attempt "
"each of the following methods, in order:"
msgstr ""
"当你准备第一次运行<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg commit</command>命令时,不一定会"
"成功。对于你提交的每个变更,Mercurial都会记录你的名字和邮件地址,这样你和其他"
"人以后就能分开是谁做的哪个变更。Mercurial会自动尝试找出一个有意义的用户名来提"
"交。它会依次尝试以下方法:"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:552
msgid ""
"If you specify a <option role=\"hg-opt-commit\">-u</option> option to the "
"<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg commit</command> command on the command line, "
"followed by a username, this is always given the highest precedence."
msgstr ""
"如果你给<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg commit</command>命令加上了<option role="
"\"hg-opt-commit\">-u</option>选项,接着是一个用户名,Mercurial会使用这个用户"
"名,这是最高的优先级。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:557
msgid ""
"If you have set the <envar>HGUSER</envar> environment variable, this is "
"checked next."
msgstr "接下来测试你是否设定了<envar>HGUSER</envar>环境变量。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:560
msgid ""
"If you create a file in your home directory called <filename role=\"special"
"\">.hgrc</filename>, with a <envar role=\"rc-item-ui\">username</envar> "
"entry, that will be used next.  To see what the contents of this file should "
"look like, refer to <xref linkend=\"sec:tour-basic:username\"/> below."
msgstr ""
"如果你在主目录创建了名字为<filename role=\"special\">.hgrc</filename>的文件,"
"其中包括<envar role=\"rc-item-ui\">username</envar>条目,那就用它。如果想知道"
"这个文件的格式,请参考下面的<xref linkend=\"sec:tour-basic:username\"/>。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:568
msgid ""
"If you have set the <envar>EMAIL</envar> environment variable, this will be "
"used next."
msgstr "如果你设置了<envar>EMAIL</envar>环境变量,那就用它。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:571
msgid ""
"Mercurial will query your system to find out your local user name and host "
"name, and construct a username from these components. Since this often "
"results in a username that is not very useful, it will print a warning if it "
"has to do this."
msgstr ""
"Mercurial会查询你的系统,找出主机名和你的用户名,然后用他们创建一个用户名。这"
"样的用户名不怎么有用,所以在只能这样生成用户名的时候,它会打印出一条告警信息。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:578
msgid ""
"If all of these mechanisms fail, Mercurial will fail, printing an error "
"message.  In this case, it will not let you commit until you set up a "
"username."
msgstr ""
"如果所有的这些机制都失败了,Mercurial会执行失败退出,打印出一条错误信息这种情"
"况下,只有你设定了用户名之后才能提交。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:582
msgid ""
"You should think of the <envar>HGUSER</envar> environment variable and the "
"<option role=\"hg-opt-commit\">-u</option> option to the <command role=\"hg-"
"cmd\">hg commit</command> command as ways to <emphasis>override</emphasis> "
"Mercurial's default selection of username.  For normal use, the simplest and "
"most robust way to set a username for yourself is by creating a <filename "
"role=\"special\">.hgrc</filename> file; see below for details."
msgstr ""
"当你需要覆盖Mercurial缺省的用户时,可以考虑<envar>HGUSER</envar>环境变量和"
"<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg commit</command>命令的<option role=\"hg-opt-commit"
"\">-u</option>选项。正常使用的情况下,最简单实用的方法就是创建<filename role="
"\"special\">.hgrc</filename>文件来设定用户名;步骤如下。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:591
msgid "Creating a Mercurial configuration file"
msgstr "创建 Mercurial 的配置文件"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:593
msgid ""
"To set a user name, use your favorite editor to create a file called "
"<filename role=\"special\">.hgrc</filename> in your home directory.  "
"Mercurial will use this file to look up your personalised configuration "
"settings.  The initial contents of your <filename role=\"special\">.hgrc</"
"filename> should look like this."
msgstr ""
"设定用户名的时候,使用你最喜欢的编辑器在你的主目录创建一个名为<filename role="
"\"special\">.hgrc</filename>的文件。Mercurial将会从这个文件中查找你的个人配置"
"信息。你的<filename role=\"special\">.hgrc</filename>开始的时候应该是这样子。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><tip><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:602
msgid "<quote>Home directory</quote> on Windows"
msgstr "Windows上的<quote>主目录</quote>"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><tip><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:604
msgid ""
"When we refer to your home directory, on an English language installation of "
"Windows this will usually be a folder named after your user name in "
"<filename>C:\\Documents and Settings</filename>.  You can find out the exact "
"name of your home directory by opening a command prompt window and running "
"the following command."
msgstr ""
"英文版的Windows的主目录通常是<filename>C:\\Documents and Settings</filename>下"
"你的用户名的那个文件夹。如果要找出你的主目录的确切位置,可以打开一个命令行窗"
"口,运行以下命令。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><tip><screen><prompt>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:612
msgid "C:\\>"
msgstr "C:\\>"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><tip><screen><userinput>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:612
msgid "echo %UserProfile%"
msgstr "echo %UserProfile%"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:619
msgid ""
"The <quote><literal>[ui]</literal></quote> line begins a <emphasis>section</"
"emphasis> of the config file, so you can read the <quote><literal>username "
"= ...</literal></quote> line as meaning <quote>set the value of the "
"<literal>username</literal> item in the <literal>ui</literal> section</"
"quote>. A section continues until a new section begins, or the end of the "
"file.  Mercurial ignores empty lines and treats any text from "
"<quote><literal>#</literal></quote> to the end of a line as a comment."
msgstr ""
"配置文件中<quote><literal>[ui]</literal></quote>这行标识着一个<emphasis>字段</"
"emphasis>的开始,<quote><literal>username = ...</literal></quote>这行的意思是在"
"<literal>ui</literal>字段中设定项<literal>username</literal>的值。当出现一个新"
"的字段或者到达文件结尾的时候,当前的字段才结束。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:632
msgid "Choosing a user name"
msgstr "选择用户名称"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:634
msgid ""
"You can use any text you like as the value of the <literal>username</literal> "
"config item, since this information is for reading by other people, but will "
"not be interpreted by Mercurial.  The convention that most people follow is "
"to use their name and email address, as in the example above."
msgstr ""
"<literal>username</literal>配置项的值可以是你喜欢的任意文字,因为这项信息主要"
"是给其他用户阅读的,所以Mercurial不会去解释它。大多数人的习惯是采用用户名加上"
"邮件地址的格式,就像上面的例子一样。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><note><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:641
msgid ""
"Mercurial's built-in web server obfuscates email addresses, to make it more "
"difficult for the email harvesting tools that spammers use. This reduces the "
"likelihood that you'll start receiving more junk email if you publish a "
"Mercurial repository on the web."
msgstr ""
"Mercurial内置的网络服务器会混淆邮件地址,让垃圾邮件发送者用的邮件地址抓取工具"
"很难获取你的邮件地址。当你把Mercurial的版本库在网路上发布的时候,这可以减小你"
"接收到垃圾邮件的风险。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:650
msgid "Writing a commit message"
msgstr "写提交日志"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:652
msgid ""
"When we commit a change, Mercurial drops us into a text editor, to enter a "
"message that will describe the modifications we've made in this changeset.  "
"This is called the <emphasis>commit message</emphasis>.  It will be a record "
"for readers of what we did and why, and it will be printed by <command role="
"\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command> after we've finished committing."
msgstr ""
"我们提交一个变更的时候,Mercurial会打开一个编辑器,让我们输入一些信息来描述这"
"个变更集做的更改。这就是<emphasis>提交日志</emphasis>。它会告诉读者我们改了什"
"么以及修改的原因,我们提交之后,命令<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command>"
"会输出这些信息。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:662
msgid ""
"The editor that the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg commit</command> command "
"drops us into will contain an empty line or two, followed by a number of "
"lines starting with <quote><literal>HG:</literal></quote>."
msgstr ""
"<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg commit</command>命令打开的编辑器包括一两个空行,接"
"着是以<quote><literal>HG:</literal></quote>开始的行。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:676
msgid ""
"Mercurial ignores the lines that start with <quote><literal>HG:</literal></"
"quote>; it uses them only to tell us which files it's recording changes to.  "
"Modifying or deleting these lines has no effect."
msgstr ""
"Mercurial会忽略以<quote><literal>HG:</literal></quote>为开始的行;它仅仅用来告"
"诉我们这个变更集中包括哪些文件。修改或者删除这行没有任何影响。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:682
msgid "Writing a good commit message"
msgstr "写高质量的提交日志"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:684
msgid ""
"Since <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command> only prints the first line of "
"a commit message by default, it's best to write a commit message whose first "
"line stands alone.  Here's a real example of a commit message that "
"<emphasis>doesn't</emphasis> follow this guideline, and hence has a summary "
"that is not readable."
msgstr ""
"因为<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command>命令在缺省情况下仅会输出提交日志"
"的第一行,所以日志第一行最好是单独的一行。下面是一个日志的实例,它<emphasis>没"
"有</emphasis>遵守这个规则,因此摘要可读性很差。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:697
msgid ""
"As far as the remainder of the contents of the commit message are concerned, "
"there are no hard-and-fast rules.  Mercurial itself doesn't interpret or care "
"about the contents of the commit message, though your project may have "
"policies that dictate a certain kind of formatting."
msgstr ""
"至于日志的其他部分的内容,没有严格的规定。Mercurial并不解释或者关心日志的内"
"容,虽然你的项目可能有某种格式的规定。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:702
msgid ""
"My personal preference is for short, but informative, commit messages that "
"tell me something that I can't figure out with a quick glance at the output "
"of <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log --patch</command>."
msgstr ""
"我个人喜欢简短,而又信息量大的日志,它能告诉我一些我不能通过快速浏览<command "
"role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log --patch</command>的输出而得到的信息。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:706
msgid ""
"If we run the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg commit</command> command without "
"any arguments, it records all of the changes we've made, as reported by "
"<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg status</command> and <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg "
"diff</command>."
msgstr ""
"如果我们运行<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg commit</command>命令的时候没有指定文"
"件,它会提交我们做的所有修改,与<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg status</command>和"
"<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg diff</command>这两个命令的输出一样。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><note><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:713
msgid "A surprise for Subversion users"
msgstr "Subversion用户的困惑"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><note><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:715
msgid ""
"Like other Mercurial commands, if we don't supply explicit names to commit to "
"the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg commit</command>, it will operate across a "
"repository's entire working directory.  Be wary of this if you're coming from "
"the Subversion or CVS world, since you might expect it to operate only on the "
"current directory that you happen to be visiting and its subdirectories."
msgstr ""
"和所有的Mercurial命令一样,如果我们不明确指出<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg "
"commit</command>命令要提交的文件名,它会在整个版本库的工作目录上执行操作。如果"
"你以前使用过CVS或者Subversion,那一定要注意,你可能仅仅希望提交当前目录与其子"
"目录的修改。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:726
msgid "Aborting a commit"
msgstr "终止提交"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:728
msgid ""
"If you decide that you don't want to commit while in the middle of editing a "
"commit message, simply exit from your editor without saving the file that "
"it's editing.  This will cause nothing to happen to either the repository or "
"the working directory."
msgstr ""
"如果你在编辑日志的时候决定不再提交,只要退出编辑器同时不保存文件就可以了。这对"
"版本库和当前目录都没有任何影响。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:736
msgid "Admiring our new handiwork"
msgstr "欣赏我们的成果"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:738
msgid ""
"Once we've finished the commit, we can use the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg "
"tip</command> command to display the changeset we just created.  This command "
"produces output that is identical to <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</"
"command>, but it only displays the newest revision in the repository."
msgstr ""
"提交完成后,我们就可以用<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg tip</command>命令显示刚刚"
"创建的变更集。这个命令和<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command>的输出一样,"
"但是只显示版本库中最新的版本。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:746
msgid ""
"We refer to the newest revision in the repository as the <emphasis>tip "
"revision</emphasis>, or simply the <emphasis>tip</emphasis>."
msgstr ""
"我们通常把版本库中最新的版本称为<emphasis>tip版本</emphasis>或者简称为"
"<emphasis>tip</emphasis>。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:750
msgid ""
"By the way, the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg tip</command> command accepts "
"many of the same options as <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command>, so "
"<option role=\"hg-opt-global\">-v</option> above indicates <quote>be verbose</"
"quote>, <option role=\"hg-opt-tip\">-p</option> specifies <quote>print a "
"patch</quote>.  The use of <option role=\"hg-opt-tip\">-p</option> to print "
"patches is another example of the consistent naming we mentioned earlier."
msgstr ""
"顺便提一下,<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg tip</command>命令可以接受很多和"
"<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command>命令一样的选项。如<option role=\"hg-"
"opt-global\">-v</option>选项的意思是<quote>详细的</quote>。<option role=\"hg-"
"opt-tip\">-p</option>的意思是<quote>输出补丁</quote>。使用<option role=\"hg-"
"opt-tip\">-p</option>输出补丁也是我们前面提到的一致性的另外一个例子。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:762
msgid "Sharing changes"
msgstr "分享修改"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:764
msgid ""
"We mentioned earlier that repositories in Mercurial are self-contained.  This "
"means that the changeset we just created exists only in our <filename class="
"\"directory\">my-hello</filename> repository.  Let's look at a few ways that "
"we can propagate this change into other repositories."
msgstr ""
"前面我们曾经提到Mercurial的版本库是自包含的。这意味着我们刚才创建的变更集仅仅"
"存在于我们的<filename class=\"directory\">my-hello</filename>版本库中。下面我"
"们会看到几种将变更传播到其他版本库的方法。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:772
msgid "Pulling changes from another repository"
msgstr "从其它版本库取得变更"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:774
msgid ""
"To get started, let's clone our original <filename class=\"directory\">hello</"
"filename> repository, which does not contain the change we just committed.  "
"We'll call our temporary repository <filename class=\"directory\">hello-pull</"
"filename>."
msgstr ""
"首先,我们克隆原始版本的<filename class=\"directory\">hello</filename>版本库,"
"它不包含我们刚刚提交的变更。我们将这个临时版本库称为<filename class="
"\"directory\">hello</filename>。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:782
msgid ""
"We'll use the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command> command to bring "
"changes from <filename class=\"directory\">my-hello</filename> into <filename "
"class=\"directory\">hello-pull</filename>.  However, blindly pulling unknown "
"changes into a repository is a somewhat scary prospect.  Mercurial provides "
"the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg incoming</command> command to tell us what "
"changes the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command> command "
"<emphasis>would</emphasis> pull into the repository, without actually pulling "
"the changes in."
msgstr ""
"我们用<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command>命令将变更从<filename class="
"\"directory\">my-hello</filename>拖到<filename class=\"directory\">hello-"
"pull</filename>。然而,不管三七二十一将不了解的变更拖进版本库也实在是冒险。"
"Mercurial提供了<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg incoming</command>命令,它会告诉我"
"们<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command>将会把哪些变更拖进版本库,但不会真"
"正的执行。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:795
msgid ""
"Bringing changes into a repository is a simple matter of running the <command "
"role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command> command, and optionally telling it which "
"repository to pull from."
msgstr ""
"运行<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command>命令将变更拖进版本库非常简单,你"
"可以指定从那个版本库拖变更。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:801
msgid ""
"As you can see from the before-and-after output of <command role=\"hg-cmd"
"\">hg tip</command>, we have successfully pulled changes into our "
"repository.  However, Mercurial separates pulling changes in from updating "
"the working directory. There remains one step before we will see the changes "
"that we just pulled appear in the working directory."
msgstr ""
"从前后的<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg tip</command>的输出可以看出,我们成功将变"
"更拖进了我们的版本库。然而,Mercurial将拖变更和更新当前工作目录分成两个操作。"
"在看到在当前目录中我们刚拖进的变更之前,还有一步要完成。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><tip><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:810
msgid "Pulling specific changes"
msgstr "提取指定的修改"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><tip><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:812
msgid ""
"It is possible that due to the delay between running <command role=\"hg-cmd"
"\">hg incoming</command> and <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command>, you "
"may not see all changesets that will be brought from the other repository. "
"Suppose you're pulling changes from a repository on the network somewhere. "
"While you are looking at the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg incoming</command> "
"output, and before you pull those changes, someone might have committed "
"something in the remote repository. This means that it's possible to pull "
"more changes than you saw when using <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg incoming</"
"command>."
msgstr ""
"因为在运行<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg incoming</command>和<command role=\"hg-"
"cmd\">hg pull</command>之间可能存在延时,你可能不能看到从其他版本库中的所有导入"
"进来的变更集。假如你正在通过网络从其他地方的版本库拖变更。当你查看<command "
"role=\"hg-cmd\">hg incoming</command>的输出,还没有拖这些变更的时候,其他人向"
"这个版本库提交了一些东西。这意味着你可能拖进来比你用<command role=\"hg-cmd"
"\">hg incoming</command>看见的多的变更。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><tip><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:824
msgid ""
"If you only want to pull precisely the changes that were listed by <command "
"role=\"hg-cmd\">hg incoming</command>, or you have some other reason to pull "
"a subset of changes, simply identify the change that you want to pull by its "
"changeset ID, e.g. <command>hg pull -r7e95bb</command>."
msgstr ""
"如果你仅希望将<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg incoming</command>命令列出的变更拖进"
"来,或者由于其他原因希望得到变更的一个子集,那么你可以明确的指定变更集的ID,比"
"如<command>hg pull -r7e95bb</command>。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:834
msgid "Updating the working directory"
msgstr "更新工作目录"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:836
msgid ""
"We have so far glossed over the relationship between a repository and its "
"working directory.  The <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command> command "
"that we ran in <xref linkend=\"sec:tour:pull\"/> brought changes into the "
"repository, but if we check, there's no sign of those changes in the working "
"directory.  This is because <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command> does "
"not (by default) touch the working directory.  Instead, we use the <command "
"role=\"hg-cmd\">hg update</command> command to do this."
msgstr ""
"现在我们已经对版本库和它的工作目录之间的关系有了粗略的了解。我们在<xref "
"linkend=\"sec:tour:pull\"/>一节运行的<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</"
"command>命令会将变更拖进版本库,但是如果我们检查一下的话,就会发现工作目录并没"
"有变化。这是因为<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command>命令并不会影响工作目"
"录。实际上,我们需要<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg update</command>命令来完成这个"
"工作。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:848
msgid ""
"It might seem a bit strange that <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command> "
"doesn't update the working directory automatically.  There's actually a good "
"reason for this: you can use <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg update</command> to "
"update the working directory to the state it was in at <emphasis>any "
"revision</emphasis> in the history of the repository.  If you had the working "
"directory updated to an old revision&emdash;to hunt down the origin of a bug, "
"say&emdash;and ran a <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command> which "
"automatically updated the working directory to a new revision, you might not "
"be terribly happy."
msgstr ""
"<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command>命令并不会自动更新工作目录,这看起来"
"有点奇怪。但实际上这样做是有原因的:你可以用<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg "
"update</command>来更新工作目录,切换到版本库中的任意一个版本。假设你将工作目录"
"切换到一个老的版本&emdash;假如说是为了追踪一个bug&emdash;然后运行了<command "
"role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command>命令。它自动将工作目录更新到新版本,这可能并"
"不是你想要的结果。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:860
msgid ""
"Since pull-then-update is such a common sequence of operations, Mercurial "
"lets you combine the two by passing the <option role=\"hg-opt-pull\">-u</"
"option> option to <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command>."
msgstr ""
"因为拖然后更新是个非常常用的操作顺序,Mercurial允许你将这两个操作组合在一起,"
"只要给<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command>命令加上<option role=\"hg-opt-"
"pull\">-u</option>选项就可以了。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:865
msgid ""
"If you look back at the output of <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command> "
"in <xref linkend=\"sec:tour:pull\"/> when we ran it without <option role=\"hg-"
"opt-pull\">-u</option>, you can see that it printed a helpful reminder that "
"we'd have to take an explicit step to update the working directory."
msgstr ""
"如果回顾<xref linkend=\"sec:tour:pull\"/>一节,我们运行<command role=\"hg-cmd"
"\">hg pull</command>而又没有加上<option role=\"hg-opt-pull\">-u</option>选项"
"时,你可能会发现它输出了一条很有用的提示,我们还需要执行一个操作,才能更新工作"
"目录。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:872
msgid ""
"To find out what revision the working directory is at, use the <command role="
"\"hg-cmd\">hg parents</command> command."
msgstr ""
"如果想知道工作目录的版本,可以使用<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg parents</"
"command>命令。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:878
msgid ""
"If you look back at <xref linkend=\"fig:tour-basic:history\"/>, you'll see "
"arrows connecting each changeset.  The node that the arrow leads "
"<emphasis>from</emphasis> in each case is a parent, and the node that the "
"arrow leads <emphasis>to</emphasis> is its child.  The working directory has "
"a parent in just the same way; this is the changeset that the working "
"directory currently contains."
msgstr ""
"如果回顾<xref linkend=\"fig:tour-basic:history\"/>一节,你会看到箭头连着每个变"
"更集。箭头<emphasis>离开</emphasis>的节点是父版本,箭头<emphasis>指向</"
"emphasis>的是子版本。工作目录的父版本也是一样的方式;它是工作目录包含的变更"
"集。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:887
msgid ""
"To update the working directory to a particular revision, give a revision "
"number or changeset ID to the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg update</command> "
"command."
msgstr ""
"如果需要将工作目录切换到一个特定版本,给<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg update</"
"command>命令加上版本号或者变更集标识符就可以了。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:893
msgid ""
"If you omit an explicit revision, <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg update</"
"command> will update to the tip revision, as shown by the second call to "
"<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg update</command> in the example above."
msgstr ""
"如果没有明确指出版本,<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg update</command>会更新到tip"
"版,就像上面例子<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg update</command>第二次执行的结果一"
"样。 "

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:901
msgid "Pushing changes to another repository"
msgstr "发布修改到其它版本库"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:903
msgid ""
"Mercurial lets us push changes to another repository, from the repository "
"we're currently visiting. As with the example of <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg "
"pull</command> above, we'll create a temporary repository to push our changes "
"into."
msgstr ""
"我们可以将变更从当前所在的版本库推到其他的版本库。与上面的<command role=\"hg-"
"cmd\">hgpull</command>例子一样,我们可以创建一个临时的版本库存放我们的变更。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:911
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg outgoing</command> command tells us what "
"changes would be pushed into another repository."
msgstr ""
"<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg outgoing</command>命令可以告诉我们那些变更将会被推"
"到另外一个版本库。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:917
msgid ""
"And the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg push</command> command does the actual "
"push."
msgstr "而<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg push</command>命令则会执行真正的推操作。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:922
msgid ""
"As with <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command>, the <command role=\"hg-cmd"
"\">hg push</command> command does not update the working directory in the "
"repository that it's pushing changes into. Unlike <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg "
"pull</command>, <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg push</command> does not provide a "
"<literal>-u</literal> option that updates the other repository's working "
"directory.  This asymmetry is deliberate: the repository we're pushing to "
"might be on a remote server and shared between several people.  If we were to "
"update its working directory while someone was working in it, their work "
"would be disrupted."
msgstr ""
"与<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command>一样,在变更推送之后,<command "
"role=\"hg-cmd\">hg push</command>命令并不会更新版本库的工作目录,与<command "
"role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command>命令不同,<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg push</"
"command>并不提供<literal>-u</literal>选项来更新其他版本库的工作目录。这一不对"
"称是有目的的:我们推送的版本库可能是一个远端的服务器,并且很多人共享使用它。如"
"果在其他人正在工作的时候,我们更新了工作目录,那么他们的工作很可能被破坏。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:934
msgid ""
"What happens if we try to pull or push changes and the receiving repository "
"already has those changes? Nothing too exciting."
msgstr ""
"如果我们向一个已经包含了这些变更的版本库推送或者拉这些变更会发生什么事情呢?,"
"什么也不会发生。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:942
msgid "Default locations"
msgstr "默认位置"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:944
msgid ""
"When we clone a repository, Mercurial records the location of the repository "
"we cloned in the <filename>.hg/hgrc</filename> file of the new repository.  "
"If we don't supply a location to <command>hg pull</command> from or "
"<command>hg push</command> to, those commands will use this location as a "
"default.  The <command>hg incoming</command> and <command>hg outgoing</"
"command> commands do so too."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:952
msgid ""
"If you open a repository's <filename>.hg/hgrc</filename> file in a text "
"editor, you will see contents like the following."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:959
msgid ""
"It is possible&emdash;and often useful&emdash;to have the default location "
"for <command>hg push</command> and <command>hg outgoing</command> be "
"different from those for <command>hg pull</command> and <command>hg incoming</"
"command>.  We can do this by adding a <literal>default-push</literal> entry "
"to the <literal>[paths]</literal> section of the <filename>.hg/hgrc</"
"filename> file, as follows."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:973
msgid "Sharing changes over a network"
msgstr "通过网络共享修改"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:975
msgid ""
"The commands we have covered in the previous few sections are not limited to "
"working with local repositories.  Each works in exactly the same fashion over "
"a network connection; simply pass in a URL instead of a local path."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:983
msgid ""
"In this example, we can see what changes we could push to the remote "
"repository, but the repository is understandably not set up to let anonymous "
"users push to it."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:993
msgid "Starting a new project"
msgstr "开始新项目"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:995
msgid ""
"It is just as easy to begin a new project as to work on one that already "
"exists.  The <command>hg init</command> command creates a new, empty "
"Mercurial repository."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:1001
msgid ""
"This simply creates a repository named <filename>myproject</filename> in the "
"current directory."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:1006
msgid ""
"We can tell that <filename>myproject</filename> is a Mercurial repository, "
"because it contains a <filename>.hg</filename> directory."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:1012
msgid ""
"If we want to add some pre-existing files to the repository, we copy them "
"into place, and tell Mercurial to start tracking them using the <command>hg "
"add</command> command."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:1018
msgid ""
"Once we are satisfied that our project looks right, we commit our changes."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:1023
msgid ""
"It takes just a few moments to start using Mercurial on a new project, which "
"is part of its appeal. Revision control is now so easy to work with, we can "
"use it on the smallest of projects that we might not have considered with a "
"more complicated tool."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:5
msgid "A tour of Mercurial: merging work"
msgstr "Mercurial 教程: 合并工作"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:7
msgid ""
"We've now covered cloning a repository, making changes in a repository, and "
"pulling or pushing changes from one repository into another.  Our next step "
"is <emphasis>merging</emphasis> changes from separate repositories."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:13
msgid "Merging streams of work"
msgstr "合并的流程"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:15
msgid ""
"Merging is a fundamental part of working with a distributed revision control "
"tool.  Here are a few cases in which the need to merge work arises."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:20
msgid ""
"Alice and Bob each have a personal copy of a repository for a project they're "
"collaborating on.  Alice fixes a bug in her repository; Bob adds a new "
"feature in his.  They want the shared repository to contain both the bug fix "
"and the new feature."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:27
msgid ""
"Cynthia frequently works on several different tasks for a single project at "
"once, each safely isolated in its own repository. Working this way means that "
"she often needs to merge one piece of her own work with another."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:35
msgid ""
"Because we need to merge often, Mercurial makes the process easy.  Let's walk "
"through a merge.  We'll begin by cloning yet another repository (see how "
"often they spring up?)  and making a change in it."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:42
msgid ""
"We should now have two copies of <filename>hello.c</filename> with different "
"contents.  The histories of the two repositories have also diverged, as "
"illustrated in <xref linkend=\"fig:tour-merge:sep-repos\"/>.  Here is a copy "
"of our file from one repository."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:51
msgid "And here is our slightly different version from the other repository."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><figure><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:57
msgid ""
"Divergent recent histories of the <filename class=\"directory\">my-hello</"
"filename> and <filename class=\"directory\">my-new-hello</filename> "
"repositories"
msgstr ""
"<filename class=\"directory\">my-hello</filename> 与 <filename class="
"\"directory\">my-new-hello</filename> 最新的历史分叉"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><figure><mediaobject>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:62
msgid ""
"<imageobject><imagedata fileref=\"figs/tour-merge-sep-repos.png\"/></"
"imageobject>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:67
msgid ""
"We already know that pulling changes from our <filename class=\"directory"
"\">my-hello</filename> repository will have no effect on the working "
"directory."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:73
msgid ""
"However, the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command> command says "
"something about <quote>heads</quote>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:77
msgid "Head changesets"
msgstr "顶点修改集"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:79
msgid ""
"Remember that Mercurial records what the parent of each change is.  If a "
"change has a parent, we call it a child or descendant of the parent.  A head "
"is a change that has no children.  The tip revision is thus a head, because "
"the newest revision in a repository doesn't have any children.  There are "
"times when a repository can contain more than one head."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:88
msgid ""
"Repository contents after pulling from <filename class=\"directory\">my-"
"hello</filename> into <filename class=\"directory\">my-new-hello</filename>"
msgstr ""
"从 <filename class=\"directory\">my-hello</filename> 拉到 <filename class="
"\"directory\">my-new-hello</filename> 之后版本库的内容"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:91 ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:178
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:275 ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:57
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:106 ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:196
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:345 ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:360
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:401 ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:421
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:465 ../en/ch06-collab.xml:314
#: ../en/ch09-undo.xml:342 ../en/ch09-undo.xml:389 ../en/ch09-undo.xml:462
#: ../en/ch09-undo.xml:500 ../en/ch09-undo.xml:656 ../en/ch09-undo.xml:680
#: ../en/ch09-undo.xml:698 ../en/ch09-undo.xml:712 ../en/ch09-undo.xml:725
#: ../en/ch12-mq.xml:411
msgid "  <placeholder type=\"mediaobject\" id=\"0\"/>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><mediaobject>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:92
msgid ""
"<imageobject> <imagedata fileref=\"figs/tour-merge-pull.png\"/> </imageobject>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:99
msgid ""
"In <xref linkend=\"fig:tour-merge:pull\"/>, you can see the effect of the "
"pull from <filename class=\"directory\">my-hello</filename> into <filename "
"class=\"directory\">my-new-hello</filename>.  The history that was already "
"present in <filename class=\"directory\">my-new-hello</filename> is "
"untouched, but a new revision has been added.  By referring to <xref linkend="
"\"fig:tour-merge:sep-repos\"/>, we can see that the <emphasis>changeset ID</"
"emphasis> remains the same in the new repository, but the <emphasis>revision "
"number</emphasis> has changed.  (This, incidentally, is a fine example of why "
"it's not safe to use revision numbers when discussing changesets.)  We can "
"view the heads in a repository using the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg heads</"
"command> command."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:118
msgid "Performing the merge"
msgstr "执行合并"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:120
msgid ""
"What happens if we try to use the normal <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg update</"
"command> command to update to the new tip?"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:126
msgid ""
"Mercurial is telling us that the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg update</command> "
"command won't do a merge; it won't update the working directory when it "
"thinks we might want to do a merge, unless we force it to do so.  "
"(Incidentally, forcing the update with <command>hg update -C</command> would "
"revert any uncommitted changes in the working directory.)"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:134
msgid ""
"To start a merge between the two heads, we use the <command role=\"hg-cmd"
"\">hg merge</command> command."
msgstr ""
"我们使用 <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg merge</command> 命令来合并两个顶点。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:139
msgid ""
"We resolve the contents of <filename>hello.c</filename> This updates the "
"working directory so that it contains changes from <emphasis>both</emphasis> "
"heads, which is reflected in both the output of <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg "
"parents</command> and the contents of <filename>hello.c</filename>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:151
msgid "Committing the results of the merge"
msgstr "提交合并结果"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:153
msgid ""
"Whenever we've done a merge, <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg parents</command> "
"will display two parents until we <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg commit</"
"command> the results of the merge."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:160
msgid ""
"We now have a new tip revision; notice that it has <emphasis>both</emphasis> "
"of our former heads as its parents.  These are the same revisions that were "
"previously displayed by <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg parents</command>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:167
msgid ""
"In <xref linkend=\"fig:tour-merge:merge\"/>, you can see a representation of "
"what happens to the working directory during the merge, and how this affects "
"the repository when the commit happens.  During the merge, the working "
"directory has two parent changesets, and these become the parents of the new "
"changeset."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:176
msgid "Working directory and repository during merge, and following commit"
msgstr "在合并期间,以及提交之后的工作目录与版本库"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><mediaobject>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:179
msgid ""
"<imageobject> <imagedata fileref=\"figs/tour-merge-merge.png\"/> </"
"imageobject>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:186
msgid ""
"We sometimes talk about a merge having <emphasis>sides</emphasis>: the left "
"side is the first parent in the output of <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg "
"parents</command>, and the right side is the second.  If the working "
"directory was at e.g. revision 5 before we began a merge, that revision will "
"become the left side of the merge."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:196
msgid "Merging conflicting changes"
msgstr "合并有冲突的改变"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:198
msgid ""
"Most merges are simple affairs, but sometimes you'll find yourself merging "
"changes where each side modifies the same portions of the same files.  Unless "
"both modifications are identical, this results in a <emphasis>conflict</"
"emphasis>, where you have to decide how to reconcile the different changes "
"into something coherent."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><figure><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:206
msgid "Conflicting changes to a document"
msgstr "冲突的修改"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><figure><mediaobject>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:208
msgid ""
"<imageobject><imagedata fileref=\"figs/tour-merge-conflict.png\"/></"
"imageobject>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:213
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"fig:tour-merge:conflict\"/> illustrates an instance of two "
"conflicting changes to a document.  We started with a single version of the "
"file; then we made some changes; while someone else made different changes to "
"the same text.  Our task in resolving the conflicting changes is to decide "
"what the file should look like."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:220
msgid ""
"Mercurial doesn't have a built-in facility for handling conflicts. Instead, "
"it runs an external program, usually one that displays some kind of graphical "
"conflict resolution interface.  By default, Mercurial tries to find one of "
"several different merging tools that are likely to be installed on your "
"system.  It first tries a few fully automatic merging tools; if these don't "
"succeed (because the resolution process requires human guidance) or aren't "
"present, it tries a few different graphical merging tools."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:230
msgid ""
"It's also possible to get Mercurial to run a specific program or script, by "
"setting the <envar>HGMERGE</envar> environment variable to the name of your "
"preferred program."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:236
msgid "Using a graphical merge tool"
msgstr "使用图形合并工具"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:238
msgid ""
"My preferred graphical merge tool is <command>kdiff3</command>, which I'll "
"use to describe the features that are common to graphical file merging "
"tools.  You can see a screenshot of <command>kdiff3</command> in action in "
"<xref linkend=\"fig:tour-merge:kdiff3\"/>.  The kind of merge it is "
"performing is called a <emphasis>three-way merge</emphasis>, because there "
"are three different versions of the file of interest to us.  The tool thus "
"splits the upper portion of the window into three panes:"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:248
msgid ""
"At the left is the <emphasis>base</emphasis> version of the file, i.e. the "
"most recent version from which the two versions we're trying to merge are "
"descended."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:253
msgid ""
"In the middle is <quote>our</quote> version of the file, with the contents "
"that we modified."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:256
msgid ""
"On the right is <quote>their</quote> version of the file, the one that from "
"the changeset that we're trying to merge with."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:260
msgid ""
"In the pane below these is the current <emphasis>result</emphasis> of the "
"merge. Our task is to replace all of the red text, which indicates unresolved "
"conflicts, with some sensible merger of the <quote>ours</quote> and "
"<quote>theirs</quote> versions of the file."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:267
msgid ""
"All four of these panes are <emphasis>locked together</emphasis>; if we "
"scroll vertically or horizontally in any of them, the others are updated to "
"display the corresponding sections of their respective files."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:273
msgid "Using <command>kdiff3</command> to merge versions of a file"
msgstr "使用 <command>kdiff3</command> 合并文件的不同版本"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><mediaobject>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:276
msgid ""
"<imageobject> <imagedata width=\"100%\" fileref=\"figs/kdiff3.png\"/></"
"imageobject>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:284
msgid ""
"For each conflicting portion of the file, we can choose to resolve the "
"conflict using some combination of text from the base version, ours, or "
"theirs.  We can also manually edit the merged file at any time, in case we "
"need to make further modifications."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:290
msgid ""
"There are <emphasis>many</emphasis> file merging tools available, too many to "
"cover here.  They vary in which platforms they are available for, and in "
"their particular strengths and weaknesses.  Most are tuned for merging files "
"containing plain text, while a few are aimed at specialised file formats "
"(generally XML)."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:299
msgid "A worked example"
msgstr "合并实例"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:301
msgid ""
"In this example, we will reproduce the file modification history of <xref "
"linkend=\"fig:tour-merge:conflict\"/> above.  Let's begin by creating a "
"repository with a base version of our document."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:308
msgid "We'll clone the repository and make a change to the file."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:313
msgid ""
"And another clone, to simulate someone else making a change to the file. "
"(This hints at the idea that it's not all that unusual to merge with yourself "
"when you isolate tasks in separate repositories, and indeed to find and "
"resolve conflicts while doing so.)"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:321
msgid ""
"Having created two different versions of the file, we'll set up an "
"environment suitable for running our merge."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:327
msgid ""
"In this example, I'll set <envar>HGMERGE</envar> to tell Mercurial to use the "
"non-interactive <command>merge</command> command.  This is bundled with many "
"Unix-like systems. (If you're following this example on your computer, don't "
"bother setting <envar>HGMERGE</envar>.  You'll get dropped into a GUI file "
"merge tool instead, which is much preferable.)"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:337
msgid ""
"Because <command>merge</command> can't resolve the conflicting changes, it "
"leaves <emphasis>merge markers</emphasis> inside the file that has conflicts, "
"indicating which lines have conflicts, and whether they came from our version "
"of the file or theirs."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:343
msgid ""
"Mercurial can tell from the way <command>merge</command> exits that it wasn't "
"able to merge successfully, so it tells us what commands we'll need to run if "
"we want to redo the merging operation.  This could be useful if, for example, "
"we were running a graphical merge tool and quit because we were confused or "
"realised we had made a mistake."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:350
msgid ""
"If automatic or manual merges fail, there's nothing to prevent us from "
"<quote>fixing up</quote> the affected files ourselves, and committing the "
"results of our merge:"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><note><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:357
msgid "Where is the <command>hg resolve</command> command?"
msgstr "在哪里能找到 <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg resolve</command> 命令?"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><note><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:359
msgid ""
"The <command>hg resolve</command> command was introduced in Mercurial 1.1, "
"which was released in December 2008. If you are using an older version of "
"Mercurial (run <command>hg version</command> to see), this command will not "
"be present.  If your version of Mercurial is older than 1.1, you should "
"strongly consider upgrading to a newer version before trying to tackle "
"complicated merges."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:371
msgid "Simplifying the pull-merge-commit sequence"
msgstr "简化拉-合并-提交程序"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:373
msgid ""
"The process of merging changes as outlined above is straightforward, but "
"requires running three commands in sequence."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:379
msgid ""
"In the case of the final commit, you also need to enter a commit message, "
"which is almost always going to be a piece of uninteresting "
"<quote>boilerplate</quote> text."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:383
msgid ""
"It would be nice to reduce the number of steps needed, if this were "
"possible.  Indeed, Mercurial is distributed with an extension called <literal "
"role=\"hg-ext\">fetch</literal> that does just this."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:388
msgid ""
"Mercurial provides a flexible extension mechanism that lets people extend its "
"functionality, while keeping the core of Mercurial small and easy to deal "
"with.  Some extensions add new commands that you can use from the command "
"line, while others work <quote>behind the scenes,</quote> for example adding "
"capabilities to Mercurial's built-in server mode."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:395
msgid ""
"The <literal role=\"hg-ext\">fetch</literal> extension adds a new command "
"called, not surprisingly, <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg fetch</command>.  This "
"extension acts as a combination of <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull -u</"
"command>, <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg merge</command> and <command role=\"hg-"
"cmd\">hg commit</command>.  It begins by pulling changes from another "
"repository into the current repository.  If it finds that the changes added a "
"new head to the repository, it updates to the new head, begins a merge, then "
"(if the merge succeeded) commits the result of the merge with an "
"automatically-generated commit message.  If no new heads were added, it "
"updates the working directory to the new tip changeset."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:409
msgid ""
"Enabling the <literal role=\"hg-ext\">fetch</literal> extension is easy.  "
"Edit the <filename role=\"special\">.hgrc</filename> file in your home "
"directory, and either go to the <literal role=\"rc-extensions\">extensions</"
"literal> section or create an <literal role=\"rc-extensions\">extensions</"
"literal> section. Then add a line that simply reads <quote><literal>fetch=</"
"literal></quote>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:421
msgid ""
"(Normally, the right-hand side of the <quote><literal>=</literal></quote> "
"would indicate where to find the extension, but since the <literal role=\"hg-"
"ext\">fetch</literal> extension is in the standard distribution, Mercurial "
"knows where to search for it.)"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:429
msgid "Renaming, copying, and merging"
msgstr "改名,复制与合并"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:431
msgid ""
"During the life of a project, we will often want to change the layout of its "
"files and directories. This can be as simple as renaming a single file, or as "
"complex as restructuring the entire hierarchy of files within the project."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:436
msgid ""
"Mercurial supports these kinds of complex changes fluently, provided we tell "
"it what we're doing.  If we want to rename a file, we should use the "
"<command>hg rename</command><placeholder type=\"footnote\" id=\"0\"/> command "
"to rename it, so that Mercurial can do the right thing later when we merge."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para><footnote><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:439
msgid ""
"If you're a Unix user, you'll be glad to know that the <command>hg rename</"
"command> command can be abbreviated as <command>hg mv</command>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:445
msgid ""
"We will cover the use of these commands in more detail in <xref linkend="
"\"chap:daily.copy\"/>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:5
msgid "Behind the scenes"
msgstr "Mercurial 内幕"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:7
msgid ""
"Unlike many revision control systems, the concepts upon which Mercurial is "
"built are simple enough that it's easy to understand how the software really "
"works.  Knowing these details certainly isn't necessary, so it is certainly "
"safe to skip this chapter.  However, I think you will get more out of the "
"software with a <quote>mental model</quote> of what's going on."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:14
msgid ""
"Being able to understand what's going on behind the scenes gives me "
"confidence that Mercurial has been carefully designed to be both "
"<emphasis>safe</emphasis> and <emphasis>efficient</emphasis>.  And just as "
"importantly, if it's easy for me to retain a good idea of what the software "
"is doing when I perform a revision control task, I'm less likely to be "
"surprised by its behavior."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:22
msgid ""
"In this chapter, we'll initially cover the core concepts behind Mercurial's "
"design, then continue to discuss some of the interesting details of its "
"implementation."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:27
msgid "Mercurial's historical record"
msgstr "Mercurial 的历史记录"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:30
msgid "Tracking the history of a single file"
msgstr "跟踪单一文件的历史"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:32
msgid ""
"When Mercurial tracks modifications to a file, it stores the history of that "
"file in a metadata object called a <emphasis>filelog</emphasis>.  Each entry "
"in the filelog contains enough information to reconstruct one revision of the "
"file that is being tracked.  Filelogs are stored as files in the <filename "
"role=\"special\" class=\"directory\">.hg/store/data</filename> directory.  A "
"filelog contains two kinds of information: revision data, and an index to "
"help Mercurial to find a revision efficiently."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:43
msgid ""
"A file that is large, or has a lot of history, has its filelog stored in "
"separate data (<quote><literal>.d</literal></quote> suffix) and index "
"(<quote><literal>.i</literal></quote> suffix) files.  For small files without "
"much history, the revision data and index are combined in a single "
"<quote><literal>.i</literal></quote> file.  The correspondence between a file "
"in the working directory and the filelog that tracks its history in the "
"repository is illustrated in <xref linkend=\"fig:concepts:filelog\"/>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:55
msgid ""
"Relationships between files in working directory and filelogs in repository"
msgstr "工作目录中的文件与版本库中的文件日志之间的关系"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><mediaobject>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:58
msgid "<imageobject><imagedata fileref=\"figs/filelog.png\"/></imageobject>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:65
msgid "Managing tracked files"
msgstr "管理跟踪的文件"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:67
msgid ""
"Mercurial uses a structure called a <emphasis>manifest</emphasis> to collect "
"together information about the files that it tracks.  Each entry in the "
"manifest contains information about the files present in a single changeset.  "
"An entry records which files are present in the changeset, the revision of "
"each file, and a few other pieces of file metadata."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:77
msgid "Recording changeset information"
msgstr "记录修改集信息"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:79
msgid ""
"The <emphasis>changelog</emphasis> contains information about each "
"changeset.  Each revision records who committed a change, the changeset "
"comment, other pieces of changeset-related information, and the revision of "
"the manifest to use."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:87
msgid "Relationships between revisions"
msgstr "版本之间的关系"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:89
msgid ""
"Within a changelog, a manifest, or a filelog, each revision stores a pointer "
"to its immediate parent (or to its two parents, if it's a merge revision).  "
"As I mentioned above, there are also relationships between revisions "
"<emphasis>across</emphasis> these structures, and they are hierarchical in "
"nature."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:96
msgid ""
"For every changeset in a repository, there is exactly one revision stored in "
"the changelog.  Each revision of the changelog contains a pointer to a single "
"revision of the manifest.  A revision of the manifest stores a pointer to a "
"single revision of each filelog tracked when that changeset was created.  "
"These relationships are illustrated in <xref linkend=\"fig:concepts:metadata"
"\"/>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:105
msgid "Metadata relationships"
msgstr "元数据之间的关系"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><mediaobject>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:107
msgid "<imageobject><imagedata fileref=\"figs/metadata.png\"/></imageobject>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:112
msgid ""
"As the illustration shows, there is <emphasis>not</emphasis> a <quote>one to "
"one</quote> relationship between revisions in the changelog, manifest, or "
"filelog. If a file that Mercurial tracks hasn't changed between two "
"changesets, the entry for that file in the two revisions of the manifest will "
"point to the same revision of its filelog<placeholder type=\"footnote\" id=\"0"
"\"/>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para><footnote><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:119
msgid ""
"It is possible (though unusual) for the manifest to remain the same between "
"two changesets, in which case the changelog entries for those changesets will "
"point to the same revision of the manifest."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:128
msgid "Safe, efficient storage"
msgstr "安全,高效的存储"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:130
msgid ""
"The underpinnings of changelogs, manifests, and filelogs are provided by a "
"single structure called the <emphasis>revlog</emphasis>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:135
msgid "Efficient storage"
msgstr "高效存储"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:137
msgid ""
"The revlog provides efficient storage of revisions using a <emphasis>delta</"
"emphasis> mechanism.  Instead of storing a complete copy of a file for each "
"revision, it stores the changes needed to transform an older revision into "
"the new revision.  For many kinds of file data, these deltas are typically a "
"fraction of a percent of the size of a full copy of a file."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:145
msgid ""
"Some obsolete revision control systems can only work with deltas of text "
"files.  They must either store binary files as complete snapshots or encoded "
"into a text representation, both of which are wasteful approaches.  Mercurial "
"can efficiently handle deltas of files with arbitrary binary contents; it "
"doesn't need to treat text as special."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:154
msgid "Safe operation"
msgstr "安全操作"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:156
msgid ""
"Mercurial only ever <emphasis>appends</emphasis> data to the end of a revlog "
"file. It never modifies a section of a file after it has written it.  This is "
"both more robust and efficient than schemes that need to modify or rewrite "
"data."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:162
msgid ""
"In addition, Mercurial treats every write as part of a <emphasis>transaction</"
"emphasis> that can span a number of files.  A transaction is "
"<emphasis>atomic</emphasis>: either the entire transaction succeeds and its "
"effects are all visible to readers in one go, or the whole thing is undone.  "
"This guarantee of atomicity means that if you're running two copies of "
"Mercurial, where one is reading data and one is writing it, the reader will "
"never see a partially written result that might confuse it."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:172
msgid ""
"The fact that Mercurial only appends to files makes it easier to provide this "
"transactional guarantee.  The easier it is to do stuff like this, the more "
"confident you should be that it's done correctly."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:179
msgid "Fast retrieval"
msgstr "快速检索"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:181
msgid ""
"Mercurial cleverly avoids a pitfall common to all earlier revision control "
"systems: the problem of <emphasis>inefficient retrieval</emphasis>. Most "
"revision control systems store the contents of a revision as an incremental "
"series of modifications against a <quote>snapshot</quote>.  (Some base the "
"snapshot on the oldest revision, others on the newest.)  To reconstruct a "
"specific revision, you must first read the snapshot, and then every one of "
"the revisions between the snapshot and your target revision.  The more "
"history that a file accumulates, the more revisions you must read, hence the "
"longer it takes to reconstruct a particular revision."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:195
msgid "Snapshot of a revlog, with incremental deltas"
msgstr "版本日志的快照,以及增量差异"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><mediaobject>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:197
msgid "<imageobject><imagedata fileref=\"figs/snapshot.png\"/></imageobject>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:202
msgid ""
"The innovation that Mercurial applies to this problem is simple but "
"effective.  Once the cumulative amount of delta information stored since the "
"last snapshot exceeds a fixed threshold, it stores a new snapshot "
"(compressed, of course), instead of another delta.  This makes it possible to "
"reconstruct <emphasis>any</emphasis> revision of a file quickly.  This "
"approach works so well that it has since been copied by several other "
"revision control systems."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:211
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"fig:concepts:snapshot\"/> illustrates the idea.  In an entry "
"in a revlog's index file, Mercurial stores the range of entries from the data "
"file that it must read to reconstruct a particular revision."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:217
msgid "Aside: the influence of video compression"
msgstr "旁白: 视频压缩的影响"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:219
msgid ""
"If you're familiar with video compression or have ever watched a TV feed "
"through a digital cable or satellite service, you may know that most video "
"compression schemes store each frame of video as a delta against its "
"predecessor frame."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:225
msgid ""
"Mercurial borrows this idea to make it possible to reconstruct a revision "
"from a snapshot and a small number of deltas."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:232
msgid "Identification and strong integrity"
msgstr "鉴别和强完整性"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:234
msgid ""
"Along with delta or snapshot information, a revlog entry contains a "
"cryptographic hash of the data that it represents.  This makes it difficult "
"to forge the contents of a revision, and easy to detect accidental corruption."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:239
msgid ""
"Hashes provide more than a mere check against corruption; they are used as "
"the identifiers for revisions.  The changeset identification hashes that you "
"see as an end user are from revisions of the changelog.  Although filelogs "
"and the manifest also use hashes, Mercurial only uses these behind the scenes."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:246
msgid ""
"Mercurial verifies that hashes are correct when it retrieves file revisions "
"and when it pulls changes from another repository.  If it encounters an "
"integrity problem, it will complain and stop whatever it's doing."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:251
msgid ""
"In addition to the effect it has on retrieval efficiency, Mercurial's use of "
"periodic snapshots makes it more robust against partial data corruption.  If "
"a revlog becomes partly corrupted due to a hardware error or system bug, it's "
"often possible to reconstruct some or most revisions from the uncorrupted "
"sections of the revlog, both before and after the corrupted section.  This "
"would not be possible with a delta-only storage model."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:263
msgid "Revision history, branching, and merging"
msgstr "修订历史,分支与合并"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:265
msgid ""
"Every entry in a Mercurial revlog knows the identity of its immediate "
"ancestor revision, usually referred to as its <emphasis>parent</emphasis>.  "
"In fact, a revision contains room for not one parent, but two.  Mercurial "
"uses a special hash, called the <quote>null ID</quote>, to represent the idea "
"<quote>there is no parent here</quote>.  This hash is simply a string of "
"zeroes."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:273
msgid ""
"In <xref linkend=\"fig:concepts:revlog\"/>, you can see an example of the "
"conceptual structure of a revlog.  Filelogs, manifests, and changelogs all "
"have this same structure; they differ only in the kind of data stored in each "
"delta or snapshot."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:279
msgid ""
"The first revision in a revlog (at the bottom of the image)  has the null ID "
"in both of its parent slots.  For a <quote>normal</quote> revision, its first "
"parent slot contains the ID of its parent revision, and its second contains "
"the null ID, indicating that the revision has only one real parent.  Any two "
"revisions that have the same parent ID are branches.  A revision that "
"represents a merge between branches has two normal revision IDs in its parent "
"slots."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><figure><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:289
msgid "The conceptual structure of a revlog"
msgstr "版本日志的设计结构"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><figure><mediaobject>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:291
msgid "<imageobject><imagedata fileref=\"figs/revlog.png\"/></imageobject>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:298
msgid "The working directory"
msgstr "工作目录"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:300
msgid ""
"In the working directory, Mercurial stores a snapshot of the files from the "
"repository as of a particular changeset."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:303
msgid ""
"The working directory <quote>knows</quote> which changeset it contains.  When "
"you update the working directory to contain a particular changeset, Mercurial "
"looks up the appropriate revision of the manifest to find out which files it "
"was tracking at the time that changeset was committed, and which revision of "
"each file was then current.  It then recreates a copy of each of those files, "
"with the same contents it had when the changeset was committed."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:312
msgid ""
"The <emphasis>dirstate</emphasis> is a special structure that contains "
"Mercurial's knowledge of the working directory.  It is maintained as a file "
"named <filename>.hg/dirstate</filename> inside a repository.  The dirstate "
"details which changeset the working directory is updated to, and all of the "
"files that Mercurial is tracking in the working directory. It also lets "
"Mercurial quickly notice changed files, by recording their checkout times and "
"sizes."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:322
msgid ""
"Just as a revision of a revlog has room for two parents, so that it can "
"represent either a normal revision (with one parent)  or a merge of two "
"earlier revisions, the dirstate has slots for two parents.  When you use the "
"<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg update</command> command, the changeset that you "
"update to is stored in the <quote>first parent</quote> slot, and the null ID "
"in the second. When you <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg merge</command> with "
"another changeset, the first parent remains unchanged, and the second parent "
"is filled in with the changeset you're merging with.  The <command role=\"hg-"
"cmd\">hg parents</command> command tells you what the parents of the dirstate "
"are."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:336
msgid "What happens when you commit"
msgstr "当你提交时发生的事情"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:338
msgid ""
"The dirstate stores parent information for more than just book-keeping "
"purposes.  Mercurial uses the parents of the dirstate as <emphasis>the "
"parents of a new changeset</emphasis> when you perform a commit."
msgstr ""