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=========
pure-mpfr
=========

.. default-domain:: pure
.. module:: mpfr

Version @version@, |today|

Albert Graef <aggraef@gmail.com>

The `GNU MPFR`_ library is a C library for multiple-precision floating-point
computations with correct rounding. It is based on GMP_ which Pure also uses
for its bigint support.

.. _GMP: http://gmplib.org
.. _GNU MPFR: http://www.mpfr.org/

This module makes the MPFR multiprecision floats (henceforth referred to as
``mpfr`` numbers or values) available in Pure, so that they work with the
other types of Pure numbers in an almost seamless fashion. Pure ``mpfr``
values are represented as pointers which can readily be passed as arguments to
the MPFR functions, so the representation only involves minimal overhead on
the Pure side.

The module defines the type of ``mpfr`` values as an instance of Pure's
``real`` type, so that it becomes a well-behaved citizen of Pure's numeric
tower. Memory management of these values is automatic. You can create an
``mpfr`` value from any other kind of Pure real value (``int``, ``bigint`` or
``double``), or from a string in decimal notation, using the ``mpfr``
function. Back conversions are provided from ``mpfr`` to ``int``, ``bigint``,
``double`` and ``string`` (the latter by means of a custom pretty-printer
installed by this module, so that mpfr values are printed in a format similar
to the ``printf %g`` format). Integration with Pure's ``complex`` type is
provided as well.

Please note that this module needs more testing and the API hasn't been
finalized yet, but it should be perfectly usable already. As usual, please
report any bugs on the Pure issue tracker, on the Pure mailing list, or
directly to the author, see http://purelang.bitbucket.org/.

Copying
=======

Copyright (c) 2011 by Albert Graef.

pure-mpfr is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the
terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free
Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any
later version.

pure-mpfr is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR
A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU Lesser General Public License for more
details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License along
with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

Installation
============

Get the latest source from
https://bitbucket.org/purelang/pure-lang/downloads/pure-mpfr-@version@.tar.gz.

Run ``make`` to compile the module and ``make install`` (as root) to install
it in the Pure library directory. This requires GNU make, and of course you
need to have Pure and libmpfr installed.

``make`` tries to guess your Pure installation directory and platform-specific
setup. If it gets this wrong, you can set some variables manually, please
check the Makefile for details.

.. note:: This module requires Pure 0.50 or later and libmpfr 3.x (3.0.0 has
   been tested). Older libmpfr versions (2.x) probably require some work.

Usage
=====

After installation, you can use the operations of this module by placing the
following import declaration in your Pure programs::

  using mpfr;

.. note:: This also pulls in the :mod:`math` standard library module, whose
   operations are overloaded by the ``mpfr`` module in order to provide
   support for ``mpfr`` values. Thus you don't need to explicitly import the
   ``math`` module when using the ``mpfr`` module.

   If you use both the :mod:`mpfr` module and the :mod:`pointers` standard
   library module in your script, make sure that you import the ``pointers``
   module *after* ``mpfr``, so that the definitions of pointer arithmetic in
   the ``pointers`` module do not interfere with the overloading of arithmetic
   operations in the ``mpfr`` module.

Precision and Rounding
----------------------

The following operations of the MPFR library are provided to inspect and
change the default precision and rounding modes used by MPFR.

.. function:: mpfr_get_default_prec
   	      mpfr_set_default_prec prec

   Get and set the default precision in terms of number of bits in the
   mantissa, including the sign. MPFR initially sets this to 53 (matching the
   mantissa size of ``double`` values). It can be changed to any desired value
   not less than 2.

.. function:: mpfr_get_prec x

   Get the precision of an ``mpfr`` number ``x``. Note that ``mpfr`` numbers
   always keep the precision they were created with, but it is possible to
   create a new ``mpfr`` number with any given precision from an existing
   ``mpfr`` number using the :func:`mpfr` function, see below.

.. function:: mpfr_get_default_rounding_mode
   	      mpfr_set_default_rounding_mode rnd

   Get and set the default rounding mode, which is used for all arithmetic
   operations and mathematical functions provided by this module. The given
   rounding mode ``rnd`` must be one of the supported rounding modes listed
   below.

.. constant:: MPFR_RNDN  // round to nearest, with ties to even
   	      MPFR_RNDZ  // round toward zero
  	      MPFR_RNDU  // round toward +Inf
  	      MPFR_RNDD  // round toward -Inf
  	      MPFR_RNDA  // round away from zero

   Supported rounding modes. Please check the MPFR documentation for details.

In addition, the following operations enable you to control the precision in
textual representations of ``mpfr`` values. This information is used by the
custom pretty-printer for ``mpfr`` values installed by the module.

.. function:: mpfr_get_print_prec
   	      mpfr_set_print_prec prec

   Get and set the precision (number of decimal digits in the mantissa) used
   by the pretty-printer.

MPFR Numbers
------------

The module defines the following data type for representing ``mpfr`` values,
which is a subtype of the Pure :type:`real/type` type:

.. type:: mpfr /type

   This is a tagged pointer type (denoted ``mpfr*`` in Pure extern
   declarations) which is compatible with the ``mpfr_t`` and ``mpfr_ptr`` data
   types of the MPFR C library. Members of this type are "cooked" pointers,
   which are allocated dynamically and freed automatically when they are
   garbage-collected (by means of a corresponding Pure sentry).

.. function:: mpfrp x

   Type predicate checking for ``mpfr`` values.

Conversions
-----------

The following operations are provided to convert between ``mpfr`` numbers and
other kinds of Pure ``real`` values.

.. function:: mpfr x
   	      mpfr /2 (x,prec)
   	      mpfr /3 (x,prec,rnd)

   This function converts any real number (:type:`int/type`,
   :type:`bigint/type`, :type:`double/type`, :type:`rational/type`,
   :type:`mpfr/type`) to an ``mpfr`` value.

   Optionally, it is possible to specify a precision (number of bits in the
   mantissa) ``prec`` and a rounding mode ``rnd`` (one of the ``MPFR_RND``
   constants), otherwise MPFR's default precision and rounding mode are used
   (see `Precision and Rounding`_ above). Note that this function may also be
   used to convert an ``mpfr`` to a new ``mpfr`` number, possibly with a
   different precision and rounding.

   The argument ``x`` can also be a string denoting a floating point number in
   decimal notation with optional sign, decimal point and/or scaling factor,
   which is parsed and converted to an ``mpfr`` number using the corresponding
   MPFR function.

.. function:: int /mpfr x
   	      bigint /mpfr x
	      double /mpfr x

   Convert an ``mpfr`` number x to the corresponding type of real number.
   Please note that there is no ``rational`` conversion, as MPFR does not
   provide such an operation, but if you need this then you can first convert
   ``x`` to a ``double`` and then apply the standard library :func:`rational`
   function to it (this may loose precision, of course).

.. function:: str /mpfr x

   By virtue of the custom pretty-printer provided by this module, the
   standard library :func:`str` function can be used to obtain a printable
   representation of an ``mpfr`` number ``x`` in decimal notation. The result
   is a string.

.. function:: floor /mpfr x
   	      ceil /mpfr x
	      round /mpfr x
	      trunc /mpfr x
	      frac /mpfr x

   Rounding and truncation functions. These all take and yield ``mpfr``
   numbers. :func:`frac/mpfr` returns the fractional part of an ``mpfr``
   number, i.e., ``x-trunc x``.

Arithmetic
----------

The following standard operators (see the :doc:`purelib`) are overloaded to
provide ``mpfr`` arithmetic and comparisons. These all handle mixed
``mpfr``/``real`` operands.

.. function:: prefix - /mpfr x
   	      infix + /mpfr x y
   	      infix - /mpfr x y
   	      infix * /mpfr x y
   	      infix / /mpfr x y
   	      infix ^ /mpfr x y

   Arithmetic operations.

.. function:: infix == /mpfr x y
   	      infix ~= /mpfr x y
   	      infix <= /mpfr x y
   	      infix >= /mpfr x y
   	      infix < /mpfr x y
   	      infix > /mpfr x y

   Comparisons.

Math Functions
--------------

The following functions from the :mod:`math` module are overloaded to provide
support for ``mpfr`` values. Note that it is also possible to invoke the
corresponding functions from the MPFR library in a direct fashion, using the
same function names with an additional ``_mpfr`` suffix. These functions also
accept other kinds of ``real`` arguments which are converted to ``mpfr``
before applying the MPFR function.

.. function:: abs /mpfr x

   Absolute value (this is implemented directly, so there's no corresponding
   ``_mpfr`` function for this).

.. function:: sqrt /mpfr x
   	      exp /mpfr x
   	      ln /mpfr x
   	      log /mpfr x

   Square root, exponential and logarithms.

.. function:: sin /mpfr x
   	      cos /mpfr x
   	      tan /mpfr x
   	      asin /mpfr x
   	      acos /mpfr x
   	      atan /mpfr x
   	      atan2 /mpfr y x

   Trigonometric functions.

.. function:: sinh /mpfr x
   	      cosh /mpfr x
   	      tanh /mpfr x
   	      asinh /mpfr x
   	      acosh /mpfr x
   	      atanh /mpfr x

   Hyperbolic trigonometric functions.

Complex Number Support
----------------------

The following functions from the :mod:`math` module are overloaded to provide
support for complex values involving ``mpfr`` numbers:

.. function:: complex /mpfr x
   	      polar /mpfr x
   	      rect /mpfr x
   	      cis /mpfr x
   	      arg /mpfr x
   	      re /mpfr x
   	      im /mpfr x
   	      conj /mpfr x

Examples
========

Import the module and set the default precision::

  > using mpfr;
  > mpfr_set_default_prec 64; // extended precision (long double on x86)
  ()

Calculate pi with the current precision. Note that mixed arithmetic works with
any combination of real and mpfr numbers. ::

  > let Pi = 4*atan (mpfr 1);
  > pi; Pi; abs (Pi-pi);
  3.14159265358979
  3.14159265358979323851
  1.22514845490862001043e-16

  > let Pi2 = Pi^2;
  > Pi2; sqrt Pi2; sqrt Pi2 == Pi;
  9.86960440108935861941
  3.14159265358979323851
  1

You can also query the precision of a number and change it on the fly::

  > Pi; mpfr_get_prec Pi;
  3.14159265358979323851
  64
  > let Pi1 = mpfr (Pi,53); Pi1; mpfr_get_prec Pi1;
  3.1415926535897931
  53

Complex ``mpfr`` numbers work, too::

  > let z = mpfr 2^(1/i); z;
  0.769238901363972126565+:-0.638961276313634801184
  > let z = ln z/ln (mpfr 2); z;
  0.0+:-1.0
  > abs z, arg z;
  1.0,-1.57079632679489661926
  > polar z;
  1.0<:-1.57079632679489661926
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