## pygame - Python Game Library
## Copyright (C) 2007 Marcus von Appen
##
## This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
## modify it under the terms of the GNU Library General Public
## License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
## version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
##
## This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
## but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
## MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
## Library General Public License for more details.
##
## You should have received a copy of the GNU Library General Public
## License along with this library; if not, write to the Free
## Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
##
## Marcus von Appen
## mva@sysfault.org
"""pygame module for accessing surface pixel data using numpy
Functions to convert pixel data between pygame Surfaces and Numpy
arrays. This module will only be available when pygame can use the
external Numpy package.
Note, that numpyarray is an optional module. It requires that Numpy is
installed to be used. If not installed, an exception will be raised when
it is used. eg. ImportError: no module named numpy
Every pixel is stored as a single integer value to represent the red,
green, and blue colors. The 8bit images use a value that looks into a
colormap. Pixels with higher depth use a bit packing process to place
three or four values into a single number.
The Numpy arrays are indexed by the X axis first, followed by the Y
axis. Arrays that treat the pixels as a single integer are referred to
as 2D arrays. This module can also separate the red, green, and blue
color values into separate indices. These types of arrays are referred
to as 3D arrays, and the last index is 0 for red, 1 for green, and 2 for
blue.
In contrast to Numeric Numpy does use unsigned 16bit integers, images
with 16bit data will be treated as unsigned integers.
"""
import pygame
import numpy
import re
def array2d (surface):
"""pygame.numpyarray.array2d (Surface): return array
copy pixels into a 2d array
Copy the pixels from a Surface into a 2D array. The bit depth of the
surface will control the size of the integer values, and will work
for any type of pixel format.
This function will temporarily lock the Surface as pixels are copied
(see the Surface.lock - lock the Surface memory for pixel access
method).
"""
bpp = surface.get_bytesize ()
if bpp <= 0 or bpp > 4:
raise ValueError, "unsupported bit depth for 2D array"
# Taken from Alex Holkner's pygame-ctypes package. Thanks a lot.
data = surface.get_buffer ().raw
# Remove extra pitch from each row.
width = surface.get_width ()
pitchdiff = surface.get_pitch () - width * bpp
if pitchdiff > 0:
pattern = re.compile ('(%s)%s' % ('.' * width * bpp, '.' * pitchdiff),
flags=re.DOTALL)
data = ''.join (pattern.findall (data))
if bpp == 3:
# Pad each triplet of bytes with another zero
pattern = re.compile ('...', flags=re.DOTALL)
data = '\0'.join (pattern.findall (data))
if pygame.get_sdl_byteorder () == pygame.LIL_ENDIAN:
data += '\0'
else:
data = '\0' + data
bpp = 4
typecode = (numpy.uint8, numpy.uint16, None, numpy.uint32)[bpp - 1]
array = numpy.fromstring (data, typecode)
array.shape = (surface.get_height (), width)
array = numpy.transpose (array)
return array
def pixels2d (surface):
"""pygame.numpyarray.pixels2d (Surface): return array
reference pixels into a 2d array
Create a new 2D array that directly references the pixel values in a
Surface. Any changes to the array will affect the pixels in the
Surface. This is a fast operation since no data is copied.
Pixels from a 24-bit Surface cannot be referenced, but all other
Surface bit depths can.
The Surface this references will remain locked for the lifetime of
the array (see the Surface.lock - lock the Surface memory for pixel
access method).
"""
bpp = surface.get_bytesize ()
if bpp == 3 or bpp < 1 or bpp > 4:
raise ValueError, "unsupported bit depth for 2D reference array"
typecode = (numpy.uint8, numpy.uint16, None, numpy.uint32)[bpp - 1]
array = numpy.frombuffer (surface.get_buffer (), typecode)
array.shape = surface.get_height (), surface.get_pitch () / bpp
# Padding correction for certain depth due to padding bytes.
array = array[:,:surface.get_width ()]
array = numpy.transpose (array)
return array
def array3d (surface):
"""pygame.numpyarray.array3d (Surface): return array
copy pixels into a 3d array
Copy the pixels from a Surface into a 3D array. The bit depth of the
surface will control the size of the integer values, and will work
for any type of pixel format.
This function will temporarily lock the Surface as pixels are copied
(see the Surface.lock - lock the Surface memory for pixel access
method).
"""
bpp = surface.get_bytesize ()
array = array2d (surface)
# Taken from from Alex Holkner's pygame-ctypes package. Thanks a
# lot.
if bpp == 1:
palette = surface.get_palette ()
# Resolve the correct values using the color palette
pal_r = numpy.array ([c[0] for c in palette])
pal_g = numpy.array ([c[1] for c in palette])
pal_b = numpy.array ([c[2] for c in palette])
planes = [numpy.choose (array, pal_r),
numpy.choose (array, pal_g),
numpy.choose (array, pal_b)]
array = numpy.array (planes)
array = numpy.transpose (array, (1, 2, 0))
return array
else:
masks = surface.get_masks ()
shifts = surface.get_shifts ()
losses = surface.get_losses ()
planes = [((array & masks[0]) >> shifts[0]) << losses[0],
((array & masks[1]) >> shifts[1]) << losses[1],
((array & masks[2]) >> shifts[2]) << losses[2]]
array = numpy.array (planes)
return numpy.transpose (array, (1, 2, 0))
def pixels3d (surface):
"""pygame.numpyarray.pixels3d (Surface): return array
reference pixels into a 3d array
Create a new 3D array that directly references the pixel values in a
Surface. Any changes to the array will affect the pixels in the
Surface. This is a fast operation since no data is copied.
This will only work on Surfaces that have 24-bit or 32-bit
formats. Lower pixel formats cannot be referenced.
The Surface this references will remain locked for the lifetime of
the array (see the Surface.lock - lock the Surface memory for pixel
access method).
"""
bpp = surface.get_bytesize ()
if bpp < 3 or bpp > 4:
raise ValueError, "unsupported bit depth for 3D reference array"
lilendian = pygame.get_sdl_byteorder () == pygame.LIL_ENDIAN
start = 0
step = 0
# Check for RGB or BGR surface.
shifts = surface.get_shifts ()
if shifts[0] == 16 and shifts[1] == 8 and shifts[2] == 0:
# RGB
if lilendian:
start = 2
step = -1
else:
start = 0
step = 1
elif shifts[2] == 16 and shifts[1] == 8 and shifts[0] == 0:
# BGR
if lilendian:
start = 0
step = 1
else:
start = 2
step = -1
else:
raise ValueError, "unsupported colormasks for 3D reference array"
if bpp == 4 and not lilendian:
start += 1
array = numpy.ndarray \
(shape=(surface.get_width (), surface.get_height (), 3),
dtype=numpy.uint8, buffer=surface.get_buffer (),
offset=start, strides=(bpp, surface.get_pitch (),step))
return array
def array_alpha (surface):
"""pygame.numpyarray.array_alpha (Surface): return array
copy pixel alphas into a 2d array
Copy the pixel alpha values (degree of transparency) from a Surface
into a 2D array. This will work for any type of Surface
format. Surfaces without a pixel alpha will return an array with all
opaque values.
This function will temporarily lock the Surface as pixels are copied
(see the Surface.lock - lock the Surface memory for pixel access
method).
"""
if surface.get_bytesize () == 1 or not surface.get_alpha ():
# 1 bpp surfaces and surfaces without alpha are always fully
# opaque.
array = numpy.empty (surface.get_width () * surface.get_height (),
numpy.uint8)
array.fill (0xff)
array.shape = surface.get_width (), surface.get_height ()
return array
array = array2d (surface)
# Those shifts match the results from the old numeric system
# exactly.
array = array >> surface.get_shifts ()[3] << surface.get_losses ()[3]
array = array.astype (numpy.uint8)
return array
def pixels_alpha (surface):
"""pygame.numpyarray.pixels_alpha (Surface): return array
reference pixel alphas into a 2d array
Create a new 2D array that directly references the alpha values
(degree of transparency) in a Surface. Any changes to the array will
affect the pixels in the Surface. This is a fast operation since no
data is copied.
This can only work on 32-bit Surfaces with a per-pixel alpha value.
The Surface this array references will remain locked for the
lifetime of the array.
"""
if surface.get_bytesize () != 4:
raise ValueError, "unsupported bit depth for alpha reference array"
lilendian = pygame.get_sdl_byteorder () == pygame.LIL_ENDIAN
# ARGB surface.
start = 0
if surface.get_shifts ()[3] == 24 and lilendian:
# RGBA surface.
start = 3
elif surface.get_shifts ()[3] == 0 and not lilendian:
start = 3
else:
raise ValueError, "unsupported colormasks for alpha reference array"
array = numpy.ndarray \
(shape=(surface.get_width (), surface.get_height ()),
dtype=numpy.uint8, buffer=surface.get_buffer (),
offset=start, strides=(4, surface.get_pitch ()))
return array
def array_colorkey (surface):
"""pygame.numpyarray.array_colorkey (Surface): return array
copy the colorkey values into a 2d array
Create a new array with the colorkey transparency value from each
pixel. If the pixel matches the colorkey it will be fully
tranparent; otherwise it will be fully opaque.
This will work on any type of Surface format. If the image has no
colorkey a solid opaque array will be returned.
This function will temporarily lock the Surface as pixels are
copied.
"""
colorkey = surface.get_colorkey ()
if colorkey == None:
# No colorkey, return a solid opaque array.
array = numpy.empty (surface.get_width () * surface.get_height (),
numpy.uint8)
array.fill (0xff)
array.shape = surface.get_width (), surface.get_height ()
return array
# Taken from from Alex Holkner's pygame-ctypes package. Thanks a
# lot.
array = array2d (surface)
# Check each pixel value for the colorkey and mark it as opaque or
# transparent as needed.
val = surface.map_rgb (colorkey)
array = numpy.choose (numpy.equal (array, val),
(numpy.uint8 (0xff), numpy.uint8 (0)))
array.shape = surface.get_width (), surface.get_height ()
return array
def make_surface (array):
"""pygame.numpyarray.make_surface (array): return Surface
copy an array to a new surface
Create a new Surface that best resembles the data and format on the
array. The array can be 2D or 3D with any sized integer values.
"""
# Taken from from Alex Holkner's pygame-ctypes package. Thanks a
# lot.
bpp = 0
r = g = b = 0
shape = array.shape
if len (shape) == 2:
# 2D array
bpp = 8
r = 0xFF >> 6 << 5
g = 0xFF >> 5 << 2
b = 0xFF >> 6
elif len (shape) == 3 and shape[2] == 3:
bpp = 32
r = 0xff << 16
g = 0xff << 8
b = 0xff
else:
raise ValueError, "must be a valid 2d or 3d array"
surface = pygame.Surface ((shape[0], shape[1]), 0, bpp, (r, g, b, 0))
blit_array (surface, array)
return surface
def blit_array (surface, array):
"""pygame.numpyarray.blit_array (Surface, array): return None
blit directly from a array values
Directly copy values from an array into a Surface. This is faster
than converting the array into a Surface and blitting. The array
must be the same dimensions as the Surface and will completely
replace all pixel values.
This function will temporarily lock the Surface as the new values
are copied.
"""
bpp = surface.get_bytesize ()
if bpp <= 0 or bpp > 4:
raise ValueError, "unsupported bit depth for surface"
shape = array.shape
width = surface.get_width ()
typecode = (numpy.uint8, numpy.uint16, None, numpy.uint32)[bpp - 1]
array = array.astype (typecode)
# Taken from from Alex Holkner's pygame-ctypes package. Thanks a
# lot.
if len(shape) == 3 and shape[2] == 3:
array = numpy.transpose (array, (1, 0, 2))
shifts = surface.get_shifts ()
losses = surface.get_losses ()
array = (array[:,:,::3] >> losses[0] << shifts[0]) | \
(array[:,:,1::3] >> losses[1] << shifts[1]) | \
(array[:,:,2::3] >> losses[2] << shifts[2])
elif len (shape) == 2:
array = numpy.transpose (array)
else:
raise ValueError, "must be a valid 2d or 3d array"
if width != shape[0] or surface.get_height () != shape[1]:
raise ValueError, "array must match the surface dimensions"
itemsize = array.itemsize
data = array.tostring ()
if itemsize > bpp:
# Trim bytes from each element, keep least significant byte(s)
pattern = '%s(%s)' % ('.' * (itemsize - bpp), '.' * bpp)
if pygame.get_sdl_byteorder () == pygame.LIL_ENDIAN:
pattern = '(%s)%s' % ('.' * bpp, '.' * (itemsize - bpp))
data = ''.join (re.compile (pattern, flags=re.DOTALL).findall (data))
elif itemsize < bpp:
# Add pad bytes to each element, at most significant end
pad = '\0' * (bpp - itemsize)
pixels = re.compile ('.' * itemsize, flags=re.DOTALL).findall (data)
data = pad.join (pixels)
if pygame.get_sdl_byteorder () == pygame.LIL_ENDIAN:
data = data + pad
else:
data = pad + data
# Add zeros pad for pitch correction
pitchdiff = surface.get_pitch () - width * bpp
if pitchdiff > 0:
pad = '\0' * pitchdiff
rows = re.compile ('.' * width * bpp, flags=re.DOTALL).findall (data)
data = pad.join (rows) + pad
surface.get_buffer ().write (data, 0)
def map_array (surface, array):
"""pygame.numpyarray.map_array (Surface, array3d): return array2d
map a 3d array into a 2d array
Convert a 3D array into a 2D array. This will use the given Surface
format to control the conversion. Palette surface formats are not
supported.
Note: arrays do not need to be 3D, as long as the minor axis has
three elements giving the component colours, any array shape can be
used (for example, a single colour can be mapped, or an array of
colours).
"""
# Taken from from Alex Holkner's pygame-ctypes package. Thanks a
# lot.
bpp = surface.get_bytesize ()
if bpp <= 0 or bpp > 4:
raise ValueError, "unsupported bit depth for surface array"
shape = array.shape
if shape[-1] != 3:
raise ValueError, "array must be a 3d array of 3-value color data"
shifts = surface.get_shifts ()
losses = surface.get_losses ()
array = (array[:,:,::3] >> losses[0] << shifts[0]) | \
(array[:,:,1::3] >> losses[1] << shifts[1]) | \
(array[:,:,2::3] >> losses[2] << shifts[2])
return array