Source

pygame / docs / _sources / ref / sprite.txt

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.. include:: common.txt

:mod:`pygame.sprite`
====================

.. module:: pygame.sprite
   :synopsis: pygame module with basic game object classes

| :sl:`pygame module with basic game object classes`

This module contains several simple classes to be used within games. There is
the main Sprite class and several Group classes that contain Sprites. The use
of these classes is entirely optional when using Pygame. The classes are fairly
lightweight and only provide a starting place for the code that is common to
most games.

The Sprite class is intended to be used as a base class for the different types
of objects in the game. There is also a base Group class that simply stores
sprites. A game could create new types of Group classes that operate on
specially customized Sprite instances they contain.

The basic Sprite class can draw the Sprites it contains to a Surface. The
``Group.draw()`` method requires that each Sprite have a ``Surface.image``
attribute and a ``Surface.rect``. The ``Group.clear()`` method requires these
same attributes, and can be used to erase all the Sprites with background.
There are also more advanced Groups: ``pygame.sprite.RenderUpdates()`` and
``pygame.sprite.OrderedUpdates()``.

Lastly, this module contains several collision functions. These help find
sprites inside multiple groups that have intersecting bounding rectangles. To
find the collisions, the Sprites are required to have a ``Surface.rect``
attribute assigned.

The groups are designed for high efficiency in removing and adding Sprites to
them. They also allow cheap testing to see if a Sprite already exists in a
Group. A given Sprite can exist in any number of groups. A game could use some
groups to control object rendering, and a completely separate set of groups to
control interaction or player movement. Instead of adding type attributes or
bools to a derived Sprite class, consider keeping the Sprites inside organized
Groups. This will allow for easier lookup later in the game.

Sprites and Groups manage their relationships with the ``add()`` and
``remove()`` methods. These methods can accept a single or multiple targets for
membership. The default initializers for these classes also takes a single or
list of targets for initial membership. It is safe to repeatedly add and remove
the same Sprite from a Group.

While it is possible to design sprite and group classes that don't derive from
the Sprite and AbstractGroup classes below, it is strongly recommended that you
extend those when you add a Sprite or Group class.

Sprites are not thread safe. So lock them yourself if using threads.

.. class:: Sprite

   | :sl:`simple base class for visible game objects`
   | :sg:`Sprite(*groups) -> Sprite`

   The base class for visible game objects. Derived classes will want to
   override the ``Sprite.update()`` and assign a ``Sprite.image`` and
   ``Sprite.rect`` attributes. The initializer can accept any number of Group
   instances to be added to.

   When subclassing the Sprite, be sure to call the base initializer before
   adding the Sprite to Groups.

   .. method:: update

      | :sl:`method to control sprite behavior`
      | :sg:`update(*args) -> None`

      The default implementation of this method does nothing; it's just a
      convenient "hook" that you can override. This method is called by
      ``Group.update()`` with whatever arguments you give it.

      There is no need to use this method if not using the convenience method
      by the same name in the Group class.

      .. ## Sprite.update ##

   .. method:: add

      | :sl:`add the sprite to groups`
      | :sg:`add(*groups) -> None`

      Any number of Group instances can be passed as arguments. The Sprite will
      be added to the Groups it is not already a member of.

      .. ## Sprite.add ##

   .. method:: remove

      | :sl:`remove the sprite from groups`
      | :sg:`remove(*groups) -> None`

      Any number of Group instances can be passed as arguments. The Sprite will
      be removed from the Groups it is currently a member of.

      .. ## Sprite.remove ##

   .. method:: kill

      | :sl:`remove the Sprite from all Groups`
      | :sg:`kill() -> None`

      The Sprite is removed from all the Groups that contain it. This won't
      change anything about the state of the Sprite. It is possible to continue
      to use the Sprite after this method has been called, including adding it
      to Groups.

      .. ## Sprite.kill ##

   .. method:: alive

      | :sl:`does the sprite belong to any groups`
      | :sg:`alive() -> bool`

      Returns True when the Sprite belongs to one or more Groups.

      .. ## Sprite.alive ##

   .. method:: groups

      | :sl:`list of Groups that contain this Sprite`
      | :sg:`groups() -> group_list`

      Return a list of all the Groups that contain this Sprite.

      .. ## Sprite.groups ##

   .. ## pygame.sprite.Sprite ##

.. class:: DirtySprite

   | :sl:`a more featureful subclass of Sprite with more attributes`
   | :sg:`DirtySprite(*groups) -> DirtySprite`

   Extra DirtySprite attributes with their default values:

   dirty = 1

   ::

       if set to 1, it is repainted and then set to 0 again
       if set to 2 then it is always dirty ( repainted each frame,
       flag is not reset)
       0 means that it is not dirty and therefor not repainted again

   blendmode = 0

   ::

       its the special_flags argument of blit, blendmodes

   source_rect = None

   ::

       source rect to use, remember that it is relative to
       topleft (0,0) of self.image

   visible = 1

   ::

       normally 1, if set to 0 it will not be repainted
       (you must set it dirty too to be erased from screen)

   layer = 0

   ::

       (READONLY value, it is read when adding it to the
       LayeredDirty, for details see doc of LayeredDirty)

   .. ##  ##

   .. ## pygame.sprite.DirtySprite ##

.. class:: Group

   | :sl:`container class for many Sprites`
   | :sg:`Group(*sprites) -> Group`

   A simple container for Sprite objects. This class can be inherited to create
   containers with more specific behaviors. The constructor takes any number of
   Sprite arguments to add to the Group. The group supports the following
   standard Python operations:

   ::

       in      test if a Sprite is contained
       len     the number of Sprites contained
       bool    test if any Sprites are contained
       iter    iterate through all the Sprites

   The Sprites in the Group are not ordered, so drawing and iterating the
   Sprites is in no particular order.

   .. method:: sprites

      | :sl:`list of the Sprites this Group contains`
      | :sg:`sprites() -> sprite_list`

      Return a list of all the Sprites this group contains. You can also get an
      iterator from the group, but you cannot iterator over a Group while
      modifying it.

      .. ## Group.sprites ##

   .. method:: copy

      | :sl:`duplicate the Group`
      | :sg:`copy() -> Group`

      Creates a new Group with all the same Sprites as the original. If you
      have subclassed Group, the new object will have the same (sub-)class as
      the original. This only works if the derived class's constructor takes
      the same arguments as the Group class's.

      .. ## Group.copy ##

   .. method:: add

      | :sl:`add Sprites to this Group`
      | :sg:`add(*sprites) -> None`

      Add any number of Sprites to this Group. This will only add Sprites that
      are not already members of the Group.

      Each sprite argument can also be a iterator containing Sprites.

      .. ## Group.add ##

   .. method:: remove

      | :sl:`remove Sprites from the Group`
      | :sg:`remove(*sprites) -> None`

      Remove any number of Sprites from the Group. This will only remove
      Sprites that are already members of the Group.

      Each sprite argument can also be a iterator containing Sprites.

      .. ## Group.remove ##

   .. method:: has

      | :sl:`test if a Group contains Sprites`
      | :sg:`has(*sprites) -> None`

      Return True if the Group contains all of the given sprites. This is
      similar to using the "in" operator on the Group ("if sprite in group:
      ..."), which tests if a single Sprite belongs to a Group.

      Each sprite argument can also be a iterator containing Sprites.

      .. ## Group.has ##

   .. method:: update

      | :sl:`call the update method on contained Sprites`
      | :sg:`update(*args) -> None`

      Calls the ``update()`` method on all Sprites in the Group. The base
      Sprite class has an update method that takes any number of arguments and
      does nothing. The arguments passed to ``Group.update()`` will be passed
      to each Sprite.

      There is no way to get the return value from the ``Sprite.update()``
      methods.

      .. ## Group.update ##

   .. method:: draw

      | :sl:`blit the Sprite images`
      | :sg:`draw(Surface) -> None`

      Draws the contained Sprites to the Surface argument. This uses the
      ``Sprite.image`` attribute for the source surface, and ``Sprite.rect``
      for the position.

      The Group does not keep sprites in any order, so the draw order is
      arbitrary.

      .. ## Group.draw ##

   .. method:: clear

      | :sl:`draw a background over the Sprites`
      | :sg:`clear(Surface_dest, background) -> None`

      Erases the Sprites used in the last ``Group.draw()`` call. The
      destination Surface is cleared by filling the drawn Sprite positions with
      the background.

      The background is usually a Surface image the same dimensions as the
      destination Surface. However, it can also be a callback function that
      takes two arguments; the destination Surface and an area to clear. The
      background callback function will be called several times each clear.

      Here is an example callback that will clear the Sprites with solid red:

      ::

          def clear_callback(surf, rect):
              color = 255, 0, 0
              surf.fill(color, rect)

      .. ## Group.clear ##

   .. method:: empty

      | :sl:`remove all Sprites`
      | :sg:`empty() -> None`

      Removes all Sprites from this Group.

      .. ## Group.empty ##

   .. ## pygame.sprite.Group ##

.. class:: RenderPlain

   same as pygame.sprite.Group

.. class:: RenderClear

   same as pygame.sprite.Group



.. class:: RenderUpdates

   | :sl:`Group class that tracks dirty updates`
   | :sg:`RenderUpdates(*sprites) -> RenderUpdates`

   This class is derived from ``pygame.sprite.Group()``. It has an extended
   ``draw()`` method that tracks the changed areas of the screen.

   .. method:: draw

      | :sl:`blit the Sprite images and track changed areas`
      | :sg:`draw(surface) -> Rect_list`

      Draws all the Sprites to the surface, the same as ``Group.draw()``. This
      method also returns a list of Rectangular areas on the screen that have
      been changed. The returned changes include areas of the screen that have
      been affected by previous ``Group.clear()`` calls.

      The returned Rect list should be passed to ``pygame.display.update()``.
      This will help performance on software driven display modes. This type of
      updating is usually only helpful on destinations with non-animating
      backgrounds.

      .. ## RenderUpdates.draw ##

   .. ## pygame.sprite.RenderUpdates ##

.. function:: OrderedUpdates

   | :sl:`RenderUpdates class that draws Sprites in order of addition`
   | :sg:`OrderedUpdates(*spites) -> OrderedUpdates`

   This class derives from ``pygame.sprite.RenderUpdates()``. It maintains the
   order in which the Sprites were added to the Group for rendering. This makes
   adding and removing Sprites from the Group a little slower than regular
   Groups.

   .. ## pygame.sprite.OrderedUpdates ##

.. class:: LayeredUpdates

   | :sl:`LayeredUpdates Group handles layers, that draws like OrderedUpdates.`
   | :sg:`LayeredUpdates(*spites, **kwargs) -> LayeredUpdates`

   This group is fully compatible with :class:`pygame.sprite.Sprite`.

   You can set the default layer through kwargs using 'default_layer' and an
   integer for the layer. The default layer is 0.

   If the sprite you add has an attribute layer then that layer will be used.
   If the \**kwarg contains 'layer' then the sprites passed will be added to
   that layer (overriding the ``sprite.layer`` attribute). If neither sprite
   has attribute layer nor \**kwarg then the default layer is used to add the
   sprites.

   New in pygame 1.8.0

   .. method:: add

      | :sl:`add a sprite or sequence of sprites to a group`
      | :sg:`add(*sprites, **kwargs) -> None`

      If the ``sprite(s)`` have an attribute layer then that is used for the
      layer. If \**kwargs contains 'layer' then the ``sprite(s)`` will be added
      to that argument (overriding the sprite layer attribute). If neither is
      passed then the ``sprite(s)`` will be added to the default layer.

      .. ## LayeredUpdates.add ##

   .. method:: sprites

      | :sl:`returns a ordered list of sprites (first back, last top).`
      | :sg:`sprites() -> sprites`

      .. ## LayeredUpdates.sprites ##

   .. method:: draw

      | :sl:`draw all sprites in the right order onto the passed surface.`
      | :sg:`draw(surface) -> Rect_list`

      .. ## LayeredUpdates.draw ##

   .. method:: get_sprites_at

      | :sl:`returns a list with all sprites at that position.`
      | :sg:`get_sprites_at(pos) -> colliding_sprites`

      Bottom sprites first, top last.

      .. ## LayeredUpdates.get_sprites_at ##

   .. method:: get_sprite

      | :sl:`returns the sprite at the index idx from the groups sprites`
      | :sg:`get_sprite(idx) -> sprite`

      Raises IndexOutOfBounds if the idx is not within range.

      .. ## LayeredUpdates.get_sprite ##

   .. method:: remove_sprites_of_layer

      | :sl:`removes all sprites from a layer and returns them as a list.`
      | :sg:`remove_sprites_of_layer(layer_nr) -> sprites`

      .. ## LayeredUpdates.remove_sprites_of_layer ##

   .. method:: layers

      | :sl:`returns a list of layers defined (unique), sorted from botton up.`
      | :sg:`layers() -> layers`

      .. ## LayeredUpdates.layers ##

   .. method:: change_layer

      | :sl:`changes the layer of the sprite`
      | :sg:`change_layer(sprite, new_layer) -> None`

      sprite must have been added to the renderer. It is not checked.

      .. ## LayeredUpdates.change_layer ##

   .. method:: get_layer_of_sprite

      | :sl:`returns the layer that sprite is currently in.`
      | :sg:`get_layer_of_sprite(sprite) -> layer`

      If the sprite is not found then it will return the default layer.

      .. ## LayeredUpdates.get_layer_of_sprite ##

   .. method:: get_top_layer

      | :sl:`returns the top layer`
      | :sg:`get_top_layer() -> layer`

      .. ## LayeredUpdates.get_top_layer ##

   .. method:: get_bottom_layer

      | :sl:`returns the bottom layer`
      | :sg:`get_bottom_layer() -> layer`

      .. ## LayeredUpdates.get_bottom_layer ##

   .. method:: move_to_front

      | :sl:`brings the sprite to front layer`
      | :sg:`move_to_front(sprite) -> None`

      Brings the sprite to front, changing sprite layer to topmost layer (added
      at the end of that layer).

      .. ## LayeredUpdates.move_to_front ##

   .. method:: move_to_back

      | :sl:`moves the sprite to the bottom layer`
      | :sg:`move_to_back(sprite) -> None`

      Moves the sprite to the bottom layer, moving it behind all other layers
      and adding one additional layer.

      .. ## LayeredUpdates.move_to_back ##

   .. method:: get_top_sprite

      | :sl:`returns the topmost sprite`
      | :sg:`get_top_sprite() -> Sprite`

      .. ## LayeredUpdates.get_top_sprite ##

   .. method:: get_sprites_from_layer

      | :sl:`returns all sprites from a layer, ordered by how they where added`
      | :sg:`get_sprites_from_layer(layer) -> sprites`

      Returns all sprites from a layer, ordered by how they where added. It
      uses linear search and the sprites are not removed from layer.

      .. ## LayeredUpdates.get_sprites_from_layer ##

   .. method:: switch_layer

      | :sl:`switches the sprites from layer1 to layer2`
      | :sg:`switch_layer(layer1_nr, layer2_nr) -> None`

      The layers number must exist, it is not checked.

      .. ## LayeredUpdates.switch_layer ##

   .. ## pygame.sprite.LayeredUpdates ##

.. class:: LayeredDirty

   | :sl:`LayeredDirty Group is for DirtySprites.  Subclasses LayeredUpdates.`
   | :sg:`LayeredDirty(*spites, **kwargs) -> LayeredDirty`

   This group requires :class:`pygame.sprite.DirtySprite` or any sprite that
   has the following attributes:

   ::

       image, rect, dirty, visible, blendmode (see doc of DirtySprite).

   It uses the dirty flag technique and is therefore faster than the
   :class:`pygame.sprite.RenderUpdates` if you have many static sprites. It
   also switches automatically between dirty rect update and full screen
   drawing, so you do no have to worry what would be faster.

   Same as for the :class:`pygame.sprite.Group`. You can specify some
   additional attributes through kwargs:

   ::

       _use_update: True/False   default is False
       _default_layer: default layer where sprites without a layer are added.
       _time_threshold: treshold time for switching between dirty rect mode
           and fullscreen mode, defaults to 1000./80  == 1000./fps

   New in pygame 1.8.0

   .. method:: draw

      | :sl:`draw all sprites in the right order onto the passed surface.`
      | :sg:`draw(surface, bgd=None) -> Rect_list`

      You can pass the background too. If a background is already set, then the
      bgd argument has no effect.

      .. ## LayeredDirty.draw ##

   .. method:: clear

      | :sl:`used to set background`
      | :sg:`clear(surface, bgd) -> None`

      .. ## LayeredDirty.clear ##

   .. method:: repaint_rect

      | :sl:`repaints the given area`
      | :sg:`repaint_rect(screen_rect) -> None`

      screen_rect is in screencoordinates.

      .. ## LayeredDirty.repaint_rect ##

   .. method:: set_clip

      | :sl:`clip the area where to draw. Just pass None (default) to reset the clip`
      | :sg:`set_clip(screen_rect=None) -> None`

      .. ## LayeredDirty.set_clip ##

   .. method:: get_clip

      | :sl:`clip the area where to draw. Just pass None (default) to reset the clip`
      | :sg:`get_clip() -> Rect`

      .. ## LayeredDirty.get_clip ##

   .. method:: change_layer

      | :sl:`changes the layer of the sprite`
      | :sg:`change_layer(sprite, new_layer) -> None`

      sprite must have been added to the renderer. It is not checked.

      .. ## LayeredDirty.change_layer ##

   .. method:: set_timing_treshold

      | :sl:`sets the treshold in milliseconds`
      | :sg:`set_timing_treshold(time_ms) -> None`

      Default is 1000./80 where 80 is the fps I want to switch to full screen
      mode.

      .. ## LayeredDirty.set_timing_treshold ##

   .. ## pygame.sprite.LayeredDirty ##

.. function:: GroupSingle

   | :sl:`Group container that holds a single Sprite`
   | :sg:`GroupSingle(sprite=None) -> GroupSingle`

   The GroupSingle container only holds a single Sprite. When a new Sprite is
   added, the old one is removed.

   There is a special property, ``GroupSingle.sprite``, that accesses the
   Sprite that this Group contains. It can be None when the Group is empty. The
   property can also be assigned to add a Sprite into the GroupSingle
   container.

   .. ## pygame.sprite.GroupSingle ##

.. function:: spritecollide

   | :sl:`find Sprites in a Group that intersect another Sprite`
   | :sg:`spritecollide(sprite, group, dokill, collided = None) -> Sprite_list`

   Return a list containing all Sprites in a Group that intersect with another
   Sprite. Intersection is determined by comparing the ``Sprite.rect``
   attribute of each Sprite.

   The dokill argument is a bool. If set to True, all Sprites that collide will
   be removed from the Group.

   The collided argument is a callback function used to calculate if two
   sprites are colliding. it should take two sprites as values, and return a
   bool value indicating if they are colliding. If collided is not passed, all
   sprites must have a "rect" value, which is a rectangle of the sprite area,
   which will be used to calculate the collision.

   collided callables:

   ::

       collide_rect, collide_rect_ratio, collide_circle,
       collide_circle_ratio, collide_mask

   .. ## pygame.sprite.spritecollide ##

.. function:: collide_rect

   | :sl:`collision detection between two sprites, using rects.`
   | :sg:`collide_rect(left, right) -> bool`

   Tests for collision between two sprites. Uses the pygame rect colliderect
   function to calculate the collision. Intended to be passed as a collided
   callback function to the \*collide functions. Sprites must have a "rect"
   attributes.

   New in pygame 1.8.0

   .. ## pygame.sprite.collide_rect ##

.. function:: collide_rect_ratio

   | :sl:`collision detection between two sprites, using rects scaled to a ratio.`
   | :sg:`collide_rect_ratio(ratio) -> collided_callable`

   A callable class that checks for collisions between two sprites, using a
   scaled version of the sprites rects.

   Is created with a ratio, the instance is then intended to be passed as a
   collided callback function to the \*collide functions.

   A ratio is a floating point number - 1.0 is the same size, 2.0 is twice as
   big, and 0.5 is half the size.

   New in pygame 1.8.1

   .. ## pygame.sprite.collide_rect_ratio ##

.. function:: collide_circle

   | :sl:`collision detection between two sprites, using circles.`
   | :sg:`collide_circle(left, right) -> bool`

   Tests for collision between two sprites, by testing to see if two circles
   centered on the sprites overlap. If the sprites have a "radius" attribute,
   that is used to create the circle, otherwise a circle is created that is big
   enough to completely enclose the sprites rect as given by the "rect"
   attribute. Intended to be passed as a collided callback function to the
   \*collide functions. Sprites must have a "rect" and an optional "radius"
   attribute.

   New in pygame 1.8.1

   .. ## pygame.sprite.collide_circle ##

.. function:: collide_circle_ratio

   | :sl:`collision detection between two sprites, using circles scaled to a ratio.`
   | :sg:`collide_circle_ratio(ratio) -> collided_callable`

   A callable class that checks for collisions between two sprites, using a
   scaled version of the sprites radius.

   Is created with a floating point ratio, the instance is then intended to be
   passed as a collided callback function to the \*collide functions.

   A ratio is a floating point number - 1.0 is the same size, 2.0 is twice as
   big, and 0.5 is half the size.

   The created callable tests for collision between two sprites, by testing to
   see if two circles centered on the sprites overlap, after scaling the
   circles radius by the stored ratio. If the sprites have a "radius"
   attribute, that is used to create the circle, otherwise a circle is created
   that is big enough to completely enclose the sprites rect as given by the
   "rect" attribute. Intended to be passed as a collided callback function to
   the \*collide functions. Sprites must have a "rect" and an optional "radius"
   attribute.

   New in pygame 1.8.1

   .. ## pygame.sprite.collide_circle_ratio ##

.. function:: collide_mask

   | :sl:`collision detection between two sprites, using masks.`
   | :sg:`collide_mask(SpriteLeft, SpriteRight) -> point`

   Returns first point on the mask where the masks collided, or None if 
   there was no collision.

   Tests for collision between two sprites, by testing if thier bitmasks
   overlap. If the sprites have a "mask" attribute, that is used as the mask,
   otherwise a mask is created from the sprite image. Intended to be passed as
   a collided callback function to the \*collide functions. Sprites must have a
   "rect" and an optional "mask" attribute.

   You should consider creating a mask for your sprite at load time if you 
   are going to check collisions many times.  This will increase the 
   performance, otherwise this can be an expensive function because it 
   will create the masks each time you check for collisions.

   ::

      sprite.mask = pygame.mask.from_surface(sprite.image)


   New in pygame 1.8.0

   .. ## pygame.sprite.collide_mask ##

.. function:: groupcollide

   | :sl:`find all Sprites that collide between two Groups`
   | :sg:`groupcollide(group1, group2, dokill1, dokill2, collided = None) -> Sprite_dict`

   This will find collisions between all the Sprites in two groups.
   Collision is determined by comparing the ``Sprite.rect`` attribute of
   each Sprite or by using the collided function if it is not None.

   Every Sprite inside group1 is added to the return dictionary. The value for
   each item is the list of Sprites in group2 that intersect.

   If either dokill argument is True, the colliding Sprites will be removed
   from their respective Group.

   The collided argument is a callback function used to calculate if two sprites are
   colliding. It should take two sprites as values and return a bool value
   indicating if they are colliding. If collided is not passed, then all
   sprites must have a "rect" value, which is a rectangle of the sprite area,
   which will be used to calculate the collision.

   .. ## pygame.sprite.groupcollide ##

.. function:: spritecollideany

   | :sl:`simple test if a Sprite intersects anything in a Group`
   | :sg:`spritecollideany(sprite, group, collided = None) -> Sprite` Collision with the returned sprite.
   | :sg:`spritecollideany(sprite, group, collided = None) -> None` No collision

   If the sprite collides with any single sprite in the group, a single
   sprite from the group is returned.  On no collision None is returned.

   If you don't need all the features of the ``pygame.sprite.spritecollide()`` function, this
   function will be a bit quicker.

   The collided argument is a callback function used to calculate if two sprites are
   colliding. It should take two sprites as values and return a bool value
   indicating if they are colliding. If collided is not passed, then all
   sprites must have a "rect" value, which is a rectangle of the sprite area,
   which will be used to calculate the collision.

   .. ## pygame.sprite.spritecollideany ##

.. ##  ##

.. ## pygame.sprite ##