pypy / pypy / translator / backendopt / malloc.py

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from pypy.objspace.flow.model import Variable, Constant, Block, Link
from pypy.objspace.flow.model import SpaceOperation
from pypy.tool.algo.unionfind import UnionFind
from pypy.rpython.lltypesystem import lltype
from pypy.rpython.ootypesystem import ootype
from pypy.translator import simplify
from pypy.translator.backendopt import removenoops
from pypy.translator.backendopt.support import log

class LifeTime:

    def __init__(self, (block, var)):
        assert isinstance(var, Variable)
        self.variables = {(block, var) : True}
        self.creationpoints = {}   # set of ("type of creation point", ...)
        self.usepoints = {}        # set of ("type of use point",      ...)

    def absorb(self, other):
        self.variables.update(other.variables)
        self.creationpoints.update(other.creationpoints)
        self.usepoints.update(other.usepoints)


class BaseMallocRemover(object):

    IDENTITY_OPS = ('same_as',)
    SUBSTRUCT_OPS = ()
    MALLOC_OP = None
    FIELD_ACCESS = {}
    SUBSTRUCT_ACCESS = {}
    CHECK_ARRAY_INDEX = {}

    def __init__(self, verbose=True):
        self.verbose = verbose

    def check_malloc(self, op):
        return op.opname == self.MALLOC_OP

    def recreate_malloc(self, c, v):
        return SpaceOperation(self.MALLOC_OP, [c], v)

    def get_STRUCT(self, TYPE):
        raise NotImplementedError

    def visit_substruct_op(self, node, union, op):
        raise NotImplementedError

    def do_substruct_access(self, op):
        raise NotImplementedError

    def union_wrapper(self, S):
        return False

    def RTTI_dtor(self, STRUCT):
        return False

    def flatten(self, S):
        raise NotImplementedError

    def key_for_field_access(self, S, fldname):
        raise NotImplementedError

    def inline_type(self, TYPE):
        raise NotImplementedError

    def flowin(self, block, count, vars, newvarsmap):
        # in this 'block', follow where the 'var' goes to and replace
        # it by a flattened-out family of variables.  This family is given
        # by newvarsmap, whose keys are the 'flatnames'.

        def list_newvars():
            return [newvarsmap[key] for key in self.flatnames]

        assert block.operations != ()
        self.newops = []
        for op in block.operations:
            for arg in op.args[1:]:   # should be the first arg only
                assert arg not in vars
            if op.args and op.args[0] in vars:
                self.flowin_op(op, vars, newvarsmap)
            elif op.result in vars:
                assert op.opname == self.MALLOC_OP
                progress = True
                # drop the "malloc" operation
                newvarsmap = self.flatconstants.copy()   # zero initial values
                # if there are substructures, they are now individually
                # malloc'ed in an exploded way.  (They will typically be
                # removed again by the next malloc removal pass.)
                for key in self.needsubmallocs:
                    v = Variable()
                    v.concretetype = self.newvarstype[key]
                    c = Constant(v.concretetype.TO, lltype.Void)
                    if c.value == op.args[0].value:
                        progress = False   # replacing a malloc with
                                           # the same malloc!
                    newop = self.recreate_malloc(c, v)
                    self.newops.append(newop)
                    newvarsmap[key] = v
                count[0] += progress
            else:
                self.newops.append(op)

        assert block.exitswitch not in vars

        for link in block.exits:
            appended = False
            newargs = []
            for arg in link.args:
                if arg in vars:
                    if not appended:
                        newargs += list_newvars()
                        appended = True
                else:
                    newargs.append(arg)
            link.args[:] = newargs

        block.operations[:] = self.newops

    def compute_lifetimes(self, graph):
        """Compute the static data flow of the graph: returns a list of LifeTime
        instances, each of which corresponds to a set of Variables from the graph.
        The variables are grouped in the same LifeTime if a value can pass from
        one to the other by following the links.  Each LifeTime also records all
        places where a Variable in the set is used (read) or build (created).
        """
        lifetimes = UnionFind(LifeTime)

        def set_creation_point(block, var, *cp):
            _, _, info = lifetimes.find((block, var))
            info.creationpoints[cp] = True

        def set_use_point(block, var, *up):
            _, _, info = lifetimes.find((block, var))
            info.usepoints[up] = True

        def union(block1, var1, block2, var2):
            if isinstance(var1, Variable):
                lifetimes.union((block1, var1), (block2, var2))
            elif isinstance(var1, Constant):
                set_creation_point(block2, var2, "constant", var1)
            else:
                raise TypeError(var1)

        for var in graph.startblock.inputargs:
            set_creation_point(graph.startblock, var, "inputargs")
        set_use_point(graph.returnblock, graph.returnblock.inputargs[0], "return")
        set_use_point(graph.exceptblock, graph.exceptblock.inputargs[0], "except")
        set_use_point(graph.exceptblock, graph.exceptblock.inputargs[1], "except")

        for node in graph.iterblocks():
                for op in node.operations:
                    if op.opname in self.IDENTITY_OPS:
                        # special-case these operations to identify their input
                        # and output variables
                        union(node, op.args[0], node, op.result)
                        continue
                    if op.opname in self.SUBSTRUCT_OPS:
                        if self.visit_substruct_op(node, union, op):
                            continue
                    for i in range(len(op.args)):
                        if isinstance(op.args[i], Variable):
                            set_use_point(node, op.args[i], "op", node, op, i)
                    set_creation_point(node, op.result, "op", node, op)
                if isinstance(node.exitswitch, Variable):
                    set_use_point(node, node.exitswitch, "exitswitch", node)

        for node in graph.iterlinks():
                if isinstance(node.last_exception, Variable):
                    set_creation_point(node.prevblock, node.last_exception,
                                       "last_exception")
                if isinstance(node.last_exc_value, Variable):
                    set_creation_point(node.prevblock, node.last_exc_value,
                                       "last_exc_value")
                d = {}
                for i, arg in enumerate(node.args):
                    union(node.prevblock, arg,
                          node.target, node.target.inputargs[i])
                    if isinstance(arg, Variable):
                        if arg in d:
                            # same variable present several times in link.args
                            # consider it as a 'use' of the variable, which
                            # will disable malloc optimization (aliasing problems)
                            set_use_point(node.prevblock, arg, "dup", node, i)
                        else:
                            d[arg] = True

        return lifetimes.infos()

    def _try_inline_malloc(self, info):
        """Try to inline the mallocs creation and manipulation of the Variables
        in the given LifeTime."""
        # the values must be only ever created by a "malloc"
        lltypes = {}
        for cp in info.creationpoints:
            if cp[0] != "op":
                return False
            op = cp[2]
            if not self.check_malloc(op):
                return False
            if not self.inline_type(op.args[0].value):
                return False

            lltypes[op.result.concretetype] = True

        # there must be a single largest malloced GcStruct;
        # all variables can point to it or to initial substructures
        if len(lltypes) != 1:
            return False
        STRUCT = self.get_STRUCT(lltypes.keys()[0])

        # must be only ever accessed via getfield/setfield/getsubstruct/
        # direct_fieldptr, or touched by ptr_iszero/ptr_nonzero.
        # Note that same_as and cast_pointer are not recorded in usepoints.
        self.accessed_substructs = {}

        for up in info.usepoints:
            if up[0] != "op":
                return False
            kind, node, op, index = up
            if index != 0:
                return False
            if op.opname in self.CHECK_ARRAY_INDEX:
                if not isinstance(op.args[1], Constant):
                    return False    # non-constant array index
            if op.opname in self.FIELD_ACCESS:
                pass   # ok
            elif op.opname in self.SUBSTRUCT_ACCESS:
                self.do_substruct_access(op)
            else:
                return False

        # must not remove mallocs of structures that have a RTTI with a destructor
        if self.RTTI_dtor(STRUCT):
            return False

        # must not remove unions inlined as the only field of a GcStruct
        if self.union_wrapper(STRUCT):
            return False

        # success: replace each variable with a family of variables (one per field)

        # 'flatnames' is a list of (STRUCTTYPE, fieldname_in_that_struct) that
        # describes the list of variables that should replace the single
        # malloc'ed pointer variable that we are about to remove.  For primitive
        # or pointer fields, the new corresponding variable just stores the
        # actual value.  For substructures, if pointers to them are "equivalent"
        # to pointers to the parent structure (see equivalent_substruct()) then
        # they are just merged, and flatnames will also list the fields within
        # that substructure.  Other substructures are replaced by a single new
        # variable which is a pointer to a GcStruct-wrapper; each is malloc'ed
        # individually, in an exploded way.  (The next malloc removal pass will
        # get rid of them again, in the typical case.)
        self.flatnames = []
        self.flatconstants = {}
        self.needsubmallocs = []
        self.newvarstype = {}       # map {item-of-flatnames: concretetype}
        self.direct_fieldptr_key = {}
        self.flatten(STRUCT)
        assert len(self.direct_fieldptr_key) <= 1

        variables_by_block = {}
        for block, var in info.variables:
            vars = variables_by_block.setdefault(block, {})
            vars[var] = True

        count = [0]

        for block, vars in variables_by_block.items():

            # look for variables arriving from outside the block
            newvarsmap = None
            newinputargs = []
            inputvars = {}
            for var in block.inputargs:
                if var in vars:
                    inputvars[var] = None
                    if newvarsmap is None:
                        newvarsmap = {}
                        for key in self.flatnames:
                            newvar = Variable()
                            newvar.concretetype = self.newvarstype[key]
                            newvarsmap[key] = newvar
                            newinputargs.append(newvar)
                else:
                    newinputargs.append(var)
            block.inputargs[:] = newinputargs
            if inputvars:
                self.flowin(block, count, inputvars, newvarsmap)

            # look for variables created inside the block by a malloc
            vars_created_here = []
            for op in block.operations:
                if self.check_malloc(op) and op.result in vars:
                    vars_created_here.append(op.result)
            for var in vars_created_here:
                self.flowin(block, count, {var: True}, newvarsmap=None)

        return count[0]

    def remove_mallocs_once(self, graph):
        """Perform one iteration of malloc removal."""
        simplify.remove_identical_vars(graph)
        lifetimes = self.compute_lifetimes(graph)
        progress = 0
        for info in lifetimes:
            progress += self._try_inline_malloc(info)
        return progress

    def remove_simple_mallocs(self, graph):
        """Iteratively remove (inline) the mallocs that can be simplified away."""
        tot = 0
        while True:
            count = self.remove_mallocs_once(graph)
            if count:
                if self.verbose:
                    log.malloc('%d simple mallocs removed in %r' % (count, graph.name))
                else:
                    log.dot()
                tot += count
            else:
                break
        return tot


class LLTypeMallocRemover(BaseMallocRemover):

    IDENTITY_OPS = ("same_as", "cast_pointer")
    SUBSTRUCT_OPS = ("getsubstruct", "direct_fieldptr")
    MALLOC_OP = "malloc"
    FIELD_ACCESS =     dict.fromkeys(["getfield",
                                      "setfield",
                                      "ptr_iszero",
                                      "ptr_nonzero",
                                      "getarrayitem",
                                      "setarrayitem"])
    SUBSTRUCT_ACCESS = dict.fromkeys(["getsubstruct",
                                      "direct_fieldptr",
                                      "getarraysubstruct"])
    CHECK_ARRAY_INDEX = dict.fromkeys(["getarrayitem",
                                       "setarrayitem",
                                       "getarraysubstruct"])

    def check_malloc(self, op):
        if op.opname == 'malloc':
            flags = op.args[1].value
            if flags == {'flavor': 'gc'}:
                return True
        return False

    def recreate_malloc(self, c, v):
        return SpaceOperation(self.MALLOC_OP, [c,
                                               Constant({'flavor': 'gc'},
                                                        lltype.Void)],
                              v)

    def get_STRUCT(self, TYPE):
        STRUCT = TYPE.TO
        assert isinstance(STRUCT, lltype.GcStruct)
        return STRUCT

    def visit_substruct_op(self, node, union, op):
        S = op.args[0].concretetype.TO
        if self.equivalent_substruct(S, op.args[1].value):
            # assumed to be similar to a cast_pointer
            union(node, op.args[0], node, op.result)
            return True
        return False

    def do_substruct_access(self, op):
        S = op.args[0].concretetype.TO
        name = op.args[1].value
        if not isinstance(name, str):      # access by index
            name = 'item%d' % (name,)
        self.accessed_substructs[S, name] = True

    def inline_type(self, TYPE):
        return True

    def equivalent_substruct(self, S, fieldname):
        # we consider a pointer to a GcStruct S as equivalent to a
        # pointer to a substructure 'S.fieldname' if it's the first
        # inlined sub-GcStruct.  As an extension we also allow a pointer
        # to a GcStruct containing just one field to be equivalent to
        # a pointer to that field only (although a mere cast_pointer
        # would not allow casting).  This is needed to malloc-remove
        # the 'wrapper' GcStructs introduced by previous passes of
        # malloc removal.
        if not isinstance(S, lltype.GcStruct):
            return False
        if fieldname != S._names[0]:
            return False
        FIELDTYPE = S._flds[fieldname]
        if isinstance(FIELDTYPE, lltype.GcStruct):
            if FIELDTYPE._hints.get('union'):
                return False
            return True
        if len(S._names) == 1:
            return True
        return False

    def union_wrapper(self, S):
        # check if 'S' is a GcStruct containing a single inlined *union* Struct
        if not isinstance(S, lltype.GcStruct):
            return False
        assert not S._hints.get('union')    # not supported: "GcUnion"
        return (len(S._names) == 1 and
                isinstance(S._flds[S._names[0]], lltype.Struct) and
                S._flds[S._names[0]]._hints.get('union'))


    def RTTI_dtor(self, STRUCT):
        try:
            destr_ptr = lltype.getRuntimeTypeInfo(STRUCT)._obj.destructor_funcptr
            if destr_ptr:
                return True
        except (ValueError, AttributeError), e:
            pass
        return False

    def flatten(self, S):
        start = 0
        if S._names and self.equivalent_substruct(S, S._names[0]):
            SUBTYPE = S._flds[S._names[0]]
            if isinstance(SUBTYPE, lltype.Struct):
                self.flatten(SUBTYPE)
                start = 1
            else:
                ARRAY = lltype.FixedSizeArray(SUBTYPE, 1)
                self.direct_fieldptr_key[ARRAY, 'item0'] = S, S._names[0]
        for name in S._names[start:]:
            key = S, name
            FIELDTYPE = S._flds[name]
            if key in self.accessed_substructs:
                self.needsubmallocs.append(key)
                self.flatnames.append(key)
                self.newvarstype[key] = lltype.Ptr(lltype.GcStruct('wrapper',
                                                          ('data', FIELDTYPE)))
            elif not isinstance(FIELDTYPE, lltype.ContainerType):
                example = FIELDTYPE._defl()
                constant = Constant(example)
                constant.concretetype = FIELDTYPE
                self.flatconstants[key] = constant
                self.flatnames.append(key)
                self.newvarstype[key] = FIELDTYPE
            #else:
            #   the inlined substructure is never accessed, drop it

    def key_for_field_access(self, S, fldname):
        if isinstance(S, lltype.FixedSizeArray):
            if not isinstance(fldname, str):      # access by index
                fldname = 'item%d' % (fldname,)
            try:
                return self.direct_fieldptr_key[S, fldname]
            except KeyError:
                pass
        return S, fldname

    def handle_unreachable(self, v_result):
        from pypy.rpython.lltypesystem.rstr import string_repr
        msg = "unreachable operation (from malloc.py)"
        ll_msg = string_repr.convert_const(msg)
        c_msg = Constant(ll_msg, lltype.typeOf(ll_msg))
        return SpaceOperation("debug_fatalerror", [c_msg], v_result)

    def flowin_op(self, op, vars, newvarsmap):
        if op.opname in ("getfield", "getarrayitem"):
            S = op.args[0].concretetype.TO
            fldname = op.args[1].value
            key = self.key_for_field_access(S, fldname)
            if key not in newvarsmap:
                newop = self.handle_unreachable(op.result)
            elif key in self.accessed_substructs:
                c_name = Constant('data', lltype.Void)
                newop = SpaceOperation("getfield",
                                       [newvarsmap[key], c_name],
                                       op.result)
            else:
                newop = SpaceOperation("same_as",
                                       [newvarsmap[key]],
                                       op.result)
            self.newops.append(newop)
        elif op.opname in ("setfield", "setarrayitem"):
            S = op.args[0].concretetype.TO
            fldname = op.args[1].value
            key = self.key_for_field_access(S, fldname)
            if key not in newvarsmap:
                newop = self.handle_unreachable(op.result)
                self.newops.append(newop)
            elif key in self.accessed_substructs:
                c_name = Constant('data', lltype.Void)
                newop = SpaceOperation("setfield",
                                 [newvarsmap[key], c_name, op.args[2]],
                                           op.result)
                self.newops.append(newop)
            else:
                newvarsmap[key] = op.args[2]
        elif op.opname in ("same_as", "cast_pointer"):
            vars[op.result] = True
            # Consider the two pointers (input and result) as
            # equivalent.  We can, and indeed must, use the same
            # flattened list of variables for both, as a "setfield"
            # via one pointer must be reflected in the other.
        elif op.opname in ("getsubstruct", "getarraysubstruct",
                           "direct_fieldptr"):
            S = op.args[0].concretetype.TO
            fldname = op.args[1].value
            if op.opname == "getarraysubstruct":
                fldname = 'item%d' % fldname
            equiv = self.equivalent_substruct(S, fldname)
            if equiv:
                # exactly like a cast_pointer
                assert op.result not in vars
                vars[op.result] = True
            else:
                # do it with a getsubstruct on the independently
                # malloc'ed GcStruct
                if op.opname == "direct_fieldptr":
                    opname = "direct_fieldptr"
                else:
                    opname = "getsubstruct"
                try:
                    v = newvarsmap[S, fldname]
                except KeyError:
                    newop = self.handle_unreachable(op.result)
                else:
                    cname = Constant('data', lltype.Void)
                    newop = SpaceOperation(opname,
                                           [v, cname],
                                           op.result)
                self.newops.append(newop)
        elif op.opname in ("ptr_iszero", "ptr_nonzero"):
            # we know the pointer is not NULL if it comes from
            # a successful malloc
            c = Constant(op.opname == "ptr_nonzero", lltype.Bool)
            newop = SpaceOperation('same_as', [c], op.result)
            self.newops.append(newop)
        else:
            raise AssertionError, op.opname


class OOTypeMallocRemover(BaseMallocRemover):

    IDENTITY_OPS = ('same_as', 'ooupcast', 'oodowncast')
    SUBSTRUCT_OPS = ()
    MALLOC_OP = 'new'
    FIELD_ACCESS = dict.fromkeys(["oogetfield",
                                  "oosetfield",
                                  "oononnull",
                                  "ooisnull",
                                  #"oois",  # ???
                                  #"instanceof", # ???
                                  ])
    SUBSTRUCT_ACCESS = {}
    CHECK_ARRAY_INDEX = {}

    def get_STRUCT(self, TYPE):
        return TYPE

    def union_wrapper(self, S):
        return False

    def RTTI_dtor(self, STRUCT):
        return False

    def inline_type(self, TYPE):
        return isinstance(TYPE, (ootype.Record, ootype.Instance))

    def _get_fields(self, TYPE):
        if isinstance(TYPE, ootype.Record):
            return TYPE._fields
        elif isinstance(TYPE, ootype.Instance):
            return TYPE._allfields()
        else:
            assert False

    def flatten(self, TYPE):
        for name, (FIELDTYPE, default) in self._get_fields(TYPE).iteritems():
            key = self.key_for_field_access(TYPE, name)
            constant = Constant(default)
            constant.concretetype = FIELDTYPE
            self.flatconstants[key] = constant
            self.flatnames.append(key)
            self.newvarstype[key] = FIELDTYPE

    def key_for_field_access(self, S, fldname):
        CLS, TYPE = S._lookup_field(fldname)
        return CLS, fldname

    def flowin_op(self, op, vars, newvarsmap):
        if op.opname == "oogetfield":
            S = op.args[0].concretetype
            fldname = op.args[1].value
            key = self.key_for_field_access(S, fldname)
            newop = SpaceOperation("same_as",
                                   [newvarsmap[key]],
                                   op.result)
            self.newops.append(newop)
        elif op.opname == "oosetfield":
            S = op.args[0].concretetype
            fldname = op.args[1].value
            key = self.key_for_field_access(S, fldname)
            assert key in newvarsmap
            newvarsmap[key] = op.args[2]
        elif op.opname in ("same_as", "oodowncast", "ooupcast"):
            vars[op.result] = True
            # Consider the two pointers (input and result) as
            # equivalent.  We can, and indeed must, use the same
            # flattened list of variables for both, as a "setfield"
            # via one pointer must be reflected in the other.
        elif op.opname in ("ooisnull", "oononnull"):
            # we know the pointer is not NULL if it comes from
            # a successful malloc
            c = Constant(op.opname == "oononnull", lltype.Bool)
            newop = SpaceOperation('same_as', [c], op.result)
            self.newops.append(newop)
        else:
            raise AssertionError, op.opname


def remove_simple_mallocs(graph, type_system='lltypesystem', verbose=True):
    if type_system == 'lltypesystem':
        remover = LLTypeMallocRemover(verbose)
    else:
        remover = OOTypeMallocRemover(verbose)
    return remover.remove_simple_mallocs(graph)


def remove_mallocs(translator, graphs=None, type_system="lltypesystem"):
    if graphs is None:
        graphs = translator.graphs
    tot = 0
    for graph in graphs:
        count = remove_simple_mallocs(graph, type_system=type_system, verbose=translator.config.translation.verbose)
        if count:
            # remove typical leftovers from malloc removal
            removenoops.remove_same_as(graph)
            simplify.eliminate_empty_blocks(graph)
            simplify.transform_dead_op_vars(graph, translator)
            tot += count
    log.malloc("removed %d simple mallocs in total" % tot)
    return tot
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