Foreign Function Interface for RPython
This document describes an FFI for RPython language, concentrating on low-level backends like C. It describes how to declare and call low-level (C) functions from RPython level.
Declaring low-level external function
Declaring external C function in RPython is easy, but one needs to remember that low level functions eat low level types (like lltype.Signed or lltype.Array) and memory management must be done by hand. To declare a function, we write:
from pypy.rpython.lltypesystem import rffi external_function = rffi.llexternal(name, args, result)
- name - a C-level name of a function (how it would be rendered)
- args - low level types of args
- result - low level type of a result
You can pass in additional information about C-level includes, libraries and sources by passing in the optional compilation_info parameter:
from pypy.rpython.lltypesystem import rffi from pypy.translator.tool.cbuild import ExternalCompilationInfo info = ExternalCompilationInfo(includes=, libraries=) external_function = rffi.llexternal( name, args, result, compilation_info=info )
See cbuild for more info on ExternalCompilationInfo.
In rffi there are various declared types for C-structures, like CCHARP (char*), SIZE_T (size_t) and others. refer to file for details. Instances of non-primitive types must be alloced by hand, with call to lltype.malloc, and freed by lltype.free both with keyword argument flavor='raw'. There are several helpers like string -> char* converter, refer to the source for details.
Registering function as external
Once we provided low-level implementation of an external function, would be nice to wrap call to some library function (like os.open) with such a call. For this, there is a register_external routine, located in extfunc.py, which provides nice API for declaring such a functions, passing llimpl as an argument and eventually llfakeimpl as a fake low-level implementation for tests performed by an llinterp.
XXX to be written