1. python_mirrors
  2. cpython


cpython / Lib / socket.py

# Wrapper module for _socket, providing some additional facilities
# implemented in Python.

This module provides socket operations and some related functions.
On Unix, it supports IP (Internet Protocol) and Unix domain sockets.
On other systems, it only supports IP. Functions specific for a
socket are available as methods of the socket object.


socket() -- create a new socket object
socketpair() -- create a pair of new socket objects [*]
fromfd() -- create a socket object from an open file descriptor [*]
gethostname() -- return the current hostname
gethostbyname() -- map a hostname to its IP number
gethostbyaddr() -- map an IP number or hostname to DNS info
getservbyname() -- map a service name and a protocol name to a port number
getprotobyname() -- map a protocol name (e.g. 'tcp') to a number
ntohs(), ntohl() -- convert 16, 32 bit int from network to host byte order
htons(), htonl() -- convert 16, 32 bit int from host to network byte order
inet_aton() -- convert IP addr string ( to 32-bit packed format
inet_ntoa() -- convert 32-bit packed format IP to string (
socket.getdefaulttimeout() -- get the default timeout value
socket.setdefaulttimeout() -- set the default timeout value
create_connection() -- connects to an address, with an optional timeout

 [*] not available on all platforms!

Special objects:

SocketType -- type object for socket objects
error -- exception raised for I/O errors
has_ipv6 -- boolean value indicating if IPv6 is supported

Integer constants:

AF_INET, AF_UNIX -- socket domains (first argument to socket() call)
SOCK_STREAM, SOCK_DGRAM, SOCK_RAW -- socket types (second argument)

Many other constants may be defined; these may be used in calls to
the setsockopt() and getsockopt() methods.

import _socket
from _socket import *

import os, sys, io

    from errno import EBADF
except ImportError:
    EBADF = 9

__all__ = ["getfqdn", "create_connection"]

_realsocket = socket

# WSA error codes
if sys.platform.lower().startswith("win"):
    errorTab = {}
    errorTab[10004] = "The operation was interrupted."
    errorTab[10009] = "A bad file handle was passed."
    errorTab[10013] = "Permission denied."
    errorTab[10014] = "A fault occurred on the network??" # WSAEFAULT
    errorTab[10022] = "An invalid operation was attempted."
    errorTab[10035] = "The socket operation would block"
    errorTab[10036] = "A blocking operation is already in progress."
    errorTab[10048] = "The network address is in use."
    errorTab[10054] = "The connection has been reset."
    errorTab[10058] = "The network has been shut down."
    errorTab[10060] = "The operation timed out."
    errorTab[10061] = "Connection refused."
    errorTab[10063] = "The name is too long."
    errorTab[10064] = "The host is down."
    errorTab[10065] = "The host is unreachable."

class socket(_socket.socket):

    """A subclass of _socket.socket adding the makefile() method."""

    __slots__ = ["__weakref__", "_io_refs", "_closed"]

    def __init__(self, family=AF_INET, type=SOCK_STREAM, proto=0, fileno=None):
        _socket.socket.__init__(self, family, type, proto, fileno)
        self._io_refs = 0
        self._closed = False

    def __repr__(self):
        """Wrap __repr__() to reveal the real class name."""
        s = _socket.socket.__repr__(self)
        if s.startswith("<socket object"):
            s = "<%s.%s%s%s" % (self.__class__.__module__,
                                (self._closed and " [closed] ") or "",
        return s

    def dup(self):
        """dup() -> socket object

        Return a new socket object connected to the same system resource.
        fd = dup(self.fileno())
        sock = self.__class__(self.family, self.type, self.proto, fileno=fd)
        return sock

    def accept(self):
        """accept() -> (socket object, address info)

        Wait for an incoming connection.  Return a new socket
        representing the connection, and the address of the client.
        For IP sockets, the address info is a pair (hostaddr, port).
        fd, addr = self._accept()
        return socket(self.family, self.type, self.proto, fileno=fd), addr

    def makefile(self, mode="r", buffering=None, *,
                 encoding=None, errors=None, newline=None):
        """makefile(...) -> an I/O stream connected to the socket

        The arguments are as for io.open() after the filename,
        except the only mode characters supported are 'r', 'w' and 'b'.
        The semantics are similar too.  (XXX refactor to share code?)
        for c in mode:
            if c not in {"r", "w", "b"}:
                raise ValueError("invalid mode %r (only r, w, b allowed)")
        writing = "w" in mode
        reading = "r" in mode or not writing
        assert reading or writing
        binary = "b" in mode
        rawmode = ""
        if reading:
            rawmode += "r"
        if writing:
            rawmode += "w"
        raw = SocketIO(self, rawmode)
        self._io_refs += 1
        if buffering is None:
            buffering = -1
        if buffering < 0:
            buffering = io.DEFAULT_BUFFER_SIZE
        if buffering == 0:
            if not binary:
                raise ValueError("unbuffered streams must be binary")
            return raw
        if reading and writing:
            buffer = io.BufferedRWPair(raw, raw, buffering)
        elif reading:
            buffer = io.BufferedReader(raw, buffering)
            assert writing
            buffer = io.BufferedWriter(raw, buffering)
        if binary:
            return buffer
        text = io.TextIOWrapper(buffer, encoding, errors, newline)
        text.mode = mode
        return text

    def _decref_socketios(self):
        if self._io_refs > 0:
            self._io_refs -= 1
        if self._closed:

    def _real_close(self):

    def close(self):
        self._closed = True
        if self._io_refs <= 0:

def fromfd(fd, family, type, proto=0):
    """ fromfd(fd, family, type[, proto]) -> socket object

    Create a socket object from a duplicate of the given file
    descriptor.  The remaining arguments are the same as for socket().
    nfd = dup(fd)
    return socket(family, type, proto, nfd)

class SocketIO(io.RawIOBase):

    """Raw I/O implementation for stream sockets.

    This class supports the makefile() method on sockets.  It provides
    the raw I/O interface on top of a socket object.

    # One might wonder why not let FileIO do the job instead.  There are two
    # main reasons why FileIO is not adapted:
    # - it wouldn't work under Windows (where you can't used read() and
    #   write() on a socket handle)
    # - it wouldn't work with socket timeouts (FileIO would ignore the
    #   timeout and consider the socket non-blocking)

    # XXX More docs

    def __init__(self, sock, mode):
        if mode not in ("r", "w", "rw", "rb", "wb", "rwb"):
            raise ValueError("invalid mode: %r" % mode)
        self._sock = sock
        if "b" not in mode:
            mode += "b"
        self._mode = mode
        self._reading = "r" in mode
        self._writing = "w" in mode

    def readinto(self, b):
        """Read up to len(b) bytes into the writable buffer *b* and return
        the number of bytes read.  If the socket is non-blocking and no bytes
        are available, None is returned.

        If *b* is non-empty, a 0 return value indicates that the connection
        was shutdown at the other end.
        return self._sock.recv_into(b)

    def write(self, b):
        """Write the given bytes or bytearray object *b* to the socket
        and return the number of bytes written.  This can be less than
        len(b) if not all data could be written.  If the socket is
        non-blocking and no bytes could be written None is returned.
        return self._sock.send(b)

    def readable(self):
        """True if the SocketIO is open for reading.
        return self._reading and not self.closed

    def writable(self):
        """True if the SocketIO is open for writing.
        return self._writing and not self.closed

    def fileno(self):
        """Return the file descriptor of the underlying socket.
        return self._sock.fileno()

    def name(self):
        return self.fileno()

    def mode(self):
        return self._mode

    def close(self):
        """Close the SocketIO object.  This doesn't close the underlying
        socket, except if all references to it have disappeared.
        if self.closed:
        self._sock = None

    def __del__(self):
        if not self.closed:

def getfqdn(name=''):
    """Get fully qualified domain name from name.

    An empty argument is interpreted as meaning the local host.

    First the hostname returned by gethostbyaddr() is checked, then
    possibly existing aliases. In case no FQDN is available, hostname
    from gethostname() is returned.
    name = name.strip()
    if not name or name == '':
        name = gethostname()
        hostname, aliases, ipaddrs = gethostbyaddr(name)
    except error:
        aliases.insert(0, hostname)
        for name in aliases:
            if '.' in name:
            name = hostname
    return name


def create_connection(address, timeout=_GLOBAL_DEFAULT_TIMEOUT):
    """Connect to *address* and return the socket object.

    Convenience function.  Connect to *address* (a 2-tuple ``(host,
    port)``) and return the socket object.  Passing the optional
    *timeout* parameter will set the timeout on the socket instance
    before attempting to connect.  If no *timeout* is supplied, the
    global default timeout setting returned by :func:`getdefaulttimeout`
    is used.

    host, port = address
    err = None
    for res in getaddrinfo(host, port, 0, SOCK_STREAM):
        af, socktype, proto, canonname, sa = res
        sock = None
            sock = socket(af, socktype, proto)
            if timeout is not _GLOBAL_DEFAULT_TIMEOUT:
            return sock

        except error as _:
            err = _
            if sock is not None:

    if err is not None:
        raise err
        raise error("getaddrinfo returns an empty list")