Commits

Martin Ostrovsky  committed 5e75b1c

removed old csharp dir

added java client

  • Participants
  • Parent commits 9d7f5dd

Comments (0)

Files changed (10)

 *swo
 *csv
 *mmap
+*class
+*ptt
 
 # Dummy files
 foo.py
 python/*.jpg
 python/*.png
 python/*.ppt
+

File c#/RepustateClient.cs

+ďťżusing System;
+using System.Collections.Generic;
+using System.Linq;
+using System.Text;
+using System.Web;
+using System.Net;
+using System.IO;
+
+namespace RepustateApplication
+{
+    class RepustateClient
+    {
+        public static string API_KEY = "02e110464052e009f2f08f35e3655ef449380787";
+        public static string DOMAIN = "http://api.repustate.com/v2/";
+        public static string BASE_URL = DOMAIN + API_KEY;
+
+        public static string FORMAT_JSON = ".json";
+        public static string FORMAT_XML = ".xml";
+
+        public static string URL_ARGUMENT_STRING = "?url=";
+
+        public static string SENTIMENT_PATH = "/score";
+        public static string SENTIMENT_BULK_PATH = "/bulk-score";
+        public static string ADJECTIVES_PATH = "/adj";
+        public static string VERBS_PATH = "/verb";
+        public static string CLEAN_HTML_PATH = "/clean-html";
+        public static string NGRAMS_PATH = "/ngrams";
+        public static string EXTRACT_DATES_PATH = "/extract-dates";
+        public static string POWERPOINT_PATH = "/powerpoint/";
+        
+        /**
+	     * Generic method for calling any other future methods that Repustate may add
+	     * @param path
+	     * @param format
+	     * @param httpRequestType
+	     * @param data
+	     * @return
+	     * @throws MalformedURLException
+	     * @throws IOException
+	     * @throws RepustateException
+	     */
+	    public static string getRepustateData(string path, string format, string httpRequestType, Dictionary<string, string> data)
+	    {
+		    string output = sendRequest(path + format, "", httpRequestType, getContentFromDictionary(data));
+		    return output;
+	    }
+
+	    /**
+	     * This method takes a map of strings as argument. Each key value pair will represent a block of text. 
+	     * Each argument starting with 'text' will be the only ones scored. To help you reconcile scores with blocks of text, 
+	     * Repustate requires that you append some sort of ID to the POST argument. For example, if you had 50 blocks of text, 
+	     * you could enumerate them from 1 to 50 as text1, text2, ..., text50.
+	     *
+	     * @param format
+	     * @param data
+	     * @return
+	     * @throws MalformedURLException
+	     * @throws IOException
+	     * @throws RepustateException
+	     */
+	    public static string getSentimentBulk(string format,  Dictionary<string, string> data) 
+	    {
+		    //curl -d "text1=first block of text&text2=second block of text"// http://api.repustate.com/v2/demokey/bulk-score.json
+		    string output = sendRequest(SENTIMENT_BULK_PATH + format, "", "POST", getContentFromDictionary(data));
+		    return output;
+	    }
+	
+	    public static string getSentiment(string format, Dictionary<string, string> data) 
+	    {
+		    //curl -d "url=www.twitter.com" http://api.repustate.com/v2/demokey/score.json
+		    string output = sendRequest(SENTIMENT_PATH + format, "", "POST", getContentFromDictionary(data));
+		    return output;
+	    }
+	
+	    public static string getAdjectives(string format, Dictionary<string, string> data) 
+	    {
+		    //curl -d "text=This is a big block of new text" http://api.repustate.com/v2/demokey/adj.xml
+		    string output = sendRequest(ADJECTIVES_PATH + format, "", "POST", getContentFromDictionary(data));
+		    return output;
+	    }
+	 
+	    public static string getVerbs(string format, Dictionary<string, string> data) 
+	    {
+		    //curl -d "text=This man is buying iPads." http://api.repustate.com/v2/demokey/verb.json
+		    string output = sendRequest(VERBS_PATH + format, "", "POST", getContentFromDictionary(data));
+		    return output;
+	    }
+	
+	    /**
+	     * API notes from Repustate
+	     * Note: all of the above API calls use this implicitly so you don't have to
+	     * clean your HTML before passing it to Repustate. Only use this API call if
+	     * you intend to do your own processing after the fact with the cleaned up
+	     * HTML.
+	     * 
+	     * Note 2: This call doesn't work on home pages e.g. cnn.com, ebay.com,
+	     * nytimes.com. Its intended use is for single article pages.
+	     * 
+	     * @param format
+	     * @param data
+	     * @return
+	     * @throws MalformedURLException
+	     * @throws IOException
+	     * @throws RepustateException
+	     */
+	    public static string getCleanHTML(string format, Dictionary<string, string> data, string url) 
+	    {
+		    //http://api.repustate.com/v2/demokey/clean-html.json?url=http://tcrn.ch/aav9Ty
+		    string urlStr = CLEAN_HTML_PATH + format;
+		    if(url != null)
+		    {
+			    urlStr = urlStr + URL_ARGUMENT_STRING + url;
+		    }
+		    string output = sendRequest(urlStr, "", "GET", getContentFromDictionary(data));
+		    return output;
+	    }
+	
+	    /**
+	     * If the url argument is specified, we will use the HTTP GET method, or if
+	     * the text is specified, then we will use the POST method according to the
+	     * repustate APIs. if you are using HTTP GET, any optional arguments need to
+	     * be URL-encoded. If you are using HTTP POST, any optional arguments should
+	     * be part of your POST'ed data.
+	     * 
+	     * @param format
+	     * @param data
+	     * @param url
+	     * @return
+	     * @throws MalformedURLException
+	     * @throws IOException
+	     * @throws RepustateException
+	     */
+	    public static string getNgrams(string format, Dictionary<string, string> data, string url) 
+	    {
+		    //http://api.repustate.com/v2/demokey/ngrams.json?url=http://tcrn.ch/aav9Ty&max=4&min=2&freq=2
+
+		    string output = "";
+		    if(url != null && !url.Equals(""))
+		    {
+			    //In this case, we need to use HTTP GET and all the arguments need to be URL encoded
+			    string urlStr = NGRAMS_PATH + format;
+			    urlStr += URL_ARGUMENT_STRING + url + "&";
+			    urlStr += getContentFromDictionary(data);			    
+			    output = sendRequest(urlStr, "", "GET", "");
+		    }
+		    else
+		    {
+			    //In this case we need to use HTTP POST and pass the arguments in the POST data
+			    output = sendRequest(NGRAMS_PATH + format, "", "POST", getContentFromDictionary(data));
+		    }
+		
+		    return output;
+	    }
+	
+	    public static string getExtractedDates(string format, Dictionary<string, string> data) 
+	    {
+		    //curl -d "text=I can't wait to go to school tomorrow" http://api.repustate.com/v2/demokey/extract-dates.json
+		    string output = sendRequest(EXTRACT_DATES_PATH + format, "", "POST", getContentFromDictionary(data));
+		    return output;
+	    }
+	
+	    public static void savePowerpointSlides(Dictionary<string, string> data, string fileName) 
+							    
+	    {
+		    //curl -d "author=Martin
+		    //&report_id=10
+		    //&report_title=My first report
+		    //&slide_1_title=My first slide
+		    //&slide_1_image=<b64 encoding>
+		    //&slide_1_notes=A great slide to show people" 
+		    //http://api.repustate.com/v2/your_api_key_goes_here/powerpoint/
+				    
+		    sendPowerPointRequest(POWERPOINT_PATH, "", "POST", getContentFromDictionary(data), fileName);
+	    }
+
+
+        /********************************UTILITY METHODS****************************************/
+        private static void sendPowerPointRequest(string path, string contentType, string method, string data, string fileName)
+        {
+            HttpWebRequest myHttpWebRequest = (HttpWebRequest)WebRequest.Create(BASE_URL + path);
+            myHttpWebRequest.Method = method.ToUpper();
+
+            //Write the data to the stream
+            if (data != null && !data.Equals(""))
+            {
+                byte[] byteArray = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(data);
+                Stream dataStream = myHttpWebRequest.GetRequestStream();
+                dataStream.Write(byteArray, 0, byteArray.Length);
+                dataStream.Close();
+            }
+
+            HttpWebResponse myHttpWebResponse = (HttpWebResponse)myHttpWebRequest.GetResponse();
+            Stream streamResponse = myHttpWebResponse.GetResponseStream();
+
+            BinaryReader binReader = new BinaryReader(streamResponse);
+
+            System.IO.FileStream fileStream = new System.IO.FileStream(fileName, System.IO.FileMode.Create, System.IO.FileAccess.Write);
+
+            byte[] buff = new byte[2048];
+            int bytesRead;            
+            while (0 != (bytesRead = binReader.Read(buff, 0, buff.Length)))
+            {               
+                fileStream.Write(buff, 0, bytesRead);
+            }
+            fileStream.Close();
+            binReader.Close();
+            streamResponse.Close();            
+            myHttpWebResponse.Close();
+        }
+
+        public static string sendRequest(string path, string contentType, string method, string data)
+        {
+            string outputData = "";
+            HttpWebRequest myHttpWebRequest = (HttpWebRequest)WebRequest.Create(BASE_URL + path);
+            myHttpWebRequest.Method = method.ToUpper();
+
+            //Write the data to the stream
+            if (data != null && !data.Equals("")) 
+            {
+                byte[] byteArray = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(data);
+                Stream dataStream = myHttpWebRequest.GetRequestStream();
+                dataStream.Write(byteArray, 0, byteArray.Length);
+                dataStream.Close();
+            }
+
+            HttpWebResponse myHttpWebResponse = (HttpWebResponse)myHttpWebRequest.GetResponse();
+            Stream streamResponse = myHttpWebResponse.GetResponseStream();
+            StreamReader streamRead = new StreamReader(streamResponse);
+
+            Char[] readBuff = new Char[256];
+            int count = streamRead.Read(readBuff, 0, 256);
+            while (count > 0)
+            {
+                outputData += new string(readBuff, 0, count);
+                count = streamRead.Read(readBuff, 0, 256);
+            }
+
+            streamResponse.Close();
+            streamRead.Close();
+            myHttpWebResponse.Close();
+
+            return outputData;
+        }
+
+        public static string sendRequest(String path, String contentType)
+	    {
+		    return sendRequest(path, contentType, "GET", "");
+	    }
+
+        private static string getContentFromDictionary(Dictionary<string,string> data)
+        {
+            String content = "";
+            if (data != null)
+            {
+                int i = 0;
+                foreach (KeyValuePair<string, string> kvp in data)
+                {
+                    if (i != 0)
+                    {
+                        content += "&";
+                    }
+
+                    content += kvp.Key + "=" + HttpUtility.UrlEncode(kvp.Value, Encoding.UTF8);
+                    i++;
+                }
+            }
+            else
+            {
+                content = "";
+            }
+            return content; 	        
+        }
+    }
+}

File c#/TestRepustateClient.cs

+ďťżusing System;
+using System.Collections.Generic;
+using System.Linq;
+using System.Text;
+using System.Net;
+using System.IO;
+using System.Drawing;
+
+namespace RepustateApplication
+{
+    class RepustateClientTest
+    {
+        static void Main(string[] args)
+        {
+            runTests();
+        }        
+
+        public static void runTests()
+        {
+            try
+            {
+                //sentimentTest();
+                //sentimentBulkTest();
+                //adjectivesTest();
+                //verbsTest();
+                //cleanHTMLTest();
+                //ngramsTest();
+                //dateExtractTest();
+                powerpointTest();
+
+            } 
+		    catch (WebException e)
+            {
+                Console.WriteLine("WebException raised!");
+                Console.WriteLine("\n{0}", e.Message);
+                Console.WriteLine("\n{0}", e.Status);
+                Console.Read();
+            }
+            catch (Exception e)
+            {
+                Console.WriteLine("Exception raised!");
+                Console.WriteLine("Source :{0} ", e.Source);
+                Console.WriteLine("Message :{0} ", e.Message);
+                Console.Read();
+            }
+        }
+
+	    public static void powerpointTest() 
+	    {
+		    Dictionary<string, string> powerpointMap = new Dictionary<string, string>();
+		    powerpointMap.Add("title", "ReportSample");
+		    powerpointMap.Add("author", "TestAuthor");		    
+
+		    powerpointMap.Add("slide_1_title", "Title1");
+		    powerpointMap.Add("slide_1_notes", "Slide 1's Notes Data");
+            powerpointMap.Add("slide_1_image", ImageToBase64String(Image.FromFile("E:\\Corner\\Workspace\\repustate\\images\\1.jpg")));            
+		
+    		powerpointMap.Add("slide_2_title", "Slide Title Number 2");
+    		powerpointMap.Add("slide_2_notes", "This is slide number two's notes section");
+    		powerpointMap.Add("slide_2_image", ImageToBase64String(Image.FromFile("E:\\Corner\\Workspace\\repustate\\images\\2.jpg")));
+    		
+    		powerpointMap.Add("slide_3_title", "Slide Title Number 3");
+    		powerpointMap.Add("slide_3_notes", "This is slide number three's notes section");
+    		powerpointMap.Add("slide_3_image", ImageToBase64String(Image.FromFile("E:\\Corner\\Workspace\\repustate\\images\\3.jpg")));
+    		
+            RepustateClient.savePowerpointSlides(powerpointMap, "E:\\Corner\\acsharp.ppt");
+	    }
+
+        public static string ImageToBase64String(Image image)
+        {
+            using (MemoryStream stream = new MemoryStream())
+            {
+                image.Save(stream, image.RawFormat);
+                return Convert.ToBase64String(stream.ToArray());
+            }
+        }
+	
+	    public static void dateExtractTest() 
+	    {
+		    Dictionary<string, string> dateDataMap = new Dictionary<string, string>();
+		    dateDataMap.Add("relative_date", "2011-11-11");
+		    dateDataMap.Add("text", "I can't wait to go to school tomorrow");
+		    string sentimentOutputXML = RepustateClient.getExtractedDates(RepustateClient.FORMAT_XML, dateDataMap);
+		    Console.WriteLine(sentimentOutputXML);            
+
+		    string sentimentOutputJSON = RepustateClient.getExtractedDates(RepustateClient.FORMAT_JSON, dateDataMap);
+		    Console.WriteLine(sentimentOutputJSON);
+
+            Console.Read();
+	    }
+	
+	    public static void ngramsTest() 
+	    {
+		    Dictionary<string, string> ngramsDataMap = new Dictionary<string, string>();
+		    ngramsDataMap.Add("max", "4");
+		    ngramsDataMap.Add("min", "2");
+		    ngramsDataMap.Add("freq", "2");
+		    ngramsDataMap.Add("stopwords", "1");
+    		string sentimentOutputXML = RepustateClient.getNgrams(RepustateClient.FORMAT_XML, ngramsDataMap, "http://techcrunch.com/2010/05/07/oneriot/");
+    		Console.WriteLine(sentimentOutputXML);
+    		string sentimentOutputJSON = RepustateClient.getNgrams(RepustateClient.FORMAT_JSON, ngramsDataMap, "http://techcrunch.com/2010/05/07/oneriot/");
+    		Console.WriteLine(sentimentOutputJSON);
+		
+		    //Test 2 : No url, but text only
+		/*    ngramsDataMap.Add("text", "Today, OneRiot is rolling out a major revamp of both its site and some of its underlying architecture. T" +
+									    "he site itself looks much nicer and is better organized (sort of like a realtime Techmeme, in a way), but" +
+									    " OneRiot’s site is just a fraction of what they do. That’s why the underlying architecture elements are much " +
+									    "more interesting. In particular, OneRiot is today launching a new Trending Topics Engine, which it says is " +
+									    "the fastest and most complete way to find the best things being shared on the web.");
+		
+		    string sentimentOutputXML = RepustateClient.getNgrams(RepustateClient.FORMAT_XML, ngramsDataMap, null);
+		    Console.WriteLine(sentimentOutputXML);
+		    string sentimentOutputJSON = RepustateClient.getNgrams(RepustateClient.FORMAT_JSON, ngramsDataMap, null);
+		    Console.WriteLine(sentimentOutputJSON);
+	    */
+            Console.Read();
+        }
+		
+	    public static void cleanHTMLTest() 
+	    {
+		    string sentimentOutputXML = RepustateClient.getCleanHTML(RepustateClient.FORMAT_XML, null,  "http://techcrunch.com/2010/05/07/oneriot/");
+		    Console.WriteLine(sentimentOutputXML);
+		    string sentimentOutputJSON = RepustateClient.getCleanHTML(RepustateClient.FORMAT_JSON, null,  "http://techcrunch.com/2010/05/07/oneriot/");
+		    Console.WriteLine(sentimentOutputJSON);
+
+            Console.Read();
+	    }
+	
+	    public static void verbsTest() 
+	    {
+		    Dictionary<string, string> verbDataMap = new Dictionary<string, string>();
+    //		verbDataMap.Add("text", "This man is buying iPads.");
+		    verbDataMap.Add("cloud", "0");
+		    verbDataMap.Add("url", "http://techcrunch.com/2010/05/07/oneriot/");
+		    string sentimentOutputXML = RepustateClient.getVerbs(RepustateClient.FORMAT_XML, verbDataMap);
+		    Console.WriteLine(sentimentOutputXML);
+		    string sentimentOutputJSON = RepustateClient.getVerbs(RepustateClient.FORMAT_JSON, verbDataMap);
+		    Console.WriteLine(sentimentOutputJSON);
+	    
+            Console.Read();
+        }
+	
+	    public static void adjectivesTest() 
+	    {
+		    Dictionary<string, string> adjDataMap = new Dictionary<string, string>();
+    //		adjDataMap.Add("text", "This is a big block of new text");
+		    adjDataMap.Add("cloud", "1");
+		    adjDataMap.Add("url", "http://techcrunch.com/2010/05/07/oneriot/");
+		    string sentimentOutputXML = RepustateClient.getAdjectives(RepustateClient.FORMAT_XML, adjDataMap);
+		    Console.WriteLine(sentimentOutputXML);
+		    string sentimentOutputJSON = RepustateClient.getAdjectives(RepustateClient.FORMAT_JSON, adjDataMap);
+		    Console.WriteLine(sentimentOutputJSON);
+
+            Console.Read();
+	    }
+	
+	    public static void sentimentBulkTest() 
+	    {
+		    Dictionary<string, string> sentimentDataMap = new Dictionary<string, string>();
+		    sentimentDataMap.Add("text1", "read");
+		    sentimentDataMap.Add("text2", "ever");
+		    string sentimentOutputXML = RepustateClient.getSentimentBulk(RepustateClient.FORMAT_XML, sentimentDataMap);
+		    Console.WriteLine(sentimentOutputXML);
+		    string sentimentOutputJSON = RepustateClient.getSentimentBulk(RepustateClient.FORMAT_JSON, sentimentDataMap);
+		    Console.WriteLine(sentimentOutputJSON);
+	        
+            Console.Read();
+        }
+	
+	    public static void sentimentTest() 
+	    {
+		    Dictionary<string, string> scoreDataMap = new Dictionary<string, string>();
+		    scoreDataMap.Add("text", "read");
+		    scoreDataMap.Add("url", "http://techcrunch.com/2010/05/07/oneriot/");
+		    string scoreOutputXML = RepustateClient.getSentiment(RepustateClient.FORMAT_XML, scoreDataMap);
+		    Console.WriteLine(scoreOutputXML);
+		
+		    string scoreOutputJSON = RepustateClient.getSentiment(RepustateClient.FORMAT_JSON, scoreDataMap);
+		    Console.WriteLine(scoreOutputJSON);
+
+            Console.Read();
+	    }
+    }
+}

File csharp/helloworld.cs

-using System;
-using System.IO;
-using System.Net;
-using System.Text;
-
-/// <summary>
-/// Fetches a Web Page
-/// </summary>
-class WebFetch
-{
-    static void Main(string[] args)
-    {
-        // used to build entire input
-        StringBuilder sb  = new StringBuilder();
-
-        // used on each read operation
-        byte[]        buf = new byte[8192];
-
-        // prepare the web page we will be asking for
-        HttpWebRequest  request  = (HttpWebRequest)
-            WebRequest.Create("http://www.mayosoftware.com");
-
-        // execute the request
-        HttpWebResponse response = (HttpWebResponse)
-            request.GetResponse();
-
-        // we will read data via the response stream
-        Stream resStream = response.GetResponseStream();
-
-        string tempString = null;
-        int    count      = 0;
-
-        do
-        {
-            // fill the buffer with data
-            count = resStream.Read(buf, 0, buf.Length);
-
-            // make sure we read some data
-            if (count != 0)
-            {
-                // translate from bytes to ASCII text
-                tempString = Encoding.ASCII.GetString(buf, 0, count);
-
-                // continue building the string
-                sb.Append(tempString);
-            }
-        }
-        while (count > 0); // any more data to read?
-
-        // print out page source
-        Console.WriteLine(sb.ToString());
-    }
-}
-
-/*
-ASCIIEncoding encoding=new ASCIIEncoding();
-string postData="userid="+strId;
-postData += ("&username="+strName);
-byte[]  data = encoding.GetBytes(postData);
-
-// Prepare web request...
-HttpWebRequest myRequest = (HttpWebRequest)WebRequest.Create("http://localhost/MyIdentity/Default.aspx");
-myRequest.Method = "POST";
-myRequest.ContentType="application/x-www-form-urlencoded";
-myRequest.ContentLength = data.Length;
-Stream newStream=myRequest.GetRequestStream();
-// Send the data.
-newStream.Write(data,0,data.Length);
-newStream.Close();
-*/

File csharp/helloworld.exe

Binary file removed.

File java/Base64.java

+/**
+ * <p>Encodes and decodes to and from Base64 notation.</p>
+ * <p>Homepage: <a href="http://iharder.net/base64">http://iharder.net/base64</a>.</p>
+ * 
+ * <p>Example:</p>
+ * 
+ * <code>String encoded = Base64.encode( myByteArray );</code>
+ * <br />
+ * <code>byte[] myByteArray = Base64.decode( encoded );</code>
+ *
+ * <p>The <tt>options</tt> parameter, which appears in a few places, is used to pass 
+ * several pieces of information to the encoder. In the "higher level" methods such as 
+ * encodeBytes( bytes, options ) the options parameter can be used to indicate such 
+ * things as first gzipping the bytes before encoding them, not inserting linefeeds,
+ * and encoding using the URL-safe and Ordered dialects.</p>
+ *
+ * <p>Note, according to <a href="http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3548.html">RFC3548</a>,
+ * Section 2.1, implementations should not add line feeds unless explicitly told
+ * to do so. I've got Base64 set to this behavior now, although earlier versions
+ * broke lines by default.</p>
+ *
+ * <p>The constants defined in Base64 can be OR-ed together to combine options, so you 
+ * might make a call like this:</p>
+ *
+ * <code>String encoded = Base64.encodeBytes( mybytes, Base64.GZIP | Base64.DO_BREAK_LINES );</code>
+ * <p>to compress the data before encoding it and then making the output have newline characters.</p>
+ * <p>Also...</p>
+ * <code>String encoded = Base64.encodeBytes( crazyString.getBytes() );</code>
+ *
+ *
+ *
+ * <p>
+ * Change Log:
+ * </p>
+ * <ul>
+ *  <li>v2.3.7 - Fixed subtle bug when base 64 input stream contained the
+ *   value 01111111, which is an invalid base 64 character but should not
+ *   throw an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException either. Led to discovery of
+ *   mishandling (or potential for better handling) of other bad input
+ *   characters. You should now get an IOException if you try decoding
+ *   something that has bad characters in it.</li>
+ *  <li>v2.3.6 - Fixed bug when breaking lines and the final byte of the encoded
+ *   string ended in the last column; the buffer was not properly shrunk and
+ *   contained an extra (null) byte that made it into the string.</li>
+ *  <li>v2.3.5 - Fixed bug in {@link #encodeFromFile} where estimated buffer size
+ *   was wrong for files of size 31, 34, and 37 bytes.</li>
+ *  <li>v2.3.4 - Fixed bug when working with gzipped streams whereby flushing
+ *   the Base64.OutputStream closed the Base64 encoding (by padding with equals
+ *   signs) too soon. Also added an option to suppress the automatic decoding
+ *   of gzipped streams. Also added experimental support for specifying a
+ *   class loader when using the
+ *   {@link #decodeToObject(java.lang.String, int, java.lang.ClassLoader)}
+ *   method.</li>
+ *  <li>v2.3.3 - Changed default char encoding to US-ASCII which reduces the internal Java
+ *   footprint with its CharEncoders and so forth. Fixed some javadocs that were
+ *   inconsistent. Removed imports and specified things like java.io.IOException
+ *   explicitly inline.</li>
+ *  <li>v2.3.2 - Reduced memory footprint! Finally refined the "guessing" of how big the
+ *   final encoded data will be so that the code doesn't have to create two output
+ *   arrays: an oversized initial one and then a final, exact-sized one. Big win
+ *   when using the {@link #encodeBytesToBytes(byte[])} family of methods (and not
+ *   using the gzip options which uses a different mechanism with streams and stuff).</li>
+ *  <li>v2.3.1 - Added {@link #encodeBytesToBytes(byte[], int, int, int)} and some
+ *   similar helper methods to be more efficient with memory by not returning a
+ *   String but just a byte array.</li>
+ *  <li>v2.3 - <strong>This is not a drop-in replacement!</strong> This is two years of comments
+ *   and bug fixes queued up and finally executed. Thanks to everyone who sent
+ *   me stuff, and I'm sorry I wasn't able to distribute your fixes to everyone else.
+ *   Much bad coding was cleaned up including throwing exceptions where necessary 
+ *   instead of returning null values or something similar. Here are some changes
+ *   that may affect you:
+ *   <ul>
+ *    <li><em>Does not break lines, by default.</em> This is to keep in compliance with
+ *      <a href="http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3548.html">RFC3548</a>.</li>
+ *    <li><em>Throws exceptions instead of returning null values.</em> Because some operations
+ *      (especially those that may permit the GZIP option) use IO streams, there
+ *      is a possiblity of an java.io.IOException being thrown. After some discussion and
+ *      thought, I've changed the behavior of the methods to throw java.io.IOExceptions
+ *      rather than return null if ever there's an error. I think this is more
+ *      appropriate, though it will require some changes to your code. Sorry,
+ *      it should have been done this way to begin with.</li>
+ *    <li><em>Removed all references to System.out, System.err, and the like.</em>
+ *      Shame on me. All I can say is sorry they were ever there.</li>
+ *    <li><em>Throws NullPointerExceptions and IllegalArgumentExceptions</em> as needed
+ *      such as when passed arrays are null or offsets are invalid.</li>
+ *    <li>Cleaned up as much javadoc as I could to avoid any javadoc warnings.
+ *      This was especially annoying before for people who were thorough in their
+ *      own projects and then had gobs of javadoc warnings on this file.</li>
+ *   </ul>
+ *  <li>v2.2.1 - Fixed bug using URL_SAFE and ORDERED encodings. Fixed bug
+ *   when using very small files (~&lt; 40 bytes).</li>
+ *  <li>v2.2 - Added some helper methods for encoding/decoding directly from
+ *   one file to the next. Also added a main() method to support command line
+ *   encoding/decoding from one file to the next. Also added these Base64 dialects:
+ *   <ol>
+ *   <li>The default is RFC3548 format.</li>
+ *   <li>Calling Base64.setFormat(Base64.BASE64_FORMAT.URLSAFE_FORMAT) generates
+ *   URL and file name friendly format as described in Section 4 of RFC3548.
+ *   http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3548.html</li>
+ *   <li>Calling Base64.setFormat(Base64.BASE64_FORMAT.ORDERED_FORMAT) generates
+ *   URL and file name friendly format that preserves lexical ordering as described
+ *   in http://www.faqs.org/qa/rfcc-1940.html</li>
+ *   </ol>
+ *   Special thanks to Jim Kellerman at <a href="http://www.powerset.com/">http://www.powerset.com/</a>
+ *   for contributing the new Base64 dialects.
+ *  </li>
+ * 
+ *  <li>v2.1 - Cleaned up javadoc comments and unused variables and methods. Added
+ *   some convenience methods for reading and writing to and from files.</li>
+ *  <li>v2.0.2 - Now specifies UTF-8 encoding in places where the code fails on systems
+ *   with other encodings (like EBCDIC).</li>
+ *  <li>v2.0.1 - Fixed an error when decoding a single byte, that is, when the
+ *   encoded data was a single byte.</li>
+ *  <li>v2.0 - I got rid of methods that used booleans to set options. 
+ *   Now everything is more consolidated and cleaner. The code now detects
+ *   when data that's being decoded is gzip-compressed and will decompress it
+ *   automatically. Generally things are cleaner. You'll probably have to
+ *   change some method calls that you were making to support the new
+ *   options format (<tt>int</tt>s that you "OR" together).</li>
+ *  <li>v1.5.1 - Fixed bug when decompressing and decoding to a             
+ *   byte[] using <tt>decode( String s, boolean gzipCompressed )</tt>.      
+ *   Added the ability to "suspend" encoding in the Output Stream so        
+ *   you can turn on and off the encoding if you need to embed base64       
+ *   data in an otherwise "normal" stream (like an XML file).</li>  
+ *  <li>v1.5 - Output stream pases on flush() command but doesn't do anything itself.
+ *      This helps when using GZIP streams.
+ *      Added the ability to GZip-compress objects before encoding them.</li>
+ *  <li>v1.4 - Added helper methods to read/write files.</li>
+ *  <li>v1.3.6 - Fixed OutputStream.flush() so that 'position' is reset.</li>
+ *  <li>v1.3.5 - Added flag to turn on and off line breaks. Fixed bug in input stream
+ *      where last buffer being read, if not completely full, was not returned.</li>
+ *  <li>v1.3.4 - Fixed when "improperly padded stream" error was thrown at the wrong time.</li>
+ *  <li>v1.3.3 - Fixed I/O streams which were totally messed up.</li>
+ * </ul>
+ *
+ * <p>
+ * I am placing this code in the Public Domain. Do with it as you will.
+ * This software comes with no guarantees or warranties but with
+ * plenty of well-wishing instead!
+ * Please visit <a href="http://iharder.net/base64">http://iharder.net/base64</a>
+ * periodically to check for updates or to contribute improvements.
+ * </p>
+ *
+ * @author Robert Harder
+ * @author rob@iharder.net
+ * @version 2.3.7
+ */
+
+public class Base64
+{
+    
+/* ********  P U B L I C   F I E L D S  ******** */   
+    
+    
+    /** No options specified. Value is zero. */
+    public final static int NO_OPTIONS = 0;
+    
+    /** Specify encoding in first bit. Value is one. */
+    public final static int ENCODE = 1;
+    
+    
+    /** Specify decoding in first bit. Value is zero. */
+    public final static int DECODE = 0;
+    
+
+    /** Specify that data should be gzip-compressed in second bit. Value is two. */
+    public final static int GZIP = 2;
+
+    /** Specify that gzipped data should <em>not</em> be automatically gunzipped. */
+    public final static int DONT_GUNZIP = 4;
+    
+    
+    /** Do break lines when encoding. Value is 8. */
+    public final static int DO_BREAK_LINES = 8;
+	
+    /** 
+     * Encode using Base64-like encoding that is URL- and Filename-safe as described
+     * in Section 4 of RFC3548: 
+     * <a href="http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3548.html">http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3548.html</a>.
+     * It is important to note that data encoded this way is <em>not</em> officially valid Base64, 
+     * or at the very least should not be called Base64 without also specifying that is
+     * was encoded using the URL- and Filename-safe dialect.
+     */
+     public final static int URL_SAFE = 16;
+
+
+     /**
+      * Encode using the special "ordered" dialect of Base64 described here:
+      * <a href="http://www.faqs.org/qa/rfcc-1940.html">http://www.faqs.org/qa/rfcc-1940.html</a>.
+      */
+     public final static int ORDERED = 32;
+    
+    
+/* ********  P R I V A T E   F I E L D S  ******** */  
+    
+    
+    /** Maximum line length (76) of Base64 output. */
+    private final static int MAX_LINE_LENGTH = 76;
+    
+    
+    /** The equals sign (=) as a byte. */
+    private final static byte EQUALS_SIGN = (byte)'=';
+    
+    
+    /** The new line character (\n) as a byte. */
+    private final static byte NEW_LINE = (byte)'\n';
+    
+    
+    /** Preferred encoding. */
+    private final static String PREFERRED_ENCODING = "US-ASCII";
+    
+	
+    private final static byte WHITE_SPACE_ENC = -5; // Indicates white space in encoding
+    private final static byte EQUALS_SIGN_ENC = -1; // Indicates equals sign in encoding
+	
+	
+/* ********  S T A N D A R D   B A S E 6 4   A L P H A B E T  ******** */	
+    
+    /** The 64 valid Base64 values. */
+    /* Host platform me be something funny like EBCDIC, so we hardcode these values. */
+    private final static byte[] _STANDARD_ALPHABET = {
+        (byte)'A', (byte)'B', (byte)'C', (byte)'D', (byte)'E', (byte)'F', (byte)'G',
+        (byte)'H', (byte)'I', (byte)'J', (byte)'K', (byte)'L', (byte)'M', (byte)'N',
+        (byte)'O', (byte)'P', (byte)'Q', (byte)'R', (byte)'S', (byte)'T', (byte)'U', 
+        (byte)'V', (byte)'W', (byte)'X', (byte)'Y', (byte)'Z',
+        (byte)'a', (byte)'b', (byte)'c', (byte)'d', (byte)'e', (byte)'f', (byte)'g',
+        (byte)'h', (byte)'i', (byte)'j', (byte)'k', (byte)'l', (byte)'m', (byte)'n',
+        (byte)'o', (byte)'p', (byte)'q', (byte)'r', (byte)'s', (byte)'t', (byte)'u', 
+        (byte)'v', (byte)'w', (byte)'x', (byte)'y', (byte)'z',
+        (byte)'0', (byte)'1', (byte)'2', (byte)'3', (byte)'4', (byte)'5', 
+        (byte)'6', (byte)'7', (byte)'8', (byte)'9', (byte)'+', (byte)'/'
+    };
+	
+    
+    /** 
+     * Translates a Base64 value to either its 6-bit reconstruction value
+     * or a negative number indicating some other meaning.
+     **/
+    private final static byte[] _STANDARD_DECODABET = {
+        -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,                 // Decimal  0 -  8
+        -5,-5,                                      // Whitespace: Tab and Linefeed
+        -9,-9,                                      // Decimal 11 - 12
+        -5,                                         // Whitespace: Carriage Return
+        -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 14 - 26
+        -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,                             // Decimal 27 - 31
+        -5,                                         // Whitespace: Space
+        -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,              // Decimal 33 - 42
+        62,                                         // Plus sign at decimal 43
+        -9,-9,-9,                                   // Decimal 44 - 46
+        63,                                         // Slash at decimal 47
+        52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60,61,              // Numbers zero through nine
+        -9,-9,-9,                                   // Decimal 58 - 60
+        -1,                                         // Equals sign at decimal 61
+        -9,-9,-9,                                      // Decimal 62 - 64
+        0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,            // Letters 'A' through 'N'
+        14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,        // Letters 'O' through 'Z'
+        -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,                          // Decimal 91 - 96
+        26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,     // Letters 'a' through 'm'
+        39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,     // Letters 'n' through 'z'
+        -9,-9,-9,-9,-9                              // Decimal 123 - 127
+        ,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,       // Decimal 128 - 139
+        -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 140 - 152
+        -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 153 - 165
+        -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 166 - 178
+        -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 179 - 191
+        -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 192 - 204
+        -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 205 - 217
+        -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 218 - 230
+        -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 231 - 243
+        -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9         // Decimal 244 - 255 
+    };
+	
+	
+/* ********  U R L   S A F E   B A S E 6 4   A L P H A B E T  ******** */
+	
+    /**
+     * Used in the URL- and Filename-safe dialect described in Section 4 of RFC3548: 
+     * <a href="http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3548.html">http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3548.html</a>.
+     * Notice that the last two bytes become "hyphen" and "underscore" instead of "plus" and "slash."
+     */
+    private final static byte[] _URL_SAFE_ALPHABET = {
+      (byte)'A', (byte)'B', (byte)'C', (byte)'D', (byte)'E', (byte)'F', (byte)'G',
+      (byte)'H', (byte)'I', (byte)'J', (byte)'K', (byte)'L', (byte)'M', (byte)'N',
+      (byte)'O', (byte)'P', (byte)'Q', (byte)'R', (byte)'S', (byte)'T', (byte)'U', 
+      (byte)'V', (byte)'W', (byte)'X', (byte)'Y', (byte)'Z',
+      (byte)'a', (byte)'b', (byte)'c', (byte)'d', (byte)'e', (byte)'f', (byte)'g',
+      (byte)'h', (byte)'i', (byte)'j', (byte)'k', (byte)'l', (byte)'m', (byte)'n',
+      (byte)'o', (byte)'p', (byte)'q', (byte)'r', (byte)'s', (byte)'t', (byte)'u', 
+      (byte)'v', (byte)'w', (byte)'x', (byte)'y', (byte)'z',
+      (byte)'0', (byte)'1', (byte)'2', (byte)'3', (byte)'4', (byte)'5', 
+      (byte)'6', (byte)'7', (byte)'8', (byte)'9', (byte)'-', (byte)'_'
+    };
+	
+    /**
+     * Used in decoding URL- and Filename-safe dialects of Base64.
+     */
+    private final static byte[] _URL_SAFE_DECODABET = {
+      -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,                 // Decimal  0 -  8
+      -5,-5,                                      // Whitespace: Tab and Linefeed
+      -9,-9,                                      // Decimal 11 - 12
+      -5,                                         // Whitespace: Carriage Return
+      -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 14 - 26
+      -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,                             // Decimal 27 - 31
+      -5,                                         // Whitespace: Space
+      -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,              // Decimal 33 - 42
+      -9,                                         // Plus sign at decimal 43
+      -9,                                         // Decimal 44
+      62,                                         // Minus sign at decimal 45
+      -9,                                         // Decimal 46
+      -9,                                         // Slash at decimal 47
+      52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60,61,              // Numbers zero through nine
+      -9,-9,-9,                                   // Decimal 58 - 60
+      -1,                                         // Equals sign at decimal 61
+      -9,-9,-9,                                   // Decimal 62 - 64
+      0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,            // Letters 'A' through 'N'
+      14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,        // Letters 'O' through 'Z'
+      -9,-9,-9,-9,                                // Decimal 91 - 94
+      63,                                         // Underscore at decimal 95
+      -9,                                         // Decimal 96
+      26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,     // Letters 'a' through 'm'
+      39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,     // Letters 'n' through 'z'
+      -9,-9,-9,-9,-9                              // Decimal 123 - 127
+      ,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 128 - 139
+      -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 140 - 152
+      -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 153 - 165
+      -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 166 - 178
+      -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 179 - 191
+      -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 192 - 204
+      -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 205 - 217
+      -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 218 - 230
+      -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 231 - 243
+      -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9         // Decimal 244 - 255 
+    };
+
+
+
+/* ********  O R D E R E D   B A S E 6 4   A L P H A B E T  ******** */
+
+    /**
+     * I don't get the point of this technique, but someone requested it,
+     * and it is described here:
+     * <a href="http://www.faqs.org/qa/rfcc-1940.html">http://www.faqs.org/qa/rfcc-1940.html</a>.
+     */
+    private final static byte[] _ORDERED_ALPHABET = {
+      (byte)'-',
+      (byte)'0', (byte)'1', (byte)'2', (byte)'3', (byte)'4',
+      (byte)'5', (byte)'6', (byte)'7', (byte)'8', (byte)'9',
+      (byte)'A', (byte)'B', (byte)'C', (byte)'D', (byte)'E', (byte)'F', (byte)'G',
+      (byte)'H', (byte)'I', (byte)'J', (byte)'K', (byte)'L', (byte)'M', (byte)'N',
+      (byte)'O', (byte)'P', (byte)'Q', (byte)'R', (byte)'S', (byte)'T', (byte)'U',
+      (byte)'V', (byte)'W', (byte)'X', (byte)'Y', (byte)'Z',
+      (byte)'_',
+      (byte)'a', (byte)'b', (byte)'c', (byte)'d', (byte)'e', (byte)'f', (byte)'g',
+      (byte)'h', (byte)'i', (byte)'j', (byte)'k', (byte)'l', (byte)'m', (byte)'n',
+      (byte)'o', (byte)'p', (byte)'q', (byte)'r', (byte)'s', (byte)'t', (byte)'u',
+      (byte)'v', (byte)'w', (byte)'x', (byte)'y', (byte)'z'
+    };
+	
+    /**
+     * Used in decoding the "ordered" dialect of Base64.
+     */
+    private final static byte[] _ORDERED_DECODABET = {
+      -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,                 // Decimal  0 -  8
+      -5,-5,                                      // Whitespace: Tab and Linefeed
+      -9,-9,                                      // Decimal 11 - 12
+      -5,                                         // Whitespace: Carriage Return
+      -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 14 - 26
+      -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,                             // Decimal 27 - 31
+      -5,                                         // Whitespace: Space
+      -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,              // Decimal 33 - 42
+      -9,                                         // Plus sign at decimal 43
+      -9,                                         // Decimal 44
+      0,                                          // Minus sign at decimal 45
+      -9,                                         // Decimal 46
+      -9,                                         // Slash at decimal 47
+      1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,                       // Numbers zero through nine
+      -9,-9,-9,                                   // Decimal 58 - 60
+      -1,                                         // Equals sign at decimal 61
+      -9,-9,-9,                                   // Decimal 62 - 64
+      11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,     // Letters 'A' through 'M'
+      24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,     // Letters 'N' through 'Z'
+      -9,-9,-9,-9,                                // Decimal 91 - 94
+      37,                                         // Underscore at decimal 95
+      -9,                                         // Decimal 96
+      38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,     // Letters 'a' through 'm'
+      51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60,61,62,63,     // Letters 'n' through 'z'
+      -9,-9,-9,-9,-9                                 // Decimal 123 - 127
+       ,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 128 - 139
+        -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 140 - 152
+        -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 153 - 165
+        -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 166 - 178
+        -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 179 - 191
+        -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 192 - 204
+        -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 205 - 217
+        -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 218 - 230
+        -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,     // Decimal 231 - 243
+        -9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9,-9         // Decimal 244 - 255 
+    };
+
+	
+/* ********  D E T E R M I N E   W H I C H   A L H A B E T  ******** */
+
+
+    /**
+     * Returns one of the _SOMETHING_ALPHABET byte arrays depending on
+     * the options specified.
+     * It's possible, though silly, to specify ORDERED <b>and</b> URLSAFE
+     * in which case one of them will be picked, though there is
+     * no guarantee as to which one will be picked.
+     */
+    private final static byte[] getAlphabet( int options ) {
+        if ((options & URL_SAFE) == URL_SAFE) {
+            return _URL_SAFE_ALPHABET;
+        } else if ((options & ORDERED) == ORDERED) {
+            return _ORDERED_ALPHABET;
+        } else {
+            return _STANDARD_ALPHABET;
+        }
+    }	// end getAlphabet
+
+
+    /**
+     * Returns one of the _SOMETHING_DECODABET byte arrays depending on
+     * the options specified.
+     * It's possible, though silly, to specify ORDERED and URL_SAFE
+     * in which case one of them will be picked, though there is
+     * no guarantee as to which one will be picked.
+     */
+    private final static byte[] getDecodabet( int options ) {
+        if( (options & URL_SAFE) == URL_SAFE) {
+            return _URL_SAFE_DECODABET;
+        } else if ((options & ORDERED) == ORDERED) {
+            return _ORDERED_DECODABET;
+        } else {
+            return _STANDARD_DECODABET;
+        }
+    }	// end getAlphabet
+
+
+    
+    /** Defeats instantiation. */
+    private Base64(){}
+    
+
+    
+    
+/* ********  E N C O D I N G   M E T H O D S  ******** */    
+    
+    
+    /**
+     * Encodes up to the first three bytes of array <var>threeBytes</var>
+     * and returns a four-byte array in Base64 notation.
+     * The actual number of significant bytes in your array is
+     * given by <var>numSigBytes</var>.
+     * The array <var>threeBytes</var> needs only be as big as
+     * <var>numSigBytes</var>.
+     * Code can reuse a byte array by passing a four-byte array as <var>b4</var>.
+     *
+     * @param b4 A reusable byte array to reduce array instantiation
+     * @param threeBytes the array to convert
+     * @param numSigBytes the number of significant bytes in your array
+     * @return four byte array in Base64 notation.
+     * @since 1.5.1
+     */
+    private static byte[] encode3to4( byte[] b4, byte[] threeBytes, int numSigBytes, int options ) {
+        encode3to4( threeBytes, 0, numSigBytes, b4, 0, options );
+        return b4;
+    }   // end encode3to4
+
+    
+    /**
+     * <p>Encodes up to three bytes of the array <var>source</var>
+     * and writes the resulting four Base64 bytes to <var>destination</var>.
+     * The source and destination arrays can be manipulated
+     * anywhere along their length by specifying 
+     * <var>srcOffset</var> and <var>destOffset</var>.
+     * This method does not check to make sure your arrays
+     * are large enough to accomodate <var>srcOffset</var> + 3 for
+     * the <var>source</var> array or <var>destOffset</var> + 4 for
+     * the <var>destination</var> array.
+     * The actual number of significant bytes in your array is
+     * given by <var>numSigBytes</var>.</p>
+	 * <p>This is the lowest level of the encoding methods with
+	 * all possible parameters.</p>
+     *
+     * @param source the array to convert
+     * @param srcOffset the index where conversion begins
+     * @param numSigBytes the number of significant bytes in your array
+     * @param destination the array to hold the conversion
+     * @param destOffset the index where output will be put
+     * @return the <var>destination</var> array
+     * @since 1.3
+     */
+    private static byte[] encode3to4( 
+    byte[] source, int srcOffset, int numSigBytes,
+    byte[] destination, int destOffset, int options ) {
+        
+	byte[] ALPHABET = getAlphabet( options ); 
+	
+        //           1         2         3  
+        // 01234567890123456789012345678901 Bit position
+        // --------000000001111111122222222 Array position from threeBytes
+        // --------|    ||    ||    ||    | Six bit groups to index ALPHABET
+        //          >>18  >>12  >> 6  >> 0  Right shift necessary
+        //                0x3f  0x3f  0x3f  Additional AND
+        
+        // Create buffer with zero-padding if there are only one or two
+        // significant bytes passed in the array.
+        // We have to shift left 24 in order to flush out the 1's that appear
+        // when Java treats a value as negative that is cast from a byte to an int.
+        int inBuff =   ( numSigBytes > 0 ? ((source[ srcOffset     ] << 24) >>>  8) : 0 )
+                     | ( numSigBytes > 1 ? ((source[ srcOffset + 1 ] << 24) >>> 16) : 0 )
+                     | ( numSigBytes > 2 ? ((source[ srcOffset + 2 ] << 24) >>> 24) : 0 );
+
+        switch( numSigBytes )
+        {
+            case 3:
+                destination[ destOffset     ] = ALPHABET[ (inBuff >>> 18)        ];
+                destination[ destOffset + 1 ] = ALPHABET[ (inBuff >>> 12) & 0x3f ];
+                destination[ destOffset + 2 ] = ALPHABET[ (inBuff >>>  6) & 0x3f ];
+                destination[ destOffset + 3 ] = ALPHABET[ (inBuff       ) & 0x3f ];
+                return destination;
+                
+            case 2:
+                destination[ destOffset     ] = ALPHABET[ (inBuff >>> 18)        ];
+                destination[ destOffset + 1 ] = ALPHABET[ (inBuff >>> 12) & 0x3f ];
+                destination[ destOffset + 2 ] = ALPHABET[ (inBuff >>>  6) & 0x3f ];
+                destination[ destOffset + 3 ] = EQUALS_SIGN;
+                return destination;
+                
+            case 1:
+                destination[ destOffset     ] = ALPHABET[ (inBuff >>> 18)        ];
+                destination[ destOffset + 1 ] = ALPHABET[ (inBuff >>> 12) & 0x3f ];
+                destination[ destOffset + 2 ] = EQUALS_SIGN;
+                destination[ destOffset + 3 ] = EQUALS_SIGN;
+                return destination;
+                
+            default:
+                return destination;
+        }   // end switch
+    }   // end encode3to4
+
+
+
+    /**
+     * Performs Base64 encoding on the <code>raw</code> ByteBuffer,
+     * writing it to the <code>encoded</code> ByteBuffer.
+     * This is an experimental feature. Currently it does not
+     * pass along any options (such as {@link #DO_BREAK_LINES}
+     * or {@link #GZIP}.
+     *
+     * @param raw input buffer
+     * @param encoded output buffer
+     * @since 2.3
+     */
+    public static void encode( java.nio.ByteBuffer raw, java.nio.ByteBuffer encoded ){
+        byte[] raw3 = new byte[3];
+        byte[] enc4 = new byte[4];
+
+        while( raw.hasRemaining() ){
+            int rem = Math.min(3,raw.remaining());
+            raw.get(raw3,0,rem);
+            Base64.encode3to4(enc4, raw3, rem, Base64.NO_OPTIONS );
+            encoded.put(enc4);
+        }   // end input remaining
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * Performs Base64 encoding on the <code>raw</code> ByteBuffer,
+     * writing it to the <code>encoded</code> CharBuffer.
+     * This is an experimental feature. Currently it does not
+     * pass along any options (such as {@link #DO_BREAK_LINES}
+     * or {@link #GZIP}.
+     *
+     * @param raw input buffer
+     * @param encoded output buffer
+     * @since 2.3
+     */
+    public static void encode( java.nio.ByteBuffer raw, java.nio.CharBuffer encoded ){
+        byte[] raw3 = new byte[3];
+        byte[] enc4 = new byte[4];
+
+        while( raw.hasRemaining() ){
+            int rem = Math.min(3,raw.remaining());
+            raw.get(raw3,0,rem);
+            Base64.encode3to4(enc4, raw3, rem, Base64.NO_OPTIONS );
+            for( int i = 0; i < 4; i++ ){
+                encoded.put( (char)(enc4[i] & 0xFF) );
+            }
+        }   // end input remaining
+    }
+
+
+    
+    
+    /**
+     * Serializes an object and returns the Base64-encoded
+     * version of that serialized object.  
+     *  
+     * <p>As of v 2.3, if the object
+     * cannot be serialized or there is another error,
+     * the method will throw an java.io.IOException. <b>This is new to v2.3!</b>
+     * In earlier versions, it just returned a null value, but
+     * in retrospect that's a pretty poor way to handle it.</p>
+     * 
+     * The object is not GZip-compressed before being encoded.
+     *
+     * @param serializableObject The object to encode
+     * @return The Base64-encoded object
+     * @throws java.io.IOException if there is an error
+     * @throws NullPointerException if serializedObject is null
+     * @since 1.4
+     */
+    public static String encodeObject( java.io.Serializable serializableObject )
+    throws java.io.IOException {
+        return encodeObject( serializableObject, NO_OPTIONS );
+    }   // end encodeObject
+    
+
+
+    /**
+     * Serializes an object and returns the Base64-encoded
+     * version of that serialized object.
+     *  
+     * <p>As of v 2.3, if the object
+     * cannot be serialized or there is another error,
+     * the method will throw an java.io.IOException. <b>This is new to v2.3!</b>
+     * In earlier versions, it just returned a null value, but
+     * in retrospect that's a pretty poor way to handle it.</p>
+     * 
+     * The object is not GZip-compressed before being encoded.
+     * <p>
+     * Example options:<pre>
+     *   GZIP: gzip-compresses object before encoding it.
+     *   DO_BREAK_LINES: break lines at 76 characters
+     * </pre>
+     * <p>
+     * Example: <code>encodeObject( myObj, Base64.GZIP )</code> or
+     * <p>
+     * Example: <code>encodeObject( myObj, Base64.GZIP | Base64.DO_BREAK_LINES )</code>
+     *
+     * @param serializableObject The object to encode
+     * @param options Specified options
+     * @return The Base64-encoded object
+     * @see Base64#GZIP
+     * @see Base64#DO_BREAK_LINES
+     * @throws java.io.IOException if there is an error
+     * @since 2.0
+     */
+    public static String encodeObject( java.io.Serializable serializableObject, int options )
+    throws java.io.IOException {
+
+        if( serializableObject == null ){
+            throw new NullPointerException( "Cannot serialize a null object." );
+        }   // end if: null
+        
+        // Streams
+        java.io.ByteArrayOutputStream  baos  = null; 
+        java.io.OutputStream           b64os = null;
+        java.util.zip.GZIPOutputStream gzos  = null;
+        java.io.ObjectOutputStream     oos   = null;
+        
+        
+        try {
+            // ObjectOutputStream -> (GZIP) -> Base64 -> ByteArrayOutputStream
+            baos  = new java.io.ByteArrayOutputStream();
+            b64os = new Base64.OutputStream( baos, ENCODE | options );
+            if( (options & GZIP) != 0 ){
+                // Gzip
+                gzos = new java.util.zip.GZIPOutputStream(b64os);
+                oos = new java.io.ObjectOutputStream( gzos );
+            } else {
+                // Not gzipped
+                oos = new java.io.ObjectOutputStream( b64os );
+            }
+            oos.writeObject( serializableObject );
+        }   // end try
+        catch( java.io.IOException e ) {
+            // Catch it and then throw it immediately so that
+            // the finally{} block is called for cleanup.
+            throw e;
+        }   // end catch
+        finally {
+            try{ oos.close();   } catch( Exception e ){}
+            try{ gzos.close();  } catch( Exception e ){}
+            try{ b64os.close(); } catch( Exception e ){}
+            try{ baos.close();  } catch( Exception e ){}
+        }   // end finally
+        
+        // Return value according to relevant encoding.
+        try {
+            return new String( baos.toByteArray(), PREFERRED_ENCODING );
+        }   // end try
+        catch (java.io.UnsupportedEncodingException uue){
+            // Fall back to some Java default
+            return new String( baos.toByteArray() );
+        }   // end catch
+        
+    }   // end encode
+    
+    
+
+    /**
+     * Encodes a byte array into Base64 notation.
+     * Does not GZip-compress data.
+     *  
+     * @param source The data to convert
+     * @return The data in Base64-encoded form
+     * @throws NullPointerException if source array is null
+     * @since 1.4
+     */
+    public static String encodeBytes( byte[] source ) {
+        // Since we're not going to have the GZIP encoding turned on,
+        // we're not going to have an java.io.IOException thrown, so
+        // we should not force the user to have to catch it.
+        String encoded = null;
+        try {
+            encoded = encodeBytes(source, 0, source.length, NO_OPTIONS);
+        } catch (java.io.IOException ex) {
+            assert false : ex.getMessage();
+        }   // end catch
+        assert encoded != null;
+        return encoded;
+    }   // end encodeBytes
+    
+
+
+    /**
+     * Encodes a byte array into Base64 notation.
+     * <p>
+     * Example options:<pre>
+     *   GZIP: gzip-compresses object before encoding it.
+     *   DO_BREAK_LINES: break lines at 76 characters
+     *     <i>Note: Technically, this makes your encoding non-compliant.</i>
+     * </pre>
+     * <p>
+     * Example: <code>encodeBytes( myData, Base64.GZIP )</code> or
+     * <p>
+     * Example: <code>encodeBytes( myData, Base64.GZIP | Base64.DO_BREAK_LINES )</code>
+     *
+     *  
+     * <p>As of v 2.3, if there is an error with the GZIP stream,
+     * the method will throw an java.io.IOException. <b>This is new to v2.3!</b>
+     * In earlier versions, it just returned a null value, but
+     * in retrospect that's a pretty poor way to handle it.</p>
+     * 
+     *
+     * @param source The data to convert
+     * @param options Specified options
+     * @return The Base64-encoded data as a String
+     * @see Base64#GZIP
+     * @see Base64#DO_BREAK_LINES
+     * @throws java.io.IOException if there is an error
+     * @throws NullPointerException if source array is null
+     * @since 2.0
+     */
+    public static String encodeBytes( byte[] source, int options ) throws java.io.IOException {
+        return encodeBytes( source, 0, source.length, options );
+    }   // end encodeBytes
+    
+    
+    /**
+     * Encodes a byte array into Base64 notation.
+     * Does not GZip-compress data.
+     *  
+     * <p>As of v 2.3, if there is an error,
+     * the method will throw an java.io.IOException. <b>This is new to v2.3!</b>
+     * In earlier versions, it just returned a null value, but
+     * in retrospect that's a pretty poor way to handle it.</p>
+     * 
+     *
+     * @param source The data to convert
+     * @param off Offset in array where conversion should begin
+     * @param len Length of data to convert
+     * @return The Base64-encoded data as a String
+     * @throws NullPointerException if source array is null
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if source array, offset, or length are invalid
+     * @since 1.4
+     */
+    public static String encodeBytes( byte[] source, int off, int len ) {
+        // Since we're not going to have the GZIP encoding turned on,
+        // we're not going to have an java.io.IOException thrown, so
+        // we should not force the user to have to catch it.
+        String encoded = null;
+        try {
+            encoded = encodeBytes( source, off, len, NO_OPTIONS );
+        } catch (java.io.IOException ex) {
+            assert false : ex.getMessage();
+        }   // end catch
+        assert encoded != null;
+        return encoded;
+    }   // end encodeBytes
+    
+    
+
+    /**
+     * Encodes a byte array into Base64 notation.
+     * <p>
+     * Example options:<pre>
+     *   GZIP: gzip-compresses object before encoding it.
+     *   DO_BREAK_LINES: break lines at 76 characters
+     *     <i>Note: Technically, this makes your encoding non-compliant.</i>
+     * </pre>
+     * <p>
+     * Example: <code>encodeBytes( myData, Base64.GZIP )</code> or
+     * <p>
+     * Example: <code>encodeBytes( myData, Base64.GZIP | Base64.DO_BREAK_LINES )</code>
+     *
+     *  
+     * <p>As of v 2.3, if there is an error with the GZIP stream,
+     * the method will throw an java.io.IOException. <b>This is new to v2.3!</b>
+     * In earlier versions, it just returned a null value, but
+     * in retrospect that's a pretty poor way to handle it.</p>
+     * 
+     *
+     * @param source The data to convert
+     * @param off Offset in array where conversion should begin
+     * @param len Length of data to convert
+     * @param options Specified options
+     * @return The Base64-encoded data as a String
+     * @see Base64#GZIP
+     * @see Base64#DO_BREAK_LINES
+     * @throws java.io.IOException if there is an error
+     * @throws NullPointerException if source array is null
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if source array, offset, or length are invalid
+     * @since 2.0
+     */
+    public static String encodeBytes( byte[] source, int off, int len, int options ) throws java.io.IOException {
+        byte[] encoded = encodeBytesToBytes( source, off, len, options );
+
+        // Return value according to relevant encoding.
+        try {
+            return new String( encoded, PREFERRED_ENCODING );
+        }   // end try
+        catch (java.io.UnsupportedEncodingException uue) {
+            return new String( encoded );
+        }   // end catch
+        
+    }   // end encodeBytes
+
+
+
+
+    /**
+     * Similar to {@link #encodeBytes(byte[])} but returns
+     * a byte array instead of instantiating a String. This is more efficient
+     * if you're working with I/O streams and have large data sets to encode.
+     *
+     *
+     * @param source The data to convert
+     * @return The Base64-encoded data as a byte[] (of ASCII characters)
+     * @throws NullPointerException if source array is null
+     * @since 2.3.1
+     */
+    public static byte[] encodeBytesToBytes( byte[] source ) {
+        byte[] encoded = null;
+        try {
+            encoded = encodeBytesToBytes( source, 0, source.length, Base64.NO_OPTIONS );
+        } catch( java.io.IOException ex ) {
+            assert false : "IOExceptions only come from GZipping, which is turned off: " + ex.getMessage();
+        }
+        return encoded;
+    }
+
+
+    /**
+     * Similar to {@link #encodeBytes(byte[], int, int, int)} but returns
+     * a byte array instead of instantiating a String. This is more efficient
+     * if you're working with I/O streams and have large data sets to encode.
+     *
+     *
+     * @param source The data to convert
+     * @param off Offset in array where conversion should begin
+     * @param len Length of data to convert
+     * @param options Specified options
+     * @return The Base64-encoded data as a String
+     * @see Base64#GZIP
+     * @see Base64#DO_BREAK_LINES
+     * @throws java.io.IOException if there is an error
+     * @throws NullPointerException if source array is null
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if source array, offset, or length are invalid
+     * @since 2.3.1
+     */
+    public static byte[] encodeBytesToBytes( byte[] source, int off, int len, int options ) throws java.io.IOException {
+
+        if( source == null ){
+            throw new NullPointerException( "Cannot serialize a null array." );
+        }   // end if: null
+
+        if( off < 0 ){
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException( "Cannot have negative offset: " + off );
+        }   // end if: off < 0
+
+        if( len < 0 ){
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException( "Cannot have length offset: " + len );
+        }   // end if: len < 0
+
+        if( off + len > source.length  ){
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException(
+            String.format( "Cannot have offset of %d and length of %d with array of length %d", off,len,source.length));
+        }   // end if: off < 0
+
+
+
+        // Compress?
+        if( (options & GZIP) != 0 ) {
+            java.io.ByteArrayOutputStream  baos  = null;
+            java.util.zip.GZIPOutputStream gzos  = null;
+            Base64.OutputStream            b64os = null;
+
+            try {
+                // GZip -> Base64 -> ByteArray
+                baos = new java.io.ByteArrayOutputStream();
+                b64os = new Base64.OutputStream( baos, ENCODE | options );
+                gzos  = new java.util.zip.GZIPOutputStream( b64os );
+
+                gzos.write( source, off, len );
+                gzos.close();
+            }   // end try
+            catch( java.io.IOException e ) {
+                // Catch it and then throw it immediately so that
+                // the finally{} block is called for cleanup.
+                throw e;
+            }   // end catch
+            finally {
+                try{ gzos.close();  } catch( Exception e ){}
+                try{ b64os.close(); } catch( Exception e ){}
+                try{ baos.close();  } catch( Exception e ){}
+            }   // end finally
+
+            return baos.toByteArray();
+        }   // end if: compress
+
+        // Else, don't compress. Better not to use streams at all then.
+        else {
+            boolean breakLines = (options & DO_BREAK_LINES) != 0;
+
+            //int    len43   = len * 4 / 3;
+            //byte[] outBuff = new byte[   ( len43 )                      // Main 4:3
+            //                           + ( (len % 3) > 0 ? 4 : 0 )      // Account for padding
+            //                           + (breakLines ? ( len43 / MAX_LINE_LENGTH ) : 0) ]; // New lines
+            // Try to determine more precisely how big the array needs to be.
+            // If we get it right, we don't have to do an array copy, and
+            // we save a bunch of memory.
+            int encLen = ( len / 3 ) * 4 + ( len % 3 > 0 ? 4 : 0 ); // Bytes needed for actual encoding
+            if( breakLines ){
+                encLen += encLen / MAX_LINE_LENGTH; // Plus extra newline characters
+            }
+            byte[] outBuff = new byte[ encLen ];
+
+
+            int d = 0;
+            int e = 0;
+            int len2 = len - 2;
+            int lineLength = 0;
+            for( ; d < len2; d+=3, e+=4 ) {
+                encode3to4( source, d+off, 3, outBuff, e, options );
+
+                lineLength += 4;
+                if( breakLines && lineLength >= MAX_LINE_LENGTH )
+                {
+                    outBuff[e+4] = NEW_LINE;
+                    e++;
+                    lineLength = 0;
+                }   // end if: end of line
+            }   // en dfor: each piece of array
+
+            if( d < len ) {
+                encode3to4( source, d+off, len - d, outBuff, e, options );
+                e += 4;
+            }   // end if: some padding needed
+
+
+            // Only resize array if we didn't guess it right.
+            if( e <= outBuff.length - 1 ){
+                // If breaking lines and the last byte falls right at
+                // the line length (76 bytes per line), there will be
+                // one extra byte, and the array will need to be resized.
+                // Not too bad of an estimate on array size, I'd say.
+                byte[] finalOut = new byte[e];
+                System.arraycopy(outBuff,0, finalOut,0,e);
+                //System.err.println("Having to resize array from " + outBuff.length + " to " + e );
+                return finalOut;
+            } else {
+                //System.err.println("No need to resize array.");
+                return outBuff;
+            }
+        
+        }   // end else: don't compress
+
+    }   // end encodeBytesToBytes
+    
+
+    
+    
+    
+/* ********  D E C O D I N G   M E T H O D S  ******** */
+    
+    
+    /**
+     * Decodes four bytes from array <var>source</var>
+     * and writes the resulting bytes (up to three of them)
+     * to <var>destination</var>.
+     * The source and destination arrays can be manipulated
+     * anywhere along their length by specifying 
+     * <var>srcOffset</var> and <var>destOffset</var>.
+     * This method does not check to make sure your arrays
+     * are large enough to accomodate <var>srcOffset</var> + 4 for
+     * the <var>source</var> array or <var>destOffset</var> + 3 for
+     * the <var>destination</var> array.
+     * This method returns the actual number of bytes that 
+     * were converted from the Base64 encoding.
+	 * <p>This is the lowest level of the decoding methods with
+	 * all possible parameters.</p>
+     * 
+     *
+     * @param source the array to convert
+     * @param srcOffset the index where conversion begins
+     * @param destination the array to hold the conversion
+     * @param destOffset the index where output will be put
+	 * @param options alphabet type is pulled from this (standard, url-safe, ordered)
+     * @return the number of decoded bytes converted
+     * @throws NullPointerException if source or destination arrays are null
+     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if srcOffset or destOffset are invalid
+     *         or there is not enough room in the array.
+     * @since 1.3
+     */
+    private static int decode4to3( 
+    byte[] source, int srcOffset, 
+    byte[] destination, int destOffset, int options ) {
+        
+        // Lots of error checking and exception throwing
+        if( source == null ){
+            throw new NullPointerException( "Source array was null." );
+        }   // end if
+        if( destination == null ){
+            throw new NullPointerException( "Destination array was null." );
+        }   // end if
+        if( srcOffset < 0 || srcOffset + 3 >= source.length ){
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException( String.format(
+            "Source array with length %d cannot have offset of %d and still process four bytes.", source.length, srcOffset ) );
+        }   // end if
+        if( destOffset < 0 || destOffset +2 >= destination.length ){
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException( String.format(
+            "Destination array with length %d cannot have offset of %d and still store three bytes.", destination.length, destOffset ) );
+        }   // end if
+        
+        
+        byte[] DECODABET = getDecodabet( options ); 
+	
+        // Example: Dk==
+        if( source[ srcOffset + 2] == EQUALS_SIGN ) {
+            // Two ways to do the same thing. Don't know which way I like best.
+          //int outBuff =   ( ( DECODABET[ source[ srcOffset    ] ] << 24 ) >>>  6 )
+          //              | ( ( DECODABET[ source[ srcOffset + 1] ] << 24 ) >>> 12 );
+            int outBuff =   ( ( DECODABET[ source[ srcOffset    ] ] & 0xFF ) << 18 )
+                          | ( ( DECODABET[ source[ srcOffset + 1] ] & 0xFF ) << 12 );
+            
+            destination[ destOffset ] = (byte)( outBuff >>> 16 );
+            return 1;
+        }
+        
+        // Example: DkL=
+        else if( source[ srcOffset + 3 ] == EQUALS_SIGN ) {
+            // Two ways to do the same thing. Don't know which way I like best.
+          //int outBuff =   ( ( DECODABET[ source[ srcOffset     ] ] << 24 ) >>>  6 )
+          //              | ( ( DECODABET[ source[ srcOffset + 1 ] ] << 24 ) >>> 12 )
+          //              | ( ( DECODABET[ source[ srcOffset + 2 ] ] << 24 ) >>> 18 );
+            int outBuff =   ( ( DECODABET[ source[ srcOffset     ] ] & 0xFF ) << 18 )
+                          | ( ( DECODABET[ source[ srcOffset + 1 ] ] & 0xFF ) << 12 )
+                          | ( ( DECODABET[ source[ srcOffset + 2 ] ] & 0xFF ) <<  6 );
+            
+            destination[ destOffset     ] = (byte)( outBuff >>> 16 );
+            destination[ destOffset + 1 ] = (byte)( outBuff >>>  8 );
+            return 2;
+        }
+        
+        // Example: DkLE
+        else {
+            // Two ways to do the same thing. Don't know which way I like best.
+          //int outBuff =   ( ( DECODABET[ source[ srcOffset     ] ] << 24 ) >>>  6 )
+          //              | ( ( DECODABET[ source[ srcOffset + 1 ] ] << 24 ) >>> 12 )
+          //              | ( ( DECODABET[ source[ srcOffset + 2 ] ] << 24 ) >>> 18 )
+          //              | ( ( DECODABET[ source[ srcOffset + 3 ] ] << 24 ) >>> 24 );
+            int outBuff =   ( ( DECODABET[ source[ srcOffset     ] ] & 0xFF ) << 18 )
+                          | ( ( DECODABET[ source[ srcOffset + 1 ] ] & 0xFF ) << 12 )
+                          | ( ( DECODABET[ source[ srcOffset + 2 ] ] & 0xFF ) <<  6)
+                          | ( ( DECODABET[ source[ srcOffset + 3 ] ] & 0xFF )      );
+
+            
+            destination[ destOffset     ] = (byte)( outBuff >> 16 );
+            destination[ destOffset + 1 ] = (byte)( outBuff >>  8 );
+            destination[ destOffset + 2 ] = (byte)( outBuff       );
+
+            return 3;
+        }
+    }   // end decodeToBytes
+    
+
+
+
+
+    /**
+     * Low-level access to decoding ASCII characters in
+     * the form of a byte array. <strong>Ignores GUNZIP option, if
+     * it's set.</strong> This is not generally a recommended method,
+     * although it is used internally as part of the decoding process.
+     * Special case: if len = 0, an empty array is returned. Still,
+     * if you need more speed and reduced memory footprint (and aren't
+     * gzipping), consider this method.
+     *
+     * @param source The Base64 encoded data
+     * @return decoded data
+     * @since 2.3.1
+     */
+    public static byte[] decode( byte[] source )
+    throws java.io.IOException {
+        byte[] decoded = null;
+//        try {
+            decoded = decode( source, 0, source.length, Base64.NO_OPTIONS );
+//        } catch( java.io.IOException ex ) {
+//            assert false : "IOExceptions only come from GZipping, which is turned off: " + ex.getMessage();
+//        }
+        return decoded;
+    }
+
+    
+    
+    /**
+     * Low-level access to decoding ASCII characters in
+     * the form of a byte array. <strong>Ignores GUNZIP option, if
+     * it's set.</strong> This is not generally a recommended method,
+     * although it is used internally as part of the decoding process.
+     * Special case: if len = 0, an empty array is returned. Still,
+     * if you need more speed and reduced memory footprint (and aren't
+     * gzipping), consider this method.
+     *
+     * @param source The Base64 encoded data
+     * @param off    The offset of where to begin decoding
+     * @param len    The length of characters to decode
+     * @param options Can specify options such as alphabet type to use
+     * @return decoded data
+     * @throws java.io.IOException If bogus characters exist in source data
+     * @since 1.3
+     */
+    public static byte[] decode( byte[] source, int off, int len, int options )
+    throws java.io.IOException {
+        
+        // Lots of error checking and exception throwing
+        if( source == null ){
+            throw new NullPointerException( "Cannot decode null source array." );
+        }   // end if
+        if( off < 0 || off + len > source.length ){
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException( String.format(
+            "Source array with length %d cannot have offset of %d and process %d bytes.", source.length, off, len ) );
+        }   // end if
+        
+        if( len == 0 ){
+            return new byte[0];
+        }else if( len < 4 ){
+            throw new IllegalArgumentException( 
+            "Base64-encoded string must have at least four characters, but length specified was " + len );
+        }   // end if
+        
+        byte[] DECODABET = getDecodabet( options );
+	
+        int    len34   = len * 3 / 4;       // Estimate on array size
+        byte[] outBuff = new byte[ len34 ]; // Upper limit on size of output
+        int    outBuffPosn = 0;             // Keep track of where we're writing
+        
+        byte[] b4        = new byte[4];     // Four byte buffer from source, eliminating white space
+        int    b4Posn    = 0;               // Keep track of four byte input buffer
+        int    i         = 0;               // Source array counter
+        byte   sbiDecode = 0;               // Special value from DECODABET
+        
+        for( i = off; i < off+len; i++ ) {  // Loop through source
+            
+            sbiDecode = DECODABET[ source[i]&0xFF ];
+            
+            // White space, Equals sign, or legit Base64 character
+            // Note the values such as -5 and -9 in the
+            // DECODABETs at the top of the file.
+            if( sbiDecode >= WHITE_SPACE_ENC )  {
+                if( sbiDecode >= EQUALS_SIGN_ENC ) {
+                    b4[ b4Posn++ ] = source[i];         // Save non-whitespace
+                    if( b4Posn > 3 ) {                  // Time to decode?
+                        outBuffPosn += decode4to3( b4, 0, outBuff, outBuffPosn, options );
+                        b4Posn = 0;
+                        
+                        // If that was the equals sign, break out of 'for' loop
+                        if( source[i] == EQUALS_SIGN ) {
+                            break;
+                        }   // end if: equals sign
+                    }   // end if: quartet built
+                }   // end if: equals sign or better
+            }   // end if: white space, equals sign or better
+            else {
+                // There's a bad input character in the Base64 stream.
+                throw new java.io.IOException( String.format(
+                "Bad Base64 input character decimal %d in array position %d", ((int)source[i])&0xFF, i ) );
+            }   // end else: 
+        }   // each input character
+                                   
+        byte[] out = new byte[ outBuffPosn ];
+        System.arraycopy( outBuff, 0, out, 0, outBuffPosn ); 
+        return out;
+    }   // end decode
+    
+    
+	
+	
+    /**
+     * Decodes data from Base64 notation, automatically
+     * detecting gzip-compressed data and decompressing it.
+     *
+     * @param s the string to decode
+     * @return the decoded data
+     * @throws java.io.IOException If there is a problem
+     * @since 1.4
+     */
+    public static byte[] decode( String s ) throws java.io.IOException {
+        return decode( s, NO_OPTIONS );
+    }
+
+    
+    
+    /**
+     * Decodes data from Base64 notation, automatically
+     * detecting gzip-compressed data and decompressing it.
+     *
+     * @param s the string to decode
+     * @param options encode options such as URL_SAFE
+     * @return the decoded data
+     * @throws java.io.IOException if there is an error
+     * @throws NullPointerException if <tt>s</tt> is null
+     * @since 1.4
+     */
+    public static byte[] decode( String s, int options ) throws java.io.IOException {
+        
+        if( s == null ){
+            throw new NullPointerException( "Input string was null." );
+        }   // end if
+        
+        byte[] bytes;
+        try {
+            bytes = s.getBytes( PREFERRED_ENCODING );
+        }   // end try
+        catch( java.io.UnsupportedEncodingException uee ) {
+            bytes = s.getBytes();
+        }   // end catch
+		//</change>
+        
+        // Decode
+        bytes = decode( bytes, 0, bytes.length, options );
+        
+        // Check to see if it's gzip-compressed
+        // GZIP Magic Two-Byte Number: 0x8b1f (35615)
+        boolean dontGunzip = (options & DONT_GUNZIP) != 0;
+        if( (bytes != null) && (bytes.length >= 4) && (!dontGunzip) ) {
+            
+            int head = ((int)bytes[0] & 0xff) | ((bytes[1] << 8) & 0xff00);
+            if( java.util.zip.GZIPInputStream.GZIP_MAGIC == head )  {
+                java.io.ByteArrayInputStream  bais = null;
+                java.util.zip.GZIPInputStream gzis = null;
+                java.io.ByteArrayOutputStream baos = null;
+                byte[] buffer = new byte[2048];
+                int    length = 0;
+
+                try {
+                    baos = new java.io.ByteArrayOutputStream();
+                    bais = new java.io.ByteArrayInputStream( bytes );
+                    gzis = new java.util.zip.GZIPInputStream( bais );
+
+                    while( ( length = gzis.read( buffer ) ) >= 0 ) {
+                        baos.write(buffer,0,length);
+                    }   // end while: reading input
+
+                    // No error? Get new bytes.
+                    bytes = baos.toByteArray();
+
+                }   // end try
+                catch( java.io.IOException e ) {
+                    e.printStackTrace();
+                    // Just return originally-decoded bytes
+                }   // end catch
+                finally {
+                    try{ baos.close(); } catch( Exception e ){}
+                    try{ gzis.close(); } catch( Exception e ){}
+                    try{ bais.close(); } catch( Exception e ){}
+                }   // end finally
+
+            }   // end if: gzipped
+        }   // end if: bytes.length >= 2
+        
+        return bytes;
+    }   // end decode
+
+
+
+    /**
+     * Attempts to decode Base64 data and deserialize a Java
+     * Object within. Returns <tt>null</tt> if there was an error.
+     *
+     * @param encodedObject The Base64 data to decode
+     * @return The decoded and deserialized object
+     * @throws NullPointerException if encodedObject is null
+     * @throws java.io.IOException if there is a general error
+     * @throws ClassNotFoundException if the decoded object is of a
+     *         class that cannot be found by the JVM
+     * @since 1.5
+     */
+    public static Object decodeToObject( String encodedObject )
+    throws java.io.IOException, java.lang.ClassNotFoundException {
+        return decodeToObject(encodedObject,NO_OPTIONS,null);
+    }
+    
+
+    /**
+     * Attempts to decode Base64 data and deserialize a Java
+     * Object within. Returns <tt>null</tt> if there was an error.
+     * If <tt>loader</tt> is not null, it will be the class loader
+     * used when deserializing.
+     *
+     * @param encodedObject The Base64 data to decode
+     * @param options Various parameters related to decoding
+     * @param loader Optional class loader to use in deserializing classes.
+     * @return The decoded and deserialized object
+     * @throws NullPointerException if encodedObject is null
+     * @throws java.io.IOException if there is a general error
+     * @throws ClassNotFoundException if the decoded object is of a 
+     *         class that cannot be found by the JVM
+     * @since 2.3.4
+     */
+    public static Object decodeToObject( 
+    String encodedObject, int options, final ClassLoader loader )
+    throws java.io.IOException, java.lang.ClassNotFoundException {
+        
+        // Decode and gunzip if necessary
+        byte[] objBytes = decode( encodedObject, options );
+        
+        java.io.ByteArrayInputStream  bais = null;
+        java.io.ObjectInputStream     ois  = null;
+        Object obj = null;
+        
+        try {
+            bais = new java.io.ByteArrayInputStream( objBytes );
+
+            // If no custom class loader is provided, use Java's builtin OIS.
+            if( loader == null ){
+                ois  = new java.io.ObjectInputStream( bais );
+            }   // end if: no loader provided
+
+            // Else make a customized object input stream that uses
+            // the provided class loader.
+            else {
+                ois = new java.io.ObjectInputStream(bais){
+                    @Override
+                    public Class<?> resolveClass(java.io.ObjectStreamClass streamClass)
+                    throws java.io.IOException, ClassNotFoundException {
+                        Class c = Class.forName(streamClass.getName(), false, loader);
+                        if( c == null ){
+                            return super.resolveClass(streamClass);
+                        } else {
+                            return c;   // Class loader knows of this class.
+                        }   // end else: not null
+                    }   // end resolveClass
+                };  // end ois
+            }   // end else: no custom class loader
+        
+            obj = ois.readObject();
+        }   // end try
+        catch( java.io.IOException e ) {
+            throw e;    // Catch and throw in order to execute finally{}
+        }   // end catch
+        catch( java.lang.ClassNotFoundException e ) {
+            throw e;    // Catch and throw in order to execute finally{}
+        }   // end catch
+        finally {
+            try{ bais.close(); } catch( Exception e ){}
+            try{ ois.close();  } catch( Exception e ){}
+        }   // end finally
+        
+        return obj;
+    }   // end decodeObject
+    
+    
+    
+    /**
+     * Convenience method for encoding data to a file.
+     *
+     * <p>As of v 2.3, if there is a error,
+     * the method will throw an java.io.IOException. <b>This is new to v2.3!</b>
+     * In earlier versions, it just returned false, but
+     * in retrospect that's a pretty poor way to handle it.</p>
+     * 
+     * @param dataToEncode byte array of data to encode in base64 form
+     * @param filename Filename for saving encoded data
+     * @throws java.io.IOException if there is an error
+     * @throws NullPointerException if dataToEncode is null
+     * @since 2.1
+     */
+    public static void encodeToFile( byte[] dataToEncode, String filename )
+    throws java.io.IOException {
+        
+        if( dataToEncode == null ){
+            throw new NullPointerException( "Data to encode was null." );
+        }   // end iff
+        
+        Base64.OutputStream bos = null;
+        try {
+            bos = new Base64.OutputStream( 
+                  new java.io.FileOutputStream( filename ), Base64.ENCODE );
+            bos.write( dataToEncode );
+        }   // end try
+        catch( java.io.IOException e ) {
+            throw e; // Catch and throw to execute finally{} block
+        }   // end catch: java.io.IOException
+        finally {
+            try{ bos.close(); } catch( Exception e ){}
+        }   // end finally
+        
+    }   // end encodeToFile
+    
+    
+    /**
+     * Convenience method for decoding data to a file.
+     *
+     * <p>As of v 2.3, if there is a error,
+     * the method will throw an java.io.IOException. <b>This is new to v2.3!</b>
+     * In earlier versions, it just returned false, but
+     * in retrospect that's a pretty poor way to handle it.</p>
+     * 
+     * @param dataToDecode Base64-encoded data as a string
+     * @param filename Filename for saving decoded data
+     * @throws java.io.IOException if there is an error
+     * @since 2.1
+     */
+    public static void decodeToFile( String dataToDecode, String filename )
+    throws java.io.IOException {
+        
+        Base64.OutputStream bos = null;
+        try{
+            bos = new Base64.OutputStream( 
+                      new java.io.FileOutputStream( filename ), Base64.DECODE );
+            bos.write( dataToDecode.getBytes( PREFERRED_ENCODING ) );
+        }   // end try
+        catch( java.io.IOException e ) {
+            throw e; // Catch and throw to execute finally{} block
+        }   // end catch: java.io.IOException
+        finally {
+                try{ bos.close(); } catch( Exception e ){}
+        }   // end finally
+        
+    }   // end decodeToFile
+    
+    
+    
+    
+    /**
+     * Convenience method for reading a base64-encoded
+     * file and decoding it.
+     *
+     * <p>As of v 2.3, if there is a error,
+     * the method will throw an java.io.IOException. <b>This is new to v2.3!</b>
+     * In earlier versions, it just returned false, but
+     * in retrospect that's a pretty poor way to handle it.</p>
+     * 
+     * @param filename Filename for reading encoded data
+     * @return decoded byte array
+     * @throws java.io.IOException if there is an error
+     * @since 2.1
+     */
+    public static byte[] decodeFromFile( String filename )
+    throws java.io.IOException {
+        
+        byte[] decodedData = null;
+        Base64.InputStream bis = null;
+        try
+        {
+            // Set up some useful variables
+            java.io.File file = new java.io.File( filename );
+            byte[] buffer = null;
+            int length   = 0;
+            int numBytes = 0;
+            
+            // Check for size of file
+            if( file.length() > Integer.MAX_VALUE )
+            {
+                throw new java.io.IOException( "File is too big for this convenience method (" + file.length() + " bytes)." );
+            }   // end if: file too big for int index
+            buffer = new byte[ (int)file.length() ];
+            
+            // Open a stream
+            bis = new Base64.InputStream( 
+                      new java.io.BufferedInputStream( 
+                      new java.io.FileInputStream( file ) ), Base64.DECODE );
+            
+            // Read until done
+            while( ( numBytes = bis.read( buffer, length, 4096 ) ) >= 0 ) {
+                length += numBytes;
+            }   // end while
+            
+            // Save in a variable to return
+            decodedData = new byte[ length ];
+            System.arraycopy( buffer, 0, decodedData, 0, length );
+            
+        }   // end try
+        catch( java.io.IOException e ) {
+            throw e; // Catch and release to execute finally{}
+        }   // end catch: java.io.IOException
+        finally {
+            try{ bis.close(); } catch( Exception e) {}
+        }   // end finally
+        
+        return decodedData;
+    }   // end decodeFromFile
+    
+    
+    
+    /**
+     * Convenience method for reading a binary file
+     * and base64-encoding it.
+     *
+     * <p>As of v 2.3, if there is a error,
+     * the method will throw an java.io.IOException. <b>This is new to v2.3!</b>
+     * In earlier versions, it just returned false, but
+     * in retrospect that's a pretty poor way to handle it.</p>
+     * 
+     * @param filename Filename for reading binary data
+     * @return base64-encoded string
+     * @throws java.io.IOException if there is an error
+     * @since 2.1
+     */
+    public static String encodeFromFile( String filename )
+    throws java.io.IOException {
+        
+        String encodedData = null;
+        Base64.InputStream bis = null;
+        try
+        {
+            // Set up some useful variables
+            java.io.File file = new java.io.File( filename );
+            byte[] buffer = new byte[ Math.max((int)(file.length() * 1.4+1),40) ]; // Need max() for math on small files (v2.2.1); Need +1 for a few corner cases (v2.3.5)
+            int length   = 0;
+            int numBytes = 0;
+            
+            // Open a stream
+            bis = new Base64.InputStream( 
+                      new java.io.BufferedInputStream( 
+                      new java.io.FileInputStream( file ) ), Base64.ENCODE );
+            
+            // Read until done
+            while( ( numBytes = bis.read( buffer, length, 4096 ) ) >= 0 ) {
+                length += numBytes;
+            }   // end while
+            
+            // Save in a variable to return
+            encodedData = new String( buffer, 0, length, Base64.PREFERRED_ENCODING );
+                
+        }   // end try
+        catch( java.io.IOException e ) {
+            throw e; // Catch and release to execute finally{}
+        }   // end catch: java.io.IOException
+        finally {
+            try{ bis.close(); } catch( Exception e) {}