Commits

Vedran Miletić committed 9d58995

Documentation fixes part 4 (mostly ready for release now):
-- add a comma.
-- Fedora aptitude->yum.
-- indentation and newlines.

Comments (0)

Files changed (25)

doc/beamerug-animations.tex

 
 \section{Animations, Sounds, and Slide Transitions}
 
+
 \subsection{Animations}
 
 \subsubsection{Including External Animation Files}
 
   The following \meta{options} may be given:
   \begin{itemize}
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|autostart|}. Causes the movie to start playing immediately when the page is shown. At most one movie can be started in this way. The viewer application will typically be able to show at most one movie at the same time anyway. When the page is no longer shown, the movie immediately stops. This can be a problem if you use the |\movie| command to include a sound that should be played on after the page has been closed. In this case, the |\sound| command must be used.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|borderwidth=|}\meta{\TeX\ dimension}. Causes a border of thickness \meta{\TeX\ dimension} to be drawn around the movie. Some versions of the Acrobat Reader seem to have a bug and do not display this border if is smaller than 0.5bp (about 0.51pt).
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|depth=|}\meta{\TeX\ dimension}. Overrides the depth of the \meta{poster text} box and sets it to the given dimension.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|duration=|}\meta{time}|s|. Specifies in seconds how long the movie should be shown. The \meta{time} may be a fractional value and must be followed by the letter |s|. For example, |duration=1.5s| will show the movie for one and a half seconds. In conjunction with the |start| option, you can ``cut out'' a part of a movie for display.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|externalviewer|}. As explained above, this causes an external application to be launched for displaying the movie in a separate window. Most options, like |duration| or |loop|, have no effect since they are not passed along to the viewer application.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|height=|}\meta{\TeX\ dimension}. Overrides the height of the \meta{poster text} box and sets it to the given dimension.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|label=|}\meta{movie label}. Assigns a label to the movie such that it can later be referenced by the command |\hyperlinkmovie|, which can be used to stop the movie or to show a different part of it. The \meta{movie label} is not a normal label. It should not be too fancy, since it is inserted literally into the \pdf\ code. In particular, it should not contain closing parentheses.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|loop|}. Causes the movie to start again when the end has been reached. Normally, the movie just stops at the end.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|once|}. Causes the movie to just stop at the end. This is the default.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|open|}. Causes the player to stay open when the movie has finished.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|palindrome|}. Causes the movie to start playing backwards when the end has been reached, and to start playing forward once more when the beginning is reached, and so on.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|poster|}. Asks the viewer application to show the first image of the movie when the movie is not playing. Normally, nothing is shown when the movie is not playing (and thus the box containing the \meta{poster text} is shown). For a movie that does not have any images (but sound) or for movies with an uninformative first image this option is not so useful.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|repeat|} is the same as |loop|.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|showcontrols=|}\meta{true or false}. Causes a control bar to be displayed below the movie while it is playing. Instead of |showcontrols=true| you can also just say |showcontrols|. By default, no control bar is shown.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|start=|}\meta{time}|s|. Causes the first \meta{time} seconds of the movie to be skipped. For example, |start=10s,duration=5s| will show seconds 10 to 15 of the movie, when you play the movie.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|width=|}\meta{\TeX dimension} works like the |height| option, only for the width of the poster box.
   \end{itemize}
 
   \example
   The following example creates a ``background sound'' for the slide.
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \movie[autostart]{}{test.wav}
 \end{verbatim}
+
   \example
   A movie with two extra buttons for showing different parts of the movie.
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \movie[label=cells,width=4cm,height=3cm,poster,showcontrols,duration=5s]{}{cells.avi}
 
 
   The following \meta{options} may be given, many of which are the same as for the |\movie| command; if a different option is given for the link than for the movie itself, the option for the link takes precedence:
   \begin{itemize}
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|duration=|}\meta{time}|s|. As for |\movie|, this causes the movie to be played only for the given number of seconds.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|loop|} and \declare{|repeat|}.  As for |\movie|, this causes the movie to loop.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|once|}.  As for |\movie|, this causes the movie to played only once.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|palindrome|}.  As for |\movie|, this causes the movie to be played forth and back.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|pause|}. Causes the playback of the movie to be paused, if the movie was currently playing. If not, nothing happens.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|play|}. Causes the movie to be played from whatever start position is specified. If the movie is already playing, it will be stopped and restarted at the starting position. This is the default.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|resume|}. Resumes playback of the movie, if it has previously been paused. If has not been paused, but not started or is already playing, nothing happens.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|showcontrols=|}\meta{true or false}. As for |\movie|, this causes a control bar to be shown or not shown during playback.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|start=|}\meta{time}|s|. As for |\movie|, this causes the given number of seconds to be skipped at the beginning of the movie if |play| is used to start the movie.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|stop|}. Causes the playback of the movie to be stopped.
   \end{itemize}
 \end{command}
 
 \begin{command}{\animate\ssarg{overlay specification}}
   The slides specified by \meta{overlay specification} will be shown as quickly as possible.
+
   \example
 \begin{verbatim}
 \begin{frame}
 
 \begin{command}{\animatevalue|<|\meta{start slide}|-|\meta{end slide}|>| \marg{name}\marg{start value}\marg{end value}}
   The \meta{name} must be the name of a counter or a dimension. It will be varied between two values. For the slides in the specified range, the counter or dimension is set to an interpolated value that depends on the current slide number. On slides before the \meta{start slide}, the counter or dimension is set to \meta{start value}; on the slides after the \meta{end slide} it is set to \meta{end value}.
+
   \example
 \begin{verbatim}
 \newcount\opaqueness
 \end{command}
 
 If your animation ``graphics'' reside in individual external graphic files, you might also consider using the |\multiinclude| command, which is explained in Section~\ref{section-mpmulti}, together with |\animate|. For example, you might create an animation like this, assuming you have created graphic files named |animation.1| through to |animation.10|:
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \begin{frame}
   \animate<2-9>
 
   \example
   Assume that MetaPost has created files called |gra.0|, |gra.1|, and |gra.2|. You can then create frame consisting of three slides that incrementally show the graphic as follows:
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \begin{frame}
   \multiinclude{gra}
 \end{frame}
 \end{verbatim}
+
   The effect of providing a \meta{default overlay specification} is the following: First, no |\pause| command is inserted between graphics. Instead, each graphic is surrounded by an |actionenv| environment with the overlay specification set to \meta{default overlay specification}.
 
   \example
 
   \example
   For a more interesting usage of the \meta{default overlay specification}, consider the following usage:
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \multiinclude[<alert@+| +->]{gra}
 \end{verbatim}
+
   This will always paint the most recently added part of the graphic in red (assuming you do not use special colors in the graphic itself).
 
   \example
 \end{command}
 
 Note that, if you do not use the |format=| option, the |\includegraphics| command will be somewhat at a loss in which format your graphic file actually is. After all, it ends with the cryptic ``format suffix'' |.0| or |.1|. You can tell |\includegraphics| that any file having a suffix it knows nothing about is actually in format, say, |.mps|, using the following command:
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \DeclareGraphicsRule{*}{mps}{*}{}
 \end{verbatim}
 
+
 \subsection{Sounds}
 \label{section-sound}
 
 
 As was already pointed out in Section~\ref{section-multimedia}, a sound can be included in a \pdf\ presentation by treating it as a movie and using the |\movie| command. While this is perfectly sufficient in most cases, there are two cases where this approach is not satisfactory:
 \begin{enumerate}
-  \item
+\item
   When a page is closed, any playing movie is immediately stopped. Thus, you cannot use the |\movie| command to create sounds that persist for a longer time.
-  \item
+\item
   You cannot play two movies at the same time.
 \end{enumerate}
 
 The \pdf\ specification introduces special sound objects, which are treated quite differently from movie objects. You can create a sound object using the command |\sound|, which is somewhat similar to |\movie|. There also exists a |\hyperlinksound| command, which is similar to |\hyperlinkmovie|. While it is conceptually better to use |\sound| for sounds, there are a number of things to consider before using it:
 \begin{itemize}
-  \item
+\item
   Several sounds \emph{can} be played at the same time. In particular, it is possible to play a general sound in parallel to a (hopefully silent) movie.
-  \item
+\item
   A sound playback \emph{can} persist after the current page is closed (though it need not).
-  \item
+\item
   The data of a sound file \emph{can} be completely embedded in a \pdf\ file, obliberating the need to ``carry around'' other files.
-  \item
+\item
   The sound objects do \emph{not} work together with |dvips| and |ps2pdf|. They only work with |pdflatex|.
-  \item
+\item
   There is much less control over what part of a sound should be played. In particular, no control bar is shown and you can specify neither the start time nor the duration.
-  \item
+\item
   A bug in some versions of the Acrobat Reader makes it necessary to provide very exact details on the encoding of the sound file. You have to provide the sampling rate, the number of channels (mono or stereo), the number of bits per sample, and the sample encoding method (raw, signed, Alaw or $\mu$law). If you do not know this data or provide it incorrectly, the sound will be played incorrectly.
-  \item
+\item
   It seems  that you can only include uncompressed sound data, which can easily become huge. This is not required by the specification, but I have been unable to make the Acrobat Reader play any compressed data. Data formats that \emph{do} work are |.aif| and |.au|.
 \end{itemize}
 
 
   The following \meta{options} may be given:
   \begin{itemize}
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|autostart|}. Causes the sound to start playing immediately when the page is shown.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|automute|}. Causes all sounds to be muted when the current page is left.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|bitspersample=|}\meta{8 or 16}. Specifies the number of bits per sample in the sound file. If this number is 16, this option need not be specified.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|channels=|}\meta{1 or 2}. Specifies whether the sound is mono or stereo. If the sound is mono, this option need not be specified.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|depth=|}\meta{\TeX\ dimension}. Overrides the depth of the \meta{sound poster text} box and sets it to the given dimension.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|encoding=|}\meta{method}. Specifies the encoding method, which may be |Raw|, |Signed|, |muLaw|, or |ALaw|. If the method is |muLaw|, this option need not be specified.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|height=|}\meta{\TeX\ dimension}. Overrides the height of the \meta{sound poster text} box and sets it to the given dimension.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|inlinesound|} causes the sound data to be stored directly in the \pdf-file.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|label=|}\meta{sound label}. Assigns a label to the sound such that it can later be referenced by the command |\hyperlinksound|, which can be used to start a sound. The \meta{sound label} is not a normal label.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|loop|} or \declare{|repeat|}. Causes the sound to start again when the end has been reached.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|mixsound=|}\meta{true or false}. If set to |true|, the sound is played in addition to any sound that is already playing. If set to |false| all other sounds (though not sound from movies) are stopped before the sound is played. The default is |false|.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|samplingrate=|}\meta{number}. Specifies the number of samples per second in the sound file. If this number is 44100, this option need not be specified.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|width=|}\meta{\TeX\ dimension} works like the |height| option, only for the width of the poster box.
   \end{itemize}
 
   \example
   The following example creates a ``background sound'' for the slide, assuming that |applause.au| is encoded correctly (44100 samples per second, mono, $\mu$law encoded, 16 bits per sample).
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \sound[autostart]{}{applause.au}
 \end{verbatim}
 
   The following \meta{options} may be given:
   \begin{itemize}
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|loop|} or \declare{|repeat|}. Causes the sound to start again when the end has been reached.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|mixsound=|}\meta{true or false}. If set to |true|, the sound is played in addition to any sound that is already playing. If set to |false| all other sounds (though not sound from movies) are stopped before the sound is played. The default is |false|.
   \end{itemize}
 \end{command}
 \pdf\ in general, and the Acrobat Reader in particular, offer a standardized way of defining \emph{slide transitions}. Such a transition is a visual effect that is used to show the slide. For example, instead of just showing the slide immediately, whatever was shown before might slowly ``dissolve'' and be replaced by the slide's content.
 
 There are a number of commands that can be used to specify what effect should be used when the current slide is presented. Consider the following example:
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \frame{\pgfuseimage{youngboy}}
 \frame{
   \pgfuseimage{man}
 }
 \end{verbatim}
+
 The command |\transdissolve| causes the slide of the second frame to be shown in a ``dissolved way.'' Note that the dissolving is a property of the second frame, not of the first one. We could have placed the command anywhere on the frame.
 
 The transition commands are overlay-specification-aware. We could collapse the two frames into one frame like this:
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \begin{frame}
   \only<1>{\pgfuseimage{youngboy}}
   \transdissolve<2>
 \end{frame}
 \end{verbatim}
+
 This states that on the first slide the young boy should be shown, on the second slide the old man should be shown, and when the second slide is shown, it should be shown in a ``dissolved way.''
 
 In the following, the different commands for creating transitional effects are listed. All of them take an optional argument that may contain a list of \meta{key}|=|\meta{value} pairs. The following options are possible:
 
 \begin{itemize}
-  \item
+\item
   |duration=|\meta{seconds}. Specifies the number of \meta{seconds} the transition effect needs. Default is one second, but often a shorter one (like 0.2 seconds) is more appropriate. Viewer applications, especially Acrobat, may interpret this option in slightly strange ways.
-  \item
+\item
   |direction=|\meta{degree}. For ``directed'' effects, this option specifies the effect's direction. Allowed values are |0|, |90|, |180|, |270|, and for the glitter effect also |315|.
 \end{itemize}
 

doc/beamerug-color.tex

 
   The main colors set in the |default| color theme are the following:
   \begin{itemize}
-    \item
+  \item
     |normal text| is black on white.
-    \item
+  \item
     |alerted text| is red.
-    \item
+  \item
     |example text| is a dark green (green with 50\% black).
-    \item
+  \item
     |structure| is set to a light version of MidnightBlue (more precisely, 20\% red, 20\% green, and 70\% blue).
   \end{itemize}
   Use this theme for a no-nonsense presentation. Since this theme is loaded by default, you cannot ``reload'' it after having loaded another color theme.
 
   The theme offers several \meta{options}, which can be used to specify the color to be used for structural elements:
   \begin{itemize}
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|rgb=|\marg{rgb tuple}} sets the |structure| foreground to the specified red-green-blue tuple. The numbers are given as decimals between 0 and 1. For example, |rgb={0.5,0,0}| yields a dark red.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|RGB=|\marg{rgb tuple}} does the same as |rgb|, except that the numbers range between 0 and 255. For example, |RGB={128,0,0}|  yields a dark red.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|cmyk=|\marg{cmyk tuple}} sets the |structure| foreground to the specified cyan-magenta-yellow-black tuple. The numbers are given as decimals between 0 and 1. For example, |cmyk={0,1,1,0.5}| yields a dark red.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|cmy=|\marg{cmy tuple}} is similar to |cmyk|, except that the black component is not specified.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|hsb=|\marg{hsb tuple}}  sets the |structure| foreground to the specified hue-saturation-brightness tuple. The numbers are given as decimals between 0 and 1. For example, |hsb={0,1,.5}| yields a dark red.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|named=|\marg{color name}} sets the |structure| foreground to a named color. This color must previously have been defined using the |\DefineNamedColor| command. Adding the class option |xcolor=dvipsnames| or |xcolor=svgnames| will install a long list of standard |dvips| or SVG color names (respectively). See the file |dvipsnam.def| for the list.
   \end{itemize}
 \end{colorthemeexample}
 
   When using a light-on-dark theme like this one, be aware that there are certain disadvantages:
   \begin{itemize}
-    \item
+  \item
     If the room in which the talk is given has been ``darkened,'' using such a theme makes it more difficult for the audience to take or read notes.
-    \item
+  \item
     Since the room becomes darker, the pupil becomes larger, thus making it harder for the eye to focus. This \emph{can} make text harder to read.
-    \item
+  \item
     Printing such slides is difficult at best.
   \end{itemize}
 
 
   The following \meta{options} may be given:
   \begin{itemize}
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|overlystylish|} installs a background canvas that is, in my opinion, way too stylish. But then, I do not want to press my taste on other people. When using this option, it is probably a very good idea to also use the |lily| color theme.
   \end{itemize}
 
   This command (possibly) changes the two colors |fg| and |bg| to the foreground and background color of the \meta{beamer-color name}. If the \beamer-color does not specify a foreground, |fg| is left unchanged; if does not specify a background, |bg| is left unchanged.
 
   You will often wish to directly use the color |fg| or |bg| after using this command. For this common situation, the optional argument \meta{fg or bg} is useful, which may be either |fg| or |bg|. Giving this option will cause the foreground |fg| or the background |bg| to be immediately installed after they have been setup. Thus, the following command
+  
 \begin{verbatim}
 \usebeamercolor[fg]{normal text}
 \end{verbatim}
 \usebeamercolor{normal text}
 \color{fg}
 \end{verbatim}
+
   If you use the starred version of this command, the \beamer-color |normal text| is used before the command is invoked. This ensures that, barring evil trickery, the colors |fg| and |bg| will be setup independently of whatever colors happened to be in use when the command is invoked.
 
   This command has special side-effects. First, the (normal) color |parent.bg| is set to the value of |bg| prior to this call. Thus you can access the color that was in use prior to the call of this command via the color |parent.bg|.
   \example |\setbeamercolor{alerted text}{fg=red!80!black}|
 
   The effect of this command is accumulative, thus the following two commands
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \setbeamercolor{section in toc}{fg=blue}
 \setbeamercolor{section in toc}{bg=white}
 \begin{verbatim}
 \setbeamercolor{section in toc}{fg=blue,bg=white}
 \end{verbatim}
+
   Naturally, a second call with the same kind of \meta{option} set to a different value overrides a previous call.
 
   The starred version first resets everything, thereby ``switching off'' the accumulative effect. Use this starred version to completely reset the definition of some \beamer-color.
 
   The following \meta{options} may be given:
   \begin{itemize}
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|fg=|\meta{color}} sets the foreground color of \meta{beamer-color name} to the given (normal)   \meta{color}. The \meta{color} may also be a color expression like |red!50!black|, see the manual of the \textsc{xcolor} package. If \meta{color} is empty, the \meta{beamer-color name} ``has no special foreground'' and when the color is used, the foreground currently in force should not be changed.
 
     Specifying a foreground this way will override any inherited foreground color.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|bg=|\meta{color}} does the same as the |fg| option, but for the background.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|parent=|\meta{parent beamer-color(s)}} specifies that \meta{beamer-color name} should inherit from the specified \meta{parent beamer-color(s)}. Any foreground and/or background color set by the parents will also be used when \meta{beamer-color name} is used. If multiple parents specify a foreground, the last one ``wins''; and likewise for the backgrounds.
 
     \example
   Now terrible blue on green text, since parent was changed.
 \end{beamercolorbox}
 \end{verbatim}
+
     Note that a change of the foreground or background of a parent changes the corresponding foreground or background of the child (unless it is overruled).
 
     A \beamer-color cannot only have parents, but also grandparents and so on.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|use=|\meta{another beamer-color}} is used to make sure that another \beamer-color is setup correctly before the foreground or background color specification are evaluated.
 
     Suppose you wish the foreground of items to be a mixture of 50\% of the foreground of structural elements and 50\% of the normal foreground color. You could try
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \setbeamercolor{item}{fg=structure.fg!50!normal text.fg}
 \end{verbatim}
+
     However, this will not necessarily give the desired result: If the \beamer-color |structure| changes, the (normal) color |structure.fg| is not immediately updated. In order to ensure that the normal color |structure.fg| is correct, use the following:
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \setbeamercolor{item}{use={structure,normal text},fg=structure.fg!50!normal text.fg}
 \end{verbatim}
+
     This will guarantee that the colors |structure.fg| and |normal text.fg| are setup correctly when the foreground of |item| is computed.
 
     To show the difference, consider the following example:
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \setbeamercolor{grandfather}{fg=red}
 \setbeamercolor{grandmother}{bg=white}
 Sometimes however, you might prefer that covered items are not completely covered. Rather, you would like them to be shown already in a very dim or shaded way. This allows your audience to get a feeling for what is yet to come, without getting distracted by it. Also, you might wish text that is covered ``once more'' still to be visible to some degree.
 
 Ideally, there would be an option to make covered text ``transparent.'' This would mean that when covered text is shown, it would instead be mixed with the background behind it. Unfortunately, |pgf| does not support real transparency yet. Instead, transparency is created by mixing the color of the object you want to show with the current background color (the color |bg|, which has hopefully been setup such that it is the average color of the background on which the object should be placed). To install this effect, you can use:
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \setbeamercovered{transparent}
 \end{verbatim}
+
 This command allows you to specify in a quite general way how a covered item should be rendered. You can even specify different ways of rendering the item depending on how long it will take before this item is shown or for how long it has already been covered once more. The transparency effect will automatically apply to all colors, \emph{except} for the colors in images. For images there is a workaround, see the documentation of the \pgfname\ package.
 
 \begin{command}{\setbeamercovered\marg{options}}
 
   In detail, the following \meta{options} may be given:
   \begin{itemize}
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|invisible|} is the default and causes covered text to ``completely disappear''.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|transparent|}\opt{|=|\meta{opaqueness}} causes covered text to be typset in a ``transparent'' way. By default, this means that 85\% of the background color is mixed into all colors or that the \meta{opaqueness} of the text is 15\%. You can specify a different \meta{percentage}, where |0| means ``totally transparent'' and |100| means ``totally opaque.''
 
     Unfortunately, this value is kind of ``specific'' to every projector. What looks good on your screen need not look good during a presentation.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|dynamic|} Makes all covered text quite transparent, but in a dynamic way. The longer it will take till the text is uncovered, the stronger the transparency.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|highly dynamic|} Has the same effect as |dynamic|, but the effect is stronger.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|still covered=|\meta{not yet list}} specifies how to render covered items that have not yet been uncovered. The \meta{not yet list} should be a list of |\opaqueness| commands, see the description of that command, below.
     \example
 \begin{verbatim}
   still covered={\opaqueness<1>{15}\opaqueness<2>{10}\opaqueness<3>{5}\opaqueness<4->{2}},
   again covered={\opaqueness<1->{15}}}
 \end{verbatim}
-    \item
+
+  \item
     \declare{|again covered=|\meta{once more list}} specifies how to render covered items that have once more been covered, that is, that had been shown before but are now covered again.
   \end{itemize}
 \end{command}
 \pgfdeclareimage{book}{book}
 \pgfdeclareimage{book.!15opaque}{filenameforbooknearlytransparent}
 \end{verbatim}
+
   Makes everything that is uncovered in two slides only 15 percent opaque.
 \end{command}

doc/beamerug-compatibility.tex

 
 \begin{package}{{pdfpages}}
   Commands like |\includepdf| only work \emph{outside} frames as they produce pages ``by themselves.'' You may also wish to say
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \setbeamercolor{background canvas}{bg=}
 \end{verbatim}
+
   when you use such a command since the background (even a white background) will otherwise be printed over the image you try to include.
 
   \example

doc/beamerug-elements.tex

 
 An inner theme installs templates that dictate how the following elements are typeset:
 \begin{itemize}
-  \item Title and part pages.
-  \item Itemize environments.
-  \item Enumerate environments.
-  \item Description environments.
-  \item Block environments.
-  \item Theorem and proof environments.
-  \item Figures and tables.
-  \item Footnotes.
-  \item Bibliography entries.
+\item Title and part pages.
+\item Itemize environments.
+\item Enumerate environments.
+\item Description environments.
+\item Block environments.
+\item Theorem and proof environments.
+\item Figures and tables.
+\item Footnotes.
+\item Bibliography entries.
 \end{itemize}
 
 In the following examples, the color themes |seahorse| and |rose| are used to show where and how background colors are honoured. Furthermore, background colors have been specified for all elements that honour them in the default theme. In the default color theme, all of the large rectangular areas are transparent.
 
   In some cases the theme will honour background color specifications for elements. For example, if you set the background color for block titles to green, block titles will have a green background. The background specifications are currently honoured for the following elements:
   \begin{itemize}
-    \item Title, author, institute, and date fields in the title page.
-    \item Block environments, both for the title and for the body.
+  \item Title, author, institute, and date fields in the title page.
+  \item Block environments, both for the title and for the body.
   \end{itemize}
   This list may increase in the future.
 \end{innerthemeexample}
   In this theme, |itemize| and |enumerate| items and table of contents entries start with small balls. If a background is specified for blocks, then the corners of the background rectangles will be rounded off. The following \meta{options} may be given:
 
   \begin{itemize}
-    \item \declare{|shadow|} adds a shadow to all blocks.
+  \item \declare{|shadow|} adds a shadow to all blocks.
   \end{itemize}
 \end{innerthemeexample}
 
 
 An outer theme dictates (roughly) the overall layout of frames. It specifies where any navigational elements should go (like a mini table of contents or navigational mini frames) and what they should look like. Typically, an outer theme specifies how the following elements are rendered:
 \begin{itemize}
-  \item The head- and footline.
-  \item The sidebars.
-  \item The logo.
-  \item The frame title.
+\item The head- and footline.
+\item The sidebars.
+\item The logo.
+\item The frame title.
 \end{itemize}
 
 An outer theme will not specify how things like |itemize| environments should be rendered---that is the job of an inner theme.
 
   The following \meta{options} can be given:
   \begin{itemize}
-    \item \declare{|footline=empty|} suppresses the footline (default).
-    \item \declare{|footline=authorinstitute|} shows the author's name and the institute in the footline.
-    \item \declare{|footline=authortitle|} shows the author's name and the title in the footline.
-    \item \declare{|footline=institutetitle|} shows the institute and the title in the footline.
-    \item \declare{|footline=authorinstitutetitle|} shows the author's name, the institute, and the title in the footline.
-    \item \declare{|subsection=|\meta{true or false}} shows or suppresses line showing the subsection in the headline. It is shown by default.
+  \item \declare{|footline=empty|} suppresses the footline (default).
+  \item \declare{|footline=authorinstitute|} shows the author's name and the institute in the footline.
+  \item \declare{|footline=authortitle|} shows the author's name and the title in the footline.
+  \item \declare{|footline=institutetitle|} shows the institute and the title in the footline.
+  \item \declare{|footline=authorinstitutetitle|} shows the author's name, the institute, and the title in the footline.
+  \item \declare{|subsection=|\meta{true or false}} shows or suppresses line showing the subsection in the headline. It is shown by default.
   \end{itemize}
 \end{outerthemeexample}
 
 
   The following \meta{options} can be given:
   \begin{itemize}
-    \item \declare{|subsection=|\meta{true or false}} shows or suppresses line showing the subsection in the headline. It is shown by default.
+  \item \declare{|subsection=|\meta{true or false}} shows or suppresses line showing the subsection in the headline. It is shown by default.
   \end{itemize}
 \end{outerthemeexample}
 
 
   The following \meta{options} may be given:
   \begin{itemize}
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|height=|\meta{dimension}} specifies the height of the frame title rectangle. If it is set to 0pt, no frame title rectangle is created. Instead, the frame title is inserted normally into the frame. The default is 2.5 base line heights of the frame title font. Thus, there is about enough space for a two-line frame title plus a one-line subtitle.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|hideothersubsections|} causes all subsections except those of the current section to be suppressed in the table of contents. This is useful if you have lots of subsections.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|hideallsubsections|} causes all subsections to be suppressed in the table of contents.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|left|} puts the sidebar on the left side. Note that in a left-to-right reading culture this is the side people look first. Note also that this table of contents is usually \emph{not} the most important part of the frame, so you do not necessarily want people to look at it first. Nevertheless, it is the default.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|right|} puts the sidebar of the right side.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|width=|\meta{dimension}} specifies the width of the sidebar. If it is set to 0pt, it is completely suppressed. The default is 2.5 base line heights of the frame title font.
   \end{itemize}
 \end{outerthemeexample}
 
   The following \meta{options} may be given:
   \begin{itemize}
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|hooks|} causes little ``hooks'' to be drawn in front of the section and subsection entries. These are supposed to increase the tree-like appearance.
   \end{itemize}
 \end{outerthemeexample}
 
 \example
 Suppose we would like to have the frame title typeset in red, centered, and boldface. If we were to typeset a single frame title by hand, it might be done like this:
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \begin{frame}
   \begin{centering}
   Blah, blah.
 \end{frame}
 \end{verbatim}
+
 In order to typeset the frame title in this way on all slides, in the simplest case we can change the frame title template as follows:
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \setbeamertemplate{frametitle}
 {
   Blah, blah.
 \end{frame}
 \end{verbatim}
+
 When rendering the frame, \beamer\ will use the code of the frame title template to typeset the frame title and it will replace every occurrence of |\insertframetitle| by the current frame title.
 
 We can take this example a step further. It would be nicer if we did not have to ``hardwire'' the color of the frametitle, but if this color could be specified independently of the code for the template. This way, a color theme could change this color. Since this is a problem that is common to most templates, \beamer\ will automatically setup the \beamer-color |frametitle| when the template |frametitle| is used. Thus, we can remove the |\color{red}| command if we set the \beamer-color |frametitle| to red at some point.
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \setbeamercolor{frametitle}{fg=red}
 \setbeamertemplate{frametitle}
   \end{centering}
 }
 \end{verbatim}
+
 Next, we can also make the font ``themable.'' Just like the color, the \beamer-font |frametitle| is installed before the |frametitle| template is typeset. Thus, we should rewrite the code as follows:
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \setbeamercolor{frametitle}{fg=red}
 \setbeamerfont{frametitle}{series=\bfseries}
   \end{centering}
 }
 \end{verbatim}
+
 Users, themes, or whoever can now easily change the color or font of the frametitle without having to mess with the code used to typeset it.
 
 \articlenote
 
 Here are a few hints that might be helpful when you wish to set a template:
 \begin{itemize}
-  \item
+\item
   Usually, you might wish to copy code from an existing template. The code often takes care of some things that you may not yet have thought about. The default inner and outer themes might be useful starting points. Also, the file |beamerbaseauxtemplates.sty| contains interesting ``auxilliary'' templates.
-  \item
+\item
   When copying code from another template and when inserting this code in the preamble of your document (not in another style file), you may have to ``switch on'' the at-character (|@|). To do so, add the command |\makeatletter| before the |\setbeamertemplate| command and the command |\makeatother| afterward.
-  \item
+\item
   Most templates having to do with the frame components (headlines, sidebars, etc.)\ can only be changed in the preamble. Other templates can be changed during the document.
-  \item
+\item
   The height of the headline and footline templates is calculated automatically. This is done by typesetting the templates and then ``having a look'' at their heights. This recalculation is done right at the beginning of the document, \emph{after} all packages have been loaded and even \emph{after} these have executed their |\AtBeginDocument| initialization.
-  \item
+\item
   Getting the boxes right inside any template is often a bit of a hassle. You may wish to consult the \TeX\ book for the glorious details on ``Making Boxes.'' If your headline is simple, you might also try putting everything into a |pgfpicture| environment, which makes the placement easier.
 \end{itemize}
 
 ...
 Your answer is \usebeamertemplate{my template}.
 \end{verbatim}
+
   If you add one star, three things happen. First, the template is put inside a \TeX-group, thereby limiting most side effects of commands used inside the template. Second, inside this group the \beamer-color named \meta{element name} is used and the foreground color is selected. Third, the \beamer-font \meta{element name} is also used. This one-starred version is usually the best version to use.
 
   If you add a second star, nearly the same happens as with only one star. However, in addition, the color is used with the command |\setbeamercolor*|. This causes the colors to be reset to the normal text color if no special foreground or background is specified by the \beamer-color \meta{element name}. Thus, in this twice-starred version, the color used for the template is guaranteed to be independent of the color that was currently in use when the template is used.
 ...
 Your answer is \usebeamertemplate*{answer}.
 \end{verbatim}
+
   If you specify a \meta{predefined option}, this command behaves slightly differently. In this case, someone has used the command |\defbeamertemplate| to predefine a template for you. By giving the name of this predefined template as the optional parameter \meta{predefined option}, you cause the template \meta{element name} to be set to this template.
 
   \example
 \begin{verbatim}
 \setbeamertemplate{background}[grid][step=1cm]
 \end{verbatim}
+
   In the example, the second argument in square brackets is the optional argument.
 
   In the descriptions of elements, if there are possible \meta{predefined option}, the description shows how the \meta{predefined option} can be used together with its arguments, but the |\setbeamertemplate{xxxx}| is omitted. Thus, the above example would be documented in the description of the |background| element like this:
 \begin{command}{\addtobeamertemplate\marg{element name}\marg{pre-text}\marg{post-text}}
   This command adds the \meta{pre-text} before the text that is currently installed as the template \meta{element name} and the \meta{post-text} after it. This allows you a limited form of modification of existing templates.
 
-  \example The following commands have the same effect:
+  \example
+  The following commands have the same effect:
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \setbeamertemplate{my template}{Hello world!}
 
 \setbeamertemplate{my template}{world}
 \addtobeamertemplate{my template}{Hello }{!}
 \end{verbatim}
+
   If a new template is installed, any additions will be deleted. On the other hand, you can repeatedly use this command to add multiple things.
 \end{command}
 
   |\defbeamertemplate{itemize item}{double arrow}{$\Rightarrow$}|
 
   After the above command has been invoked, the following two commands will have the same effect:
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \setbeamertemplate{itemize item}{$\Rightarrow$}
 \setbeamertemplate{itemize item}[double arrow]
 \end{verbatim}
+
   Sometimes, a predefined template needs to get an argument when it is installed. Suppose, for example, we want to define a predefined template that draws a square as the itemize item and we want to make this size of this square configurable. In this case, we can specify the \meta{argument number} of the predefined option the same way one does for the |\newcommand| command:
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \defbeamertemplate{itemize item}{square}[1]{\hrule width #1 height #1}
 
 \setbeamertemplate{itemize item}[square]
 \setbeamertemplate{itemize item}{\hrule width 1ex height 1ex}
 \end{verbatim}
+
   The starred version of the command installs the predefined template option, but then immediately calls |\setbeamertemplate| for this option. This is useful for the default templates. If there are any arguments necessary, these are set to |\relax|.
 
   In certain cases, if a predefined template option is chosen, you do not only wish the template text to be installed, but certain extra ``actions'' must also be taken once. For example, a shading must be defined that should not be redefined every time the shading is used later on. To implement such ``actions,'' you can use the optional argument \meta{action} following the keyword |[action]|. Thus, after the normal use of the |\defbeamertemplate| you add the text |[action]| and then any commands that should be executed once when the \meta{predefined option} is selected by the |\setbeamertemplate| command.
 %% \usebeamertemplate{background canvas} will yield
 %% ``\pgfuseshading{myshading}''.
 \end{verbatim}
+
   \articlenote
   Normally, this command has no effect in |article| mode. However, if a \meta{mode specification} is given, this command is applied for the specified modes. Thus, this command behaves like the |\\| command, which also gets the implicit mode specification |<presentation>| if no other specification is given.
 
 
   The \meta{arguments for children} come into play if the |\setbeamertemplate| command is called with a predefined option name (not necessarily the same as the \meta{predefined option name}, we'll come to that). If |\setbeamertemplate| is called with some predefined option name, the children are called with the \meta{arguments for children} instead. Let's look at two examples:
 
-  \example The following is the typical, simple usage:
+  \example
+  The following is the typical, simple usage:
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \defbeamertemplateparent{itemize items}{itemize item,itemize subitem,itemize subsubitem}
 {}
 \setbeamertemplate{itemize subitem}[circle]
 \setbeamertemplate{itemize subsubitem}[circle]
 \end{verbatim}
-  \example In the following case, an argument is passed to the children:
+
+  \example
+  In the following case, an argument is passed to the children:
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \defbeamertemplateparent{sections/subsections in toc shaded}
 {section in toc shaded,subsection in toc shaded}[1][20]
 \setbeamertemplate{section in toc shaded}[default][20]
 \setbeamertemplate{subsection in toc shaded}[default][20]
 \end{verbatim}
+
   In detail, the following happens: When |\setbeamertemplate| is encountered for a parent template, \beamer\ first checks whether a predefined option follows. If not, a single argument is read and |\setbeamertemplate| is called for all children for this template. If there is a predefined template option set, \beamer\ evaluates the \meta{argument for children}. It may contain parameters like |#1| or |#2|. These parameters are filled with the arguments that follow the call of |\setbeamertemplate| for the parent template. The number of arguments must be the number given as \meta{argument number}. An optional argument can also be specified in the usual way. Once the \meta{arguments for the children} have been computed, |\setbeamertemplate| is called for all children for the predefined template and with the computed arguments.
 
   You may wonder what happens when certain predefined options take a certain number of arguments, but another predefined option takes a different number of arguments. In this case, the above-described mechanism cannot differentiate between the predefined options and it is unclear which or even how many arguments should be contained in \meta{arguments for children}. For this reason, you can give the optional argument \meta{predefined option name} when calling |\defbeamertemplateparent|. If this optional argument is specified, the parenthood of the template applies only to this particular \meta{predefined option name}. Thus, if someone calls |\setbeamertemplate| for this \meta{predefined option name}, the given \meta{argument for children} is used. For other predefined option names a possibly different definition is used. You can imaging that leaving out the optional \meta{predefined option name} means ``this \meta{argument for children} applies to all predefined option names that have not been specially defined differently.''

doc/beamerug-emulation.tex

 
 The workflow for creating a \beamer\ presentation that uses \prosper\ code is the following:
 \begin{enumerate}
-  \item
+\item
   Use the document class |beamer|, not |prosper|. Most options passed to |prosper| do not apply to |beamer| and should be omitted.
-  \item
+\item
   Add a |\usepackage{beamerprosper}| to start the emulation.
-  \item
+\item
   If you add slides relying on \textsc{ha}-\prosper, you may wish to add the option |framesassubsections| to |beamerprosper|, though I do not recommend it (use the normal |\subsection| command instead; it gives you more fine-grained control).
-  \item
+\item
   If you also copy the title commands, it may be necessary to adjust the content of commands like |\title| or |\author|. Note that in \prosper\ the |\email| command is given outside the |\author| command, whereas in \beamer\ and also in \textsc{ha}-\prosper\ it is given inside.
-  \item
+\item
   When copying slides containing the command |\includegraphics|, you will almost surely have to adjust its usage. If you use pdf\LaTeX\ to typeset the presentation, than you cannot include PostScript files. You should convert them to |.pdf| or to |.png| and adjust any usage of |\includegraphics| accordingly.
-  \item
+\item
   When starting to change things, you can use all of \beamer's commands and even mix them with \prosper\ commands.
 \end{enumerate}
 
 
 There are, unfortunately, quite a few places where you may run into problems:
 \begin{itemize}
-  \item
+\item
   In \beamer, the command |\PDForPS| will do exactly what the name suggests: insert the first argument when run by |pdflatex|, insert the second argument when run by |latex|. However, in \prosper, the code inserted for the \pdf\ case is actually PostScript code, which is only later converted to \pdf\ by some external program. You will need to adjust this PostScript code such that it works with |pdflatex| (which is not always possible).
-  \item
+\item
   If you used fine-grained spacing commands, like adding a little horizontal skip   here and a big negative vertical skip there, the typesetting of the text may be poor. It may be a good idea to just remove these spacing commands.
-  \item
+\item
   If you use |pstricks| commands, you will either have to stick to using |latex| and |dvips| or will have to work around them using, for example, |pgf|. Porting lots of |pstricks| code is bound to be difficult, if you wish to switch over to |pdflatex|, so be warned.
-  \item
+\item
   If the file cannot be compiled because some \prosper\ command is not implemented, you will have to delete this command and try to mimick its behaviour using some \beamer\ command.
 \end{itemize}
 
 
   This package takes the following options:
   \begin{itemize}
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|framesassubsections|} causes each frame to create its own subsection with the frame title as subsection name. This behaviour mimicks \textsc{ha}-\textsc{prosper}'s behaviour. In a long talk this will create way too many subsections.
   \end{itemize}
 
 \end{notes}
 \end{document}
 \end{verbatim}
+
   You can run, for example, pdf\LaTeX\ on the file to get a \beamer\ presentation with overlays. Adding the |notes| option will also show the note. Certain commands, like |\LeftFoot|, are ignored. You can change the theme using the usual commands. You can also use all normal \beamer\ commands and concepts, like overlay-specifications, in the file. You can also create an |article| version by using the class |article| and including the package |beamerarticle|.
 \end{package}
 
 
   The following \meta{options} may be given:
   \begin{itemize}
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|trans=|\meta{prosper transition}} installs the specified \meta{prosper transition} as the transition effect when showing the slide.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{\meta{prosper transition}} has the same effect as |trans=|\meta{prosper transition}.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|toc=|\meta{entry}} overrides the subsection table of contents entry created by this slide by \meta{entry}. Note that a subsection entry is created for a slide only if the |framesassubsections| options is specified.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|template|=\meta{text}} is ignored.
   \end{itemize}
 
-  \example The following two texts have the same effect:
+  \example
+  The following two texts have the same effect:
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \begin{slide}[trans=Glitter,toc=short]{A Title}
   Hi!
 
   \example
   The following code fragments have the same effect:
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \overlays{2}{
 \begin{slide}{A Title}
 
 The workflow for the migration is the following:
 \begin{enumerate}
-  \item
+\item
   Use the document class |beamer|, not |seminar|. Most options passed to |seminar| do not apply to |beamer| and should be omitted.
-  \item
+\item
   If you copy parts of a presentation that is mixed with normal text, add the |ignorenonframetext| option and place \emph{every} |slide| environment inside a |frame| since \beamer\ will not recognize the |\begin{slide}| as the beginning of a frame.
-  \item
+\item
   Add a |\usepackage{beamerseminar}| to start the emulation. Add the option |accumulate| if you wish to create a presentation to be held with a video projector.
-  \item
+\item
   Possibly add commands to install themes and templates.
-  \item
+\item
   There should not be commands in the preamble having to do with page and slide styles. They do not apply to |beamer|.
-  \item
+\item
   If a |\newslide| command is used in a |slide| (or similarly |slide*|) environment that contains an overlay, you must replace it by a closing |\end{slide}| and an opening |\begin{slide}|.
-  \item
+\item
   Next, for each |slide| or |slide*| environment that contains an overlay, you must place a |frame| environment around it. You can remove the |slide| environment (and hence effectively replace it by |frame|), unless you use the |accumulate| option.
-  \item
+\item
   If you use |\section| or |\subsection| commands inside slides, you will have to move them \emph{outside} the frames. It may then be necessary to add a |\frametitle| command to the slide.
-  \item
+\item
   If you use pdf\LaTeX\ to typeset the presentation, you cannot include PostScript files. You should convert them to |.pdf| or to |.png| and adjust any usage of |\includegraphics| accordingly.
-  \item
+\item
   When starting to change things, you can use all of \beamer's commands and even mix them with \seminar\ commands.
 \end{enumerate}
 
 
 There are, unfortunately, numerous places where you may run into problems:
 \begin{itemize}
-  \item
+\item
   The whole |note| management of |seminar| is so different from |beamer|'s, that you will have to edit notes ``by hand.'' In particular, commands like |\ifslidesonly| and |\ifslide| may not do exactly what you expect.
-  \item
+\item
   If you use |pstricks| commands, you will either have to stick to using |latex| and |dvips| or will have to work around them using, for example, |pgf|. Porting lots of |pstricks| code is bound to be difficult, if you wish to switch over to |pdflatex|, so be warned.
-  \item
+\item
   If the file cannot be compiled because some \seminar\ command is not implemented, you will have to delete this command and try to mimick its behaviour using some \beamer\ command.
 \end{itemize}
 
 
   This package takes the following options:
   \begin{itemize}
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|accumulate|} causes overlays to be accumulated. The original behaviour of the \seminar\ package is that in each overlay only the really ``new'' part of the overlay is shown. This makes sense, if you really print out the overlays on transparencies and then really stack overlays on top of each other. For a presentation with a video projector, you rather want to present an ``accumulated'' version of the overlays. This is what this option does: When the new material of the $i$-th overlay is shown, the material of all previous overlays is also shown.
   \end{itemize}
 
   \example
   The following example is an extract of |beamerexample-seminar.tex|:
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \documentclass[ignorenonframetext]{beamer}
 \usepackage[accumulated]{beamerseminar}
 \end{frame}
 \end{document}
 \end{verbatim}
+
   You can use all normal \beamer\ commands and concepts, like overlay-specifications, in the file. You can also create an |article| version by using the class |article| and including the package |beamerarticle|.
 \end{package}
 
 
 The following commands are parsed by \beamer, but have no effect:
 \begin{itemize}\itemsep=0pt\parskip=0pt
-  \item |\ptsize|.
+\item |\ptsize|.
 \end{itemize}
 
 
 
 The workflow for the migration is the following:
 \begin{enumerate}
-  \item
+\item
   Use the document class |beamer|, not |foils|.
-  \item
+\item
   Add a |\usepackage{beamerfoils}| to start the emulation.
-  \item
+\item
   Possibly add commands to install themes and templates.
-  \item
+\item
   If the command |\foilhead| is used inside a |\frame| command or |frame| environment, it behaves like |\frametitle|. If it used outside a frame, it will start a new frame (with the |allowframebreaks| option, thus no overlays are allowed). This frame will persist till the next occurrence of |\foilhead| or of the new command |\endfoil|. Note that a |\frame| command will \emph{not} end a frame started using |\foilhead|.
-  \item
+\item
   If you rely on automatic frame creation based on |\foilhead|, you will need to insert an |\endfoil| before the end of the document to end the last frame.
-  \item
+\item
   If you use pdf\LaTeX\ to typeset the presentation, than you cannot include PostScript files. You should convert them to |.pdf| or to |.png| and adjust any usage of |\includegraphics| accordingly.
-  \item
+\item
   Sizes of objects are different in \beamer, since the scaling is done by the viewer, not by the class. Thus a framebox of size 6 inches will be way too big in a \beamer\ presentation. You will have to manually adjust explicit dimension occurring in a foil\TeX\ presentation.
 \end{enumerate}
 
 
   \example
   In the following example, frames are automatically created. The |\endfoil| at the end is needed to close the last frame.
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \documentclass{beamer}
 \usepackage{beamerfoils}
 
   \example
   In this example, frames are manually inserted. No |\endfoil| is needed.
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \documentclass{beamer}
 \usepackage{beamerfoils}
 
 The following additional theorem-like environments are predefined:
 \begin{itemize}
-  \item |Theorem*|,
-  \item |Lemma*|,
-  \item |Corollary*|,
-  \item |Proposition*|, and
-  \item |Definition*|.
+\item |Theorem*|,
+\item |Lemma*|,
+\item |Corollary*|,
+\item |Proposition*|, and
+\item |Definition*|.
 \end{itemize}
 For example, the first is defined using |\newtheorem*{Theorem*}{Theorem}|.
 
 The following commands are parsed by \beamer, but have no effect:
 \begin{itemize}
-  \item |\leftheader|,
-  \item |\rightheader|,
-  \item |\leftfooter|,
-  \item |\rightfooter|,
-  \item |\Restriction|, and
-  \item |\marginpar|.
+\item |\leftheader|,
+\item |\rightheader|,
+\item |\leftfooter|,
+\item |\rightfooter|,
+\item |\Restriction|, and
+\item |\marginpar|.
 \end{itemize}
 
 
 
 The workflow for the migration is the following:
 \begin{enumerate}
-  \item
+\item
   Replace the document class by |beamer|. If the document class is |seminar| or |prosper|, you can use the above emulation layers, that is, you can include the files |beamerseminar| or |beamerprosper| to emulate the class.
 
   All notes on what to do for the emulation of \seminar\ or \prosper\ also apply here.
-  \item
+\item
   Additionally, add |\usepackage{beamertexpower}| to start the emulation.
 \end{enumerate}
 
-
 \begin{package}{{beamertexpower}}
   Include this package in a |beamer| presentation to get access to the \texpower\ commands having to do with the |\stepwise| command.
 \end{package}

doc/beamerug-fonts.tex

 \end{fontthemeexample}
 
 \begin{fontthemeexample*}{professionalfonts}
-  This font theme does not really change any fonts. Rather, it \emph{suppresses} certain internal replacements performed by \beamer. If you use ``professional fonts'' (fonts that you buy and that come with a complete set of every symbol in all modes), you do not want \beamer\ to meddle with the fonts you use. \beamer\ normally replaces certain character glyphs in mathematical text by more appropriate versions. For example, \beamer\ will normally replace glyphs such that the italic characters from the main font are used for variables in mathematical text. If your professional font package takes care of this already, \beamer's meddling should be switched off. Note that \beamer's substitution is automatically turned off if one of the following packages is loaded: |arevmath|, |hvmath|, |lucidabr|, |lucimatx| |mathpmnt|, |mathpple|, |mathtime|, |mtpro|, and |mtpro2|. If your favorite professional font package is not among these, use the |professionalfont| option (and write me an email, so that the package can be added).
+  This font theme does not really change any fonts. Rather, it \emph{suppresses} certain internal replacements performed by \beamer. If you use ``professional fonts'' (fonts that you buy and that come with a complete set of every symbol in all modes), you do not want \beamer\ to meddle with the fonts you use. \beamer\ normally replaces certain character glyphs in mathematical text by more appropriate versions. For example, \beamer\ will normally replace glyphs such that the italic characters from the main font are used for variables in mathematical text. If your professional font package takes care of this already, \beamer's meddling should be switched off. Note that \beamer's substitution is automatically turned off if one of the following packages is loaded: |arevmath|, |hvmath|, |lucidabr|, |lucimatx|, |mathpmnt|, |mathpple|, |mathtime|, |mtpro|, and |mtpro2|. If your favorite professional font package is not among these, use the |professionalfont| option (and write me an email, so that the package can be added).
 \end{fontthemeexample*}
 
-
-
 \begin{fontthemeexample}[\oarg{options}]{serif}
   This theme causes all text to be typeset using the default serif font (except if you specify certain \meta{options}). You might wish to consult Section~\ref{section-guidelines-serif} on whether you should use serif fonts.
 
   The following \meta{options} may be given:
   \begin{itemize}
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|stillsansserifmath|}
     causes mathematical text still to be typeset using sans serif. This option only makes sense if you also use the |stillsansseriftext| option since sans serif math inside serif text looks silly.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|stillsansserifsmall|}
     will cause ``small'' text to be still typeset using sans serif. This refers to the text in the headline, footline, and sidebars. Using this options is often advisable since small text is often easier to read in sans serif.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|stillsansseriflarge|}
     will cause ``large'' text like the presentation title or the frame title to be still typeset using sans serif. Sans serif titles with serif text are a popular combination in typography.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|stillsansseriftext|}
     will cause normal text (none of the above three) to be still typeset using sans serif. If you use this option, you should most likely also use the first two. However, by not using |stillsansseriflarge|, you get a serif (possibly italic) title over a sans serif text. This can be an interesting visual effect. Naturally, ``interesting typographic effect'' can mean ``terrible typographic effect'' if you choose the wrong fonts combinations or sizes. You'll need some typographic experience to judge this correctly. If in doubt, try asking someone who should know.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|onlymath|}
     is a short-cut for selecting all of the above options except for the first. Thus, using this option causes only mathematical text to by typeset using a serif font. Recall that, by default, mathematical formulas are also typeset using sans-serif letters. In most cases, this is visually the most pleasing and easily readable way of typesetting mathematical formulas if the surrounding text is typeset using sans serif. However, in mathematical texts the font used to render, say, a variable is sometimes used to differentiate between different meanings of this variable. In such case, it may be necessary to typeset mathematical text using serif letters. Also, if you have a lot of mathematical text, the audience may be quicker to ``parse'' it if it is typeset the way people usually read mathematical text: in a serif font.
   \end{itemize}
 
   The following \meta{options} may be given:
   \begin{itemize}
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|onlysmall|}
     will cause only ``small'' text to be typeset in bold. More precisely, only the text in the headline, footline, and sidebars is changed to be typeset in bold. Large titles are not affected.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|onlylarge|}
     will cause only ``large'' text to be typeset in bold. These are the main title, frame titles, and section entries in the table of contents.
   \end{itemize}
 \label{section-substition}
 
 By default, \beamer\ uses the Computer Modern fonts. To change this, you can use one of the prepared packages of \LaTeX's font mechanism. For example, to change to Times/Helvetica, simply add
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \usepackage{mathptmx}
 \usepackage{helvet}
 \end{verbatim}
+
 in your preamble. Note that if you do not use the |serif| font theme, Helvetica (not Times) will be selected as the text font.
 
 There may be many other fonts available on your installation. Typically, at least some of the following packages should be available: |avant|, |bookman|, |chancery|, |charter|, |euler|, |helvet|, |lmodern|, |mathtime|, |mathptm|, |mathptmx|, |newcent|, |palatino|, |pifont|, |utopia|.
 Among the packages that make available the Computer Modern fonts in the T1~encoding, the package |lmodern| may be suggested. If you use |lmodern|, several extra fonts become available (like a sans-serif boldface math) and extra symbols (like proper guillemots).
 
 To select the T1 encoding, use \verb|\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}|. Thus, if you have the LM~fonts installed, you could write
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \usepackage{lmodern}
 \usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
 \end{verbatim}
+
 to get beautiful outline fonts and correct hyphenation. Note, however, that certain older versions of the LM~bundle did not include correct glyphs for ligatures like ``fi,'' which may cause trouble. Double check that all ligatures are displayed correctly and, if not, update.
 
 
 
 \setbeamerfont{frametitle}{size=\large,series=\bfseries}
 \end{verbatim}
+
   In the starred version, the font attributes are first completely reset, that is, set to be empty.
 
   The following \meta{attributes} may be given:
   \begin{itemize}
-    \item \declare{|size=|\meta{size command}} sets the size attribute of the \beamer font. The \meta{size command} should be a normal \LaTeX-command used for setting the font size or it should be empty. Useful commands include |\tiny|, |\scriptsize|, |\footnotesize|, |\small|, |\normalsize|, |\large|, |\Large|, |\huge|, and |\Huge|. \beamer\ also introduces the two font sizes |\Tiny| and |\TINY| for \emph{really} small text. But you should know \emph{exactly} what you are doing if you use them. You have been warned.
+  \item \declare{|size=|\meta{size command}} sets the size attribute of the \beamer font. The \meta{size command} should be a normal \LaTeX-command used for setting the font size or it should be empty. Useful commands include |\tiny|, |\scriptsize|, |\footnotesize|, |\small|, |\normalsize|, |\large|, |\Large|, |\huge|, and |\Huge|. \beamer\ also introduces the two font sizes |\Tiny| and |\TINY| for \emph{really} small text. But you should know \emph{exactly} what you are doing if you use them. You have been warned.
 
     Note that there is a different between specifying an empty command and specifying |\normalsize|: Making the size attribute ``empty'' means that the font size should not be changed when this font is used, while specifying |\normalsize| means that the size should be set to the normal size whenever this font is used.
-    \item \declare{|size*=|\marg{size in pt}\marg{baselineskip}} sets the size attribute of the font to the given \meta{size in pt} and the baseline skip to the given value. Note that, depending on what kind of font you use, not all font sizes may be available. Also, certain font sizes are much less desirable than other ones; the standard commands take care of choosing appropriate sizes for you. Do not use this option unless you have a good reason. This command has the same effect as |size={\fontsize|\marg{size in pt}\marg{baselineskip}|}|.
-    \item \declare{|shape=|\meta{shape command}} sets the shape attribute of the font. The command should be a command like |\itshape|, |\slshape|, |\scshape|, or |\upshape|.
-    \item \declare{|shape*=|\marg{shape attribute abbreviation}} sets the shape attribute of the font using the \LaTeX's abbreviations for attributes. This command has the same effect as |shape={\fontshape|\marg{shape attributes abbreviation}|}|.
-    \item \declare{|series=|\meta{series command}} sets the ``series'' attribute of the font. The command should be a command like |\bfseries|.
-    \item \declare{|series*=|\marg{series attribute abbreviation}} has the same effect as |series={\fontseries|\marg{series attributes abbreviation}|}|.
-    \item \declare{|family=|\meta{family command}} sets the font family attribute. The command should be a \LaTeX-font command like |\rmfamily| or |\sffamily|.
-    \item \declare{|family*=|\marg{family name}} sets the font family attribute to the given \meta{family name}. The command has the same effect as |family={\fontfamily|\marg{family name}|}|. The \meta{family name} is, normally, a somewhat cryptic abbreviation of a font family name that installed somewhere on the system. For example, the \meta{family name} for Times happens to be |ptm|. No one can remember these names, so it's perfectly normal if you have to look them up laboriously.
-    \item \declare{|parent=|\marg{parent list}} specifies a list of parent fonts. When the \beamer-font is used, the parents are used first. Thus, any font attributes set by one of the parents is inherited by the \beamer-font, except if this attribute is overwritten by the font.
+  \item \declare{|size*=|\marg{size in pt}\marg{baselineskip}} sets the size attribute of the font to the given \meta{size in pt} and the baseline skip to the given value. Note that, depending on what kind of font you use, not all font sizes may be available. Also, certain font sizes are much less desirable than other ones; the standard commands take care of choosing appropriate sizes for you. Do not use this option unless you have a good reason. This command has the same effect as |size={\fontsize|\marg{size in pt}\marg{baselineskip}|}|.
+  \item \declare{|shape=|\meta{shape command}} sets the shape attribute of the font. The command should be a command like |\itshape|, |\slshape|, |\scshape|, or |\upshape|.
+  \item \declare{|shape*=|\marg{shape attribute abbreviation}} sets the shape attribute of the font using the \LaTeX's abbreviations for attributes. This command has the same effect as |shape={\fontshape|\marg{shape attributes abbreviation}|}|.
+  \item \declare{|series=|\meta{series command}} sets the ``series'' attribute of the font. The command should be a command like |\bfseries|.
+  \item \declare{|series*=|\marg{series attribute abbreviation}} has the same effect as |series={\fontseries|\marg{series attributes abbreviation}|}|.
+  \item \declare{|family=|\meta{family command}} sets the font family attribute. The command should be a \LaTeX-font command like |\rmfamily| or |\sffamily|.
+  \item \declare{|family*=|\marg{family name}} sets the font family attribute to the given \meta{family name}. The command has the same effect as |family={\fontfamily|\marg{family name}|}|. The \meta{family name} is, normally, a somewhat cryptic abbreviation of a font family name that installed somewhere on the system. For example, the \meta{family name} for Times happens to be |ptm|. No one can remember these names, so it's perfectly normal if you have to look them up laboriously.
+  \item \declare{|parent=|\marg{parent list}} specifies a list of parent fonts. When the \beamer-font is used, the parents are used first. Thus, any font attributes set by one of the parents is inherited by the \beamer-font, except if this attribute is overwritten by the font.
   \end{itemize}
 
   \example

doc/beamerug-frames.tex

 \section{Creating Frames}
 \label{section-frames}
 
+
 \subsection{The Frame Environment}
 
 A presentation consists of a series of frames. Each frame consists of a series of slides. You create a frame using the command |\frame| or the environment |frame|, which do the same. The command takes one parameter, namely the contents of the frame. All of the text that is not tagged by overlay specifications is shown on all slides of the frame. (Overlay specifications are explained in more detail in later sections. For the moment, let's just say that an overlay specification is a list of numbers or number ranges in pointed brackets that is put after certain commands as in |\uncover<1,2>{Text}|.) If a frame contains commands that have an overlay specification, the frame will contain multiple slides; otherwise it contains only one slide.
   \tabelofcontent[current]
 \end{frame}
 \end{verbatim}
+
   Normally, the complete \meta{environment contents} is put on a slide. If the text does not fit on a slide, being too high, it will be squeezed as much as possible, a warning will be issued, and the text just extends unpleasantly over the bottom. You can use the option |allowframebreaks| to cause the \meta{frame text} to be split among several slides, though you cannot use overlays then. See the explanation of the |allowframebreaks| option for details.
 
   The \meta{default overlay specification} is an optional argument that is ``detected'' according to the following rule: If the first optional argument in square brackets starts with a |<|, then this argument is a \meta{default overlay specification}, otherwise it is a normal \meta{options} argument. Thus |\begin{frame}[<+->][plain]| would be legal, but also |\begin{frame}[plain]|.
 
   \example
   In this frame, the theorem is shown from the first slide on, the proof from the second slide on, with the first two itemize points shown one after the other; the last itemize point is shown together with the first one. In total, this frame will contain four slides.
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \begin{frame}[<+->]
   \begin{theorem}
 
   The following \meta{options} may be given:
   \begin{itemize}
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|allowdisplaybreaks|}\opt{|=|\meta{break desirability}} causes the AMS\TeX\ command |\allowdisplaybreaks|\penalty0|[|\meta{break desirability}|]| to be issued for the current frame. The \meta{break desirability} can be a value between 0 (meaning formulas may never be broken) and 4 (the default, meaning that formulas can be broken anywhere without any penalty). The option is just a convenience and makes sense only together with the |allowsframebreaks| option.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|allowframebreaks|}\opt{|=|\meta{fraction}}. When this option is given, the frame will be automatically broken up into several frames if the text does not fit on a single slide. In detail, when this option is given, the following things happen:
     \begin{enumerate}
-      \item
+    \item
       Overlays are not supported.
-      \item
+    \item
       Any notes for the frame created using the |\note| command will be inserted after the first page of the frame.
-      \item
+    \item
       Any footnotes for the frame will be inserted on the last page of the frame.
-      \item
+    \item
       If there is a frame title, each of the pages will have this frame title, with a special note added indicating which page of the frame that page is. By default, this special note is a Roman number. However, this can be changed using the following template.
       \begin{element}{frametitle continuation}\yes\yes\yes
         The text of this template is inserted at the end of every title of a frame with the |allowframebreaks| option set.
         \end{templateinserts}
       \end{element}
     \end{enumerate}
+
     If a frame needs to be broken into several pages, the material on all but the last page fills only 95\% of each page by default. Thus, there will be some space left at the top and/or bottom, depending on the vertical placement option for the frame. This yields a better visual result than a 100\% filling, which typically looks crowded. However, you can change this percentage using the optional argument \meta{fraction}, where 1 means 100\% and 0.5 means 50\%. This percentage includes the frame title. Thus, in order to split a frame ``roughly in half,'' you should give 0.6 as \meta{fraction}.
 
     Most of the fine details of normal \TeX\ page breaking also apply to this option. For example, when you wish equations to be broken automatically, be sure to use the |\allowdisplaybreaks| command. You can insert |\break|, |\nobreak|, and |\penalty| commands to control where breaks should occur. The commands |\pagebreak| and |\nopagebreak| also work, including their options. Since you typically do not want page breaks for the frame to apply also to the |article| mode, you can add a mode specification like |<presentation>| to make these commands apply only to the presentation modes. The command \declare{|\string\framebreak|} is a shorthand for |\pagebreak<presentation>| and \declare{|\string\noframebreak|} is a shorthand for |\nopagebreak<presentation>|.
   \end{thebibliography}
 \end{frame}
 \end{verbatim}
+
     \example
 \begin{verbatim}
 \begin{frame}[allowframebreaks,allowdisplaybreaks]{A Long Equation}
   \end{align}
 \end{frame}
 \end{verbatim}
-    \item
+
+  \item
     \declare{|b|}, \declare{|c|}, \declare{|t|} will cause the frame to be vertically aligned at the bottom/center/top. This overrides the global placement policy, which is governed by the class options |t| and |c|.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|fragile|\opt{|=singleslide|}} tells \beamer\ that the frame contents is ``fragile.'' This means that the frame contains text that is not ``interpreted as usual.'' For example, this applies to verbatim text, which is, obviously, interpreted somewhat differently from normal text.
 
     If a frame contains fragile text, different internal mechanisms are used to typeset the frame to ensure that inside the frame the character codes can be reset. The price of switching to another internal mechanism is that either you cannot use overlays or an external file needs to be written and read back (which is not always desirable).
     To determine the end of the frame, the following rule is used: The first occurence of a single line containing exactly |\end{|\meta{frame environment name}|}| ends the frame. The \meta{environment name} is normally |frame|, but it can be changed using the |environment| option. This special rule is needed since the frame contents is, after all, not interpreted when it is gathered.
 
     You can also add the optional information |=singleslide|. This tells \beamer\ that the frame contains only a single slide. In this case, the frame contents is \emph{not} written to a special file, but interpreted directly, which is ``faster and cleaner.''
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|environment=|\meta{frame environment name}}. This option is useful only in conjuction with the |fragile| option (but it is not used for |fragile=singleslide|, only for the plain |fragile|). The \meta{frame environment name} is used to determine the end of the scanning when gathering the frame contents. Normally, the frame ends when a line reading |\end{frame}| is reached. However, if you use |\begin{frame}| inside another environment, you need to use this option:
 
     \example
   Text.
 \end{slide}
 \end{verbatim}
+
     If you did not specify the option |environment=slide| in the above example, \TeX\ would ``miss'' the end of the slide since it does not interpret text while gathering the frame contents.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|label=|\meta{name}} causes the frame's contents to be stored under the name \meta{name} for later resumption using the command |\againframe|. Furthermore, on each slide of the frame a label with the name \meta{name}|<|\meta{slide number}|>| is created. On the \emph{first} slide, furthermore, a label with the name \meta{name} is created (so the labels \meta{name} and \meta{name}|<1>| point to the same slide). Note that labels in general, and these labels in particular, can be used as targets for hyperlinks.
 
     You can use this option together with |fragile|.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|plain|} causes the headlines, footlines, and sidebars to be suppressed. This is useful for creating single frames with different head- and footlines or for creating frames showing big pictures that completely fill the frame.
 
     \example
     A frame with a picture completely filling the frame:
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \begin{frame}[plain]
   \begin{centering}%
 
     \example
     A title page, in which the head- and footlines are replaced by two graphics.
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \setbeamertemplate{title page}
 {
   \titlepage
 \end{frame}
 \end{verbatim}
-    \item
+
+  \item
     \declare{|shrink|}\opt{|=|\meta{minimum shrink percentage}}. This option will cause the text of the frame to be shrunk if it is too large to fit on the frame. \beamer\ will first normally typeset the whole frame. Then it has a look at vertical size of the frame text (excluding the frame title). If this vertical size is larger than the text height minus the frame title height, \beamer\ computes a shrink factor and scales down the frame text by this factor such that the frame text then fills the frame completely. Using this option will automatically cause the |squeeze| option to be used, also.
 
     Since the shrinking takes place only after everything has been typeset, shrunk frame text will not fill the frame completely horizontally. For this reason, you can specify a \meta{minimum shrink percentage} like |20|. If this percentage is specified, the frame will be shrunk \emph{at least} by this percentage. Since \beamer\ knows this, it can increase the horizontal width proportionally such that the shrunk text once more fills the entire frame. If, however, the percentage is not enough, the text will be shrunk as needed and you will be punished with a warning message.
   Some evil endless slide that is 5\% too large.
 \end{frame}
 \end{verbatim}
-    \item
+
+  \item
     \declare{|squeeze|} causes all vertical spaces in the text to be squeezed together as much as possible. Currently, this just causes the vertical space in enumerations or itemizations to be reduced to zero.
 
     Using this option is not good, but also not evil.
 \end{environment}
 
 You \emph{can} use the |frame| environment inside other environments like this
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \newenvironment{slide}{\begin{frame}}{\end{frame}}
 \end{verbatim}
+
 or like this
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \newenvironment{myframe}[1]
   {\begin{frame}[fragile,environment=myframe]\frametitle{#1}}
   {\end{frame}}
 \end{verbatim}
+
 However, the actual mechanics are somewhat sensitive since the ``collecting'' of the frame contents is not easy, so do not attempt anything too fancy. As a rule, the beginning of the environment can be pretty arbitrary, but the ending must end with |\end{frame}| and should not contain any |\end{xxx}|. Anything really complex is likely to fail. If you need some |\end{xxx}| there, define a new command that contains this stuff as in the following example:
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \newenvironment{itemizeframe}
   {\begin{frame}\startitemizeframe}
 
 Each frame consists of several components:
 \begin{enumerate}\itemsep=0pt\parskip=0pt
-  \item a headline and a footline,
-  \item a left and a right sidebar,
-  \item navigation bars,
-  \item navigation symbols,
-  \item a logo,
-  \item a frame title,
-  \item a background, and
-  \item some frame contents.
+\item a headline and a footline,
+\item a left and a right sidebar,
+\item navigation bars,
+\item navigation symbols,
+\item a logo,
+\item a frame title,
+\item a background, and
+\item some frame contents.
 \end{enumerate}
 
 A frame need not have all of these components. Usually, the first three components are automatically setup by the theme you are using.
   \end{beamercolorbox}%
 }
 \end{verbatim}
+
   \begin{templateoptions}
     \itemoption{default}{}
     The default is just an empty headline. To get the default headline of earlier versions of the \beamer\ class, use the |compatibility| theme.
 \begin{verbatim}
 \insertsectionnavigationhorizontal{.5\textwidth}{\hskip0pt plus1filll}{}
 \end{verbatim}
+
     \iteminsert{\insertshortauthor}\oarg{options}
     Inserts the short version of the author into a template. The text will be printed in one long line, line breaks introduced using the |\\| command are suppressed. The following \meta{options} may be given:
     \begin{itemize}
 \begin{element}{sidebar left}\yes\yes\yes
   \colorfontparents{sidebar}
   The template is used to typeset the left sidebar. As mentioned above, the size of the left sidebar is set using the command
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \setbeamersize{sidebar width left=2cm}
 \end{verbatim}
+
   \beamer\ will not clip sidebars automatically if they are too large.
 
   When the sidebar is typeset, it is put inside a |\vbox|. You should currently setup things like the |\hsize| or the |\parskip| yourself.
     \itemoption{vertical shading}{\oarg{color options}}
     installs a vertically shaded background. The following \meta{color options} may be given:
     \begin{itemize}
-      \item
+    \item
       \declare{|top=|\meta{color}} specifies the color at the top of the sidebar. By default, 25\% of the foreground of the \beamer-color |palette primary| is used.
-      \item
+    \item
       \declare{|bottom=|\meta{color}} specifies the color at the bottom of the sidebar (more precisely, at a distance of the page height below the top of the sidebar). By default, the background of |normal text| at the moment of invocation of this command is used.
-      \item
+    \item
       \declare{|middle=|\meta{color}} specifies the color for the middle of the sidebar. Thus, if this option is given, the shading changes from the bottom color to this color and then to the top color.
-      \item
+    \item
       \declare{|midpoint=|\meta{factor}} specifies at which point of the page the middle color is used. A factor of |0| is the bottom of the page, a factor of |1| is the top. The default, which is |0.5|, is in the middle.
     \end{itemize}
     Note that you must give ``real'' \LaTeX\ colors here. This often makes it necessary to invoke the command |\usebeamercolor| before this command can be used.
 
     \example
     A stylish, but not very useful shading:
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 {\usebeamercolor{palette primary}}
 \setbeamertemplate{sidebar canvas}[vertical shading]
 
     \example
     Adds two ``pillars''
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \setbeamersize{sidebar width left=0.5cm,sidebar width right=0.5cm}
 
 \label{section-navigation-bars}
 
 Many themes install a headline or a sidebar that shows a \emph{navigation bar}. Although these navigation bars take up quite a bit of space, they are often useful for two reasons:
-
 \begin{itemize}
-  \item
+\item
   They provide the audience with a visual feedback of how much of your talk you have covered and what is yet to come. Without such feedback, an audience will often puzzle whether something you are currently introducing will be explained in more detail later on or not.
-  \item
+\item
   You can click on all parts of the navigation bar. This will directly ``jump'' you to the part you have clicked on. This is particularly useful to skip certain parts of your talk and during a ``question session,'' when you wish to jump back to a particular frame someone has asked about.
 \end{itemize}
 
 
 Some themes use the |\insertnavigation| to insert a navigation bar into the headline. Inside this bar, small icons are shown (called ``mini frames'') that represent the frames of a presentation. When you click on such an icon, the following happens:
 \begin{itemize}
-  \item
+\item
   If you click on (the icon of) any frame other than the current frame, the presentation will jump to the first slide of the frame you clicked on.
-  \item
+\item
   If you click on the current frame and you are not on the last slide of this frame, you will jump to the last slide of the frame.
-  \item
+\item
   If you click on the current frame and you are on the last slide, you will jump to the first slide of the frame.
 \end{itemize}
+
 By the above rules you can:
 \begin{itemize}
-  \item
+\item
   Jump to the beginning of a frame from somewhere else by clicking on it once.
-  \item
+\item
   Jump to the end of a frame from somewhere else by clicking on it twice.
-  \item
+\item
   Skip the rest of the current frame by clicking on it once.
 \end{itemize}
 
 
     \example
     To get an extremely ``shaded'' rendering of the frames outside the current subsection you can use the following:
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \setbeamertemplate{mini frame in other subsection}[default][20]
 \end{verbatim}
 
     \example
     You can use the following command to make the shaded entries very ``light'':
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \setbeamertemplate{section in head/foot shaded}[default][20]
 \end{verbatim}
 
 Navigation symbols are small icons that are shown on every slide by default. The following symbols are shown:
 \begin{enumerate}
-  \item
+\item
   A slide icon, which is depicted as a single rectangle. To the left and right of this symbol, a left and right arrow are shown.
-  \item
+\item
   A frame icon, which is depicted as three slide icons ``stacked on top of each other''. This symbol is framed by arrows.
-  \item
+\item
   A subsection icon, which is depicted as a highlighted subsection entry in a table of contents. This symbols is framed by arrows.
-  \item
+\item
   A section icon, which is depicted as a highlighted section entry (together with all subsections) in a table of contents. This symbol is framed by arrows.
-  \item
+\item
   A presentation icon, which is depicted as a completely highlighted table of contents.
-  \item
+\item
   An appendix icon, which is depicted as a completely highlighted table of contents consisting of only one section. (This icon is only shown if there is an appendix.)
-  \item
+\item
   Back and forward icons, depicted as circular arrows.
-  \item
+\item
   A ``search'' or ``find'' icon, depicted as a detective's magnifying glass.
 \end{enumerate}
 
 
 Clicking \emph{on} any of these icons has different effects:
 \begin{enumerate}
-  \item
+\item
   If supported by the viewer application, clicking on a slide icon pops up a window that allows you to enter a slide number to which you wish to jump.
-  \item
+\item
   Clicking on the left side of a frame icon will jump to the first slide of the frame, clicking on the right side will jump to the last slide of the frame (this can be useful for skipping overlays).
-  \item
+\item
   Clicking on the left side of a subsection icon will jump to the first slide of the subsection, clicking on the right side will jump to the last slide of the subsection.
-  \item
+\item
   Clicking on the left side of a section icon will jump to the first slide of the section, clicking on the right side will jump to the last slide of the section.
-  \item
+\item
   Clicking on the left side of the presentation icon will jump to the first slide, clicking on the right side will jump to the last slide of the presentation. However, this does \emph{not} include the appendix.
-  \item
+\item
   Clicking on the left side of the appendix icon will jump to the first slide of the appendix, clicking on the right side will jump to the last slide of the appendix.
-  \item
+\item
   If supported by the viewer application, clicking on the back and forward symbols jumps to the previously visited slides.
-  \item
+\item
   If supported by the viewer application, clicking on the search icon pops up a window that allows you to enter a search string. If found, the viewer application will jump to this string.
 \end{enumerate}
 
 \begin{command}{\setbeamersize\marg{options}}
   The following \meta{options} can be given:
   \begin{itemize}
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|text margin left=|\meta{\TeX\ dimension}} sets a new left margin. This excludes the left sidebar. Thus, it is the distance between the right edge of the left sidebar and the left edge of the text.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|text margin right=|\meta{\TeX\ dimension}} sets a new right margin.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|sidebar width left=|\meta{\TeX\ dimension}} sets the size of the left sidebar. Currently, this command should be given \emph{before} a shading is installed for the sidebar canvas.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|sidebar width right=|\meta{\TeX\ dimension}} sets the size of the right sidebar.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|description width=|\meta{\TeX\ dimension}} sets the default width of description labels, see Section~\ref{section-descriptions}.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|description width of=|\meta{text}} sets the default width of description labels to the width of the \meta{text}, see Section~\ref{section-descriptions}.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|mini frame size=|\meta{\TeX\ dimension}} sets the size of mini frames in a navigation bar. When two mini frame icons are shown alongside each other, their left end points are \meta{\TeX\ dimension} far apart.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|mini frame offset=|\meta{\TeX\ dimension}} set an additional vertical offset that is added to the mini frame size when arranging mini frames vertically.
   \end{itemize}
 
 The number of slides in a frame is automatically calculated. If the largest number mentioned in any overlay specification inside the frame is 4, four slides are introduced (despite the fact that a specification like |<4->| might suggest that more than four slides would be possible).
 
 You can also specify the number of slides in the frame ``by hand.'' To do so, you pass an overlay specification to the |\frame| command. The frame will contain only the slides specified in this argument. Consider the following example.
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 \begin{frame}<1-2,4->
   This is slide number \only<1>{1}\only<2>{2}\only<3>{3}%
   \only<4>{4}\only<5>{5}.
 \end{frame}
 \end{verbatim}
+
 This command will create a frame containing four slides. The first will contain the text ``This is slide number~1,'' the second ``This is slide number~2,'' the third ``This is slide number~4,'' and the fourth ``This is slide number~5.''
 
 A useful specification is just |<0>|, which causes the frame to have no slides at all. For example, |\begin{frame}<handout:0>| causes the frame to be suppressed in the handout version, but to be shown normally in all other versions. Another useful specification is |<beamer>|, which causes the frame to be shown normally in |beamer| mode, but to be suppressed in all other versions.

doc/beamerug-globalstructure.tex

   If more than one institute is given, they should be separated using the command |\and| and they should be prefixed by the command |\inst| with different parameters.
   \example
 \begin{verbatim}
-\institute[Universities of Rochester and Berlin]{
-  \inst{1}Department of Computer Science\\
-  University of Rochester
+\institute[Universities of Rijeka and Berlin]{
+  \inst{1}Department of Informatics\\
+  University of Rijeka
   \and
   \inst{2}Fakult\"at f\"ur Elektrotechnik und Informatik\\
   Technical University of Berlin}
 
   The following options can be given:
   \begin{itemize}
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|currentsection|} causes all sections but the current to be shown in a semi-transparent way. Also, all subsections but those in the current section are shown in the semi-transparent way. This command is a shorthand for specifying the following options:
+
 \begin{verbatim}
 sectionstyle=show/shaded,subsectionstyle=show/show/shaded
 \end{verbatim}
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|currentsubsection|} causes all subsections but the current subsection in the current section to be shown in a semi-transparent way. This command is a shorthand for specifying the option |subsectionstyle=show/shaded|.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|firstsection=|\meta{section number}} specifies which section should be numbered as section~``1.''  This is useful if you have a first section (like an overview section) that should not receive a number. Section numbers are not shown by default. To show them, you must install a different table of contents templates.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|hideallsubsections|} causes all subsections to be hidden. This command is a shorthand for specifying the option |subsectionstyle=hide|.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|hideothersubsections|} causes the subsections of sections other than the current one to be hidden. This command is a shorthand for specifying the option |subsectionstyle=show/show/hide|.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|part=|\meta{part number}} causes the table of contents of part \meta{part number} to be shown, instead of the table of contents of the current part (which is the default). This option can be combined with the other options, although combining it with the |current| option obviously makes no sense.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|pausesections|} causes a |\pause| command to be issued before each section. This is useful if you wish to show the table of contents in an incremental way.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|pausesubsections|} causes a |\pause| command to be issued before each subsection.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|sections=|\marg{overlay specification}} causes only the sections mentioned in the \meta{overlay specification} to be shown. For example, \verb/sections={<2-4| handout:0>}/ causes only the second, third, and fourth section to be shown in the normal version, nothing to be shown in the handout version, and everything to be shown in all other versions. For convenience, if you omit the pointed brackets, the specification is assumed to apply to all versions. Thus |sections={2-4}| causes sections two, three, and four to be shown in all versions.
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|sectionstyle=|\meta{style for current section}|/|\meta{style for other sections}} specifies how sections should be displayed. Allowed \meta{styles} are |show|, |shaded|, and |hide|. The first will show the section title normally, the second will show it in a semi-transparent way, and the third will completely suppress it. You can also omit the second style, in which case the first is used for all sections (this is not really useful).
-    \item
+  \item
     \declare{|subsectionstyle=|\meta{style for current subsection}|/|\meta{style for other subsections in current section}|/|\\\meta{style for subsections in other sections}} specifies how subsections should be displayed. The same styles as for the |sectionstyle| option may be given. You can omit the last style, in which case the second also applies to the last, and you can omit the last two, in which case the first applies to all.
     \example
     |subsectionstyle=shaded| causes all subsections to be shaded.
     \example
     |subsectionstyle=show/shaded/hide| causes all subsections outside the current section to be suppressed and only the current subsection in the current section to be highlighted.
   \end{itemize}
+
   The last examples are useful if you do not wish to show too many details when presenting the talk outline.
 
   \articlenote

doc/beamerug-graphics.tex

 % $Header$
 
 \section{Graphics}
-
 \label{section-graphics}
 
 In the following, the advantages and disadvantages of different possible ways of creating graphics for \beamer\ presentations are discussed. Much of the information presented in the following is not really special to \beamer, but applies to any other document class as well.

doc/beamerug-guidelines.tex

 \subsubsection{Know the Time Constraints}
 
 When you start to create a presentation, the very first thing you should worry about is the amount of time you have for your presentation. Depending on the occasion, this can be anything between 2 minutes and two hours.
-
 \begin{itemize}
-  \item
+\item
   A simple rule for the number of frames is that you should have at most one frame per minute.
-  \item
+\item
   In most situations, you will have less time for your presentation that you would like.
-  \item
+\item
   \emph{Do not try to squeeze more into a presentation than time allows for.} No matter how important some detail seems to you, it is better to leave it out, but get the main message across, than getting neither the main message nor the detail across.
 \end{itemize}
 
 
 To create the ``global structure'' of a presentation, with the time constraints in mind, proceed as follows:
 \begin{itemize}
-  \item
+\item
   Make a mental inventory of the things you can reasonably talk about within the time available.
-  \item
+\item
   Categorize the inventory into sections and subsections.
-  \item
+\item
   For very long talks (like a 90 minute lecture), you might also divide your talk into independent parts (like a ``review of the previous lecture part'' and a ``main part'') using the |\part| command. Note that each  part has its own table of contents.
-  \item
+\item
   Do not feel afraid to change the structure later on as you work on the talk.
 \end{itemize}
 
 \paragraph{Parts, Section, and Subsections.}
 
 \begin{itemize}
-  \item
+\item
   Do not use more than four sections and not less than two per part.
 \end{itemize}
+
 Even four sections are usually too much, unless they follow a very easy pattern. Five and more sections are simply too hard to remember for the audience. After all, when you present the table of contents, the audience will not yet really be able to grasp the importance and relevance of the different sections and will most likely have forgotten them by the time you reach them.
-
 \begin{itemize}
-  \item
+\item
   Ideally, a table of contents should be understandable by itself. In particular, it should be comprehensible \emph{before} someone has heard your talk.
-  \item
+\item
   Keep section and subsection titles self-explaining.
-  \item
+\item
   Both the sections and the subsections should follow a logical pattern.
-  \item
+\item
   Begin with an explanation of what your talk is all about. (Do not assume that everyone knows this. The \emph{Ignorant Audience Law} states: Someone important in the audience always knows less than you think everyone should know, even if you take the Ignorant Audience Law into account.)
 \item
   Then explain what you or someone else has found out concerning the subject matter.
 
 In papers, the abstract gives a short summary of the whole paper in about 100 words. This summary is intend to help readers appraise whether they should read the whole paper or not.
 \begin{itemize}
-  \item
+\item
   Since your audience is unlikely to flee after the first slide, in a presentation you usually do not need to present an abstract.
-  \item
+\item
   However, if you can give a nice, succinct statement of your talk, you might wish to include an abstract.
-  \item
+\item
   If you include an abstract, be sure that it is \emph{not} some long text but just a very short message.
-  \item
+\item
   \emph{Never, ever} reuse a paper abstract for a presentation, \emph{except} if the abstract is ``We show $\operatorname{P} = \operatorname{NP}$'' or ``We show $\operatorname{P} \neq \operatorname{NP}$''
-  \item
+\item
   If your abstract is one of the above two, double-check whether your proof is correct.
 \end{itemize}
 
 
 If you do number theorems and definition, number everything consecutively. Thus if there are one theorem, one lemma, and one definition, you would have Theorem~1, Lemma~2, and Definition~3. Some people prefer all three to be numbered~1. I would \emph{strongly} like to discourage this. The problem is that this makes it virtually impossible to find anything since Theorem~2 might come after Definition~10 or the other way round. Papers and, worse, books that have a Theorem~1 and a Definition~1 are a pain.
 \begin{itemize}
-  \item
+\item
   Do not inflict pain on other people.
 \end{itemize}
 
 \paragraph{Bibliographies.}
 
 You may also wish to present a bibliography at the end of your talk, so that people can see what kind of ``further reading'' is possible. When adding a bibliography to a presentation, keep the following in mind:
-
 \begin{itemize}
-  \item
+\item
   It is a bad idea to present a long bibliography in a presentation. Present only very few references. (Naturally, this applies only to the talk itself, not to a possible handout.)
-  \item
+\item
   If you present more references than fit on a single slide you can be almost sure that none of them will be remembered.
-  \item
+\item
   Present references only if they are intended as ``further reading.'' Do not present a list of all things you used like in a paper.
-  \item
+\item
   You should not present a long list of all your other great papers \emph{except} if you are giving an application talk.
-  \item
+\item
   Using the |\cite| commands can be confusing since the audience has little chance of remembering the citations. If you cite the references, always cite them with full author name and year like ``[Tantau, 2003]'' instead of something like ``[2,4]'' or ``[Tan01,NT02]''.
-  \item
+\item
   If you want to be modest, you can abbreviate your name when citing yourself as in ``[Nickelsen and T., 2003]'' or ``[Nickelsen and T, 2003]''. However, this can be confusing for the audience since it is often not immediately clear who exactly ``T.'' might be. I recommend using the full name.
 \end{itemize}
 
 \paragraph{The Frame Title}
 
 \begin{itemize}
-  \item
+\item
   Put a title on each frame. The title explains the contents of the frame to people who did not follow all details on the slide.
-  \item
+\item
   The title should really \emph{explain} things, not just give a cryptic summary that cannot be understood unless one has understood the whole slide. For example, a title like ``The Poset'' will have everyone puzzled what this slide might be about. Titles like ``Review of the Definition of Partially Ordered Sets (Posets)'' or ``A Partial Ordering on the Columns of the Genotype Matrix'' are \emph{much} more informative.
-  \item
+\item
   Ideally, titles on consecutive frames should ``tell a story'' all by themselves.
-  \item
+\item
   In English, you should \emph{either} \emph{always} capitalize all words in a frame title except for words like ``a'' or ``the'' (as in a title), \emph{or} you \emph{always} use the normal lowercase letters. Do \emph{not} mix this; stick to one rule. The same is true for block titles. For example, do not use titles like ``A short Review of Turing machines.'' Either use ``A Short Review of Turing Machines.'' or ``A short review of Turing machines.'' (Turing is still spelled with a capital letter since it is a name).
-  \item
+\item
   In English, the title of the whole document should be capitalized, regardless of whether you capitalize anything else.
-  \item
+\item
   In German and other languages that have lots of capitalized words, always use the correct upper-/lowercase letters. Never capitalize anything in addition to what is usually capitalized.
 \end{itemize}
 
 \paragraph{How Much Can I Put On a Frame?}
 
 \begin{itemize}
-  \item
+\item
   A frame with too little on it is better than a frame with too much on it. A usual frame should have between 20 and 40 words. The maximum should be at about 80 words.
-  \item
+\item
   Do not assume that everyone in the audience is an expert on the subject matter. Even if the people listening to you should be experts, they may last have heard about things you consider obvious several years ago. You should always have the time for a quick reminder of what exactly a ``semantical complexity class'' or an ``$\omega$-complete partial ordering'' is.
-  \item
+\item
   Never put anything on a slide that you are not going to explain during the talk, not even to impress anyone with how complicated your subject matter really is. However, you may explain things that are not on a slide.
-  \item
+\item
   Keep it simple. Typically, your audience will see a slide for less than 50 seconds. They will not have the time to puzzle through long sentences or complicated formulas.
-  \item
+\item
   Lance Fortnow, a professor of computer science, claims: PowerPoint users give better talks. His reason: Since PowerPoint is so bad at typesetting math, they use less math, making their talks easier to understand.
 
   There is some truth in this in my opinion. The great math-typesetting capabilities of \TeX\ can easily lure you into using many more formulas than is necessary and healthy. For example, instead of writing {\catcode `|=12``Since $\left|\{x \in \{0,1\}^* \mid x \sqsubseteq y\}\right| < \infty$}, we have\dots''\ use ``Since $y$ has only finitely many prefixes, we have\dots''
 \paragraph{Structuring a Frame}
 
 \begin{itemize}
-  \item
+\item
   Use block environments like |block|, |theorem|, |proof|, |example|, and so on.
-  \item
+\item
   Prefer enumerations and itemize environments over plain text.
-  \item
+\item
   Use |description| when you define several things.
-  \item
+\item
   Do not use more than two levels of ``subitemizing.'' \beamer\ supports three levels, but you should not use that third level. Mostly, you should not even use the second one. Use good graphics instead.
-  \item
+\item
   Do not create endless |itemize| or |enumerate| lists.
-  \item
+\item
   Do not uncover lists piecewise.
-  \item
+\item
   Emphasis is an important part of creating structure. Use |\alert| to highlight important things. This can be a single word or a whole sentence. However, do not overuse highlighting since this will negate the effect.
-  \item
+\item
   Use columns.
-  \item
+\item
   \emph{Never} use footnotes. They needlessly disrupt the flow of reading. Either what is said in the footnote is important and should be put in the normal text; or it is not important and should be omitted (\emph{especially} in a presentation).
-  \item
+\item
   Use |quote| or |quotation| to typeset quoted text.
-  \item
+\item
   Do not use the option |allowframebreaks| except for long bibliographies.
-  \item
+\item
   Do not use long bibliographies.
 \end{itemize}
 
 \paragraph{Writing the Text}
 
 \begin{itemize}
-  \item
+\item
   Use short sentences.
-  \item
+\item
   Prefer phrases over complete sentences. For example, instead of ``The figure on the left shows a Turing machine, the figure on the right shows a finite automaton.''\ try ``Left: A Turing machine. Right: A finite automaton.'' Even better, turn this into an itemize or a description.
-  \item
+\item
   Punctuate correctly: no punctuation after phrases, complete punctuation in and after complete sentences.
-  \item
+\item
   \emph{Never} use a smaller font size to ``fit more on a frame.'' \emph{Never ever} use the \emph{evil} option |shrink|.
-  \item
+\item
   Do not hyphenate words. If absolutely necessary, hyphenate words ``by hand,'' using the command~|\-|.
-  \item
+\item
   Break lines ``by hand'' using the command~|\\|. Do not rely on automatic line breaking. Break where there is a logical pause. For example, good breaks in ``the tape alphabet is larger than the input alphabet'' are before ``is'' and before the second ``the.'' Bad breaks are before either ``alphabet'' and before ``larger.''
-  \item
+\item
   Text and numbers in figures should have the \emph{same} size as normal text. Illegible numbers on axes usually ruin a chart and its message.
 \end{itemize}
 
 
 Ideally, during a presentation you would like to present your slides in a perfectly linear fashion, presumably by pressing the page-down-key once for each slide. However, there are different reasons why you might have to deviate from this linear order:
 \begin{itemize}
-  \item
+\item
   Your presentation may contain ``different levels of detail'' that may or may not be skipped or expanded, depending on the audience's reaction.
-  \item
+\item
   You are asked questions and wish to show supplementary slides.
-  \item
+\item
   You present a complicated picture and you have to ``zoom out'' different parts to explain details.
-  \item
+\item
   You are asked questions about an earlier slide, which forces you to find and then jump to that slide.
 \end{itemize}
+
 You cannot really prepare against the last kind of questions. In this case, you can use the navigation bars and symbols to find the slide you are interested in, see \ref{section-navigation-bars}.
 
 Concerning the first three kinds of deviations, there are several things you can do to prepare ``planned detours'' or ``planned short cuts''.
 \begin{itemize}
-  \item
+\item
   You can add ``skip buttons.'' When such a button is pressed, you jump over a well-defined part of your talk. Skip button have two advantages over just pressing the forward key is rapid succession: first, you immediately end up at the correct position and, second, the button's label can give the audience a visual feedback of what exactly will be skipped. For example, when you press a skip button labeled ``Skip proof'' nobody will start puzzling over what he or she has missed.
-  \item
+\item
   You can add an appendix to your talk. The appendix is kept ``perfectly separated'' from the main talk. Only once you ``enter'' the appendix part (presumably by hyperjumping into it), does the appendix structure become visible. You can put all frames that you do not intend to show during the normal course of your talk, but which you would like to have handy in case someone asks, into this appendix.
-  \item
+\item
   You can add ``goto buttons'' and ``return buttons'' to create detours. Pressing a goto button will jump to a certain part of the presentation where extra details can be shown. In this part, there is a return button present on each slide that will jump back to the place where the goto button was pressed.
-  \item
+\item
   In \beamer, you can use the |\againframe| command to ``continue'' frames that you previously started somewhere, but where certain details have been suppressed. You can use the |\againframe| command at a much later point, for example only in the appendix to show additional slides there.
-  \item
+\item
   In \beamer, you can use the |\framezoom| command to create links to zoomed out parts of a complicated slide.
 \end{itemize}
 
 \subsection{Using Graphics}
 
 Graphics often convey concepts or ideas much more efficiently than text: A picture can say more than a thousand words. (Although, sometimes a word can say more than a thousand pictures.)
-
 \begin{itemize}
-  \item
+\item
   Put (at least) one graphic on each slide, whenever possible. Visualizations help an audience enormously.
-  \item
+\item
   Usually, place graphics to the left of the text. (Use the |columns| environment.) In a left-to-right reading culture, we look at the left first.
-  \item
+\item
   Graphics should have the same typographic parameters as the text: Use the same fonts (at the same size) in graphics as in the main text. A small dot in a graphic should have exactly the same size as a small dot in a text. The line width should be the same as the stroke width used in creating the glyphs of the font. For example, an 11pt non-bold Computer Modern font has a stroke width of 0.4pt.
-  \item
+\item
   While bitmap graphics, like photos, can be much more colorful than the rest of the text, vector graphics should follow the same ``color logic'' as the main text (like black~= normal lines, red~= highlighted parts, green~= examples, blue~= structure).
-  \item
+\item
   Like text, you should explain everything that is shown on a graphic. Unexplained details make the audience puzzle whether this was something important that they have missed. Be careful when importing graphics from a paper or some other source. They usually have much more detail than you will be able to explain and should be radically simplified.
-  \item
+\item
   Sometimes the complexity of a graphic is intentional and you are willing to spend much time explaining the graphic in great detail. In this case, you will often run into the problem that fine details of the graphic are hard to discern for the audience. In this case you should use a command like |\framezoom| to create anticipated zoomings of interesting parts of the graphic, see Section~\ref{section-zooming}.
 \end{itemize}
 
 \subsection{Using Animations and Transitions}
 
 \begin{itemize}
-  \item
+\item
   Use animations to explain the dynamics of systems, algorithms, etc.
-  \item
+\item
   Do \emph{not} use animations just to attract the attention of your audience. This often distracts attention away from the main topic of the slide. No matter how cute a rotating, flying theorem seems to look and no matter how badly you feel your audience needs some action to keep it happy, most people in the audience will typically feel you are making fun of them.
-  \item
+\item
   Do \emph{not} use distracting special effects like ``dissolving'' slides unless you have a very good reason for using them. If you use them, use them sparsely. They \emph{can} be useful in some situations: For example, you might show a young boy on a slide and might wish to dissolve this slide into slide showing a grown man instead. In this case, the dissolving  gives the audience visual feedback that the young boy ``slowly becomes'' the man.
 \end{itemize}
 
 \subsection{Choosing Appropriate Themes}
 
 \beamer\ comes with a number of different themes. When choosing a theme, keep the following in mind:
-
 \begin{itemize}
 \item
   Different themes are appropriate for different occasions. Do not become too attached to a favorite theme; choose a theme according to occasion.
 \subsection{Choosing Appropriate Colors}
 
 \begin{itemize}
-  \item
+\item
   Use colors sparsely. The prepared themes are already quite colorful (blue~= structure, red~= alert, green~= example). If you add more colors for things like code, math text, etc., you should have a \emph{very} good reason.
-  \item
+\item
   Be careful when using bright colors on white background, \emph{especially} when using green. What looks good on your monitor may look bad during a presentation due to the different ways monitors, beamers, and printers reproduce colors. Add lots of black to pure colors when you use them on bright backgrounds.