# beamer / doc / beamerug-themes.tex

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414  % Copyright 2003, 2004 by Till Tantau . % % This program can be redistributed and/or modified under the terms % of the GNU Public License, version 2. \section{Themes} \subsection{Five Flavors of Themes} \emph{Themes} make it easy to change the appearance of a presentation. The \beamer\ class uses five different kinds of themes: \begin{description} \item[Presentation Themes] Conceptually, a presentation theme dictates for every single detail of a presentation what it looks like. Thus, choosing a particular presentation theme will setup for, say, the numbers in enumeration what color they have, what color their background has, what font is used to render them, whether a circle or ball or rectangle or whatever is drawn behind them, and so forth. Thus, when you choose a presentation theme, your presentation will look they way someone (the creator of the theme) thought that a presentation should look like. Presentation themes typically only choose a particular color theme, font theme, inner theme, and outer theme that go well together. \item[Color Themes] A color theme only dictates which colors are used in a presentation. If you have choosen a particular presentation theme and then choose a color theme, only the colors of your presentation will change. A color theme can specify colors in a very detailed way: For example, a color theme can specifically change the colors used to render, say, the border of a button, the background of a button, and the text on a button. \item[Font Themes] A font theme dictates which fonts or font attributes are used in a presentation. As for colors, the font of all text elements used in a presentation can be specified independently. \item[Inner Themes] An inner theme specifies how certain elements of a presentation are typeset. This includes all elements that are at the inside'' the frame, that is, that are not part of the headline, footline, or sidebars. This includes all enumerations, itemize environments, block environments, theorem environments, or the table of contents. For example, an inner theme might specify that in an enumeration the number should be typeset without a dot and that a small circle should be shown behind it. The inner theme would \emph{not} specify what color should be used for the number or the circle (this is the job of the color theme) nor which font should be used (this is the job of the font theme). \item[Outer Themes] An outer theme specifies what the outside'' or border'' of the presentation slides should look like. It specifies whether there are head- and footlines, what is shown in them, whether there is a sidebar, where the logo goes, where the navigation symbols and bars go, and so on. It also specifies where the frametitle is put and how it is typeset. \end{description} The different themes reside in the four subdirectories |theme|, |color|, |font|, |inner|, and |outer| of the directory |beamer/themes|. Internally, a theme is stored as a normal style file. However, to use a theme, the following special commands should be used: \begin{command}{\usetheme\oarg{options}\marg{name list}} Installs the presentation theme named \meta{name}. Currently, the effect of this command is the same as saying |\usepackage| for the style file named |beamertheme|\meta{name}|.sty| for each \meta{name} in the \meta{name list}. \end{command} \begin{command}{\usecolortheme\oarg{options}\marg{name list}} Same as |\usetheme|, only for color themes. Color style files are named |beamercolortheme|\meta{name}|.sty|. \end{command} \begin{command}{\usefonttheme\oarg{options}\marg{name}} Same as |\usetheme|, only for font themes. Font style files are named |beamerfonttheme|\meta{name}|.sty|. \end{command} \begin{command}{\useinnertheme\oarg{options}\marg{name}} Same as |\usetheme|, only for inner themes. Inner style files are named |beamerinnertheme|\meta{name}|.sty|. \end{command} \begin{command}{\useoutertheme\oarg{options}\marg{name}} Same as |\usetheme|, only for outer themes. Outer style files are named |beameroutertheme|\meta{name}|.sty|. \end{command} If you do not use any of these commands, a sober \emph{default} theme is used for all of them. In the following, the presentation themes that come with the \beamer\ class are described. The element, layout, color, and font themes are presented in the following sections. \subsection{Presentation Themes without Navigation Bars} A presentation theme dictates for every single detail of a presentation what it looks like. Normally, having chosen a particular presentation theme, you do not need to specify anything else having to do with the appearence of your presentation---the creator of the theme should have taken of that for you. However, you still \emph{can} change things afterward either by using a different color, font, element, or even layout theme; or by changing specific colors, fonts, or templates directly. When I started naming the presentation themes, I soon ran out of ideas on how to call them. Instead of giving them more and more cumbersome names, I decided to switch to a different naming convention: Except for two special cases, all presentation themes are named after cities. These cities happen to be cities in which or near which there was a conference or workshop that I attended or that a co-author of mine attended. \begin{themeexample}{default} As the name suggests, this theme is installed by default. It is a sober no-nonsense theme that makes minimal use of color or font variations. This theme is useful for all kinds of talks, except for very long talks. \end{themeexample} \begin{themeexample}[{\opt{|[headheight=|\meta{head height}|,footheight=|\meta{foot height}|]|}}]{boxes} For this theme, you can specify an arbitrary number of templates for the boxes in the headline and in the footline. You can add a template for another box by using the following commands. \begin{command}{\addheadbox\marg{beamer color}\marg{box template}} Each time this command is invoked, a new box is added to the head line, with the first added box being shown on the left. All boxes will have the same size. The \meta{beamer color} will be used to setup the foreground and background colors of the box. \example \begin{verbatim} \addheadbox{section in head/foot}{\tiny\quad 1. Box} \addheadbox{structure}{\tiny\quad 2. Box} \end{verbatim} A similar effect as the above commands can be achieved by directly installing a head template that contains two |beamercolorbox|es: \begin{verbatim} \setbeamertemplate{headline} {\leavevmode \begin{beamercolorbox}[width=.5\paperwidth]{section in head/foot} \tiny\quad 1. Box \end{beamercolorbox}% \begin{beamercolorbox}[width=.5\paperwidth]{structure} \tiny\quad 2. Box \end{beamercolorbox} } \end{verbatim} While being more complicated, the above commands offer more flexibility. \end{command} \begin{command}{\addfootbox\marg{beamer color}\marg{box template}} \example \begin{verbatim} \addfootbox{section in head/foot}{\tiny\quad 1. Box} \addfootbox{structure}{\tiny\quad 2. Box} \end{verbatim} \end{command} \end{themeexample} \begin{themeexample}[\oarg{options}]{Madrid} A theme giving much information on little space. The present form was slightly adapted from a theme contributed by Manuel Carro. The following \meta{options} may be given: \begin{itemize} \item \declare{|secheader|} causes a headline to be inserted showing the current section and subsection. By default, this headline is not shown. \end{itemize} \end{themeexample} \begin{themeexample}{Pittsburgh} A sober theme. The right-flushed frame titles creates an interesting tension'' inside each frame. \end{themeexample} \begin{themeexample}[\oarg{options}]{Rochester} A dominant theme without any navigational elements. It can be made less dominant by using a different color theme. The following \meta{options} may be given: \begin{itemize} \item \declare{|height=|\meta{dimension}} sets the height of the frame title bar. \end{itemize} \end{themeexample} \subsection{Presentation Themes with a Tree-Like Navigation Bar} \begin{themeexample}{Antibes} A dominant theme with a tree-like navigation at the top. The rectangular elements mirror the rectangular navigation at the top. The theme can be made less dominant by using a different color theme. \end{themeexample} \begin{themeexample}{JuanLesPins} A variation on the |Antibes| theme that has a much smoother'' appearence. It can be made less dominant by chosing a different color theme. \end{themeexample} \begin{themeexample}{Montpellier} A sober theme giving basic navigational hints. The headline can be made more dominant by using a different color theme. \end{themeexample} \subsection{Presentation Themes with a Table of Contents Sidebar} \begin{themeexample}[\oarg{options}]{Berkeley} A dominant theme. If the navigation bar is on the left, it dominates since it is seen first. The height of the frame title is fixed to two and a half lines, thus you should be careful with overly long titles. A logo will be put in the corner area. Rectangular areas dominate the layout. The theme can be made less dominant by using a different color theme. By default, the current entry of the table of contents in the sidebar will be hilighted by using a more vibrant color. A good alternative is to hilight the current entry by using a different color for the background of the current point. The color theme |sidebartab| installs the appropriate colors, so you just have to say \begin{verbatim} \usecolorhteme{sidebartab} \end{verbatim} This color theme works with all themes that show a table of contents in the sidebar. This theme is useful for long talks like lectures that require a table of contents to be visible all the time. The following \meta{options} may be given: \begin{itemize} \item \declare{|hideallsubsections|} causes only sections to be shown in the sidebar. This is useful, if you need to save space. \item \declare{|hideothersubsections|} causes only the subsections of the current section to be shown. This is useful, if you need to save space. \item \declare{|left|} puts the sidebar on the left (default). \item \declare{|right|} puts the sidebar on the right. \item \declare{|width=|\meta{dimension}} sets the width of the sidebar. If set to zero, no sidebar is created. \end{itemize} \end{themeexample} \begin{themeexample}[\oarg{options}]{PaloAlto} A variation in the |Berkeley| theme with less dominance of rectangular areas. The same \meta{options} as for the |Berkeley| theme can be given. \end{themeexample} \begin{themeexample}[\oarg{options}]{Goettingen} A relatively sober theme useful for a longer talk that demands a sidebar with a full table of contents. The same \meta{options} as for the |Berkeley| theme can be given. \end{themeexample} \begin{themeexample}[\oarg{options}]{Marburg} A very dominat variation of the |Goettingen| theme. The same \meta{options} may be given. \end{themeexample} \begin{themeexample}[\oarg{options}]{Hannover} In this theme, the sidebar on the left is balanced by right-flushed frame titles. The following \meta{options} may be given: \begin{itemize} \item \declare{|hideallsubsections|} causes only sections to be shown in the sidebar. This is useful, if you need to save space. \item \declare{|hideothersubsections|} causes only the subsections of the current section to be shown. This is useful, if you need to save space. \item \declare{|width=|\meta{dimension}} sets the width of the sidebar. \end{itemize} \end{themeexample} \subsection{Presentation Themes with a Mini Frame Navigation} \begin{themeexample}[\oarg{options}]{Berlin} A dominant theme with strong colors and dominating rectangular areas. The head- and footlines give lot's of information and leave little space for the actual slide contents. This theme is useful for conferences where the audience is not likely to know the title of the talk or who is presenting it. The theme can be made less dominant by using a different color theme. The following \meta{options} may be given: \begin{itemize} \item \declare{|compress|} causes the mini frames in the headline to use only a single line. This is useful for saving space. \end{itemize} \end{themeexample} \begin{themeexample}[\oarg{options}]{Ilmenau} A variation on the |Berlin| theme. The same \meta{options} may be given. \end{themeexample} \begin{themeexample}{Dresden} A variation on the |Berlin| theme with a strong separtion into navigational stuff at the top/bottom and a sober main text. The same \meta{options} may be given. \end{themeexample} \begin{themeexample}{Darmstadt} A theme with a strong separation into a navigational upper part and an informational main part. By using a different color theme, this separation can be lessened. \end{themeexample} \begin{themeexample}{Frankfurt} A variaton on the |Darmstadt| theme that is slightly less cluttered by leaving out the subsection information. \end{themeexample} \begin{themeexample}{Singapore} A not-too-sober theme with navigation that does not dominate. \end{themeexample} \begin{themeexample}{Szeged} A sober theme with a strong dominance of horizontal lines. \end{themeexample} \subsection{Presentation Themes with Section and Subsection Tables} \begin{themeexample}{Copenhagen} A not-quite-too-dominant theme. This theme gives compressed information about the current section and subsection at the top and about the title and the author at the bottom. No shadows are used, giving the presentation a flat'' look. The theme can be made less dominant by using a different color theme. \end{themeexample} \begin{themeexample}{Luebeck} A variation on the |Copenhagen| theme. \end{themeexample} \begin{themeexample}{Malmoe} A more sober variation of the |Copenhagen| theme. \end{themeexample} \begin{themeexample}{Warsaw} A dominant variation of the |Copenhagen| theme. \end{themeexample} \subsection{Presentation Themes Included For Compatibility} Earlier versions of \beamer\ included some further themes. These themes are still available for compatibility, though they are now implemented differently (they also mainly install appropriate color, font, inner, and outer themes). However, they may or may not honour color themes and they will not be supported in the future. The following list shows which of the new themes should be used instead of the old themes. (When switching, you may want to use the font theme |structurebold| with the option |onlysmall|.) \medskip \begin{tabular}{lp{13cm}} Old theme & Replacement options \\\hline none & Use |compatibility|. \\ |bars| & Try |Dresden| instead. \\ |classic| & Try |Singapore| instead. \\ |lined| & Try |Szeged| instead. \\ |plain| & Try none or |Pittsburgh| instead. \\ |sidebar| & Try |Goettingen| for the light version and |Marburg| for the dark version. \\ |shadow| & Try |Warsaw| instead. \\ |split| & Try |Malmoe| instead. \\ |tree| & Try |Montpellier| and, for the bars version, |Antibes| or |JuansLesPins|. \end{tabular} %%% Local Variables: %%% mode: latex %%% TeX-master: "beameruserguide" %%% End: