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beamer / doc / beamerug-globalstructure.tex

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% Copyright 2007 by Till Tantau
%
% This file may be distributed and/or modified
%
% 1. under the LaTeX Project Public License and/or
% 2. under the GNU Free Documentation License.
%
% See the file doc/licenses/LICENSE for more details.

% $Header$

\section{Structuring a Presentation: The Static Global Structure}

This section lists the commands that are used for structuring a
presentation ``globally'' using commands like |\section| or
|\part|. These commands are use to create a \emph{static} structure,
meaning that the resulting presentation is normally presented one slide
after the other in the order the slides occur. 
Section~\ref{section-nonlinear} explains which commands can be used to
create the \emph{interactive} structure. For the interactive structure,
you must interact with the presentation program, typically by clicking
on hyperlinks, to advance the presentation. 

\subsection{Adding a Title Page}

You can use the |\titlepage| command to insert a title page into
a frame. By default, it will arrange the following elements on
the title page: the document title, the author(s)'s names, their
affiliation, a title graphic, and a date.

\begin{command}{\titlepage}
  Inserts the text of a title page into the current frame.
  \example |\frame{\titlepage}|
  \example |\frame[plain]{\titlepage}| for a titlepage that fills the
  whole frame.

  \lyxnote
  If you use the ``Title'' style in your presentation, a title page is
  automatically inserted.

  \begin{element}{title page}\yes\yes\yes
    This template is invoked when the |\titlepage| command is used.

    \begin{templateoptions}
      \itemoption{default}{\oarg{alignment}}
      The title page is typeset showing the title, followed by the
      author, his or her affiliation, the date, and a titlegraphic. If
      any of these are missing, they are not shown. Except for the
      titlegraphic, if the \beamer-color |title|, |author|, |institute|,
      or |date| is defined, respectively, it is used to as textcolor for
      these entries. If a background color is defined for them, a
      colored bar in the corresponding color is drawn behind them,
      spanning the text width. The corresponding \beamer-fonts are used
      for these entries.

      The \meta{alignment} option is passed on the |beamercolorbox|
      and can be used, for example, to flush the title page to the left
      by specifying |left| here.
    \end{templateoptions}

    The following commands are useful for this template:
    \begin{templateinserts}
      \iteminsert{\insertauthor} inserts a version of the author's name
      that is useful for the title page.
      \iteminsert{\insertdate} inserts the date.
      \iteminsert{\insertinstitute} inserts the institute.
      \iteminsert{\inserttitle} inserts a version of the document title
      that is useful for the title page.
      \iteminsert{\insertsubtitle} inserts a version of the document title
      that is useful for the title page.
      \iteminsert{\inserttitlegraphic} inserts the title graphic into a
      template. 
    \end{templateinserts}
  \end{element}
\end{command}

For compatibility with other classes, in |article| mode the following
command is also provided: 

\begin{command}{\maketitle}
  \beamernote
  If used inside a frame, it has the same effect as |\titlepage|. If
  used outside a frame, it has the same effect as
  |\frame{\titlepage}|; in other words, a frame is added if necessary.
\end{command}


Before you invoke the title page command, you must specify all
elements you wish to be shown. This is done using the following
commands: 

\begin{command}{\title\oarg{short title}\marg{title}}
  The \meta{short tile} is used in headlines and footlines. Inside
  the \meta{title} line breaks can be inserted using the
  double-backslash command.
  \example
\begin{verbatim}
\title{The Beamer Class}
\title[Short Version]{A Very Long Title\\Over Several Lines}
\end{verbatim}

  \articlenote
  The short form is ignored in |article| mode.
\end{command}

\begin{command}{\subtitle\oarg{short subtitle}\marg{subtitle}}
  The \meta{subshort tile} is not used by default, but is available
  via the insert |\insertshortsubtitle|. The subtitle is shown below
  the title in a smaller font.
  \example
\begin{verbatim}
\title{The Beamer Class}
\subtitle{An easily paced introduction with many examples.}
\end{verbatim}

  \articlenote
  This command causes the subtitle to be appended to the title with a
  linebreak and a |\normalsize| command issued before it. This may or
  may not be what you would like to happen.
\end{command}

\begin{command}{\author\oarg{short author names}\marg{author names}}
  The names should be separated using the
  command |\and|. In case authors have different affiliations,
  they should be suffixed by the command |\inst| with different
  parameters.
  \example|\author[Hemaspaandra et al.]{L. Hemaspaandra\inst{1} \and T. Tantau\inst{2}}|

  \articlenote
  The short form is ignored in |article| mode.
\end{command}

\begin{command}{\institute\oarg{short institute}\marg{institute}}
  If more than one institute is given, they should be separated using
  the command |\and| and they should be prefixed by the command
  |\inst| with different parameters.
  \example
\begin{verbatim}
\institute[Universities of Rochester and Berlin]{
  \inst{1}Department of Computer Science\\
  University of Rochester
  \and
  \inst{2}Fakult\"at f\"ur Elektrotechnik und Informatik\\
  Technical University of Berlin}
\end{verbatim}

  \articlenote
  The short form is ignored in |article| mode. The long form is also
  ignored, except if the document class (like |llncs|) defines it.
\end{command}

\begin{command}{\date\oarg{short date}\marg{date}}
  \example|\date{\today}| or |\date[STACS 2003]{STACS Conference, 2003}|.

  \articlenote
  The short form is ignored in |article| mode.
\end{command}

\begin{command}{\titlegraphic\marg{text}}
  The \meta{text} is shown as title graphic. Typically, a picture
  environment is used as \meta{text}.
  \example|\titlegraphic{\pgfuseimage{titlegraphic}}|

  \articlenote
  The command is  ignored in |article| mode.
\end{command}




\begin{command}{\subject\marg{text}}
  Enters the \meta{text} as the subject text in the \pdf\ document
  info. It currently has no other effect.
\end{command}

\begin{command}{\keywords\marg{text}}
  Enters the \meta{text} as keywords in the \pdf\ document
  info. It currently has no other effect.
\end{command}


By default, the |\title| and |\author| commands will also insert their
arguments into a resulting \pdf-file in the document information
fields. This may cause problems if you use complicated things like
boxes as arguments to these commands. In this case, you might wish to
switch off the automatic generation of these entries using the
following class option:

\begin{classoption}{usepdftitle=false}
  Suppresses the automatic generation of title and author entries in
  the \pdf\ document information.
\end{classoption}





\subsection{Adding Sections and Subsections}

You can structure your text using the commands |\section| and
|\subsection|. Unlike standard \LaTeX, these commands will not
create a heading at the position where you use them. Rather, they will
add an entry to the table of contents and also to the navigation
bars.

In order to create a line break in the table of contents (usually not
a good idea), you can use the command |\breakhere|. Note that the
standard command |\\| does not work (actually, I do not really know
why; comments would be appreciated).

\begin{command}{\section\sarg{mode specification}\oarg{short section name}\marg{section name}}
  Starts a section. No heading is created. The \meta{section name}
  is shown in the table of contents and in the navigation bars, except
  if \meta{short section name} is specified. In this case, \meta{short
    section name} is used in the navigation bars instead. If a
    \meta{mode specification} is given, the command only has an effect
    for the specified modes.
    
  \example|\section[Summary]{Summary of Main Results}|

  \articlenote
  The \meta{mode specification} allows you to provide an alternate
  section command in |article| mode. This is necessary for example if
  the \meta{short section name} is unsuitable for the table of
  contents:

  \example
\begin{verbatim}
\section<presentation>[Results]{Results on the Main Problem}
\section<article>{Results on the Main Problem}
\end{verbatim}

  \begin{element}{section in toc}\yes\yes\yes
    This template is used when a section entry is to be typeset. For
    the permissible \meta{options} see the parent template
    |table of contents|.

    The following commands are useful for this template:
    \begin{templateinserts}
      \iteminsert{\inserttocsection}
      inserts the table of contents version of the current section name.

      \iteminsert{\inserttocsectionnumber}
      inserts the number of the current section (in the table of contents).
    \end{templateinserts}
  \end{element}

  \begin{element}{section in toc shaded}\yes\yes\yes
    This template is used instead of the previous one if the section
    should be shown in a shaded way, because it is not the current
    section.  For the permissible \meta{options} see the parent
    template |table of contents|.
  \end{element}
\end{command}

\begin{command}{\section\sarg{mode specification}\declare{|*|}\marg{section name}}
  Starts a section without an entry in the table of contents. No
  heading is created, but the \meta{section name} is shown in the
  navigation bar. 
  \example|\section*{Outline}|
  \example|\section<beamer>*{Outline}|
\end{command}

\begin{command}{\subsection\sarg{mode specification}\oarg{short
  subsection name}\marg{subsection name}} 
  This command works the same way as the |\section| command.
  \example|\subsection[Applications]{Applications to the Reduction of Pollution}|

  \begin{element}{subsection in toc}\yes\yes\yes
    Like |section in toc|, only for subsection.

    In addition to the inserts for the |section in toc| template, the
    following commands are available for this template: 
    \begin{templateinserts}
      \iteminsert{\inserttocsubsection}
      inserts the table of contents version of the current subsection
      name.

      \iteminsert{\inserttocsubsectionnumber}
      inserts the number of the current subsection (in the table of contents).
    \end{templateinserts}
  \end{element}

  \begin{element}{subsection in toc shaded}\yes\yes\yes
    Like |section in toc shaded|, only for subsections.
  \end{element}
\end{command}

\begin{command}{\subsection\sarg{mode specification}\declare{|*|}\marg{subsection name}} 
  Starts a subsection without an entry in the table of contents. No
  heading is created, but the \meta{subsection name} is shown in the
  navigation bar, \emph{except} if \meta{subsection name} is empty. In
  this case, neither a table of contents entry nor a navigation bar
  entry is created, \emph{but} any frames in this ``empty'' subsection
  are shown in the navigation bar.

  \example
\begin{verbatim}
\section{Summary}

  \frame{This frame is not shown in the navigation bar}

  \subsection*{}

  \frame{This frame is shown in the navigation bar, but no subsection
    entry is shown.}

  \subsection*{A subsection}

  \frame{Normal frame, shown in navigation bar. The subsection name is
    also shown in the navigation bar, but not in the table of contents.} 
\end{verbatim}
\end{command}

\begin{command}{\subsubsection\sarg{mode specification}\oarg{short
      subsubsection name}\marg{subsubsection name}}
  This command works the like |\subsection|. However, subsubsections
  are supported less well than subsections. For example, in the table
  of contents subsubsections are always shown with the same
  shading/hiding parameters as the subsection.

  I \emph{strongly} discourage the use of subsubsections in
  presentations. If you do not use them, you will give a better
  presentation.
  
  \example|\subsubsection[Applications]{Applications to the Reduction of Pollution}|
  
  \begin{element}{subsubsection in toc}\yes\yes\yes
    Like |subsection in toc|, only for subsection.

    In addition to the inserts for the |subsection in toc| template, the
    following commands are available for this template: 
    \begin{templateinserts}
      \iteminsert{\inserttocsubsubsection}
      inserts the table of contents version of the current subsubsection
      name.

      \iteminsert{\inserttocsubsubsectionnumber}
      inserts the number of the current subsubsection (in the table of contents).
    \end{templateinserts}
  \end{element}

  \begin{element}{subsubsection in toc shaded}\yes\yes\yes
    Like |subsection in toc shaded|, only for subsubsections.
  \end{element}
\end{command}

\begin{command}{\subsection\sarg{mode specification}\declare{|*|}\marg{subsubsection name}} 
  Starts a subsection without an entry in the table of contents. No
  heading is created, but the \meta{subsubsection name} is shown in
  a possible sidebar.
\end{command}

Often, you may want a certain type of frame to be shown directly after
a section or subsection starts. For example, you may wish every
subsection to start with a frame showing the table of contents with
the current subsection hilighted. To facilitate this, you can use the
following  commands.


\begin{command}{\AtBeginSection\oarg{special star text}\marg{text}}
  The given text will be inserted at the beginning of every
  section. If the \meta{special star text} parameter is specified,
  this text will be used for starred sections instead. Different calls
  of this command will not ``add up'' the given texts (like the
  |\AtBeginDocument| command does), but will  overwrite any previous
  text. 
  
  \example
\begin{verbatim}
\AtBeginSection[] % Do nothing for \section*
{
  \begin{frame}<beamer>
    \frametitle{Outline}
    \tableofcontents[currentsection]
  \end{frame}
}
\end{verbatim}

  \articlenote
  This command has no effect in |article| mode.

  \lyxnote
  You have to insert this command using a \TeX-mode text.
\end{command}


\begin{command}{\AtBeginSubsection\oarg{special star text}\marg{text}}
  The given text will be inserted at the beginning of every
  subsection. If the \meta{special star text} parameter is specified,
  this text will be used for starred subsections instead. Different calls
  of this command will not ``add up'' the given texts.
  
  \example
\begin{verbatim}
\AtBeginSubsection[] % Do nothing for \subsection*
{
  \begin{frame}<beamer>
    \frametitle{Outline}
    \tableofcontents[currentsection,currentsubsection]
  \end{frame}
}
\end{verbatim}
\end{command}


\begin{command}{\AtBeginSubsubsection\oarg{special star text}\marg{text}}
  Like |\AtBeginSubsection|, only for subsubsections.
\end{command}




\subsection{Adding Parts}

If you give a long talk (like a lecture), you may wish to break up
your talk into several parts. Each such part acts like a little ``talk
of its own'' with its own table of contents, its own navigation bars,
and so on. Inside one part, the sections and subsections of the other
parts are not shown at all.

To create a new part, use the |\part| command. All sections and
subsections following this command will be ``local'' to that part.
Like the |\section| and |\subsection| command, the |\part| command
does not cause any frame or special text to be produced. However,
it is often advisable for the start of a new part to use the command
|\partpage| to insert some text into a frame that ``advertises'' the
beginning of a new part. See |beamerexample3.tex| for an example.

\begin{command}{\part\sarg{mode specification}\oarg{short part name}\marg{part name}}
  Starts a part. The \meta{part name} will be shown when the
  |\partpage| command is used. The \meta{shown part name} is not shown
  anywhere by default, but it is accessible via the command
  |\insertshortpart|.
  \example
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{document}
  \frame{\titlepage}

  \section*{Outlines}
  \subsection{Part I: Review of Previous Lecture}
  \frame{
    \frametitle{Outline of Part I}
    \tableofcontents[part=1]}
  \subsection{Part II: Today's Lecture}
  \frame{
    \frametitle{Outline of Part II}
    \tableofcontents[part=2]}

  \part{Review of Previous Lecture}
  \frame{\partpage}
  \section[Previous Lecture]{Summary of the Previous Lecture}
  \subsection{Topics}
  \frame{...}
  \subsection{Learning Objectives}
  \frame{...}
  
  \part{Today's Lecture}
  \frame{\partpage}
  \section{Topic A}
  \frame{\tableofcontents[currentsection]}
  \subsection{Foo}
  \frame{...}
  \section{Topic B}
  \frame{\tableofcontents[currentsection]}
  \subsection{bar}
  \frame{...}
\end{document}
\end{verbatim}
\end{command}

\begin{command}{\partpage}
  Works like |\titlepage|, only that the current part, not the current
  presentation is ``advertised.''
  \example |\frame{\partpage}|
  
  \begin{element}{part page}\yes\yes\yes
    This template is invoked when the |\partpage| command is used.

    \begin{templateoptions}
      \itemoption{default}{\oarg{alignment}}
      The part page is typeset showing the current part number and,
      below, the current part title. The \beamer-color and -font
      |part page| are used, including the background color of
      |part page|. As for the |title page| template, the
      \meta{alignment} option is passed on the |beamercolorbox|.
    \end{templateoptions}

    The following commands are useful for this template:
    \begin{templateinserts}
      \iteminsert{\insertpart}
      inserts the current part name.
      \iteminsert{\insertpartnumber}
      inserts the current part number as an Arabic number into a template.
      \iteminsert{\insertpartromannumber}
      inserts the current part number as a Roman number into a template.
    \end{templateinserts}
  \end{element}
\end{command}

\begin{command}{\AtBeginPart\marg{text}}
  The given text will be inserted at the beginning of every
  part.
  
  \example
\begin{verbatim}
\AtBeginPart{\frame{\partpage}}
\end{verbatim}
\end{command}


\subsection{Splitting a Course Into Lectures}

When using \beamer\ with the |article| mode, you may wish to have the
lecture notes of a whole course reside in one file. In this case, only
a few frames are actually part of any particular lecture.

The |\lecture| command makes it easy to select only a certain set of
frames from a file to be presented. This command takes (among other
things) a label name. If you say |\includeonlylecture| with this label
name, then only the frames following the corresponding |\lecture|
command are shown. The frames following other |\lecture| commands are
suppressed. 

By default, the |\lecture| command has no other effect. It does not
create any frames or introduce entries in the table of
contents. However, you can use |\AtBeginLecture| to have \beamer\
insert, say, a title page at the beginning of (each) lecture.

\begin{command}{\lecture\oarg{short lecture name}\marg{lecture
  name}\marg{lecture label}} 
  Starts a lecture. The \meta{lecture name} will be available via the
  |\insertlecture| command. The \meta{short lecture name} is available
  via the |\insertshortlecture| command.
  
  \example
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{document}
\lecture{Vector Spaces}{week 1}

\section{Introduction}
...
\section{Summary}

\lecture{Scalar Products}{week 2}

\section{Introduction}
...
\section{Summary}

\end{document}
\end{verbatim}

  \articlenote
  This command has no effect in |article| mode.
\end{command}

\begin{command}{\includeonlylecture\meta{lecture label}}
  Causes all |\frame|, |frame|, |\section|, |\subsection|, and |\part|
  commands following a |\lecture| command to be suppressed, except if the
  lecture's label matches the \meta{lecture label}. Frames before any
  |\lecture| commands are always included. This command should be
  given in the preamble.

  \example |\includeonlylecture{week 1}|

  \articlenote
  This command has no effect in |article| mode.
\end{command}

\begin{command}{\AtBeginLecture\marg{text}}
  The given text will be inserted at the beginning of every
  lecture.
  
  \example
\begin{verbatim}
\AtBeginLecture{\frame{\Large Today's Lecture: \insertlecture}}
\end{verbatim}

  \articlenote
  This command has no effect in |article| mode.
\end{command}


\subsection{Adding a Table of Contents}

You can create a table of contents using the command
|\tableofcontents|. Unlike the normal \LaTeX\ table of contents
command, this command takes an optional parameter in square brackets
that can be used to create certain special effects.

\begin{command}{\tableofcontents\oarg{comma-separated option list}}
  Inserts a table of contents into the current frame.
  \example
\begin{verbatim}
\section*{Outline}
\frame{\tableofcontents}

\section{Introduction}
\frame{\tableofcontents[currentsection]}
\subsection{Why?}
\frame{...}
\frame{...}
\subsection{Where?}
\frame{...}

\section{Results}
\frame{\tableofcontents[currentsection]}
\subsection{Because}
\frame{...}
\subsection{Here}
\frame{...}
\end{verbatim}

  The following options can be given:
  \begin{itemize}
  \item
    \declare{|currentsection|} causes all sections but the current to
    be shown in a semi-transparent way. Also, all subsections but
    those in the current section are shown in the semi-transparent
    way. This command is a shorthand for specifying the following
    options: 
\begin{verbatim}
sectionstyle=show/shaded,subsectionstyle=show/show/shaded
\end{verbatim}
  \item
    \declare{|currentsubsection|} causes all subsections but the
    current subsection in the current section to be shown in a
    semi-transparent way. This command is a shorthand for specifying
    the option |subsectionstyle=show/shaded|.
  \item
    \declare{|firstsection=|\meta{section number}} specifies which
    section should be numbered as section~``1.''  This is useful if
    you have a first section (like an overview section) that should
    not receive a number. Section numbers are not shown by default. To
    show them, you must install a different table of contents
    templates.
  \item
    \declare{|hideallsubsections|} causes all subsections to be
    hidden. This command is a shorthand for specifying
    the option |subsectionstyle=hide|.
  \item
    \declare{|hideothersubsections|} causes the subsections of
    sections other than the current one to be hidden. This command is
    a shorthand for specifying the option |subsectionstyle=show/show/hide|.
  \item
    \declare{|part=|\meta{part number}} causes the table of contents
    of part \meta{part number} to be shown, instead of the table of
    contents of the current part (which is the default). This option
    can be combined with the other options, although combining it with
    the |current| option obviously makes no sense.
  \item
    \declare{|pausesections|} causes a |\pause| command to
    be issued before each section. This is useful if you wish to show
    the table of contents in an incremental way.
  \item
    \declare{|pausesubsections|} causes a |\pause| command to
    be issued before each subsection.
  \item
    \declare{|sections=|\marg{overlay specification}} causes only the
    sections mentioned in the \meta{overlay specification} to be
    shown. For example, \verb/sections={<2-4| handout:0>}/ causes only the second,
    third, and fourth section to be shown in the normal version,
    nothing to be shown in the handout version, and everything to be
    shown in all other versions. For convenience, if you omit the
    pointed brackets, the specification is assumed to apply to all
    versions. Thus |sections={2-4}| causes sections two, three, and
    four to be shown in all versions.
  \item
    \declare{|sectionstyle=|\meta{style for current
      section}|/|\meta{style for other sections}} specifies how
    sections should be displayed. Allowed \meta{styles} are |show|,
    |shaded|, and |hide|. The first will show the section title
    normally, the second will show it in a semi-transparent way, and
    the third will completely suppress it. You can
    also omit the second style, in which case the first is used for
    all sections (this is not really useful). 
  \item
    \declare{|subsectionstyle=|\meta{style for current
      subsection}|/|\meta{style for other subsections in current
      section}|/|\\\meta{style for subsections in other sections}}
    specifies how subsections should be displayed. The same styles as
    for the |sectionstyle| option may be given. You can omit the last
    style, in which case the second also applies to the last, and you can
    omit the last two, in which case the first applies to all.
    \example |subsectionstyle=shaded| causes all subsections to be
    shaded.
    \example |subsectionstyle=hide| causes all subsections to be
    hidden.
    \example |subsectionstyle=show/shaded| causes all subsections but the
    current subsection in the current section to be shown in a
    semi-transparent way.
    \example |subsectionstyle=show/show/hide| causes all
    subsections outside the current section to be suppressed.
    \example |subsectionstyle=show/shaded/hide| causes all
    subsections outside the current section to be suppressed and only
    the current subsection in the current section to be hilighted.
  \end{itemize}
  The last examples are useful if you do not wish to show
  too many details when presenting the talk outline.

  \articlenote
  The options are ignored in |article| mode.

  \lyxnote
  You can give options to the |\tableofcontents| command by 
  inserting a \TeX-mode text with the options in square brackets
  directly after the table of contents.

  \begin{element}{sections/subsections in toc}\semiyes\no\no
    This is a parent template, whose children are
    |section in toc| and |subsection in toc|. This means that if you
    use the |\setbeamertemplate| command on this template, the command
    is instead called for both of these children (with the same arguments).

    \begin{templateoptions}
      \itemoption{default}{}
      In the default setting, the sections and subsections are typeset
      using the fonts and colors |section in toc| and
      |subsection in toc|, though the background colors are ignored. The
      subsections are indented.
      \itemoption{sections numbered}{}
      Similar to the default setting, but the section numbers are also
      shown. The subsections are not numbered.
      \itemoption{subsections numbered}{}
      This time, the subsections are numbered, but not the
      sections. Nevertheless, since the subsections are ``fully
      numbered'' as in ``1.2'' or ``3.2,'' if every section has at least
      one subsection, the section numbered will not really be missed.
      \itemoption{circle}{}
      Draws little circles before the sections. Inside
      the circles the section number is shown. The \beamer-font and
      color |section number projected| is used for typesetting the
      circles, that is, the circle gets the background color and the
      text inside the circle the foreground color.
      \itemoption{square}{}
      Similar to the |circle| option, except that small squares are
      used instead of circles. Small, unnumbered squares are shown in
      front of the subsections.
      \itemoption{ball}{}
      Like |square|, the only difference being the balls are used
      instead of squares.
      \itemoption{ball unnumbered}{}
      Similar to |ball|, except that no numbering is used. This option
      makes the table of contents look more like an |itemize|.
    \end{templateoptions}

    If none of the above options suits you, you have to change the
    templates |section in toc| and |subsection in toc| directly.
  \end{element}

  \begin{element}{sections/subsections in toc shaded}\semiyes\no\no
    A parent template with children
    |section in toc shaded| and |subsection in toc shaded|. They are
    used to render section and subsection entries when 
    they are currently shaded; like all non-current subsections in
    |\tableofcontents[currentsubsection]|. 

    \begin{templateoptions}
      \itemoption{default}{\oarg{opaqueness}}
      In the default setting, the templates |section in toc shaded| and
      |subsection in toc shaded| just show whatever the nonshaded
      versions of these templates show, but only \meta{opaqueness}\%
      opaque. The default is 20\%.

      \example |\setbeamertemplate{table of contents shaded}[default][50]|
      makes dimmed entries 50\% transparent. 
    \end{templateoptions}
  \end{element}
\end{command}





\subsection{Adding a Bibliography}

You can use the bibliography environment and the |\cite| commands
of \LaTeX\ in a \beamer\ presentation. You will typically have to
typeset your bibliography items partly ``by hand.'' Nevertheless, you
\emph{can} use |bibtex| to create a ``first approximation'' of the
bibliography. Copy the content of the file |main.bbl| into your
presentation. If you are not familiar with |bibtex|, you may wish
to consult its documentation. It is a  powerful tool for
creating high-quality citations.

Using |bibtex| or your editor, place your bibliographic
references in the environment |thebibliography|. This
(standard \LaTeX) environment takes one parameter, which should be the
longest |\bibitem| label in the following list of bibliographic
entries.

\begin{environment}{{thebibliography}\marg{longest label text}}
  Inserts a bibliography into the current frame. The \meta{longest
    label text} is used to determine the indentation of the list. However,
  several predefined options for the typesetting of the bibliography
  ignore this parameter since they replace the references by a symbol.

  Inside the environment, use a (standard \LaTeX) |\bibitem| command
  for each reference item. Inside each item, use a (standard \LaTeX)
  |\newblock| command to separate the authors's names, the title, the
  book/journal reference, and any notes. Each of these commands may
  introduce a new line or color or other formatting, as specified by
  the template for bibliographies.

  The environment must be placed inside a frame. If the bibliography
  does not fit on one frame, you should 
  split it (create a new frame and a second |thebibliography|
  environment) or use the |allowframebreaks| option. Even better, you
  should reconsider whether it is a good idea to present so many
  references. 
  \example
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{frame}
  \frametitle{For Further Reading}

  \begin{thebibliography}{Dijkstra, 1982}
  \bibitem[Solomaa, 1973]{Solomaa1973}
    A.~Salomaa.
    \newblock {\em Formal Languages}.
    \newblock Academic Press, 1973.

  \bibitem[Dijkstra, 1982]{Dijkstra1982}
    E.~Dijkstra.
    \newblock Smoothsort, an alternative for sorting in situ.
    \newblock {\em Science of Computer Programming}, 1(3):223--233, 1982.
  \end{thebibliography}
\end{frame}
\end{verbatim}

  Four templates govern the appearance of the author, title, journal,
  and note text. These author templates are inserted before the first block
  of the entry (the first block is all text before the first occurrence of a 
  |\newblock| command). The title template is inserted before
  the second block (the text between the first and second occurrence
  of |\newblock|). Likewise for the journal and note templates.

  The templates are inserted \emph{before} the blocks and you do not
  have access to the blocks themselves via insert commands. The
  corresponding \beamer-color and -font are also installed before the
  blocks.

  \begin{element}{bibliography entry author}\yes\yes\yes
    This template is inserted before the author of a bibliography
    entry. The color and font are also installed. Note that the effect
    of this template will persist until the end of the bibliography
    item or until one of the following templates undo the effect.

    By default, this template does nothing. The default color is the
    structure color.
  \end{element}

  \begin{element}{bibliography entry title}\yes\yes\yes
    This template is inserted before the title of a bibliography
    entry (more precisely, it is inserted after the first occurrence of
    the |\newblock| command). By default, this template starts a new
    paragraph, causing a line break. The default color is the normal
    text color.
  \end{element}
  
  \begin{element}{bibliography entry journal}\yes\yes\yes
    This template is inserted before the journal of a bibliography
    entry (the second |\newblock|). By default, this template starts a
    new paragraph. The default color is a slightly transparent version
    of the structure color.
  \end{element}
  
  
  \begin{element}{bibliography entry note}\yes\yes\yes
    This template is inserted before any note text at the end of a
    bibliography entry (it is inserted before the third
    |\newblock|). By default, this template starts a new
    paragraph. The default color is the same as for the journal.
  \end{element}  
\end{environment}


\begin{command}{\bibitem\sarg{overlay specification}%
    \oarg{citation text}\marg{label name}}
  The \meta{citation text} is inserted into the text when the item is
  cited using |\cite{|\meta{label name}|}| in the main presentation
  text. For a \beamer\ presentation, this should usually be as long as
  possible.  

  Use |\newblock| commands to separate the authors's names, the title, the
  book/journal reference, and any notes. If the \meta{overlay specification}
  is present, the entry will only be shown on the
  specified slides.
  \example
\begin{verbatim}
\bibitem[Dijkstra, 1982]{Dijkstra1982}
  E.~Dijkstra.
  \newblock Smoothsort, an alternative for sorting in situ.
  \newblock {\em Science of Computer Programming}, 1(3):223--233, 1982.
\end{verbatim}

  \begin{element}{bibliography item}\yes\yes\yes
    \colorfontparents{item}
    This template is used to render the bibliography item.   Unlike
    normal \LaTeX, the default template for the bibliography does not
    repeat the citation text (like ``[Dijkstra, 1982]'') before each
    item in the bibliography. Instead, a cute, small article symbol is
    drawn. The rationale is that the audience will not be able to
    remember any abbreviated citation texts till the end of the
    talk.
    \begin{templateoptions}
      \itemoption{default}{}
      Draws a cute little article icon as the reference. Use this for
      journal articles, parts of books (like conference proceedings),
      or technical reports.
      
      \itemoption{article}{}
      Alias for the default.
      
      \itemoption{book}{}
      Draws a cute little book icon as the reference. Use this for,
      well, books.

      \itemoption{triangle}{}
      Draws a triangle as the reference. This is more in keeping with
      the standard itemize items.

      \itemoption{text}{}
      Uses the reference text (like ``[Dijkstra, 1982]'') as the
      reference text. Be sure you what you are doing if you use this. 
    \end{templateoptions}
    The following insert is useful for the template:
    \begin{itemize}
      \iteminsert{\insertbiblabel}
      inserts the current citation label.
    \end{itemize}
  \end{element}
\end{command}



\subsection{Adding an Appendix}

You can add an appendix to your talk by using the |\appendix|
command. You should put frames and perhaps whole subsections into the
appendix that you do not intend to show during your presentation, but
which might be useful to answer a question. The |\appendix| command
essentially just starts a new part named |\appendixname|. However, it
also sets up certain hyperlinks. 
Like other parts, the appendix is kept separate of your actual
talk.

\begin{command}{\appendix\sarg{mode specification}}
  Starts the appendix in the specified modes. All frames, all
  |\subsection| commands, and all |\section| commands used after this
  command will not be shown as part of the normal navigation bars.
  \example
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{document}
\frame{\titlepage}
\section*{Outline}
\frame{\tableofcontents}
\section{Main Text}
\frame{Some text}
\section*{Summary}
\frame{Summary text}

\appendix
\section{\appendixname}
\frame{\tableofcontents}
\subsection{Additional material}
\frame{Details}
\frame{Text omitted in main talk.}
\subsection{Even more additional material}
\frame{More details}
\end{document}
\end{verbatim}
\end{command}




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