1. Ronald Oussoren
  2. pyobjc


pyobjc / pyobjc-core / Doc / protocols.rst

PyObjC protocol support


Apple makes use of both formal and informal protocols in the Cocoa framework. Formal protocols are those protocols that are implemented using Objective-C protocols:

@protocol NSFoo <NSSomeProtocol>

Conforming to a formal protocol requires the interface of a class to explicitly declare that it implements that protocol, and the implementation must implement all methods of the protocol.

Informal protocols are defined as categories on NSObject with no implementation:

@interface NSObject(FooDelegate)

Conforming to an informal protocol is much like conforming to a protocol in Python, the class simply implements the methods as documented. In most cases, informal protocols are comprised entirely of optional methods (i.e. NSApplicationDelegate) and a check is made (i.e. -[NSObject respondsToSelector:]) before sending the message to the target.

Informal protocols and PyObjC

PyObjC has an explicit representation for informal protocols. This makes it possible to use the protocol description to provide better error messages and to automaticly deduce the method signatures for classes that implement an informal protocol.

Informal protocols are represented using instances of objc.informal_protocol. These instances are automaticly added to a registry used by the class builder, so it is not necessary to explicitly state that a class implements an informal protocol.

Formal protocols and PyObjC

PyObjC also has an explicit representation for formal protocols.

Formal protocols are represented as instances of objc.formal_protocol. Unlike informal protocols, it is necessary to explicitly declare conformance to formal protocols. However, all formal protocols in Cocoa are also described using objc.informal_protocol objects.

In python 2.x declaring conformance to a formal protocol is done by using the formal protocol as a mix-in, and by implementing its methods:

    NSLocking = objc.protocolNamed('NSLocking')

    class MyLockingObject(NSObject, NSLocking):
            def lock(self):

            def unlock(self):

In python 3.x you don't use the protocols as mix-ins, but specify them as a keyword argument:

    NSLocking = objc.protocolNamed('NSLocking')

    class MyLockingObject(NSObject, protocols=[NSLocking]):
            def lock(self):

            def unlock(self):

The class now formally implements the NSLocking protocol, this can be verified using the Objective-C introspection methods:

>>> MyLockingObject.pyobjc_classMethods.conformsToProtocol_(NSLocking)

This is useful for API's that require (and check) the implementation of formal protocols.