Sara Magliacane avatar Sara Magliacane committed 202f34d

Debbuging the last commit.

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+  </document>

pan12-detailed-comparison-training-corpus-small/06_simulated_paraphrase/suspicious-document01661-source-document03449.xml

+<document reference="suspicious-document01661.txt"><feature name="plagiarism" type="simulated" this_language="en" this_offset="192696" this_length="4924" source_reference="source-document03449.txt" source_language="en" source_offset="15195" source_length="4742"/>
+  </document>

pan12-detailed-comparison-training-corpus-small/06_simulated_paraphrase/suspicious-document01661-source-document03450.xml

+<document reference="suspicious-document01661.txt"><feature name="plagiarism" type="simulated" this_language="en" this_offset="200539" this_length="2875" source_reference="source-document03450.txt" source_language="en" source_offset="22196" source_length="3002"/>
+</document>

pan12-detailed-comparison-training-corpus-small/06_simulated_paraphrase/suspicious-document01661-source-document03451.xml

+<document reference="suspicious-document01661.txt"><feature name="plagiarism" type="simulated" this_language="en" this_offset="186456" this_length="285" source_reference="source-document03451.txt" source_language="en" source_offset="20454" source_length="260"/>
+  </document>

pan12-detailed-comparison-training-corpus-small/06_simulated_paraphrase/suspicious-document01662-source-document01035.xml

+<document reference="suspicious-document01662.txt"><feature name="plagiarism" type="simulated" this_language="en" this_offset="6092" this_length="436" source_reference="source-document01035.txt" source_language="en" source_offset="18421" source_length="487"/>
+</document>

pan12-detailed-comparison-training-corpus-small/06_simulated_paraphrase/suspicious-document01662-source-document03452.xml

+<document reference="suspicious-document01662.txt"><feature name="about" authors="Tolstoy, Leo, graf" title="War and Peace" lang="en"/>
+  <feature name="md5Hash" value="0b4424e2b3c50b981de42bd4cf18c47d"/>
+  <feature name="plagiarism" type="simulated" this_language="en" this_offset="3995" this_length="240" source_reference="source-document03452.txt" source_language="en" source_offset="368003" source_length="273"/>
+  </document>

pan12-detailed-comparison-training-corpus-small/06_simulated_paraphrase/suspicious-document01662-source-document03453.xml

+<document reference="suspicious-document01662.txt"><feature name="plagiarism" type="simulated" this_language="en" this_offset="544" this_length="281" source_reference="source-document03453.txt" source_language="en" source_offset="343336" source_length="272"/>
+  </document>

pan12-detailed-comparison-training-corpus-small/06_simulated_paraphrase/suspicious-document01663-source-document00304.xml

+<document reference="suspicious-document01663.txt"><feature name="plagiarism" type="simulated" this_language="en" this_offset="14280" this_length="975" source_reference="source-document00304.txt" source_language="en" source_offset="396997" source_length="781"/>
+  </document>

pan12-detailed-comparison-training-corpus-small/06_simulated_paraphrase/suspicious-document01663-source-document03454.xml

+<document reference="suspicious-document01663.txt"><feature name="about" authors="Weston, Jessie Laidlay" title="The Romance of Morien" lang="en"/>
+  <feature name="md5Hash" value="d4f38d22b95f78bec44410fdaf748209"/>
+  <feature name="plagiarism" type="simulated" this_language="en" this_offset="6937" this_length="4517" source_reference="source-document03454.txt" source_language="en" source_offset="66321" source_length="3216"/>
+  </document>

pan12-detailed-comparison-training-corpus-small/06_simulated_paraphrase/suspicious-document01663-source-document03455.xml

+<document reference="suspicious-document01663.txt"><feature name="plagiarism" type="simulated" this_language="en" this_offset="15363" this_length="2938" source_reference="source-document03455.txt" source_language="en" source_offset="91293" source_length="3530"/>
+</document>

pan12-detailed-comparison-training-corpus-small/06_simulated_paraphrase/suspicious-document01663-source-document03456.xml

+<document reference="suspicious-document01663.txt"><feature name="plagiarism" type="simulated" this_language="en" this_offset="3792" this_length="623" source_reference="source-document03456.txt" source_language="en" source_offset="198767" source_length="532"/>
+  </document>

pan12-detailed-comparison-training-corpus-small/06_simulated_paraphrase/suspicious-document01663-source-document03457.xml

+<document reference="suspicious-document01663.txt"><feature name="plagiarism" type="simulated" this_language="en" this_offset="12782" this_length="1421" source_reference="source-document03457.txt" source_language="en" source_offset="432412" source_length="1564"/>
+  </document>

pan12-detailed-comparison-training-corpus-small/readme.txt

+========
+Overview
+========
+
+This archive contains the training corpus for the "Plagiarism Detection: Detailed Comparison" task of the PAN 2012 Lab, held in conjunction with the CLEF 2012 conference.
+
+Find out about all the details at http://pan.webis.de.
+
+
+
+===========================
+Training Corpus Description
+===========================
+
+The corpus comprises 
+
+/susp: 1.804 suspicious documents as plain text.
+/src : 4.210 source documents as plain text. 
+
+The suspicious documents contain passages 'plagiarized' from the source documents, obfuscated with one of five different obfuscation techniques. See [1] on page 75 for a detailed description of these techniques.
+
+Furthermore, the corpus contains 6.000 XML files which each report for a pair of suspicious and source document the exact locations of the plagiarized passages. The XML files are split into six datasets:
+
+/01_no_plagiarism: XML files for 1.000 document pairs without any plagiarism.
+/02_no_obfuscation: XML files for 1.000 document pairs where the suspicious document contains exact copies of passages in the source document.
+/03_artificial_low: XML files for 1.000 document pairs where the plagiarized passages are obfuscated by the means of moderate word shuffling.
+/04_artificial_high: XML files for 1.000 document pairs where the plagiarized passages are obfuscated by the means of not so moderate word shuffling.
+/05_translation: XML files for 1.000 document pairs where the plagiarized passages are obfuscated by translation into a different language.
+/06_simulated_paraphrase: XML files for 1.000 document pairs where the plagiarized passages are obfuscated by humans via Amazon Mechanical Turk.
+
+In addition to the XML files, each folder contains a text file called 'pairs'. For the 1.000 document-pairs (XML files) in the folder, this file lists the filename of the suspicious and the source document in a row, separated by a blank:
+
+  suspicious-document00086.txt source-document00171.txt
+
+If you like to evaluate your detection program with respect to one of the datasets, let it produce for each document pair in the 'pairs'-file a detection XML file which reports on the plagiarized passages it found. The detection XML file must have the following structure:
+
+<document reference="...">    <!-- file name of the suspicious document        -->
+<feature
+  name="detected-plagiarism"  <!-- type of the plagiarism annotation           -->
+  this_offset="5"             <!-- char offset within the suspicious document  -->
+  this_length="1000"          <!-- number of chars beginning at the offset     -->
+
+  source_reference="..."      <!-- file name of the source document            -->
+  source_offset="100"         <!-- char offset within the source document      -->
+  source_length="1000"        <!-- number of chars beginning at the offset     -->
+
+/>
+...                           <!-- more detections in this suspicious document -->
+</document>
+
+The XML structure is identical to the reference XML files contained in this training corpus. Only the value of the name attribute in the feature elements differs (it's 'plagiarism', there).
+
+To evaluate the quality of your detection, you can either use the python script 'perfmeasures.py' or the TIRA evaluation service. In either case, place all the detection XML files for a dataset into a common folder <your-detection-dir>.
+If you use the script, call it with:
+ 
+  perfmeasures.py -p <reference-dir> -d <your-detection-dir> 
+  
+As <reference-dir>, specify the respective folder with the reference XML files (e.g. 01_no_plagiarism).
+If you use TIRA, compress your detection folder as a zip file and upload it via the form on the web page. 
+
+The script and the web service are available via the PAN 2012 web page, http://pan.webis.de/.
+
+
+
+==========
+References
+==========
+
+[1] http://www.uni-weimar.de/medien/webis/publications/papers/potthast_2011b.pdf
+

pan12-detailed-comparison-training-corpus-small/src/source-document00304.txt

+LAY MORALS AND OTHER PAPERS
+
+Contents:
+   Lay Morals
+      Chapter I
+      Chapter II
+      Chapter III
+      Chapter IV
+   Father Damien
+   The Pentland Rising
+      Chapter I--The Causes of the Revolt
+      Chapter II--The Beginning
+      Chapter III--The March of the Rebels
+      Chapter IV--Rullion Green
+      Chapter V--A Record of Blood
+   The Day After To-morrow
+   College Papers
+      Chapter I--Edinburgh Students in 1824
+      Chapter II--The Modern Student
+      Chapter III--Debating Societies
+   Criticisms
+      Chapter I--Lord Lytton's "Fables in Song"
+      Chapter II--Salvini's Macbeth
+      Chapter III--Bagster's "Pilgrim's Progress"
+   Sketches
+      The Satirist
+      Nuits Blanches
+      The Wreath of Immortelles
+      Nurses
+      A Character
+   The Great North Road
+      Chapter I--Nance at the "Green Dragon"  Such, moreover, is
+the complexity of life, that when we condescend upon details in our
+advice, we may be sure we condescend on error; and the best of
+education is to throw out some magnanimous hints.
+
+A few men of picked nature, full of faith, courage, and contempt for others, try earnestly
+to set forth as much as they can grasp of this inner law; but the vast majority, when they
+come to advise the young, must be content to retail certain doctrines which have been already
+retailed to them in their own youth.  Every generation has to educate another which it has
+brought upon the stage.  People who readily accept the responsibility of parentship, having
+very different matters in their eye, are apt to feel rueful when that responsibility falls
+due.  What are they to tell the child about life and conduct, subjects on which they have themselves
+so few and such confused opinions?  Indeed, I do not know; the least said, perhaps, the soonest
+mended; and yet the child keeps asking, and the parent must find some words to say in his own
+defence.  Where does he find them? and what are they when found?
+
+As a matter of experience, and in nine hundred and ninety-nine cases out of a thousand, he
+will instil into his wide-eyed brat three bad things:  the terror of public opinion, and, flowing
+from that as a fountain, the desire of wealth and applause.  Besides these, or what might be
+deduced as corollaries from these, he will teach not much else of any effective value:  some
+dim notions of divinity, perhaps, and book-keeping, and how to walk through a quadrille.
+
+But, you may tell me, the young people are taught to be Christians. It may be want of penetration,
+but I have not yet been able to perceive it.  As an honest man, whatever we teach, and be it
+good or evil, it is not the doctrine of Christ.  What he taught (and in this he is like all
+other teachers worthy of the name) was not a code of rules, but a ruling spirit; not truths,
+but a spirit of truth; not views, but a view.  What he showed us was an attitude of mind. 
+Towards the many considerations on which conduct is built, each man stands in a certain relation.
+He takes life on a certain principle.  He has a compass in his spirit which points in a certain
+direction.  It is the attitude, the relation, the point of the compass, that is the whole body
+and gist of what he has to teach us; in this, the details are comprehended; out of this the
+specific precepts issue, and by this, and this only, can they be explained and applied.  And
+thus, to learn aright from any teacher, we must first of all, like a historical artist, think
+ourselves into sympathy with his position and, in the technical phrase, create his character.
+A historian confronted with some ambiguous politician, or an actor charged with a part, have
+but one pre- occupation; they must search all round and upon every side, and grope for some
+central conception which is to explain and justify the most extreme details; until that is
+found, the politician is an enigma, or perhaps a quack, and the part a tissue of fustian sentiment
+and big words; but once that is found, all enters into a plan, a human nature appears, the
+politician or the stage-king is understood from point to point, from end to end.  This is a
+degree of trouble which will be gladly taken by a very humble artist; but not even the terror
+of eternal fire can teach a business man to bend his imagination to such athletic efforts.
+Yet without this, all is vain; until we understand the whole, we shall understand none of the
+parts; and otherwise we have no more than broken images and scattered words; the meaning remains
+buried; and the language in which our prophet speaks to us is a dead language in our ears.
+
+Take a few of Christ's sayings and compare them with our current doctrines.
+
+'Ye cannot,' he says, 'serve God and Mammon.'  Cannot?  And our whole system is to teach us
+how we can!
+
+'The children of this world are wiser in their generation than the children of light.'  Are
+they?  I had been led to understand the reverse:  that the Christian merchant, for example,
+prospered exceedingly in his affairs; that honesty was the best policy; that an author of repute
+had written a conclusive treatise 'How to make the best of both worlds.'  Of both worlds indeed!
+Which am I to believe then--Christ or the author of repute?
+
+'Take no thought for the morrow.'  Ask the Successful Merchant; interrogate your own heart;
+and you will have to admit that this is not only a silly but an immoral position.  All we believe,
+all we hope, all we honour in ourselves or our contemporaries, stands condemned in this one
+sentence, or, if you take the other view, condemns the sentence as unwise and inhumane.  We
+are not then of the 'same mind that was in Christ.'  We disagree with Christ. Either Christ
+meant nothing, or else he or we must be in the wrong. Well says Thoreau, speaking of some texts
+from the New Testament, and finding a strange echo of another style which the reader may recognise:
+'Let but one of these sentences be rightly read from any pulpit in the land, and there would
+not be left one stone of that meeting-house upon another.'
+
+It may be objected that these are what are called 'hard sayings'; and that a man, or an education,
+may be very sufficiently Christian although it leave some of these sayings upon one side. 
+But this is a very gross delusion.  Although truth is difficult to state, it is both easy and
+agreeable to receive, and the mind runs out to meet it ere the phrase be done.  The universe,
+in relation to what any man can say of it, is plain, patent and staringly comprehensible. In
+itself, it is a great and travailing ocean, unsounded, unvoyageable, an eternal mystery to
+man; or, let us say, it is a monstrous and impassable mountain, one side of which, and a few
+near slopes and foothills, we can dimly study with these mortal eyes.  But what any man can
+say of it, even in his highest utterance, must have relation to this little and plain corner,
+which is no less visible to us than to him.  We are looking on the same map; it will go hard
+if we cannot follow the demonstration.  You do not belong to the school of any philosopher,
+because you agree with him that theft is, on the whole, objectionable, or that the sun is overhead
+at noon.  It is by the hard sayings that discipleship is tested.  We are all agreed about the
+middling and indifferent parts of knowledge and morality; even the most soaring spirits too
+often take them tamely upon trust.  But the man, the philosopher or the moralist, does not
+stand upon these chance adhesions; and the purpose of any system looks towards those extreme
+points where it steps valiantly beyond tradition and returns with some covert hint of things
+outside.  Then only can you be certain that the words are not words of course, nor mere echoes
+of the past; then only are you sure that if he be indicating anything at all, it is a star
+and not a street-lamp; then only do you touch the heart of the mystery, since it was for these
+that the author wrote his book.  But alas! at this juncture of the ages it is not so with us;
+on each and every such occasion our whole fellowship of Christians falls back in disapproving
+wonder and implicitly denies the saying.  Christians! the farce is impudently broad.  Let us
+stand up in the sight of heaven and confess.  The ethics that we hold are those of Benjamin
+Franklin.  HONESTY IS THE BEST POLICY, is perhaps a hard saying; it is certainly one by which
+a wise man of these days will not too curiously direct his steps; but I think it shows a glimmer
+of meaning to even our most dimmed intelligences; I think we perceive a principle behind it;
+I think, without hyperbole, we are of the same mind that was in Benjamin Franklin.
+
+CHAPTER II
+
+But, I may be told, we teach the ten commandments, where a world of morals lies condensed,
+the very pith and epitome of all ethics and religion; and a young man with these precepts engraved
+upon his mind must follow after profit with some conscience and Christianity of method.  A
+man cannot go very far astray who neither dishonours his parents, nor kills, nor commits adultery,
+nor steals, nor bears false witness; for these things, rightly thought out, cover a vast field
+of duty.
+
+Alas! what is a precept?  It is at best an illustration; it is case law at the best which can
+be learned by precept.  The letter is not only dead, but killing; the spirit which underlies,
+and cannot be uttered, alone is true and helpful.  This is trite to sickness; but familiarity
+has a cunning disenchantment; in a day or two she can steal all beauty from the mountain tops;
+and the most startling words begin to fall dead upon the ear after several repetitions. If
+you see a thing too often, you no longer see it; if you hear a thing too often, you no longer
+hear it.  Our attention requires to be surprised; and to carry a fort by assault, or to gain
+a thoughtful hearing from the ruck of mankind, are feats of about an equal difficulty and must
+be tried by not dissimilar means.  The whole Bible has thus lost its message for the common
+run of hearers; it has become mere words of course; and the parson may bawl himself scarlet
+and beat the pulpit like a thing possessed, but his hearers will continue to nod; they are
+strangely at peace, they know all he has to say; ring the old bell as you choose, it is still
+the old bell and it cannot startle their composure.  And so with this byword about the letter
+and the spirit.  It is quite true, no doubt; but it has no meaning in the world to any man
+of us.  Alas! it has just this meaning, and neither more nor less: that while the spirit is
+true, the letter is eternally false.
+
+And as the authentic clue to such a labyrinth and change of scene, do you offer me these two
+score words? these five bald prohibitions?  For the moral precepts are no more than five; the
+first four deal rather with matters of observance than of conduct; the tenth, THOU SHALT NOT
+COVET, stands upon another basis, and shall be spoken of ere long.  The Jews, to whom they
+were first given, in the course of years began to find these precepts insufficient; and made
+an addition of no less than six hundred and fifty others!  They hoped to make a pocket-book
+of reference on morals, which should stand to life in some such relation, say, as Hoyle stands
+in to the scientific game of whist. Yet if the Jews took a petty and huckstering view of conduct,
+what view do we take ourselves, who callously leave youth to go forth into the enchanted forest,
+full of spells and dire chimeras, with no guidance more complete than is afforded by these
+five precepts?
+
+HONOUR THY FATHER AND THY MOTHER.  Yes, but does that mean to obey? and if so, how long and
+how far?  THOU SHALL NOT KILL.  Yet the very intention and purport of the prohibition may be
+best fulfilled by killing.  THOU SHALL NOT COMMIT ADULTERY.  But some of the ugliest adulteries
+are committed in the bed of marriage and under the sanction of religion and law.  THOU SHALT
+NOT BEAR FALSE WITNESS.  How? by speech or by silence also? or even by a smile? THOU SHALT
+NOT STEAL.  Ah, that indeed!  But what is TO STEAL?
+
+To steal?  It is another word to be construed; and who is to be our guide?  The police will
+give us one construction, leaving the word only that least minimum of meaning without which
+society would fall in pieces; but surely we must take some higher sense than this; surely we
+hope more than a bare subsistence for mankind; surely we wish mankind to prosper and go on
+from strength to strength, and ourselves to live rightly in the eye of some more exacting potentate
+than a policeman.  The approval or the disapproval of the police must be eternally indifferent
+to a man who is both valorous and good.  There is extreme discomfort, but no shame, in the
+condemnation of the law.  The law represents that modicum of morality which can be squeezed
+out of the ruck of mankind; but what is that to me, who aim higher and seek to be my own more
+stringent judge?  I observe with pleasure that no brave man has ever given a rush for such
+considerations.  The Japanese have a nobler and more sentimental feeling for this social bond
+into which we all are born when we come into the world, and whose comforts and protection we
+all indifferently share throughout our lives:- but even to them, no more than to our Western
+saints and heroes, does the law of the state supersede the higher law of duty.  Without hesitation
+and without remorse, they transgress the stiffest enactments rather than abstain from doing
+right.  But the accidental superior duty being thus fulfilled, they at once return in allegiance
+to the common duty of all citizens; and hasten to denounce themselves; and value at an equal
+rate their just crime and their equally just submission to its punishment.
+
+The evading of the police will not long satisfy an active conscience or a thoughtful head.
+But to show you how one or the other may trouble a man, and what a vast extent of frontier
+is left unridden by this invaluable eighth commandment, let me tell you a few pages out of
+a young man's life.
+
+He was a friend of mine; a young man like others; generous, flighty, as variable as youth itself,
+but always with some high motions and on the search for higher thoughts of life.  I should
+tell you at once that he thoroughly agrees with the eighth commandment.  But he got hold of
+some unsettling works, the New Testament among others, and this loosened his views of life
+and led him into many perplexities.  As he was the son of a man in a certain position, and
+well off, my friend had enjoyed from the first the advantages of education, nay, he had been
+kept alive through a sickly childhood by constant watchfulness, comforts, and change of air;
+for all of which he was indebted to his father's wealth.
+
+At college he met other lads more diligent than himself, who followed the plough in summer-time
+to pay their college fees in winter; and this inequality struck him with some force.  In this
+way he came upon many depressed ambitions, and many intelligences stunted for want of opportunity;
+and this also struck him.  He began to perceive that life was a handicap upon strange, wrong-
+sided principles; and not, as he had been told, a fair and equal race.  He began to tremble
+that he himself had been unjustly favoured, when he saw all the avenues of wealth, and power,
+and comfort closed against so many of his superiors and equals, and held unwearyingly open
+before so idle, so desultory, and so dissolute a being as himself.  There sat a youth beside
+him on the college benches, who had only one shirt to his back, and, at intervals sufficiently
+far apart, must stay at home to have it washed.  It was my friend's principle to stay away
+as often as he dared; for I fear he was no friend to learning.  But there was something that
+came home to him sharply, in this fellow who had to give over study till his shirt was washed,
+and the scores of others who had never an opportunity at all.  IF ONE OF THESE COULD TAKE HIS
+PLACE, he thought; and the thought tore away a bandage from his eyes.  He was eaten by the
+shame of his discoveries, and despised himself as an unworthy favourite and a creature of the
+back-stairs of Fortune.  He could no longer see without confusion one of these brave young
+fellows battling up-hill against adversity.  Had he not filched that fellow's birthright? 
+At best was he not coldly profiting by the injustice of society, and greedily devouring stolen
+goods?  The money, indeed, belonged to his father, who had worked, and thought, and given up
+his liberty to earn it; but by what justice could the money belong to my friend, who had, as
+yet, done nothing but help to squander it?  A more sturdy honesty, joined to a more even and
+impartial temperament, would have drawn from these considerations a new force of industry,
+that this equivocal position might be brought as swiftly as possible to an end, and some good
+services to mankind justify the appropriation of expense.  It was not so with my friend, who
+was only unsettled and discouraged, and filled full of that trumpeting anger with which young
+men regard injustices in the first blush of youth; although in a few years they will tamely
+acquiesce in their existence, and knowingly profit by their complications.  Yet all this while
+he suffered many indignant pangs.  And once, when he put on his boots, like any other unripe
+donkey, to run away from home, it was his best consolation that he was now, at a single plunge,
+to free himself from the responsibility of this wealth that was not his, and do battle equally
+against his fellows in the warfare of life.
+
+Some time after this, falling into ill-health, he was sent at great expense to a more favourable
+climate; and then I think his perplexities were thickest.  When he thought of all the other
+young men of singular promise, upright, good, the prop of families, who must remain at home
+to die, and with all their possibilities be lost to life and mankind; and how he, by one more
+unmerited favour, was chosen out from all these others to survive; he felt as if there were
+no life, no labour, no devotion of soul and body, that could repay and justify these partialities.
+A religious lady, to whom he communicated these reflections, could see no force in them whatever.
+'It was God's will,' said she.  But he knew it was by God's will that Joan of Arc was burnt
+at Rouen, which cleared neither Bedford nor Bishop Cauchon; and again, by God's will that Christ
+was crucified outside Jerusalem, which excused neither the rancour of the priests nor the timidity
+of Pilate.  He knew, moreover, that although the possibility of this favour he was now enjoying
+issued from his circumstances, its acceptance was the act of his own will; and he had accepted
+it greedily, longing for rest and sunshine.  And hence this allegation of God's providence
+did little to relieve his scruples.  I promise you he had a very troubled mind.  And I would
+not laugh if I were you, though while he was thus making mountains out of what you think molehills,
+he were still (as perhaps he was) contentedly practising many other things that to you seem
+black as hell.  Every man is his own judge and mountain-guide through life.  There is an old
+story of a mote and a beam, apparently not true, but worthy perhaps of some consideration.
+I should, if I were you, give some consideration to these scruples of his, and if I were he,
+I should do the like by yours; for it is not unlikely that there may be something under both.
+In the meantime you must hear how my friend acted.  Like many invalids, he supposed that he
+would die.  Now, should he die, he saw no means of repaying this huge loan which, by the hands
+of his father, mankind had advanced him for his sickness.  In that case it would be lost money.
+So he determined that the advance should be as small as possible; and, so long as he continued
+to doubt his recovery, lived in an upper room, and grudged himself all but necessaries.  But
+so soon as he began to perceive a change for the better, he felt justified in spending more
+freely, to speed and brighten his return to health, and trusted in the future to lend a help
+to mankind, as mankind, out of its treasury, had lent a help to him.
+
+I do not say but that my friend was a little too curious and partial in his view; nor thought
+too much of himself and too little of his parents; but I do say that here are some scruples
+which tormented my friend in his youth, and still, perhaps, at odd times give him a prick in
+the midst of his enjoyments, and which after all have some foundation in justice, and point,
+in their confused way, to some more honourable honesty within the reach of man.  And at least,
+is not this an unusual gloss upon the eighth commandment? And what sort of comfort, guidance,
+or illumination did that precept afford my friend throughout these contentions?  'Thou shalt
+not steal.'  With all my heart!  But AM I stealing?
+
+The truly quaint materialism of our view of life disables us from pursuing any transaction
+to an end.  You can make no one understand that his bargain is anything more than a bargain,
+whereas in point of fact it is a link in the policy of mankind, and either a good or an evil
+to the world.  We have a sort of blindness which prevents us from seeing anything but sovereigns.
+If one man agrees to give another so many shillings for so many hours' work, and then wilfully
+gives him a certain proportion of the price in bad money and only the remainder in good, we
+can see with half an eye that this man is a thief.  But if the other spends a certain proportion
+of the hours in smoking a pipe of tobacco, and a certain other proportion in looking at the
+sky, or the clock, or trying to recall an air, or in meditation on his own past adventures,
+and only the remainder in downright work such as he is paid to do, is he, because the theft
+is one of time and not of money,--is he any the less a thief?  The one gave a bad shilling,
+the other an imperfect hour; but both broke the bargain, and each is a thief.  In piecework,
+which is what most of us do, the case is none the less plain for being even less material.
+If you forge a bad knife, you have wasted some of mankind's iron, and then, with unrivalled
+cynicism, you pocket some of mankind's money for your trouble.  Is there any man so blind who
+cannot see that this is theft?  Again, if you carelessly cultivate a farm, you have been playing
+fast and loose with mankind's resources against hunger; there will be less bread in consequence,
+and for lack of that bread somebody will die next winter:  a grim consideration.  And you must
+not hope to shuffle out of blame because you got less money for your less quantity of bread;
+for although a theft be partly punished, it is none the less a theft for that.  You took the
+farm against competitors; there were others ready to shoulder the responsibility and be answerable
+for the tale of loaves; but it was you who took it.  By the act you came under a tacit bargain
+with mankind to cultivate that farm with your best endeavour; you were under no superintendence,
+you were on parole; and you have broke your bargain, and to all who look closely, and yourself
+among the rest if you have moral eyesight, you are a thief.  Have you a salary?  If you trifle
+with your health, and so render yourself less capable for duty, and still touch, and still
+greedily pocket the emolument-- what are you but a thief?  Have you double accounts? do you
+by any time-honoured juggle, deceit, or ambiguous process, gain more from those who deal with
+you than it you were bargaining and dealing face to face in front of God?--What are you but
+a thief?  Lastly, if you fill an office, or produce an article, which, in your heart of hearts,
+you think a delusion and a fraud upon mankind, and still draw your salary and go through the
+sham manoeuvres of this office, or still book your profits and keep on flooding the world with
+these injurious goods?--though you were old, and bald, and the first at church, and a baronet,
+what are you but a thief?  These may seem hard words and mere curiosities of the intellect,
+in an age when the spirit of honesty is so sparingly cultivated that all business is conducted
+upon lies and so-called customs of the trade, that not a man bestows two thoughts on the utility
+or honourableness of his pursuit.  I would say less if I thought less. But looking to my own
+reason and the right of things, I can only avow that I am a thief myself, and that I passionately
+suspect my neighbours of the same guilt. Even before the lowest of all tribunals,--before a
+court of law, whose business it is, not to keep men right, or within a thousand miles of right,
+but to withhold them from going so tragically wrong that they will pull down the whole jointed
+fabric of society by their misdeeds--even before a court of law, as we begin to see in these
+last days, our easy view of following at each other's tails, alike to good and evil, is beginning
+to be reproved and punished, and declared no honesty at all, but open theft and swindling;
+and simpletons who have gone on through life with a quiet conscience may learn suddenly, from
+the lips of a judge, that the custom of the trade may be a custom of the devil.  You thought
+it was easy to be honest.  Did you think it was easy to be just and kind and truthful?  Did
+you think the whole duty of aspiring man was as simple as a horn-pipe? and you could walk through
+life like a gentleman and a hero, with no more concern than it takes to go to church or to
+address a circular?  And yet all this time you had the eighth commandment! and, what makes
+it richer, you would not have broken it for the world!
+
+The truth is, that these commandments by themselves are of little use in private judgment.
+If compression is what you want, you have their whole spirit compressed into the golden rule;
+and yet there expressed with more significance, since the law is there spiritually and not
+materially stated.  And in truth, four out of these ten commands, from the sixth to the ninth,
+are rather legal than ethical.  The police-court is their proper home.  A magistrate cannot
+tell whether you love your neighbour as yourself, but he can tell more or less whether you
+have murdered, or stolen, or committed adultery, or held up your hand and testified to that
+which was not; and these things, for rough practical tests, are as good as can be found.  And
+perhaps, therefore, the best condensation of the Jewish moral law is in the maxims of the priests,
+'neminem laedere' and 'suum cuique tribuere.'  But all this granted, it becomes only the more
+plain that they are inadequate in the sphere of personal morality; that while they tell the
+magistrate roughly when to punish, they can never direct an anxious sinner what to do.
+
+Only Polonius, or the like solemn sort of ass, can offer us a succinct proverb by way of advice,
+and not burst out blushing in our faces.  We grant them one and all and for all that they are
+worth; it is something above and beyond that we desire.  Christ was in general a great enemy
+to such a way of teaching; we rarely find him meddling with any of these plump commands but
+it was to open them out, and lift his hearers from the letter to the spirit.
+
+CHAPTER III
+
+Although the world and life have in a sense become commonplace to our experience, it is but
+in an external torpor; the true sentiment slumbers within us; and we have but to reflect on
+ourselves or our surroundings to rekindle our astonishment.  No length of habit can blunt our
+first surprise.  Of the world I have but little to say in this connection; a few strokes shall
+suffice.  We inhabit a dead ember swimming wide in the blank of space, dizzily spinning as
+it swims, and lighted up from several million miles away by a more horrible hell-fire than
+was ever conceived by the theological imagination.  Yet the dead ember is a green, commodious
+dwelling- place; and the reverberation of this hell-fire ripens flower and fruit and mildly
+warms us on summer eves upon the lawn.  Far off on all hands other dead embers, other flaming
+suns, wheel and race in the apparent void; the nearest is out of call, the farthest so far
+that the heart sickens in the effort to conceive the distance. Shipwrecked seamen on the deep,
+though they bestride but the truncheon of a boom, are safe and near at home compared with mankind
+on its bullet.  Even to us who have known no other, it seems a strange, if not an appalling,
+place of residence.
+
+But far stranger is the resident, man, a creature compact of wonders that, after centuries
+of custom, is still wonderful to himself.  He inhabits a body which he is continually outliving,
+discarding and renewing.  Food and sleep, by an unknown alchemy, restore his spirits and the
+freshness of his countenance.  Hair grows on him like grass; his eyes, his brain, his sinews,
+thirst for action; he joys to see and touch and hear, to partake the sun and wind, to sit down
+and intently ponder on his astonishing attributes and situation, to rise up and run, to perform
+the strange and revolting round of physical functions.  The sight of a flower, the note of
+a bird, will often move him deeply; yet he looks unconcerned on the impassable distances and
+portentous bonfires of the universe.  He comprehends, he designs, he tames nature, rides the
+sea, ploughs, climbs the air in a balloon, makes vast inquiries, begins interminable labours,
+joins himself into federations and populous cities, spends his days to deliver the ends of
+the earth or to benefit unborn posterity; and yet knows himself for a piece of unsurpassed
+fragility and the creature of a few days.  His sight, which conducts him, which takes notice
+of the farthest stars, which is miraculous in every way and a thing defying explanation or
+belief, is yet lodged in a piece of jelly, and can be extinguished with a touch.  His heart,
+which all through life so indomitably, so athletically labours, is but a capsule, and may be
+stopped with a pin.  His whole body, for all its savage energies, its leaping and its winged
+desires, may yet be tamed and conquered by a draught of air or a sprinkling of cold dew.  What
+he calls death, which is the seeming arrest of everything, and the ruin and hateful transformation
+of the visible body, lies in wait for him outwardly in a thousand accidents, and grows up in
+secret diseases from within.  He is still learning to be a man when his faculties are already
+beginning to decline; he has not yet understood himself or his position before he inevitably
+dies.  And yet this mad, chimerical creature can take no thought of his last end, lives as
+though he were eternal, plunges with his vulnerable body into the shock of war, and daily affronts
+death with unconcern.  He cannot take a step without pain or pleasure.  His life is a tissue
+of sensations, which he distinguishes as they seem to come more directly from himself or his
+surroundings.  He is conscious of himself as a joyer or a sufferer, as that which craves, chooses,
+and is satisfied; conscious of his surroundings as it were of an inexhaustible purveyor, the
+source of aspects, inspirations, wonders, cruel knocks and transporting caresses. Thus he goes
+on his way, stumbling among delights and agonies.
+
+Matter is a far-fetched theory, and materialism is without a root in man.  To him everything
+is important in the degree to which it moves him.  The telegraph wires and posts, the electricity
+speeding from clerk to clerk, the clerks, the glad or sorrowful import of the message, and
+the paper on which it is finally brought to him at home, are all equally facts, all equally
+exist for man.  A word or a thought can wound him as acutely as a knife of steel.  If he thinks
+he is loved, he will rise up and glory to himself, although he be in a distant land and short
+of necessary bread.  Does he think he is not loved?--he may have the woman at his beck, and
+there is not a joy for him in all the world.  Indeed, if we are to make any account of this
+figment of reason, the distinction between material and immaterial, we shall conclude that
+the life of each man as an individual is immaterial, although the continuation and prospects
+of mankind as a race turn upon material conditions.  The physical business of each man's body
+is transacted for him; like a sybarite, he has attentive valets in his own viscera; he breathes,
+he sweats, he digests without an effort, or so much as a consenting volition; for the most
+part he even eats, not with a wakeful consciousness, but as it were between two thoughts. 
+His life is centred among other and more important considerations; touch him in his honour
+or his love, creatures of the imagination which attach him to mankind or to an individual man
+or woman; cross him in his piety which connects his soul with heaven; and he turns from his
+food, he loathes his breath, and with a magnanimous emotion cuts the knots of his existence
+and frees himself at a blow from the web of pains and pleasures.
+
+It follows that man is twofold at least; that he is not a rounded and autonomous empire; but
+that in the same body with him there dwell other powers tributary but independent.  If I now
+behold one walking in a garden, curiously coloured and illuminated by the sun, digesting his
+food with elaborate chemistry, breathing, circulating blood, directing himself by the sight
+of his eyes, accommodating his body by a thousand delicate balancings to the wind and the uneven
+surface of the path, and all the time, perhaps, with his mind engaged about America, or the
+dog-star, or the attributes of God--what am I to say, or how am I to describe the thing I see?
+Is that truly a man, in the rigorous meaning of the word? or is it not a man and something
+else?  What, then, are we to count the centre- bit and axle of a being so variously compounded?
+It is a question much debated.  Some read his history in a certain intricacy of nerve and the
+success of successive digestions; others find him an exiled piece of heaven blown upon and
+determined by the breath of God; and both schools of theorists will scream like scalded children
+at a word of doubt.  Yet either of these views, however plausible, is beside the question;
+either may be right; and I care not; I ask a more particular answer, and to a more immediate
+point. What is the man?  There is Something that was before hunger and that remains behind
+after a meal.  It may or may not be engaged in any given act or passion, but when it is, it
+changes, heightens, and sanctifies.  Thus it is not engaged in lust, where satisfaction ends
+the chapter; and it is engaged in love, where no satisfaction can blunt the edge of the desire,
+and where age, sickness, or alienation may deface what was desirable without diminishing the
+sentiment.  This something, which is the man, is a permanence which abides through the vicissitudes
+of passion, now overwhelmed and now triumphant, now unconscious of itself in the immediate
+distress of appetite or pain, now rising unclouded above all.  So, to the man, his own central
+self fades and grows clear again amid the tumult of the senses, like a revolving Pharos in
+the night.  It is forgotten; it is hid, it seems, for ever; and yet in the next calm hour he
+shall behold himself once more, shining and unmoved among changes and storm.
+
+Mankind, in the sense of the creeping mass that is born and eats, that generates and dies,
+is but the aggregate of the outer and lower sides of man.  This inner consciousness, this lantern
+alternately obscured and shining, to and by which the individual exists and must order his
+conduct, is something special to himself and not common to the race.  His joys delight, his
+sorrows wound him, according as THIS is interested or indifferent in the affair; according
+as they arise in an imperial war or in a broil conducted by the tributary chieftains of the
+mind.  He may lose all, and THIS not suffer; he may lose what is materially a trifle, and THIS
+leap in his bosom with a cruel pang.  I do not speak of it to hardened theorists:  the living
+man knows keenly what it is I mean.
+
+'Perceive at last that thou hast in thee something better and more divine than the things which
+cause the various effects, and, as it were, pull thee by the strings.  What is that now in
+thy mind? is it fear, or suspicion, or desire, or anything of that kind?'  Thus far Marcus
+Aurelius, in one of the most notable passages in any book.  Here is a question worthy to be
+answered.  What is in thy mind?  What is the utterance of your inmost self when, in a quiet
+hour, it can be heard intelligibly?  It is something beyond the compass of your thinking, inasmuch
+as it is yourself; but is it not of a higher spirit than you had dreamed betweenwhiles, and
+erect above all base considerations?  This soul seems hardly touched with our infirmities;
+we can find in it certainly no fear, suspicion, or desire; we are only conscious--and that
+as though we read it in the eyes of some one else--of a great and unqualified readiness.  A
+readiness to what? to pass over and look beyond the objects of desire and fear, for something
+else.  And this something else? this something which is apart from desire and fear, to which
+all the kingdoms of the world and the immediate death of the body are alike indifferent and
+beside the point, and which yet regards conduct--by what name are we to call it?  It may be
+the love of God; or it may be an inherited (and certainly well concealed) instinct to preserve
+self and propagate the race; I am not, for the moment, averse to either theory; but it will
+save time to call it righteousness.  By so doing I intend no subterfuge to beg a question;
+I am indeed ready, and more than willing, to accept the rigid consequence, and lay aside, as
+far as the treachery of the reason will permit, all former meanings attached to the word righteousness.
+What is right is that for which a man's central self is ever ready to sacrifice immediate or
+distant interests; what is wrong is what the central self discards or rejects as incompatible
+with the fixed design of righteousness.
+
+To make this admission is to lay aside all hope of definition. That which is right upon this
+theory is intimately dictated to each man by himself, but can never be rigorously set forth
+in language, and never, above all, imposed upon another.  The conscience has, then, a vision
+like that of the eyes, which is incommunicable, and for the most part illuminates none but
+its possessor.  When many people perceive the same or any cognate facts, they agree upon a
+word as symbol; and hence we have such words as TREE, STAR, LOVE, HONOUR, or DEATH; hence also
+we have this word RIGHT, which, like the others, we all understand, most of us understand differently,
+and none can express succinctly otherwise.  Yet even on the straitest view, we can make some
+steps towards comprehension of our own superior thoughts.  For it is an incredible and most
+bewildering fact that a man, through life, is on variable terms with himself; he is aware of
+tiffs and reconciliations; the intimacy is at times almost suspended, at times it is renewed
+again with joy.  As we said before, his inner self or soul appears to him by successive revelations,
+and is frequently obscured.  It is from a study of these alternations that we can alone hope
+to discover, even dimly, what seems right and what seems wrong to this veiled prophet of ourself.
+
+All that is in the man in the larger sense, what we call impression as well as what we call
+intuition, so far as my argument looks, we must accept.  It is not wrong to desire food, or
+exercise, or beautiful surroundings, or the love of sex, or interest which is the food of the
+mind.  All these are craved; all these should be craved; to none of these in itself does the
+soul demur; where there comes an undeniable want, we recognise a demand of nature.  Yet we
+know that these natural demands may be superseded; for the demands which are common to mankind
+make but a shadowy consideration in comparison to the demands of the individual soul.  Food
+is almost the first prerequisite; and yet a high character will go without food to the ruin
+and death of the body rather than gain it in a manner which the spirit disavows.  Pascal laid
+aside mathematics; Origen doctored his body with a knife; every day some one is thus mortifying
+his dearest interests and desires, and, in Christ's words, entering maim into the Kingdom of
+Heaven.  This is to supersede the lesser and less harmonious affections by renunciation; and
+though by this ascetic path we may get to heaven, we cannot get thither a whole and perfect
+man.  But there is another way, to supersede them by reconciliation, in which the soul and
+all the faculties and senses pursue a common route and share in one desire.  Thus, man is tormented
+by a very imperious physical desire; it spoils his rest, it is not to be denied; the doctors
+will tell you, not I, how it is a physical need, like the want of food or slumber.  In the
+satisfaction of this desire, as it first appears, the soul sparingly takes part; nay, it oft
+unsparingly regrets and disapproves the satisfaction.  The ascetic and the creeping hog, although
+they are at different poles, have equally failed in life.  The one has sacrificed his crew;
+the other brings back his seamen in a cock-boat, and has lost the ship.  I believe there are
+not many sea-captains who would plume themselves on either result as a success.
+
+Now, the view taught at the present time seems to me to want greatness; and the dialect in
+which alone it can be intelligibly uttered is not the dialect of my soul.  It is a sort of
+postponement of life; nothing quite is, but something different is to be; we are to keep our
+eyes upon the indirect from the cradle to the grave.  We are to regulate our conduct not by
+desire, but by a politic eye upon the future; and to value acts as they will bring us money
+or good opinion; as they will bring us, in one word, PROFIT.  We must be what is called respectable,
+and offend no one by our carriage; it will not do to make oneself conspicuous--who knows? even
+in virtue? says the Christian parent!  And we must be what is called prudent and make money;
+not only because it is pleasant to have money, but because that also is a part of respectability,
+and we cannot hope to be received in society without decent possessions.  Received in society!
+as if that were the kingdom of heaven!  There is dear Mr. So-and-so;--look at him!- -so much
+respected--so much looked up to--quite the Christian merchant!  And we must cut our conduct
+as strictly as possible after the pattern of Mr. So-and-so; and lay our whole lives to make
+money and be strictly decent.  Besides these holy injunctions, which form by far the greater
+part of a youth's training in our Christian homes, there are at least two other doctrines.
+We are to live just now as well as we can, but scrape at last into heaven, where we shall be
+good.  We are to worry through the week in a lay, disreputable way, but, to make matters square,
+live a different life on Sunday.
+
+The train of thought we have been following gives us a key to all these positions, without
+stepping aside to justify them on their own ground.  It is because we have been disgusted fifty
+times with physical squalls, and fifty times torn between conflicting impulses, that we teach
+people this indirect and tactical procedure in life, and to judge by remote consequences instead
+of the immediate face of things.  The very desire to act as our own souls would have us, coupled
+with a pathetic disbelief in ourselves, moves us to follow the example of others; perhaps,
+who knows? they may be on the right track; and the more our patterns are in number, the better
+seems the chance; until, if we be acting in concert with a whole civilised nation, there are
+surely a majority of chances that we must be acting right.  And again, how true it is that
+we can never behave as we wish in this tormented sphere, and can only aspire to different and
+more favourable circumstances, in order to stand out and be ourselves wholly and rightly! 
+And yet once more, if in the hurry and pressure of affairs and passions you tend to nod and
+become drowsy, here are twenty-four hours of Sunday set apart for you to hold counsel with
+your soul and look around you on the possibilities of life.
+
+This is not, of course, all that is to be, or even should be, said for these doctrines.  Only,
+in the course of this chapter, the reader and I have agreed upon a few catchwords, and been
+looking at morals on a certain system; it was a pity to lose an opportunity of testing the
+catchwords, and seeing whether, by this system as well as by others, current doctrines could
+show any probable justification.  If the doctrines had come too badly out of the trial, it
+would have condemned the system.  Our sight of the world is very narrow; the mind but a pedestrian
+instrument; there's nothing new under the sun, as Solomon says, except the man himself; and
+though that changes the aspect of everything else, yet he must see the same things as other
+people, only from a different side.
+
+And now, having admitted so much, let us turn to criticism.  Is not that also to conceal and
+cloak God's counsel?  And how should we regard the man of science who suppressed all facts
+that would not tally with the orthodoxy of the hour?
+
+Wrong?  You are as surely wrong as the sun rose this morning round the revolving shoulder of
+the world.  Not truth, but truthfulness, is the good of your endeavour.  For when will men
+receive that first part and prerequisite of truth, that, by the order of things, by the greatness
+of the universe, by the darkness and partiality of man's experience, by the inviolate secrecy
+of God, kept close in His most open revelations, every man is, and to the end of the ages must
+be, wrong?  Wrong to the universe; wrong to mankind; wrong to God.  And yet in another sense,
+and that plainer and nearer, every man of men, who wishes truly, must be right.  He is right
+to himself, and in the measure of his sagacity and candour.  That let him do in all sincerity
+and zeal, not sparing a thought for contrary opinions; that, for what it is worth, let him
+proclaim. Be not afraid; although he be wrong, so also is the dead, stuffed Dagon he insults.
+For the voice of God, whatever it is, is not that stammering, inept tradition which the people
+holds.  These truths survive in travesty, swamped in a world of spiritual darkness and confusion;
+and what a few comprehend and faithfully hold, the many, in their dead jargon, repeat, degrade,
+and misinterpret.
+
+So far of Respectability; what the Covenanters used to call 'rank conformity':  the deadliest
+gag and wet blanket that can be laid on men.  And now of Profit.  And this doctrine is perhaps
+the more redoubtable, because it harms all sorts of men; not only the heroic and self-reliant,
+but the obedient, cowlike squadrons.  A man, by this doctrine, looks to consequences at the
+second, or third, or fiftieth turn.  He chooses his end, and for that, with wily turns and
+through a great sea of tedium, steers this mortal bark.  There may be political wisdom in such
+a view; but I am persuaded there can spring no great moral zeal.  To look thus obliquely upon
+life is the very recipe for moral slumber.  Our intention and endeavour should be directed,
+not on some vague end of money or applause, which shall come to us by a ricochet in a month
+or a year, or twenty years, but on the act itself; not on the approval of others, but on the
+rightness of that act.  At every instant, at every step in life, the point has to be decided,
+our soul has to be saved, heaven has to be gained or lost.  At every step our spirits must
+applaud, at every step we must set down the foot and sound the trumpet.  'This have I done,'
+we must say; 'right or wrong, this have I done, in unfeigned honour of intention, as to myself
+and God.'  The profit of every act should be this, that it was right for us to do it.  Any
+other profit than that, if it involved a kingdom or the woman I love, ought, if I were God's
+upright soldier, to leave me untempted.
+
+It is the mark of what we call a righteous decision, that it is made directly and for its own
+sake.  The whole man, mind and body, having come to an agreement, tyrannically dictates conduct.
+There are two dispositions eternally opposed:  that in which we recognise that one thing is
+wrong and another right, and that in which, not seeing any clear distinction, we fall back
+on the consideration of consequences.  The truth is, by the scope of our present teaching,
+nothing is thought very wrong and nothing very right, except a few actions which have the disadvantage
+of being disrespectable when found out; the more serious part of men inclining to think all
+things RATHER WRONG, the more jovial to suppose them RIGHT ENOUGH FOR PRACTICAL PURPOSES. 
+I will engage my head, they do not find that view in their own hearts; they have taken it up
+in a dark despair; they are but troubled sleepers talking in their sleep. The soul, or my soul
+at least, thinks very distinctly upon many points of right and wrong, and often differs flatly
+with what is held out as the thought of corporate humanity in the code of society or the code
+of law.  Am I to suppose myself a monster?  I have only to read books, the Christian Gospels
+for example, to think myself a monster no longer; and instead I think the mass of people are
+merely speaking in their sleep.
+
+It is a commonplace, enshrined, if I mistake not, even in school copy-books, that honour is
+to be sought and not fame.  I ask no other admission; we are to seek honour, upright walking
+with our own conscience every hour of the day, and not fame, the consequence, the far-off reverberation
+of our footsteps.  The walk, not the rumour of the walk, is what concerns righteousness.  Better
+disrespectable honour than dishonourable fame.  Better useless or seemingly hurtful honour,
+than dishonour ruling empires and filling the mouths of thousands.  For the man must walk by
+what he sees, and leave the issue with God who made him and taught him by the fortune of his
+life.  You would not dishonour yourself for money; which is at least tangible; would you do
+it, then, for a doubtful forecast in politics, or another person's theory in morals?
+
+So intricate is the scheme of our affairs, that no man can calculate the bearing of his own
+behaviour even on those immediately around him, how much less upon the world at large or on
+succeeding generations!  To walk by external prudence and the rule of consequences would require,
+not a man, but God.  All that we know to guide us in this changing labyrinth is our soul with
+its fixed design of righteousness, and a few old precepts which commend themselves to that.
+The precepts are vague when we endeavour to apply them; consequences are more entangled than
+a wisp of string, and their confusion is unrestingly in change; we must hold to what we know
+and walk by it.  We must walk by faith, indeed, and not by knowledge.
+
+You do not love another because he is wealthy or wise or eminently respectable:  you love him
+because you love him; that is love, and any other only a derision and grimace.  It should be
+the same with all our actions.  If we were to conceive a perfect man, it should be one who
+was never torn between conflicting impulses, but who, on the absolute consent of all his parts
+and faculties, submitted in every action of his life to a self-dictation as absolute and unreasoned
+as that which bids him love one woman and be true to her till death.  But we should not conceive
+him as sagacious, ascetical, playing off his appetites against each other, turning the wing
+of public respectable immorality instead of riding it directly down, or advancing toward his
+end through a thousand sinister compromises and considerations.  The one man might be wily,
+might be adroit, might be wise, might be respectable, might be gloriously useful; it is the
+other man who would be good.  Does your soul ask profit?  Does it ask money?  Does it ask the
+approval of the indifferent herd?  I believe not.  For my own part, I want but little money,
+I hope; and I do not want to be decent at all, but to be good.  Now, for us, that is ultimate.
+It may be founded on some reasonable process, but it is not a process which we can follow or
+comprehend.  And moreover the dictation is not continuous, or not continuous except in very
+lively and well-living natures; and between-whiles we must brush along without it.  As a matter
+of fact, there is no one so upright but he is influenced by the world's chatter; and no one
+so headlong but he requires to consider consequences and to keep an eye on profit.  For the
+soul adopts all affections and appetites without exception, and cares only to combine them
+for some common purpose which shall interest all.  Now, respect for the opinion of others,
+the study of consequences, and the desire of power and comfort, are all undeniably factors
+in the nature of man; and the more undeniably since we find that, in our current doctrines,
+they have swallowed up the others and are thought to conclude in themselves all the worthy
+parts of man.  These, then, must also be suffered to affect conduct in the practical domain,
+much or little according as they are forcibly or feebly present to the mind of each.
+
+Now, a man's view of the universe is mostly a view of the civilised society in which he lives.
+Other men and women are so much more grossly and so much more intimately palpable to his perceptions,
+that they stand between him and all the rest; they are larger to his eye than the sun, he hears
+them more plainly than thunder, with them, by them, and for them, he must live and die.  And
+hence the laws that affect his intercourse with his fellow-men, although merely customary and
+the creatures of a generation, are more clearly and continually before his mind than those
+which bind him into the eternal system of things, support him in his upright progress on this
+whirling ball, or keep up the fire of his bodily life.  And hence it is that money stands in
+the first rank of considerations and so powerfully affects the choice.  For our society is
+built with money for mortar; money is present in every joint of circumstance; it might be named
+the social atmosphere, since, in society, it is by that alone that men continue to live, and
+only through that or chance that they can reach or affect one another.  Money gives us food,
+shelter, and privacy; it permits us to be clean in person, opens for us the doors of the theatre,
+gains us books for study or pleasure, enables us to help the distresses of others, and puts
+us above necessity so that we can choose the best in life.  If we love, it enables us to meet
+and live with the loved one, or even to prolong her health and life; if we have scruples, it
+gives us an opportunity to be honest; if we have any bright designs, here is what will smooth
+the way to their accomplishment.  Penury is the worst slavery, and will soon lead to death.
+
+But money is only a means; it presupposes a man to use it.  The rich can go where he pleases,
+but perhaps please himself nowhere. He can buy a library or visit the whole world, but perhaps
+has neither patience to read nor intelligence to see.  The table may be loaded and the appetite
+wanting; the purse may be full, and the heart empty.  He may have gained the world and lost
+himself; and with all his wealth around him, in a great house and spacious and beautiful demesne,
+he may live as blank a life as any tattered ditcher.  Without an appetite, without an aspiration,
+void of appreciation, bankrupt of desire and hope, there, in his great house, let him sit and
+look upon his fingers.  You had perhaps two thousand a year before the transaction; perhaps
+you have two thousand five hundred after it.  That represents your gain in the one case.  But
+in the other, you have thrown down a barrier which concealed significance and beauty.  The
+blind man has learned to see.  The prisoner has opened up a window in his cell and beholds
+enchanting prospects; he will never again be a prisoner as he was; he can watch clouds and
+changing seasons, ships on the river, travellers on the road, and the stars at night; happy
+prisoner! his eyes have broken jail!  For what can a man possess, or what can he enjoy, except
+himself?  If he enlarge his nature, it is then that he enlarges his estates.  If his nature
+be happy and valiant, he will enjoy the universe as if it were his park and orchard.
+
+But money is not only to be spent; it has also to be earned.  It is not merely a convenience
+or a necessary in social life; but it is the coin in which mankind pays his wages to the individual
+man. And from this side, the question of money has a very different scope and application.
+For no man can be honest who does not work. Service for service.  If the farmer buys corn,
+and the labourer ploughs and reaps, and the baker sweats in his hot bakery, plainly you who
+eat must do something in your turn.  It is not enough to take off your hat, or to thank God
+upon your knees for the admirable constitution of society and your own convenient situation
+in its upper and more ornamental stories.  Neither is it enough to buy the loaf with a sixpence;
+for then you are only changing the point of the inquiry; and you must first have BOUGHT THE
+SIXPENCE. Service for service:  how have you bought your sixpences?  A man of spirit desires
+certainty in a thing of such a nature; he must see to it that there is some reciprocity between
+him and mankind; that he pays his expenditure in service; that he has not a lion's share in
+profit and a drone's in labour; and is not a sleeping partner and mere costly incubus on the
+great mercantile concern of mankind.
+
+Services differ so widely with different gifts, and some are so inappreciable to external tests,
+that this is not only a matter for the private conscience, but one which even there must be
+leniently and trustfully considered.  For remember how many serve mankind who do no more than
+meditate; and how many are precious to their friends for no more than a sweet and joyous temper.
+To perform the function of a man of letters it is not necessary to write; nay, it is perhaps
+better to be a living book.  So long as we love we serve; so long as we are loved by others,
+I would almost say that we are indispensable; and no man is useless while he has a friend.
+The true services of life are inestimable in money, and are never paid.  Kind words and caresses,
+high and wise thoughts, humane designs, tender behaviour to the weak and suffering, and all
+the charities of man's existence, are neither bought nor sold.
+
+Yet the dearest and readiest, if not the most just, criterion of a man's services, is the wage
+that mankind pays him or, briefly, what he earns.  There at least there can be no ambiguity.
+St. Paul is fully and freely entitled to his earnings as a tentmaker, and Socrates fully and
+freely entitled to his earnings as a sculptor, although the true business of each was not only
+something different, but something which remained unpaid.  A man cannot forget that he is not
+superintended, and serves mankind on parole. He would like, when challenged by his own conscience,
+to reply:  'I have done so much work, and no less, with my own hands and brain, and taken so
+much profit, and no more, for my own personal delight.'  And though St. Paul, if he had possessed
+a private fortune, would probably have scorned to waste his time in making tents, yet of all
+sacrifices to public opinion none can be more easily pardoned than that by which a man, already
+spiritually useful to the world, should restrict the field of his chief usefulness to perform
+services more apparent, and possess a livelihood that neither stupidity nor malice could call
+in question.  Like all sacrifices to public opinion and mere external decency, this would certainly
+be wrong; for the soul should rest contented with its own approval and indissuadably pursue
+its own calling.  Yet, so grave and delicate is the question, that a man may well hesitate
+before he decides it for himself; he may well fear that he sets too high a valuation on his
+own endeavours after good; he may well condescend upon a humbler duty, where others than himself
+shall judge the service and proportion the wage.
+
+At this rate, short of inspiration, it seems hardly possible to be both rich and honest; and
+the millionaire is under a far more continuous temptation to thieve than the labourer who gets
+his shilling daily for despicable toils.  Are you surprised?  It is even so.  And you repeat
+it every Sunday in your churches. One excellent clergyman told us that the 'eye of a needle'
+meant a low, Oriental postern through which camels could not pass till they were unloaded--which
+is very likely just; and then went on, bravely confounding the 'kingdom of God' with heaven,
+the future paradise, to show that of course no rich person could expect to carry his riches
+beyond the grave--which, of course, he could not and never did.  Various greedy sinners of
+the congregation drank in the comfortable doctrine with relief.  It was worth the while having
+come to church that Sunday morning!  All was plain.  The Bible, as usual, meant nothing in
+particular; it was merely an obscure and figurative school-copybook; and if a man were only
+respectable, he was a man after God's own heart.
+
+Alas! I fear not.  And though this matter of a man's services is one for his own conscience,
+there are some cases in which it is difficult to restrain the mind from judging.  Thus I shall
+be very easily persuaded that a man has earned his daily bread; and if he has but a friend
+or two to whom his company is delightful at heart, I am more than persuaded at once.  But it
+will be very hard to persuade me that any one has earned an income of a hundred thousand. 
+What he is to his friends, he still would be if he were made penniless to-morrow; for as to
+the courtiers of luxury and power, I will neither consider them friends, nor indeed consider
+them at all.  What he does for mankind there are most likely hundreds who would do the same,
+as effectually for the race and as pleasurably to themselves, for the merest fraction of this
+monstrous wage.  Why it is paid, I am, therefore, unable to conceive, and as the man pays it
+himself, out of funds in his detention, I have a certain backwardness to think him honest.
+
+At least, we have gained a very obvious point:  that WHAT A MAN SPENDS UPON HIMSELF, HE SHALL
+HAVE EARNED BY SERVICES TO THE RACE. Thence flows a principle for the outset of life, which
+is a little different from that taught in the present day.  I am addressing the middle and
+the upper classes; those who have already been fostered and prepared for life at some expense;
+those who have some choice before them, and can pick professions; and above all, those who
+are what is called independent, and need do nothing unless pushed by honour or ambition.  In
+this particular the poor are happy; among them, when a lad comes to his strength, he must take
+the work that offers, and can take it with an easy conscience.  But in the richer classes the
+question is complicated by the number of opportunities and a variety of considerations.  Here,
+then, this principle of ours comes in helpfully.  The young man has to seek, not a road to
+wealth, but an opportunity of service; not money, but honest work. If he has some strong propensity,
+some calling of nature, some over-weening interest in any special field of industry, inquiry,
+or art, he will do right to obey the impulse; and that for two reasons:  the first external,
+because there he will render the best services; the second personal, because a demand of his
+own nature is to him without appeal whenever it can be satisfied with the consent of his other
+faculties and appetites.  If he has no such elective taste, by the very principle on which
+he chooses any pursuit at all he must choose the most honest and serviceable, and not the most
+highly remunerated.  We have here an external problem, not from or to ourself, but flowing
+from the constitution of society; and we have our own soul with its fixed design of righteousness.
+All that can be done is to present the problem in proper terms, and leave it to the soul of
+the individual.  Now, the problem to the poor is one of necessity:  to earn wherewithal to
+live, they must find remunerative labour.  But the problem to the rich is one of honour:  having
+the wherewithal, they must find serviceable labour.  Each has to earn his daily bread:  the
+one, because he has not yet got it to eat; the other, who has already eaten it, because he
+has not yet earned it.
+
+Of course, what is true of bread is true of luxuries and comforts, whether for the body or
+the mind.  But the consideration of luxuries leads us to a new aspect of the whole question,
+and to a second proposition no less true, and maybe no less startling, than the last.
+
+At the present day, we, of the easier classes, are in a state of surfeit and disgrace after
+meat.  Plethora has filled us with indifference; and we are covered from head to foot with
+the callosities of habitual opulence.  Born into what is called a certain rank, we live, as
+the saying is, up to our station.  We squander without enjoyment, because our fathers squandered.
+We eat of the best, not from delicacy, but from brazen habit.  We do not keenly enjoy or eagerly
+desire the presence of a luxury; we are unaccustomed to its absence.  And not only do we squander
+money from habit, but still more pitifully waste it in ostentation.  I can think of no more
+melancholy disgrace for a creature who professes either reason or pleasure for his guide, than
+to spend the smallest fraction of his income upon that which he does not desire; and to keep
+a carriage in which you do not wish to drive, or a butler of whom you are afraid, is a pathetic
+kind of folly. Money, being a means of happiness, should make both parties happy when it changes
+hands; rightly disposed, it should be twice blessed in its employment; and buyer and seller
+should alike have their twenty shillings worth of profit out of every pound.  I find I regret
+this, or would regret it if I gave myself the time, not only on personal but on moral and philanthropical
+considerations.  For, first, in a world where money is wanting to buy books for eager students
+and food and medicine for pining children, and where a large majority are starved in their
+most immediate desires, it is surely base, stupid, and cruel to squander money when I am pushed
+by no appetite and enjoy no return of genuine satisfaction.  My philanthropy is wide enough
+in scope to include myself; and when I have made myself happy, I have at least one good argument
+that I have acted rightly; but where that is not so, and I have bought and not enjoyed, my
+mouth is closed, and I conceive that I have robbed the poor.  And, second, anything I buy or
+use which I do not sincerely want or cannot vividly enjoy, disturbs the balance of supply and
+demand, and contributes to remove industrious hands from the production of what is useful or
+pleasurable and to keep them busy upon ropes of sand and things that are a weariness to the
+flesh.  That extravagance is truly sinful, and a very silly sin to boot, in which we impoverish
+mankind and ourselves.  It is another question for each man's heart.  He knows if he can enjoy
+what he buys and uses; if he cannot, he is a dog in the manger; nay, it he cannot, I contend
+he is a thief, for nothing really belongs to a man which he cannot use.  Proprietor is connected
+with propriety; and that only is the man's which is proper to his wants and faculties.
+
+A youth, in choosing a career, must not be alarmed by poverty. Want is a sore thing, but poverty
+does not imply want.  It remains to be seen whether with half his present income, or a third,
+he cannot, in the most generous sense, live as fully as at present. He is a fool who objects
+to luxuries; but he is also a fool who does not protest against the waste of luxuries on those
+who do not desire and cannot enjoy them.  There is a kind of idea abroad that a man must live
+up to his station, that his house, his table, and his toilette, shall be in a ratio of equivalence,
+and equally imposing to the world.  If this is in the Bible, the passage has eluded my inquiries.
+If it is not in the Bible, it is nowhere but in the heart of the fool.  Throw aside this fancy.
+See what you want, and spend upon that; distinguish what you do not care about, and spend nothing
+upon that.  There are not many people who can differentiate wines above a certain and that
+not at all a high price.  Are you sure you are one of these?  Are you sure you prefer cigars
+at sixpence each to pipes at some fraction of a farthing?  Are you sure you wish to keep a
+gig?  Do you care about where you sleep, or are you not as much at your ease in a cheap lodging
+as in an Elizabethan manor-house?  Do you enjoy fine clothes?  It is not possible to answer
+these questions without a trial; and there is nothing more obvious to my mind, than that a
+man who has not experienced some ups and downs, and been forced to live more cheaply than in
+his father's house, has still his education to begin.  Let the experiment be made, and he will
+find to his surprise that he has been eating beyond his appetite up to that hour; that the
+cheap lodging, the cheap tobacco, the rough country clothes, the plain table, have not only
+no power to damp his spirits, but perhaps give him as keen pleasure in the using as the dainties
+that he took, betwixt sleep and waking, in his former callous and somnambulous submission to
+wealth.
+
+The true Bohemian, a creature lost to view under the imaginary Bohemians of literature, is
+exactly described by such a principle of life.  The Bohemian of the novel, who drinks more
+than is good for him and prefers anything to work, and wears strange clothes, is for the most
+part a respectable Bohemian, respectable in disrespectability, living for the outside, and
+an adventurer.  But the man I mean lives wholly to himself, does what he wishes, and not what
+is thought proper, buys what he wants for himself, and not what is thought proper, works at
+what he believes he can do well and not what will bring him in money or favour.  You may be
+the most respectable of men, and yet a true Bohemian.  And the test is this:  a Bohemian, for
+as poor as he may be, is always open-handed to his friends; he knows what he can do with money
+and how he can do without it, a far rarer and more useful knowledge; he has had less, and continued
+to live in some contentment; and hence he cares not to keep more, and shares his sovereign
+or his shilling with a friend.  The poor, if they are generous, are Bohemian in virtue of their
+birth.  Do you know where beggars go?  Not to the great houses where people sit dazed among
+their thousands, but to the doors of poor men who have seen the world; and it was the widow
+who had only two mites, who cast half her fortune into the treasury.
+
+But a young man who elects to save on dress or on lodging, or who in any way falls out of the
+level of expenditure which is common to his level in society, falls out of society altogether.
+I suppose the young man to have chosen his career on honourable principles; he finds his talents
+and instincts can be best contented in a certain pursuit; in a certain industry, he is sure
+that he is serving mankind with a healthy and becoming service; and he is not sure that he
+would be doing so, or doing so equally well, in any other industry within his reach.  Then
+that is his true sphere in life; not the one in which he was born to his father, but the one
+which is proper to his talents and instincts.  And suppose he does fall out of society, is
+that a cause of sorrow?  Is your heart so dead that you prefer the recognition of many to the
+love of a few? Do you think society loves you?  Put it to the proof.  Decline in material expenditure,
+and you will find they care no more for you than for the Khan of Tartary.  You will lose no
+friends.  If you had any, you will keep them.  Only those who were friends to your coat and
+equipage will disappear; the smiling faces will disappear as by enchantment; but the kind hearts
+will remain steadfastly kind.  Are you so lost, are you so dead, are you so little sure of
+your own soul and your own footing upon solid fact, that you prefer before goodness and happiness
+the countenance of sundry diners-out, who will flee from you at a report of ruin, who will
+drop you with insult at a shadow of disgrace, who do not know you and do not care to know you
+but by sight, and whom you in your turn neither know nor care to know in a more human manner?
+Is it not the principle of society, openly avowed, that friendship must not interfere with
+business; which being paraphrased, means simply that a consideration of money goes before any
+consideration of affection known to this cold-blooded gang, that they have not even the honour
+of thieves, and will rook their nearest and dearest as readily as a stranger?  I hope I would
+go as far as most to serve a friend; but I declare openly I would not put on my hat to do a
+pleasure to society.  I may starve my appetites and control my temper for the sake of those
+I love; but society shall take me as I choose to be, or go without me.  Neither they nor I
+will lose; for where there is no love, it is both laborious and unprofitable to associate.
+
+But it is obvious that if it is only right for a man to spend money on that which he can truly
+and thoroughly enjoy, the doctrine applies with equal force to the rich and to the poor, to
+the man who has amassed many thousands as well as to the youth precariously beginning life.
+And it may be asked, Is not this merely preparing misers, who are not the best of company?
+But the principle was this:  that which a man has not fairly earned, and, further, that which
+he cannot fully enjoy, does not belong to him, but is a part of mankind's treasure which he
+holds as steward on parole.  To mankind, then, it must be made profitable; and how this should
+be done is, once more, a problem which each man must solve for himself, and about which none
+has a right to judge him.  Yet there are a few considerations which are very obvious and may
+here be stated.  This money which you do not need, which, in a rigid sense, you do not want,
+may therefore be returned not only in public benefactions to the race, but in private kindnesses.
+Your wife, your children, your friends stand nearest to you, and should be helped the first.
+There at least there can be little imposture, for you know their necessities of your own knowledge.
+And consider, if all the world did as you did, and according to their means extended help in
+the circle of their affections, there would be no more crying want in times of plenty and no
+more cold, mechanical charity given with a doubt and received with confusion. Would not this
+simple rule make a new world out of the old and cruel one which we inhabit?
+
+[After two more sentences the fragment breaks off.]
+
+FATHER DAMIEN AN OPEN LETTER TO THE REVEREND DR. HYDE OF HONOLULU
+
+SYDNEY, February 25, 1890.
+
+Sir,--It may probably occur to you that we have met, and visited, and conversed; on my side,
+with interest.  You may remember that you have done me several courtesies, for which I was
+prepared to be grateful.  But there are duties which come before gratitude, and offences which
+justly divide friends, far more acquaintances.  Your letter to the Reverend H. B. Gage is a
+document which, in my sight, if you had filled me with bread when I was starving, if you had
+sat up to nurse my father when he lay a-dying, would yet absolve me from the bonds of gratitude.
+You know enough, doubtless, of the process of canonisation to be aware that, a hundred years
+after the death of Damien, there will appear a man charged with the painful office of the DEVIL'S
+ADVOCATE.  After that noble brother of mine, and of all frail clay, shall have lain a century
+at rest, one shall accuse, one defend him.  The circumstance is unusual that the devil's advocate
+should be a volunteer, should be a member of a sect immediately rival, and should make haste
+to take upon himself his ugly office ere the bones are cold; unusual, and of a taste which
+I shall leave my readers free to qualify; unusual, and to me inspiring.  If I have at all learned
+the trade of using words to convey truth and to arouse emotion, you have at last furnished
+me with a subject.  For it is in the interest of all mankind, and the cause of public decency
+in every quarter of the world, not only that Damien should be righted, but that you and your
+letter should be displayed at length, in their true colours, to the public eye.
+
+To do this properly, I must begin by quoting you at large:  I shall then proceed to criticise
+your utterance from several points of view, divine and human, in the course of which I shall
+attempt to draw again, and with more specification, the character of the dead saint whom it
+has pleased you to vilify:  so much being done, I shall say farewell to you for ever.
+
+'HONOLULU, 'August 2, 1889.
+
+'Rev. H. B. GAGE.
+
+'Dear Brother,--In answer to your inquiries about Father Damien, I can only reply that we who
+knew the man are surprised at the extravagant newspaper laudations, as if he was a most saintly
+philanthropist.  The simple truth is, he was a coarse, dirty man, head-strong and bigoted.
+He was not sent to Molokai, but went there without orders; did not stay at the leper settlement
+(before he became one himself), but circulated freely over the whole island (less than half
+the island is devoted to the lepers), and he came often to Honolulu.  He had no hand in the
+reforms and improvements inaugurated, which were the work of our Board of Health, as occasion
+required and means were provided.  He was not a pure man in his relations with women, and the
+leprosy of which he died should be attributed to his vices and carelessness.  Others have done
+much for the lepers, our own ministers, the government physicians, and so forth, but never
+with the Catholic idea of meriting eternal life.--Yours, etc.,
+
+'C. M. HYDE.' {1}
+
+To deal fitly with a letter so extraordinary, I must draw at the outset on my private knowledge
+of the signatory and his sect.  It may offend others; scarcely you, who have been so busy to
+collect, so bold to publish, gossip on your rivals.  And this is perhaps the moment when I
+may best explain to you the character of what you are to read:  I conceive you as a man quite
+beyond and below the reticences of civility:  with what measure you mete, with that shall it
+be measured you again; with you, at last, I rejoice to feel the button off the foil and to
+plunge home.  And if in aught that I shall say I should offend others, your colleagues, whom
+I respect and remember with affection, I can but offer them my regret; I am not free, I am
+inspired by the consideration of interests far more large; and such pain as can be inflicted
+by anything from me must be indeed trifling when compared with the pain with which they read
+your letter.  It is not the hangman, but the criminal, that brings dishonour on the house.
+
+You belong, sir, to a sect--I believe my sect, and that in which my ancestors laboured--which
+has enjoyed, and partly failed to utilise, an exceptional advantage in the islands of Hawaii.
+The first missionaries came; they found the land already self-purged of its old and bloody
+faith; they were embraced, almost on their arrival, with enthusiasm; what troubles they supported
+came far more from whites than from Hawaiians; and to these last they stood (in a rough figure)
+in the shoes of God.  This is not the place to enter into the degree or causes of their failure,
+such as it is. One element alone is pertinent, and must here be plainly dealt with.  In the
+course of their evangelical calling, they--or too many of them--grew rich.  It may be news
+to you that the houses of missionaries are a cause of mocking on the streets of Honolulu. 
+It will at least be news to you, that when I returned your civil visit, the driver of my cab
+commented on the size, the taste, and the comfort of your home.  It would have been news certainly
+to myself, had any one told me that afternoon that I should live to drag such matter into print.
+But you see, sir, how you degrade better men to your own level; and it is needful that those
+who are to judge betwixt you and me, betwixt Damien and the devil's advocate, should understand
+your letter to have been penned in a house which could raise, and that very justly, the envy
+and the comments of the passers-by.  I think (to employ a phrase of yours which I admire) it
+'should be attributed' to you that you have never visited the scene of Damien's life and death.
+If you had, and had recalled it, and looked about your pleasant rooms, even your pen perhaps
+would have been stayed.
+
+Your sect (and remember, as far as any sect avows me, it is mine) has not done ill in a worldly
+sense in the Hawaiian Kingdom.  When calamity befell their innocent parishioners, when leprosy
+descended and took root in the Eight Islands, a quid pro quo was to be looked for.  To that
+prosperous mission, and to you, as one of its adornments, God had sent at last an opportunity.
+I know I am touching here upon a nerve acutely sensitive.  I know that others of your colleagues
+look back on the inertia of your Church, and the intrusive and decisive heroism of Damien,
+with something almost to be called remorse.  I am sure it is so with yourself; I am persuaded
+your letter was inspired by a certain envy, not essentially ignoble, and the one human trait
+to be espied in that performance.  You were thinking of the lost chance, the past day; of that
+which should have been conceived and was not; of the service due and not rendered.  Time was,
+said the voice in your ear, in your pleasant room, as you sat raging and writing; and if the
+words written were base beyond parallel, the rage, I am happy to repeat--it is the only compliment
+I shall pay you--the rage was almost virtuous.  But, sir, when we have failed, and another
+has succeeded; when we have stood by, and another has stepped in; when we sit and grow bulky
+in our charming mansions, and a plain, uncouth peasant steps into the battle, under the eyes
+of God, and succours the afflicted, and consoles the dying, and is himself afflicted in his
+turn, and dies upon the field of honour--the battle cannot be retrieved as your unhappy irritation
+has suggested.  It is a lost battle, and lost for ever.  One thing remained to you in your
+defeat--some rags of common honour; and these you have made haste to cast away.
+
+Common honour; not the honour of having done anything right, but the honour of not having done
+aught conspicuously foul; the honour of the inert:  that was what remained to you.  We are
+not all expected to be Damiens; a man may conceive his duty more narrowly, he may love his
+comforts better; and none will cast a stone at him for that.  But will a gentleman of your
+reverend profession allow me an example from the fields of gallantry?  When two gentlemen compete
+for the favour of a lady, and the one succeeds and the other is rejected, and (as will sometimes
+happen) matter damaging to the successful rival's credit reaches the ear of the defeated, it
+is held by plain men of no pretensions that his mouth is, in the circumstance, almost necessarily
+closed.  Your Church and Damien's were in Hawaii upon a rivalry to do well:  to help, to edify,
+to set divine examples.  You having (in one huge instance) failed, and Damien succeeded, I
+marvel it should not have occurred to you that you were doomed to silence; that when you had
+been outstripped in that high rivalry, and sat inglorious in the midst of your wellbeing, in
+your pleasant room--and Damien, crowned with glories and horrors, toiled and rotted in that
+pigsty of his under the cliffs of Kalawao--you, the elect who would not, were the last man
+on earth to collect and propagate gossip on the volunteer who would and did.
+
+I think I see you--for I try to see you in the flesh as I write these sentences--I think I
+see you leap at the word pigsty, a hyperbolical expression at the best.  'He had no hand in
+the reforms,' he was 'a coarse, dirty man'; these were your own words; and you may think it
+possible that I am come to support you with fresh evidence.  In a sense, it is even so.  Damien
+has been too much depicted with a conventional halo and conventional features; so drawn by
+men who perhaps had not the eye to remark or the pen to express the individual; or who perhaps
+were only blinded and silenced by generous admiration, such as I partly envy for myself-- such
+as you, if your soul were enlightened, would envy on your bended knees.  It is the least defect
+of such a method of portraiture that it makes the path easy for the devil's advocate, and leaves
+for the misuse of the slanderer a considerable field of truth.  For the truth that is suppressed
+by friends is the readiest weapon of the enemy.  The world, in your despite, may perhaps owe
+you something, if your letter be the means of substituting once for all a credible likeness
+for a wax abstraction.  For, if that world at all remember you, on the day when Damien of Molokai
+shall be named Saint, it will be in virtue of one work:  your letter to the Reverend H. B. Gage.
+
+You may ask on what authority I speak.  It was my inclement destiny to become acquainted, not
+with Damien, but with Dr. Hyde.  When I visited the lazaretto, Damien was already in his resting
+grave. But such information as I have, I gathered on the spot in conversation with those who
+knew him well and long:  some indeed who revered his memory; but others who had sparred and
+wrangled with him, who beheld him with no halo, who perhaps regarded him with small respect,
+and through whose unprepared and scarcely partial communications the plain, human features
+of the man shone on me convincingly.  These gave me what knowledge I possess; and I learnt
+it in that scene where it could be most completely and sensitively understood--Kalawao, which
+you have never visited, about which you have never so much as endeavoured to inform yourself;
+for, brief as your letter is, you have found the means to stumble into that confession.  'LESS
+THAN ONE-HALF of the island,' you say, 'is devoted to the lepers.'  Molokai--'Molokai ahina,'
+the 'grey,' lofty, and most desolate island--along all its northern side plunges a front of
+precipice into a sea of unusual profundity. This range of cliff is, from east to west, the
+true end and frontier of the island.  Only in one spot there projects into the ocean a certain
+triangular and rugged down, grassy, stony, windy, and rising in the midst into a hill with
+a dead crater:  the whole bearing to the cliff that overhangs it somewhat the same relation
+as a bracket to a wall.  With this hint you will now be able to pick out the leper station
+on a map; you will be able to judge how much of Molokai is thus cut off between the surf and
+precipice, whether less than a half, or less than a quarter, or a fifth, or a tenth--or, say,
+a twentieth; and the next time you burst into print you will be in a position to share with
+us the issue of your calculations.
+
+I imagine you to be one of those persons who talk with cheerfulness of that place which oxen
+and wain-ropes could not drag you to behold.  You, who do not even know its situation on the
+map, probably denounce sensational descriptions, stretching your limbs the while in your pleasant
+parlour on Beretania Street.  When I was pulled ashore there one early morning, there sat with
+me in the boat two sisters, bidding farewell (in humble imitation of Damien) to the lights
+and joys of human life.  One of these wept silently; I could not withhold myself from joining
+her.  Had you been there, it is my belief that nature would have triumphed even in you; and
+as the boat drew but a little nearer, and you beheld the stairs crowded with abominable deformations
+of our common manhood, and saw yourself landing in the midst of such a population as only now
+and then surrounds us in the horror of a nightmare--what a haggard eye you would have rolled
+over your reluctant shoulder towards the house on Beretania Street!  Had you gone on; had you
+found every fourth face a blot upon the landscape; had you visited the hospital and seen the
+butt-ends of human beings lying there almost unrecognisable, but still breathing, still thinking,
+still remembering; you would have understood that life in the lazaretto is an ordeal from which
+the nerves of a man's spirit shrink, even as his eye quails under the brightness of the sun;
+you would have felt it was (even to-day) a pitiful place to visit and a hell to dwell in. 
+It is not the fear of possible infection.  That seems a little thing when compared with the
+pain, the pity, and the disgust of the visitor's surroundings, and the atmosphere of affliction,
+disease, and physical disgrace in which he breathes.  I do not think I am a man more than usually
+timid; but I never recall the days and nights I spent upon that island promontory (eight days
+and seven nights), without heartfelt thankfulness that I am somewhere else.  I find in my diary
+that I speak of my stay as a 'grinding experience':  I have once jotted in the margin, 'HARROWING
+is the word'; and when the Mokolii bore me at last towards the outer world, I kept repeating
+to myself, with a new conception of their pregnancy, those simple words of the song -
+
+''Tis the most distressful country that ever yet was seen.'
+
+And observe:  that which I saw and suffered from was a settlement purged, bettered, beautified;
+the new village built, the hospital and the Bishop-Home excellently arranged; the sisters,
+the doctor, and the missionaries, all indefatigable in their noble tasks.  It was a different
+place when Damien came there and made his great renunciation, and slept that first night under
+a tree amidst his rotting brethren:  alone with pestilence; and looking forward (with what
+courage, with what pitiful sinkings of dread, God only knows) to a lifetime of dressing sores
+and stumps.
+
+You will say, perhaps, I am too sensitive, that sights as painful abound in cancer hospitals
+and are confronted daily by doctors and nurses.  I have long learned to admire and envy the
+doctors and the nurses.  But there is no cancer hospital so large and populous as Kalawao and
+Kalaupapa; and in such a matter every fresh case, like every inch of length in the pipe of
+an organ, deepens the note of the impression; for what daunts the onlooker is that monstrous
+sum of human suffering by which he stands surrounded.  Lastly, no doctor or nurse is called
+upon to enter once for all the doors of that gehenna; they do not say farewell, they need not
+abandon hope, on its sad threshold; they but go for a time to their high calling, and can look
+forward as they go to relief, to recreation, and to rest.  But Damien shut-to with his own
+hand the doors of his own sepulchre.
+
+I shall now extract three passages from my diary at Kalawao.
+
+A.  'Damien is dead and already somewhat ungratefully remembered in the field of his labours
+and sufferings.  "He was a good man, but very officious," says one.  Another tells me he had
+fallen (as other priests so easily do) into something of the ways and habits of thought of
+a Kanaka; but he had the wit to recognise the fact, and the good sense to laugh at' [over]
+'it.  A plain man it seems he was; I cannot find he was a popular.'
+
+B.  'After Ragsdale's death' [Ragsdale was a famous Luna, or overseer, of the unruly settlement]
+'there followed a brief term of office by Father Damien which served only to publish the weakness
+of that noble man.  He was rough in his ways, and he had no control.  Authority was relaxed;
+Damien's life was threatened, and he was soon eager to resign.'
+
+C.  'Of Damien I begin to have an idea.  He seems to have been a man of the peasant class,
+certainly of the peasant type:  shrewd, ignorant and bigoted, yet with an open mind, and capable
+of receiving and digesting a reproof if it were bluntly administered; superbly generous in
+the least thing as well as in the greatest, and as ready to give his last shirt (although not
+without human grumbling) as he had been to sacrifice his life; essentially indiscreet and officious,
+which made him a troublesome colleague; domineering in all his ways, which made him incurably
+unpopular with the Kanakas, but yet destitute of real authority, so that his boys laughed at
+him and he must carry out his wishes by the means of bribes.  He learned to have a mania for
+doctoring; and set up the Kanakas against the remedies of his regular rivals:  perhaps (if
+anything matter at all in the treatment of such a disease) the worst thing that he did, and
+certainly the easiest.  The best and worst of the man appear very plainly in his dealings with
+Mr. Chapman's money; he had originally laid it out' [intended to lay it out] 'entirely for
+the benefit of Catholics, and even so not wisely; but after a long, plain talk, he admitted
+his error fully and revised the list.  The sad state of the boys' home is in part the result
+of his lack of control; in part, of his own slovenly ways and false ideas of hygiene.  Brother
+officials used to call it "Damien's Chinatown."  "Well," they would say, "your China-town keeps
+growing."  And he would laugh with perfect good-nature, and adhere to his errors with perfect
+obstinacy.  So much I have gathered of truth about this plain, noble human brother and father
+of ours; his imperfections are the traits of his face, by which we know him for our fellow;
+his martyrdom and his example nothing can lessen or annul; and only a person here on the spot
+can properly appreciate their greatness.'
+
+I have set down these private passages, as you perceive, without correction; thanks to you,
+the public has them in their bluntness. They are almost a list of the man's faults, for it
+is rather these that I was seeking:  with his virtues, with the heroic profile of his life,
+I and the world were already sufficiently acquainted.  I was besides a little suspicious of
+Catholic testimony; in no ill sense, but merely because Damien's admirers and disciples were
+the least likely to be critical.  I know you will be more suspicious still; and the facts set
+down above were one and all collected from the lips of Protestants who had opposed the father
+in his life. Yet I am strangely deceived, or they build up the image of a man, with all his
+weaknesses, essentially heroic, and alive with rugged honesty, generosity, and mirth.
+
+Take it for what it is, rough private jottings of the worst sides of Damien's character, collected
+from the lips of those who had laboured with and (in your own phrase) 'knew the man';--though
+I question whether Damien would have said that he knew you.  Take it, and observe with wonder
+how well you were served by your gossips, how ill by your intelligence and sympathy; in how
+many points of fact we are at one, and how widely our appreciations vary.  There is something
+wrong here; either with you or me.  It is possible, for instance, that you, who seem to have
+so many ears in Kalawao, had heard of the affair of Mr. Chapman's money, and were singly struck
+by Damien's intended wrong-doing.  I was struck with that also, and set it fairly down; but
+I was struck much more by the fact that he had the honesty of mind to be convinced.  I may
+here tell you that it was a long business; that one of his colleagues sat with him late into
+the night, multiplying arguments and accusations; that the father listened as usual with 'perfect
+good- nature and perfect obstinacy'; but at the last, when he was persuaded--'Yes,' said he,
+'I am very much obliged to you; you have done me a service; it would have been a theft.'  There
+are many (not Catholics merely) who require their heroes and saints to be infallible; to these
+the story will be painful; not to the true lovers, patrons, and servants of mankind.
+
+And I take it, this is a type of our division; that you are one of those who have an eye for
+faults and failures; that you take a pleasure to find and publish them; and that, having found
+them, you make haste to forget the overvailing virtues and the real success which had alone
+introduced them to your knowledge.  It is a dangerous frame of mind.  That you may understand
+how dangerous, and into what a situation it has already brought you, we will (if you please)
+go hand-in-hand through the different phrases of your letter, and candidly examine each from
+the point of view of its truth, its appositeness, and its charity.
+
+Damien was COARSE.
+
+It is very possible.  You make us sorry for the lepers, who had only a coarse old peasant for
+their friend and father.  But you, who were so refined, why were you not there, to cheer them
+with the lights of culture?  Or may I remind you that we have some reason to doubt if John
+the Baptist were genteel; and in the case of Peter, on whose career you doubtless dwell approvingly
+in the pulpit, no doubt at all he was a 'coarse, headstrong' fisherman!  Yet even in our Protestant
+Bibles Peter is called Saint.
+
+Damien was DIRTY.
+
+He was.  Think of the poor lepers annoyed with this dirty comrade! But the clean Dr. Hyde was
+at his food in a fine house.
+
+Damien was HEADSTRONG.
+
+I believe you are right again; and I thank God for his strong head and heart.
+
+Damien was BIGOTED.
+
+I am not fond of bigots myself, because they are not fond of me. But what is meant by bigotry,
+that we should regard it as a blemish in a priest?  Damien believed his own religion with the
+simplicity of a peasant or a child; as I would I could suppose that you do. For this, I wonder
+at him some way off; and had that been his only character, should have avoided him in life.
+But the point of interest in Damien, which has caused him to be so much talked about and made
+him at last the subject of your pen and mine, was that, in him, his bigotry, his intense and
+narrow faith, wrought potently for good, and strengthened him to be one of the world's heroes
+and exemplars.
+
+Damien WAS NOT SENT TO MOLOKAI, BUT WENT THERE WITHOUT ORDERS.
+
+Is this a misreading? or do you really mean the words for blame?  I have heard Christ, in the
+pulpits of our Church, held up for imitation on the ground that His sacrifice was voluntary.
+Does Dr. Hyde think otherwise?
+
+Damien DID NOT STAY AT THE SETTLEMENT, ETC.
+
+It is true he was allowed many indulgences.  Am I to understand that you blame the father for
+profiting by these, or the officers for granting them?  In either case, it is a mighty Spartan
+standard to issue from the house on Beretania Street; and I am convinced you will find yourself
+with few supporters.
+
+Damien HAD NO HAND IN THE REFORMS, ETC.
+
+I think even you will admit that I have already been frank in my description of the man I am
+defending; but before I take you up upon this head, I will be franker still, and tell you that
+perhaps nowhere in the world can a man taste a more pleasurable sense of contrast than when
+he passes from Damien's 'Chinatown' at Kalawao to the beautiful Bishop-Home at Kalaupapa. 
+At this point, in my desire to make all fair for you, I will break my rule and adduce Catholic
+testimony.  Here is a passage from my diary about my visit to the Chinatown, from which you
+will see how it is (even now) regarded by its own officials:  'We went round all the dormitories,
+refectories, etc.--dark and dingy enough, with a superficial cleanliness, which he' [Mr. Dutton,
+the lay-brother] 'did not seek to defend.  "It is almost decent," said he; "the sisters will
+make that all right when we get them here."'  And yet I gathered it was already better since
+Damien was dead, and far better than when he was there alone and had his own (not always excellent)
+way.  I have now come far enough to meet you on a common ground of fact; and I tell you that,
+to a mind not prejudiced by jealousy, all the reforms of the lazaretto, and even those which
+he most vigorously opposed, are properly the work of Damien.  They are the evidence of his
+success; they are what his heroism provoked from the reluctant and the careless.  Many were
+before him in the field; Mr. Meyer, for instance, of whose faithful work we hear too little:
+there have been many since; and some had more worldly wisdom, though none had more devotion,
+than our saint.  Before his day, even you will confess, they had effected little.  It was his
+part, by one striking act of martyrdom, to direct all men's eyes on that distressful country.
+At a blow, and with the price of his life, he made the place illustrious and public.  And that,
+if you will consider largely, was the one reform needful; pregnant of all that should succeed.
+It brought money; it brought (best individual addition of them all) the sisters; it brought
+supervision, for public opinion and public interest landed with the man at Kalawao. If ever
+any man brought reforms, and died to bring them, it was he. There is not a clean cup or towel
+in the Bishop-Home, but dirty Damien washed it.
+
+Damien WAS NOT A PURE MAN IN HIS RELATIONS WITH WOMEN, ETC.
+
+How do you know that?  Is this the nature of the conversation in that house on Beretania Street
+which the cabman envied, driving past?--racy details of the misconduct of the poor peasant
+priest, toiling under the cliffs of Molokai?
+
+Many have visited the station before me; they seem not to have heard the rumour.  When I was
+there I heard many shocking tales, for my informants were men speaking with the plainness of
+the laity; and I heard plenty of complaints of Damien.  Why was this never mentioned? and how
+came it to you in the retirement of your clerical parlour?
+
+But I must not even seem to deceive you.  This scandal, when I read it in your letter, was
+not new to me.  I had heard it once before; and I must tell you how.  There came to Samoa a
+man from Honolulu; he, in a public-house on the beach, volunteered the statement that Damien
+had 'contracted the disease from having connection with the female lepers'; and I find a joy
+in telling you how the report was welcomed in a public-house.  A man sprang to his feet; I
+am not at liberty to give his name, but from what I heard I doubt if you would care to have
+him to dinner in Beretania Street.  'You miserable little--' (here is a word I dare not print,
+it would so shock your ears).  'You miserable little--,' he cried, 'if the story were a thousand
+times true, can't you see you are a million times a lower--for daring to repeat it?'  I wish
+it could be told of you that when the report reached you in your house, perhaps after family
+worship, you had found in your soul enough holy anger to receive it with the same expressions;
+ay, even with that one which I dare not print; it would not need to have been blotted away,
+like Uncle Toby's oath, by the tears of the recording angel; it would have been counted to
+you for your brightest righteousness. But you have deliberately chosen the part of the man
+from Honolulu, and you have played it with improvements of your own.  The man from Honolulu--miserable,
+leering creature--communicated the tale to a rude knot of beach-combing drinkers in a public-house,
+where (I will so far agree with your temperance opinions) man is not always at his noblest;
+and the man from Honolulu had himself been drinking--drinking, we may charitably fancy, to
+excess.  It was to your 'Dear Brother, the Reverend H. B. Gage,' that you chose to communicate
+the sickening story; and the blue ribbon which adorns your portly bosom forbids me to allow
+you the extenuating plea that you were drunk when it was done.  Your 'dear brother'--a brother
+indeed--made haste to deliver up your letter (as a means of grace, perhaps) to the religious
+papers; where, after many months, I found and read and wondered at it; and whence I have now
+reproduced it for the wonder of others.  And you and your dear brother have, by this cycle
+of operations, built up a contrast very edifying to examine in detail.  The man whom you would
+not care to have to dinner, on the one side; on the other, the Reverend Dr. Hyde and the Reverend
+H. B. Gage:  the Apia bar-room, the Honolulu manse.
+
+But I fear you scarce appreciate how you appear to your fellow-men; and to bring it home to
+you, I will suppose your story to be true. I will suppose--and God forgive me for supposing
+it--that Damien faltered and stumbled in his narrow path of duty; I will suppose that, in the
+horror of his isolation, perhaps in the fever of incipient disease, he, who was doing so much
+more than he had sworn, failed in the letter of his priestly oath--he, who was so much a better
+man than either you or me, who did what we have never dreamed of daring--he too tasted of our
+common frailty.  'O, Iago, the pity of it!'  The least tender should be moved to tears; the
+most incredulous to prayer.  And all that you could do was to pen your letter to the Reverend
+H. B. Gage!
+
+Is it growing at all clear to you what a picture you have drawn of your own heart?  I will
+try yet once again to make it clearer.  You had a father:  suppose this tale were about him,
+and some informant brought it to you, proof in hand:  I am not making too high an estimate
+of your emotional nature when I suppose you would regret the circumstance? that you would feel
+the tale of frailty the more keenly since it shamed the author of your days? and that the last
+thing you would do would be to publish it in the religious press? Well, the man who tried to
+do what Damien did, is my father, and the father of the man in the Apia bar, and the father
+of all who love goodness; and he was your father too, if God had given you grace to see it.
+
+THE PENTLAND RISING A PAGE OF HISTORY 1666
+
+'A cloud of witnesses lyes here, Who for Christ's interest did appear.' Inscription on Battlefield
+at Rullion Green.
+
+CHAPTER I--THE CAUSES OF THE REVOLT
+
+'Halt, passenger; take heed what thou dost see, This tomb doth show for what some men did die.'
+Monument, Greyfriars' Churchyard, Edinburgh, 1661-1668. {2a}
+
+Two hundred years ago a tragedy was enacted in Scotland, the memory whereof has been in great
+measure lost or obscured by the deep tragedies which followed it.  It is, as it were, the evening
+of the night of persecution--a sort of twilight, dark indeed to us, but light as the noonday
+when compared with the midnight gloom which followed.  This fact, of its being the very threshold
+of persecution, lends it, however, an additional interest.
+
+The prejudices of the people against Episcopacy were 'out of measure increased,' says Bishop
+Burnet, 'by the new incumbents who were put in the places of the ejected preachers, and were
+generally very mean and despicable in all respects.  They were the worst preachers I ever heard;
+they were ignorant to a reproach; and many of them were openly vicious.  They . . . were indeed
+the dreg and refuse of the northern parts.  Those of them who arose above contempt or scandal
+were men of such violent tempers that they were as much hated as the others were despised.'
+{2b}  It was little to be wondered at, from this account that the country-folk refused to go
+to the parish church, and chose rather to listen to outed ministers in the fields.  But this
+was not to be allowed, and their persecutors at last fell on the method of calling a roll of
+the parishioners' names every Sabbath, and marking a fine of twenty shillings Scots to the
+name of each absenter.  In this way very large debts were incurred by persons altogether unable
+to pay. Besides this, landlords were fined for their tenants' absences, tenants for their landlords',
+masters for their servants', servants for their masters', even though they themselves were
+perfectly regular in their attendance.  And as the curates were allowed to fine with the sanction
+of any common soldier, it may be imagined that often the pretexts were neither very sufficient