Source

SCons / doc / user / repositories.xml

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<!--

  __COPYRIGHT__

  Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining
  a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
  "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
  without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
  distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to
  permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
  the following conditions:

  The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
  in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

  THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY
  KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE
  WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND
  NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE
  LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION
  OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION
  WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

-->

  <para>

  Often, a software project will have
  one or more central repositories,
  directory trees that contain
  source code, or derived files, or both.
  You can eliminate additional unnecessary
  rebuilds of files by having &SCons;
  use files from one or more code repositories
  to build files in your local build tree.

  </para>

  <section>
  <title>The &Repository; Method</title>

 <!--

 The repository directories specified may contain source files, derived files
 (objects, libraries and executables), or both.  If there is no local file
 (source or derived) under the directory in which Cons is executed, then the
 first copy of a same-named file found under a repository directory will be
 used to build any local derived files.

 -->

    <para>

    It's often useful to allow multiple programmers working
    on a project to build software from
    source files and/or derived files that
    are stored in a centrally-accessible repository,
    a directory copy of the source code tree.
    (Note that this is not the sort of repository
    maintained by a source code management system
    like BitKeeper, CVS, or Subversion.)
    <!--
    For information about using &SCons;
    with these systems, see the section,
    "Fetching Files From Source Code Management Systems,"
    below.)
    -->
    You use the &Repository; method
    to tell &SCons; to search one or more
    central code repositories (in order)
    for any source files and derived files
    that are not present in the local build tree:

    </para>

    <programlisting>
       env = Environment()
       env.Program('hello.c')
       Repository('/usr/repository1', '/usr/repository2')
    </programlisting>

    <para>

    Multiple calls to the &Repository; method
    will simply add repositories to the global list
    that &SCons; maintains,
    with the exception that &SCons; will automatically eliminate
    the current directory and any non-existent
    directories from the list.

    </para>

  </section>

  <section>
  <title>Finding source files in repositories</title>

    <para>

    The above example
    specifies that &SCons;
    will first search for files under
    the <filename>/usr/repository1</filename> tree
    and next under the <filename>/usr/repository2</filename> tree.
    &SCons; expects that any files it searches
    for will be found in the same position
    relative to the top-level directory.
    In the above example, if the &hello_c; file is not
    found in the local build tree,
    &SCons; will search first for
    a <filename>/usr/repository1/hello.c</filename> file
    and then for a <filename>/usr/repository2/hello.c</filename> file
    to use in its place.

    </para>

    <para>

    So given the &SConstruct; file above,
    if the &hello_c; file exists in the local
    build directory,
    &SCons; will rebuild the &hello; program
    as normal:

    </para>

    <screen>
      % <userinput>scons -Q</userinput>
      cc -o hello.o -c hello.c
      cc -o hello hello.o
    </screen>

    <para>

    If, however, there is no local &hello_c; file,
    but one exists in <filename>/usr/repository1</filename>,
    &SCons; will recompile the &hello; program
    from the source file it finds in the repository:

    </para>

    

    <screen>
      % <userinput>scons -Q</userinput>
      cc -o hello.o -c /usr/repository1/hello.c
      cc -o hello hello.o
    </screen>

    <para>

    And similarly, if there is no local &hello_c; file
    and no <filename>/usr/repository1/hello.c</filename>,
    but one exists in <filename>/usr/repository2</filename>:

    </para>

    

    <screen>
      % <userinput>scons -Q</userinput>
      cc -o hello.o -c /usr/repository2/hello.c
      cc -o hello hello.o
    </screen>

    <para>

    </para>

  </section>

  <section>
  <title>Finding <literal>#include</literal> files in repositories</title>

    <para>

    We've already seen that SCons will scan the contents of
    a source file for <literal>#include</literal> file names
    and realize that targets built from that source file
    also depend on the <literal>#include</literal> file(s).
    For each directory in the &cv-link-CPPPATH; list,
    &SCons; will actually search the corresponding directories
    in any repository trees and establish the
    correct dependencies on any
    <literal>#include</literal> files that it finds
    in repository directory.

    </para>

    <para>

    Unless the C compiler also knows about these directories
    in the repository trees, though,
    it will be unable to find the <literal>#include</literal> files.
    If, for example, the &hello_c; file in
    our previous example includes the &hello;.h;
    in its current directory,
    and the &hello;.h; only exists in the repository:

    </para>

    <screen>
      % <userinput>scons -Q</userinput>
      cc -o hello.o -c hello.c
      hello.c:1: hello.h: No such file or directory
    </screen>

    <para>

    In order to inform the C compiler about the repositories,
    &SCons; will add appropriate
    <literal>-I</literal> flags to the compilation commands
    for each directory in the &cv-CPPPATH; list.
    So if we add the current directory to the
    construction environment &cv-CPPPATH; like so:

    </para>

    <programlisting>
       env = Environment(CPPPATH = ['.'])
       env.Program('hello.c')
       Repository('/usr/repository1')
    </programlisting>

    <para>

    Then re-executing &SCons; yields:

    </para>

    <screen>
      % <userinput>scons -Q</userinput>
      cc -o hello.o -c -I. -I/usr/repository1 hello.c
      cc -o hello hello.o
    </screen>

    <para>

    The order of the <literal>-I</literal> options replicates,
    for the C preprocessor,
    the same repository-directory search path
    that &SCons; uses for its own dependency analysis.
    If there are multiple repositories and multiple &cv-CPPPATH;
    directories, &SCons; will add the repository directories
    to the beginning of each &cv-CPPPATH; directory,
    rapidly multiplying the number of <literal>-I</literal> flags.
    If, for example, the &cv-CPPPATH; contains three directories
    (and shorter repository path names!):

    </para>

    <programlisting>
       env = Environment(CPPPATH = ['dir1', 'dir2', 'dir3'])
       env.Program('hello.c')
       Repository('/r1', '/r2')
    </programlisting>

    <para>

    Then we'll end up with nine <literal>-I</literal> options
    on the command line,
    three (for each of the &cv-CPPPATH; directories)
    times three (for the local directory plus the two repositories):

    </para>

    <screen>
      % <userinput>scons -Q</userinput>
      cc -o hello.o -c -Idir1 -I/r1/dir1 -I/r2/dir1 -Idir2 -I/r1/dir2 -I/r2/dir2 -Idir3 -I/r1/dir3 -I/r2/dir3 hello.c
      cc -o hello hello.o
    </screen>

<!--

Cons classic did the following, does SCons?

In order to shorten the command lines as much as possible, Cons will
remove C<-I> flags for any directories, locally or in the repositories,
which do not actually exist.  (Note that the C<-I> flags are not included
in the MD5 signature calculation for the target file, so the target will
not be recompiled if the compilation command changes due to a directory
coming into existence.)

-->

    <section>
    <title>Limitations on <literal>#include</literal> files in repositories</title>

      <para>

      &SCons; relies on the C compiler's
      <literal>-I</literal> options to control the order in which
      the preprocessor will search the repository directories
      for <literal>#include</literal> files.
      This causes a problem, however, with how the C preprocessor
      handles <literal>#include</literal> lines with
      the file name included in double-quotes.

      </para>

      <para>

      As we've seen,
      &SCons; will compile the &hello_c; file from
      the repository if it doesn't exist in
      the local directory.
      If, however, the &hello_c; file in the repository contains
      a <literal>#include</literal> line with the file name in
      double quotes:

      </para>

      <programlisting>
        #include "hello.h"
        int
        main(int argc, char *argv[])
        {
            printf(HELLO_MESSAGE);
            return (0);
        }
      </programlisting>

      <para>

      Then the C preprocessor will <emphasis>always</emphasis>
      use a &hello_h; file from the repository directory first,
      even if there is a &hello_h; file in the local directory,
      despite the fact that the command line specifies
      <literal>-I</literal> as the first option:

      </para>

      

      <screen>
        % <userinput>scons -Q</userinput>
        cc -o hello.o -c -I. -I/usr/repository1 /usr/repository1/hello.c
        cc -o hello hello.o
      </screen>

      <para>

      This behavior of the C preprocessor--always search
      for a <literal>#include</literal> file in double-quotes
      first in the same directory as the source file,
      and only then search the <literal>-I</literal>--can
      not, in general, be changed.
      In other words, it's a limitation
      that must be lived with if you want to use
      code repositories in this way.
      There are three ways you can possibly
      work around this C preprocessor behavior:

      </para>

      <orderedlist>

        <listitem>
        <para>

        Some modern versions of C compilers do have an option
        to disable or control this behavior.
        If so, add that option to &cv-link-CFLAGS;
        (or &cv-link-CXXFLAGS; or both) in your construction environment(s).
        Make sure the option is used for all construction
        environments that use C preprocessing!

        </para>
        </listitem>

        <listitem>
        <para>

        Change all occurrences of <literal>#include "file.h"</literal>
        to <literal>#include &lt;file.h&gt;</literal>.
        Use of <literal>#include</literal> with angle brackets
        does not have the same behavior--the <literal>-I</literal>
        directories are searched first
        for <literal>#include</literal> files--which
        gives &SCons; direct control over the list of
        directories the C preprocessor will search.

        </para>
        </listitem>

        <listitem>
        <para>

        Require that everyone working with compilation from
        repositories check out and work on entire directories of files,
        not individual files.
        (If you use local wrapper scripts around
        your source code control system's command,
        you could add logic to enforce this restriction there.

        </para>
        </listitem>

      </orderedlist>

    </section>

  </section>

  <section>
  <title>Finding the &SConstruct; file in repositories</title>

    <para>

    &SCons; will also search in repositories
    for the &SConstruct; file and any specified &SConscript; files.
    This poses a problem, though:  how can &SCons; search a
    repository tree for an &SConstruct; file
    if the &SConstruct; file itself contains the information
    about the pathname of the repository?
    To solve this problem, &SCons; allows you
    to specify repository directories
    on the command line using the <literal>-Y</literal> option:

    </para>

    <screen>
      % <userinput>scons -Q -Y /usr/repository1 -Y /usr/repository2</userinput>
    </screen>

    <para>

    When looking for source or derived files,
    &SCons; will first search the repositories
    specified on the command line,
    and then search the repositories
    specified in the &SConstruct; or &SConscript; files.

    </para>

  </section>

  <section>
  <title>Finding derived files in repositories</title>

    <para>

    If a repository contains not only source files,
    but also derived files (such as object files,
    libraries, or executables), &SCons; will perform
    its normal MD5 signature calculation to
    decide if a derived file in a repository is up-to-date,
    or the derived file must be rebuilt in the local build directory.
    For the &SCons; signature calculation to work correctly,
    a repository tree must contain the &sconsign; files
    that &SCons; uses to keep track of signature information.

    </para>

    <para>

    Usually, this would be done by a build integrator
    who would run &SCons; in the repository
    to create all of its derived files and &sconsign; files,
    or who would run &SCons; in a separate build directory
    and copy the resulting tree to the desired repository:

    </para>

    

    <screen>
      % <userinput>cd /usr/repository1</userinput>
      % <userinput>scons -Q</userinput>
      cc -o file1.o -c file1.c
      cc -o file2.o -c file2.c
      cc -o hello.o -c hello.c
      cc -o hello hello.o file1.o file2.o
    </screen>

    <para>
    
    (Note that this is safe even if the &SConstruct; file
    lists <filename>/usr/repository1</filename> as a repository,
    because &SCons; will remove the current build directory
    from its repository list for that invocation.)

    </para>

    <para>

    Now, with the repository populated,
    we only need to create the one local source file
    we're interested in working with at the moment,
    and use the <literal>-Y</literal> option to
    tell &SCons; to fetch any other files it needs
    from the repository:

    </para>

    <!--
    <scons_output example="ex4">
      <scons_output_command>cd $HOME/build</scons_output_command>
      <scons_output_command>edit hello.c</scons_output_command>
      <scons_output_command>scons -Q -Y __ROOT__/usr/repository1</scons_output_command>
    </scons_output>
    -->
    <screen>
      % <userinput>cd $HOME/build</userinput>
      % <userinput>edit hello.c</userinput>
      % <userinput>scons -Q -Y /usr/repository1</userinput>
      cc -c -o hello.o hello.c
      cc -o hello hello.o /usr/repository1/file1.o /usr/repository1/file2.o
    </screen>

    <para>

    Notice that &SCons; realizes that it does not need to
    rebuild local copies <filename>file1.o</filename> and <filename>file2.o</filename> files,
    but instead uses the already-compiled files
    from the repository.

    </para>

  </section>

  <section>
  <title>Guaranteeing local copies of files</title>

    <para>

    If the repository tree contains the complete results of a build,
    and we try to build from the repository
    without any files in our local tree,
    something moderately surprising happens:

    </para>

    <screen>
      % <userinput>mkdir $HOME/build2</userinput>
      % <userinput>cd $HOME/build2</userinput>
      % <userinput>scons -Q -Y /usr/all/repository hello</userinput>
      scons: `hello' is up-to-date.
    </screen>

    <para>

    Why does &SCons; say that the &hello; program
    is up-to-date when there is no &hello; program
    in the local build directory?
    Because the repository (not the local directory)
    contains the up-to-date &hello; program,
    and &SCons; correctly determines that nothing
    needs to be done to rebuild that
    up-to-date copy of the file.

    </para>

    <para>

    There are, however, many times when you want to ensure that a
    local copy of a file always exists.
    A packaging or testing script, for example,
    may assume that certain generated files exist locally.
    To tell &SCons; to make a copy of any up-to-date repository
    file in the local build directory,
    use the &Local; function:

    </para>

    <programlisting>
       env = Environment()
       hello = env.Program('hello.c')
       Local(hello)
    </programlisting>

    <para>

    If we then run the same command,
    &SCons; will make a local copy of the program
    from the repository copy,
    and tell you that it is doing so:

    </para>

    <screen>
      % <userinput>scons -Y /usr/all/repository hello</userinput>
      Local copy of hello from /usr/all/repository/hello
      scons: `hello' is up-to-date.
    </screen>

    <para>

    (Notice that, because the act of making the local copy
    is not considered a "build" of the &hello; file,
    &SCons; still reports that it is up-to-date.)

    </para>

  </section>
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