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<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.2//EN"
"http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.1.2/docbookx.dtd">
<article>
  <title>The SCons qt4 tool</title>

  <articleinfo>
    <author>
      <surname>Dirk Baechle</surname>
    </author>

    <pubdate>2010-12-06</pubdate>
  </articleinfo>

  <section id="basics">
    <title>Basics</title>

    <para>This tool can be used to compile Qt projects, designed for versions
    4.x.y and higher. It is not usable for Qt3 and older versions, since some
    of the helper tools (<literal>moc</literal>, <literal>uic</literal>)
    behave different.</para>

    <section id="install">
      <title>Install</title>

      <para>Installing it, requires you to copy (or, even better: checkout)
      the contents of the package's <literal>qt4</literal> folder to</para>

      <orderedlist>
        <listitem>
          <para><quote><literal>/path_to_your_project/site_scons/site_tools/qt4</literal></quote>,
          if you need the Qt4 Tool in one project only, or</para>
        </listitem>

        <listitem>
          <para><quote><literal>~/.scons/site_scons/site_tools/qt4</literal></quote>,
          for a system-wide installation under your current login.</para>
        </listitem>
      </orderedlist>

      <para>For more infos about this, please refer to</para>

      <itemizedlist>
        <listitem>
          <para>the SCons User's Guide, chap. 17.7 "Where to put your custom
          Builders and Tools" and</para>
        </listitem>

        <listitem>
          <para>the SCons Tools Wiki page at <ulink
          url="http://scons.org/wiki/ToolsIndex">http://scons.org/wiki/ToolsIndex</ulink>.</para>
        </listitem>
      </itemizedlist>
    </section>

    <section id="activation">
      <title>How to activate</title>

      <para>For activating the tool "qt4", you have to add its name to the
      Environment constructor, like this</para>

      <screen>env = Environment(tools=['default','qt4'])
</screen>

      <para>On its startup, the Qt4 tool tries to read the variable
      <literal>QT4DIR</literal> from the current Environment and
      <literal>os.environ</literal>. If it is not set, the value of
      <literal>QTDIR</literal> (in Environment/<literal>os.environ</literal>)
      is used as a fallback.</para>

      <para>So, you either have to explicitly give the path of your Qt4
      installation to the Environment with</para>

      <screen>env['QT4DIR'] = '/usr/local/Trolltech/Qt-4.2.3'
</screen>

      <para>or set the <literal>QT4DIR</literal> as environment variable in
      your shell.</para>
    </section>

    <section id="requirements">
      <title>Requirements</title>

      <para>Under Linux, "qt4" uses the system tool
      <literal>pkg-config</literal> for automatically setting the required
      compile and link flags of the single Qt4 modules (like QtCore,
      QtGui,...). This means that</para>

      <orderedlist>
        <listitem>
          <para>you should have <literal>pkg-config</literal> installed,
          and</para>
        </listitem>

        <listitem>
          <para>you additionally have to set
          <literal>PKG_CONFIG_PATH</literal> in your shell environment, such
          that it points to $<literal>QT4DIR/lib/pkgconfig</literal> (or
          $<literal>QT4DIR/lib</literal> for some older versions).</para>
        </listitem>
      </orderedlist>

      <para>Based on these two environment variables
      (<literal>QT4DIR</literal> and <literal>PKG_CONFIG_PATH</literal>), the
      "qt4" tool initializes all <literal>QT4_*</literal> construction
      variables listed in the Reference manual. This happens when the tool is
      "detected" during Environment construction. As a consequence, the setup
      of the tool gets a two-stage process, if you want to override the values
      provided by your current shell settings:</para>

      <screen># Stage 1: create plain environment
qtEnv = Environment()
# Set new vars
qtEnv['QT4DIR'] = '/usr/local/Trolltech/Qt-4.2.3
qtEnv['ENV']['PKG_CONFIG_PATH'] = '/usr/local/Trolltech/Qt-4.2.3/lib/pkgconfig'
# Stage 2: add qt4 tool
qtEnv.Tool('qt4')
</screen>
    </section>
  </section>

  <section id="boilerplate">
    <title>Suggested boilerplate</title>

    <para>Based on the requirements above, we suggest a simple ready-to-go
    setup as follows:</para>

    <para>SConstruct</para>

    <screen># Detect Qt version
qtdir = detectLatestQtDir()

# Create base environment
baseEnv = Environment()
#...further customization of base env

# Clone Qt environment
qtEnv = baseEnv.Clone()
# Set QT4DIR and PKG_CONFIG_PATH
qtEnv['ENV']['PKG_CONFIG_PATH'] = os.path.join(qtdir, 'lib/pkgconfig')
qtEnv['QT4DIR'] = qtdir
# Add qt4 tool
qtEnv.Tool('qt4')
#...further customization of qt env

# Export environments
Export('baseEnv qtEnv')

# Your other stuff...
# ...including the call to your SConscripts
</screen>

    <para>In a SConscript</para>

    <screen># Get the Qt4 environment
Import('qtEnv')
# Clone it
env = qtEnv.clone()
# Patch it
env.Append(CCFLAGS=['-m32']) # or whatever
# Use it
env.StaticLibrary('foo', Glob('*.cpp'))
</screen>

    <para>The detection of the Qt directory could be as simple as directly
    assigning a fixed path</para>

    <screen>def detectLatestQtDir():
    return "/usr/local/qt4.3.2"
</screen>

    <para>or a little more sophisticated</para>

    <screen># Tries to detect the path to the installation of Qt with
# the highest version number
def detectLatestQtDir():
    if sys.platform.startswith("linux"):
        # Simple check: inspect only '/usr/local/Trolltech'
        paths = glob.glob('/usr/local/Trolltech/*')
        if len(paths):
            paths.sort()
            return paths[-1]
        else:
            return ""
    else:
        # Simple check: inspect only 'C:\Qt'
        paths = glob.glob('C:\\Qt\\*')
        if len(paths):
            paths.sort()
            return paths[-1]
        else:
            return os.environ.get("QTDIR","")
</screen>
  </section>

  <section id="firstproject">
    <title>A first project</title>

    <para>The following SConscript is for a simple project with some cxx
    files, using the QtCore, QtGui and QtNetwork modules:</para>

    <screen>Import('qtEnv')
env = qtEnv.Clone()
env.EnableQt4Modules([
                      'QtGui',
                      'QtCore',
                      'QtNetwork'
                     ])
# Add your CCFLAGS and CPPPATHs to env here...

env.Program('foo', Glob('*.cpp')) 
</screen>
  </section>

  <section id="mocup">
    <title>MOC it up</title>

    <para>For the basic support of automocing, nothing needs to be done by the
    user. The tool usually detects the <literal>Q_OBJECT</literal> macro and
    calls the <quote><literal>moc</literal></quote> executable
    accordingly.</para>

    <para>If you don't want this, you can switch off the automocing by
    a</para>

    <screen>env['QT4_AUTOSCAN'] = 0
</screen>

    <para>in your SConscript file. Then, you have to moc your files
    explicitly, using the Moc4 builder.</para>

    <para>You can also switch to an extended automoc strategy with</para>

    <screen>env['QT4_AUTOSCAN_STRATEGY'] = 1
</screen>

    <para>Please read the description of the
    <literal>QT4_AUTOSCAN_STRATEGY</literal> variable in the Reference manual
    for details.</para>

    <para>For debugging purposes, you can set the variable
    <literal>QT4_DEBUG</literal> with</para>

    <screen>env['QT4_DEBUG'] = 1
</screen>

    <para>which outputs a lot of messages during automocing.</para>
  </section>

  <section id="forms">
    <title>Forms (.ui)</title>

    <para>The header files with setup code for your GUI classes, are not
    compiled automatically from your <literal>.ui</literal> files. You always
    have to call the Uic4 builder explicitly like</para>

    <screen>env.Uic4(Glob('*.ui'))
env.Program('foo', Glob('*.cpp'))
</screen>
  </section>

  <section id="resources">
    <title>Resource files (.qrc)</title>

    <para>Resource files are not built automatically, you always have to add
    the names of the <literal>.qrc</literal> files to the source list for your
    program or library:</para>

    <screen>env.Program('foo', Glob('*.cpp')+Glob('*.qrc'))
</screen>

    <para>For each of the Resource input files, its prefix defines the name of
    the resulting resource. An appropriate
    <quote><literal>-name</literal></quote> option is added to the call of the
    <literal>rcc</literal> executable by default.</para>

    <para>You can also call the Qrc4 builder explicitly as</para>

    <screen>qrccc = env.Qrc4('foo') # ['foo.qrc'] -&gt; ['qrc_foo.cc']
</screen>

    <para>or (overriding the default suffix)</para>

    <screen>qrccc = env.Qrc4('myprefix_foo.cxx','foo.qrc') # -&gt; ['qrc_myprefix_foo.cxx']
</screen>

    <para>and then add the resulting cxx file to the sources of your
    Program/Library:</para>

    <screen>env.Program('foo', Glob('*.cpp') + qrccc)
</screen>
  </section>

  <section id="translation">
    <title>Translation files</title>

    <para>The update of the <literal>.ts</literal> files and the conversion to
    binary <literal>.qm</literal> files is not done automatically. You have to
    call the corresponding builders on your own.</para>

    <para>Example for updating a translation file:</para>

    <screen>env.Ts4('foo.ts','.') # -&gt; ['foo.ts']
</screen>

    <para>By default, the <literal>.ts</literal> files are treated as
    <emphasis>precious</emphasis> targets. This means that they are not
    removed prior to a rebuild, but simply get updated. Additionally, they do
    not get cleaned on a <quote><literal>scons -c</literal></quote>. If you
    want to delete the translation files on the
    <quote><literal>-c</literal></quote> SCons command, you can set the
    variable <quote><literal>QT4_CLEAN_TS</literal></quote> like this</para>

    <screen>env['QT4_CLEAN_TS']=1
</screen>

    <para>Example for releasing a translation file, i.e. compiling it to a
    <literal>.qm</literal> binary file:</para>

    <screen>env.Qm4('foo') # ['foo.ts'] -&gt; ['foo.qm']
</screen>

    <para>or (overriding the output prefix)</para>

    <screen>env.Qm4('myprefix','foo') # ['foo.ts'] -&gt; ['myprefix.qm']
</screen>

    <para>As an extension both, the Ts4() and Qm4 builder, support the
    definition of multiple targets. So, calling</para>

    <screen>env.Ts4(['app_en','app_de'], Glob('*.cpp'))
</screen>

    <para>and</para>

    <screen>env.Qm4(['app','copy'], Glob('*.ts'))
</screen>

    <para>should work fine.</para>

    <para>Finally, two short notes about the support of directories for the
    Ts4() builder. You can pass an arbitrary mix of cxx files and subdirs to
    it, as in</para>

    <screen>env.Ts4('app_en',['sub1','appwindow.cpp','main.cpp']))
</screen>

    <para>where <literal>sub1</literal> is a folder that gets scanned
    recursively for cxx files by <literal>lupdate</literal>. But like this,
    you lose all dependency information for the subdir, i.e. if a file inside
    the folder changes, the .ts file is not updated automatically! In this
    case you should tell SCons to always update the target:</para>

    <screen>ts = env.Ts4('app_en',['sub1','appwindow.cpp','main.cpp'])
env.AlwaysBuild(ts)
</screen>

    <para>Last note: specifying the current folder
    <quote><literal>.</literal></quote> as input to Ts4() and storing the
    resulting .ts file in the same directory, leads to a dependency cycle! You
    then have to store the .ts and .qm files outside of the current folder, or
    use <literal>Glob('*.cpp'))</literal> instead.</para>
  </section>
</article>