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The Arbitrator is going to have two threads:

1. The Arbitrating Thread - this thread accepts packets from the
Packets Queue, decides what to with them according to the Markovian chains
and if it is to be delayed, it puts it in the priority queue of the release 
thread (which is not part of the arbitrator and is described in 
Architecure.txt.

2. The Chains States Maintainance thread - this thread updates the
active states of the Markovian chains by using a priority queue.

It is possible that there will be several arbitrating threads, all of which
are symetrical. Each one will decide what to do with a single packet before
opting to receive others of its kind.

The chains states maintainance thread is quite trivial to write. Therefore,
most of this document will focus on the Arbitrating Thread.

Chain Filter Structure:
-----------------------

A chain filter structure will look as follows:

struct chain_filter
{
    ip_specification * source;
    ip_specification * dest;
    protocols_bit_mask protocols; /* A bit mask specifiying which protocols to filter */
    /* We treat the TOS bits as one big 6-bit integer 
    int min_tos;
    int max_tos;
    int which_tos;        /* 
                             Can be - 0 - don't care.
                             1 - Greater than min 
                             2 - Lower than max
                             3 - Between min and max
                             4 - Not between min and max.
                          */
    int min_packet_len;
    int max_packet_len;
    int which_packet_len; /* 
                             Can be - 0 - don't care.
                             1 - Greater than min 
                             2 - Lower than max
                             3 - Between min and max
                             4 - Not between min and max.
                          */
}

typedef char protocols_bit_mask[32];

-> A complete bitmask of all available IP-based protocol. One bit
for every protocol.

And the ip_specification struct is defined as follows:

struct ip_specification
{
    ip_specification * next; /* = NULL to terminate the linked list. */

    bit inverse; /* Inverse the condition */
    in_addr ip;
    int net_mask; /* The sub-net width of the IP range */
    int num_port_ranges; /* If = 0 then any port will do. */
    /* A sorted array of port ranges. We do a binary (or linear) search to see
       if the port of the packet matches them. */
    port_range_struct * port_ranges; 
}

State Syntax:
-------------

struct state_struct
{
    probability_type drop_prob;
    probability_type delay_prob;
    delay_type * delay_function;
    int time_factor;
    int num_move_tos;
    move_to_type * move_tos;
    probability_type stable_delay_prob;
}

struct move_to_type
{
    probabilty_type comulative_prob;
    int which_state; /* Determines the state to go to */
}

Move to is a sorted array. We search it for the apropriate probability
in the range (0,1) and from that we determine the state to go to next.

Chain Syntax:
-------------

struct chain_struct
{
    int num_states;
    state_type * states;

    int current_state;
    chain_filter_type * filter;

    time_t time_of_last_packet;

    Dictionary <String -> Int> state_names;
}

Arbitrator Data Structure Syntax:
---------------------------------

struct arbitrator_struct
{
    int num_chains;
    chain_type * chains;

    read_write_lock_t lock;

    priority_queue<change_state_event_type> change_states_pq;

#if there is more than one arbitrator threads:
    mutex protect_num_active_threads;
    int num_active_threads;
    bool terminate_threads;
#endif

    Dictionary <sting -> int> chain_names;
}

struct change_state_event_struct
{
    int chain;
    time_t invalidation_time;
}


The Delay Function Type:
------------------------

struct delay_function_struct
{
    int type;
                 
    union params
    {
        double lambda;
        struct split_linear_function_struct
        {
            int num_points;
            struct prob_and_delay 
            {
                probability_t prob;
                double delay;
            } * points;
        };
    };
}