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Shlomi Fish committed 678c593

Add some tests.

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  • Parent commits 54ba261

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File MediaWiki-CleanupHTML/MANIFEST

 Build.PL
 Changes
 lib/MediaWiki/CleanupHTML.pm
+Makefile.PL
 MANIFEST			This list of files
+META.json
+META.yml
 README
 t/00-load.t
+t/data/English-Wikipedia-Perl-Page-2012-04-26.html
 t/manifest.t
+TODO
 t/pod-coverage.t
 t/pod.t
-Makefile.PL
-META.yml
-META.json
-TODO
+t/system.t

File MediaWiki-CleanupHTML/t/data/English-Wikipedia-Perl-Page-2012-04-26.html

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+<script type="text/javascript">if(window.mw){
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+<body class="mediawiki ltr sitedir-ltr ns-0 ns-subject page-Perl skin-vector action-view">
+		<div id="mw-page-base" class="noprint"></div>
+		<div id="mw-head-base" class="noprint"></div>
+		<!-- content -->
+		<div id="content" class="mw-body">
+			<a id="top"></a>
+			<div id="mw-js-message" style="display:none;"></div>
+						<!-- sitenotice -->
+			<div id="siteNotice"><!-- centralNotice loads here --></div>
+			<!-- /sitenotice -->
+						<!-- firstHeading -->
+			<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading">
+				<span dir="auto">Perl</span>
+			</h1>
+			<!-- /firstHeading -->
+			<!-- bodyContent -->
+			<div id="bodyContent">
+								<!-- tagline -->
+				<div id="siteSub">From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</div>
+				<!-- /tagline -->
+								<!-- subtitle -->
+				<div id="contentSub"></div>
+				<!-- /subtitle -->
+																<!-- jumpto -->
+				<div id="jump-to-nav" class="mw-jump">
+					Jump to: <a href="#mw-head">navigation</a>,
+					<a href="#p-search">search</a>
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+				<!-- /jumpto -->
+								<!-- bodycontent -->
+				<div id="mw-content-text" lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr"><div class="dablink">This article is about the programming language.  For other uses, see <a href="/wiki/Perl_(disambiguation)" title="Perl (disambiguation)">Perl (disambiguation)</a>.</div>
+<div style="display:none; right:10px;" class="metadata topicon nopopups" id="good-star"><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Good_articles" title="This is a good article. Click here for more information."><img alt="This is a good article. Click here for more information." src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/94/Symbol_support_vote.svg/15px-Symbol_support_vote.svg.png" width="15" height="15" /></a></div>
+<table class="infobox vevent" cellspacing="5" style="width:22em;">
+<caption class="summary" style="">Perl</caption>
+<tr class="">
+<td colspan="2" class="" style="text-align:center;"><a href="/wiki/File:Programming-republic-of-perl.png" class="image"><img alt="Programming-republic-of-perl.png" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/e/e0/Programming-republic-of-perl.png" width="97" height="97" /></a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="">
+<th scope="row" style="text-align:left;"><a href="/wiki/Programming_paradigm" title="Programming paradigm">Paradigm(s)</a></th>
+<td class="" style=""><a href="/wiki/Multi-paradigm" title="Multi-paradigm" class="mw-redirect">multi-paradigm</a>: <a href="/wiki/Functional_programming" title="Functional programming">functional</a>, <a href="/wiki/Imperative_programming" title="Imperative programming">imperative</a>, <a href="/wiki/Object-oriented_programming" title="Object-oriented programming">object-oriented</a> (<a href="/wiki/Class-based_programming" title="Class-based programming">class-based</a>), <a href="/wiki/Reflective_programming" title="Reflective programming" class="mw-redirect">reflective</a>, <a href="/wiki/Procedural_programming" title="Procedural programming">procedural</a>, <a href="/wiki/Generic_programming" title="Generic programming">generic</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="">
+<th scope="row" style="text-align:left;">Appeared in</th>
+<td class="" style="">1987</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="">
+<th scope="row" style="text-align:left;">Designed by</th>
+<td class="organiser" style=""><a href="/wiki/Larry_Wall" title="Larry Wall">Larry Wall</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="">
+<th scope="row" style="text-align:left;"><a href="/wiki/Software_developer" title="Software developer">Developer</a></th>
+<td class="" style="">Larry Wall</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="">
+<th scope="row" style="text-align:left;"><a href="/wiki/Software_release_life_cycle" title="Software release life cycle">Stable release</a></th>
+<td class="" style="">5.14.2<sup id="cite_ref-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-0"><span>[</span>1<span>]</span></a></sup> (September 26, 2011<span class="noprint">; 6 months ago</span><span style="display:none">&#160;(<span class="bday dtstart published updated">2011-09-26</span>)</span>)</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="">
+<th scope="row" style="text-align:left;"><a href="/wiki/Software_release_life_cycle" title="Software release life cycle">Preview release</a></th>
+<td class="" style="">5.15.4<sup id="cite_ref-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-1"><span>[</span>2<span>]</span></a></sup> (October 20, 2011<span class="noprint">; 6 months ago</span><span style="display:none">&#160;(<span class="bday dtstart published updated">2011-10-20</span>)</span>)</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="">
+<th scope="row" style="text-align:left;"><a href="/wiki/Type_system" title="Type system">Typing discipline</a></th>
+<td class="" style="">Dynamic</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="">
+<th scope="row" style="text-align:left;">Influenced by</th>
+<td class="" style=""><a href="/wiki/AWK_(programming_language)" title="AWK (programming language)" class="mw-redirect">AWK</a>, <a href="/wiki/Smalltalk_80" title="Smalltalk 80" class="mw-redirect">Smalltalk 80</a>, <a href="/wiki/Lisp_(programming_language)" title="Lisp (programming language)">Lisp</a>, <a href="/wiki/C_(programming_language)" title="C (programming language)">C</a>, <a href="/wiki/C%2B%2B" title="C++">C++</a>, <a href="/wiki/Sed" title="Sed">sed</a>, <a href="/wiki/Unix_shell" title="Unix shell">Unix shell</a>, <a href="/wiki/Pascal_(programming_language)" title="Pascal (programming language)">Pascal</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="">
+<th scope="row" style="text-align:left;">Influenced</th>
+<td class="" style=""><a href="/wiki/Python_(programming_language)" title="Python (programming language)">Python</a>, <a href="/wiki/PHP" title="PHP">PHP</a>, <a href="/wiki/Ruby_(programming_language)" title="Ruby (programming language)">Ruby</a>, <a href="/wiki/ECMAScript" title="ECMAScript">ECMAScript</a>, <a href="/wiki/LPC_(programming_language)" title="LPC (programming language)">LPC</a>, <a href="/wiki/Windows_PowerShell" title="Windows PowerShell">Windows PowerShell</a>, <a href="/wiki/JavaScript" title="JavaScript">JavaScript</a>, <a href="/wiki/Falcon_(programming_language)" title="Falcon (programming language)">Falcon</a>, <a href="/wiki/Perl_6" title="Perl 6">Perl 6</a>, <a href="/wiki/Qore_Language" title="Qore Language" class="mw-redirect">Qore</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="">
+<th scope="row" style="text-align:left;">Implementation language</th>
+<td class="" style=""><a href="/wiki/C_(programming_language)" title="C (programming language)">C</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="">
+<th scope="row" style="text-align:left;"><a href="/wiki/Operating_system" title="Operating system">OS</a></th>
+<td class="" style=""><a href="/wiki/Cross-platform" title="Cross-platform">Cross-platform</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="">
+<th scope="row" style="text-align:left;"><a href="/wiki/Software_license" title="Software license">License</a></th>
+<td class="" style=""><a href="/wiki/GNU_General_Public_License" title="GNU General Public License">GNU General Public License</a> or <a href="/wiki/Artistic_License" title="Artistic License">Artistic License</a><sup id="cite_ref-licensing_2-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-licensing-2"><span>[</span>3<span>]</span></a></sup></td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="">
+<th scope="row" style="text-align:left;">Usual <a href="/wiki/Filename_extension" title="Filename extension">filename extensions</a></th>
+<td class="" style="">.pl .pm .t</td>
+</tr>
+<tr class="">
+<th scope="row" style="text-align:left;">Website</th>
+<td class="" style=""><span class="url"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.perl.org">www.perl.org</a></span></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td colspan="2" class="" style="text-align:center;"><a href="/wiki/File:Wikibooks-logo-en.svg" class="image" title="Wikibooks logo"><img alt="Wikibooks logo" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7c/Wikibooks-logo-en.svg/14px-Wikibooks-logo-en.svg.png" width="14" height="14" /></a> <a href="//en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Perl_Programming" class="extiw" title="wikibooks:Perl Programming">Perl Programming</a> at <a href="/wiki/Wikibooks" title="Wikibooks">Wikibooks</a></td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<p><b>Perl</b> is a <a href="/wiki/High-level_programming_language" title="High-level programming language">high-level</a>, <a href="/wiki/General-purpose_programming_language" title="General-purpose programming language">general-purpose</a>, <a href="/wiki/Interpreter_(computing)" title="Interpreter (computing)">interpreted</a>, <a href="/wiki/Dynamic_programming_language" title="Dynamic programming language">dynamic programming language</a>. Though Perl is not officially an acronym,<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-3"><span>[</span>4<span>]</span></a></sup> there are various <a href="/wiki/Backronym" title="Backronym">backronyms</a> in usage, such as: <i>Practical Extraction and Reporting Language</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-4"><span>[</span>5<span>]</span></a></sup> Perl was originally developed by <a href="/wiki/Larry_Wall" title="Larry Wall">Larry Wall</a> in 1987 as a general-purpose <a href="/wiki/Unix" title="Unix">Unix</a> scripting language to make report processing easier.<sup id="cite_ref-sheppard00_5-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-sheppard00-5"><span>[</span>6<span>]</span></a></sup> Since then, it has undergone many changes and revisions and become widely popular amongst programmers. Larry Wall continues to oversee development of the core language, and its upcoming version, <a href="/wiki/Perl_6" title="Perl 6">Perl 6</a>. Perl borrows features from other programming languages including <a href="/wiki/C_(programming_language)" title="C (programming language)">C</a>, <a href="/wiki/Shell_script" title="Shell script">shell scripting</a> (<a href="/wiki/Bourne_shell" title="Bourne shell">sh</a>), <a href="/wiki/AWK_(programming_language)" title="AWK (programming language)" class="mw-redirect">AWK</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Sed" title="Sed">sed</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-perltimeline_6-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-perltimeline-6"><span>[</span>7<span>]</span></a></sup> The language provides powerful text processing facilities without the arbitrary data length limits of many contemporary Unix tools,<sup id="cite_ref-programmingperl_7-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-programmingperl-7"><span>[</span>8<span>]</span></a></sup> facilitating easy manipulation of <a href="/wiki/Text_file" title="Text file">text files</a>. Perl gained widespread popularity in the late 1990s as a <a href="/wiki/Common_Gateway_Interface" title="Common Gateway Interface">CGI scripting</a> language, in part due to its parsing abilities.<sup id="cite_ref-roderick02_8-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-roderick02-8"><span>[</span>9<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
+<p>In addition to CGI, Perl is used for <a href="/wiki/Computer_graphics_(computer_science)" title="Computer graphics (computer science)">graphics programming</a>, <a href="/wiki/System_administrator" title="System administrator">system administration</a>, <a href="/wiki/Computer_network_programming" title="Computer network programming">network programming</a>, finance, <a href="/wiki/Bioinformatics" title="Bioinformatics">bioinformatics</a>, and other applications. Perl is nicknamed "the <a href="/wiki/Swiss_Army_knife" title="Swiss Army knife">Swiss Army chainsaw</a> of programming languages" because of its flexibility and power.<sup id="cite_ref-9" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-9"><span>[</span>10<span>]</span></a></sup> In 1998, it was also referred to as the "duct tape that holds the Internet together", in reference to its ubiquity and perceived inelegance.<sup id="cite_ref-leonard98_10-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-leonard98-10"><span>[</span>11<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
+<table id="toc" class="toc">
+<tr>
+<td>
+<div id="toctitle">
+<h2>Contents</h2>
+</div>
+<ul>
+<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#History"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">History</span></a>
+<ul>
+<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-2"><a href="#Early_versions"><span class="tocnumber">1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Early versions</span></a></li>
+<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-3"><a href="#Early_Perl_5"><span class="tocnumber">1.2</span> <span class="toctext">Early Perl 5</span></a></li>
+<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-4"><a href="#2000.E2.80.93present"><span class="tocnumber">1.3</span> <span class="toctext">2000–present</span></a></li>
+<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-5"><a href="#Name"><span class="tocnumber">1.4</span> <span class="toctext">Name</span></a></li>
+<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-6"><a href="#Camel_symbol"><span class="tocnumber">1.5</span> <span class="toctext">Camel symbol</span></a>
+<ul>
+<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-7"><a href="#Onion_symbol"><span class="tocnumber">1.5.1</span> <span class="toctext">Onion symbol</span></a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-8"><a href="#Overview"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Overview</span></a>
+<ul>
+<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-9"><a href="#Features"><span class="tocnumber">2.1</span> <span class="toctext">Features</span></a></li>
+<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-10"><a href="#Design"><span class="tocnumber">2.2</span> <span class="toctext">Design</span></a></li>
+<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-11"><a href="#Applications"><span class="tocnumber">2.3</span> <span class="toctext">Applications</span></a></li>
+<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-12"><a href="#Implementation"><span class="tocnumber">2.4</span> <span class="toctext">Implementation</span></a></li>
+<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-13"><a href="#Availability"><span class="tocnumber">2.5</span> <span class="toctext">Availability</span></a>
+<ul>
+<li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-14"><a href="#Windows"><span class="tocnumber">2.5.1</span> <span class="toctext">Windows</span></a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-15"><a href="#Database_interfaces"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Database interfaces</span></a></li>
+<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-16"><a href="#Comparative_performance"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Comparative performance</span></a>
+<ul>
+<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-17"><a href="#Optimizing"><span class="tocnumber">4.1</span> <span class="toctext">Optimizing</span></a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-18"><a href="#Perl_6"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">Perl 6</span></a></li>
+<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-19"><a href="#Future_of_Perl_5"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">Future of Perl 5</span></a></li>
+<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-20"><a href="#Perl_community"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">Perl community</span></a>
+<ul>
+<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-21"><a href="#State_of_the_Onion"><span class="tocnumber">7.1</span> <span class="toctext">State of the Onion</span></a></li>
+<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-22"><a href="#Perl_pastimes"><span class="tocnumber">7.2</span> <span class="toctext">Perl pastimes</span></a></li>
+<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-23"><a href="#Perl_on_IRC"><span class="tocnumber">7.3</span> <span class="toctext">Perl on IRC</span></a></li>
+<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-24"><a href="#CPAN_Acme"><span class="tocnumber">7.4</span> <span class="toctext">CPAN Acme</span></a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-25"><a href="#See_also"><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">See also</span></a></li>
+<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-26"><a href="#References"><span class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li>
+<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-27"><a href="#Further_reading"><span class="tocnumber">10</span> <span class="toctext">Further reading</span></a></li>
+<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-28"><a href="#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">11</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a></li>
+</ul>
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;section=1" title="Edit section: History">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="History">History</span></h2>
+<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;section=2" title="Edit section: Early versions">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Early_versions">Early versions</span></h3>
+<p><a href="/wiki/Larry_Wall" title="Larry Wall">Larry Wall</a> began work on Perl in 1987, while working as a programmer at <a href="/wiki/Unisys" title="Unisys">Unisys</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-programmingperl_7-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-programmingperl-7"><span>[</span>8<span>]</span></a></sup> and released version 1.0 to the comp.sources.misc <a href="/wiki/Newsgroup" title="Newsgroup" class="mw-redirect">newsgroup</a> on December 18, 1987.<sup id="cite_ref-11" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-11"><span>[</span>12<span>]</span></a></sup> The language expanded rapidly over the next few years.</p>
+<p>Perl 2, released in 1988, featured a better <a href="/wiki/Regular_expression" title="Regular expression">regular expression</a> engine. Perl 3, released in 1989, added support for <a href="/wiki/Binary_data" title="Binary data">binary data</a> streams.</p>
+<p>Originally the only documentation for Perl was a single (increasingly lengthy) <a href="/wiki/Man_page" title="Man page">man page</a>. In 1991, <i><a href="/wiki/Programming_Perl" title="Programming Perl">Programming Perl</a></i>, known to many Perl programmers as the "Camel Book" because of its cover, was published and became the <i>de facto</i> reference for the language. At the same time, the Perl version number was bumped to 4, not to mark a major change in the language but to identify the version that was documented by the book.</p>
+<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;section=3" title="Edit section: Early Perl 5">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Early_Perl_5">Early Perl 5</span></h3>
+<p>Perl 4 went through a series of maintenance releases, culminating in Perl 4.036 in 1993. At that point, Wall abandoned Perl 4 to begin work on Perl 5. Initial design of Perl 5 continued into 1994. The <i>perl5-porters</i> <a href="/wiki/Mailing_list" title="Mailing list">mailing list</a> was established in May 1994 to coordinate work on porting Perl 5 to different platforms. It remains the primary forum for development, maintenance, and porting of Perl 5.<sup id="cite_ref-12" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-12"><span>[</span>13<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
+<p>Perl 5.000 was released on October 17, 1994.<sup id="cite_ref-13" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-13"><span>[</span>14<span>]</span></a></sup> It was a nearly complete rewrite of the <a href="/wiki/Interpreter_(computing)" title="Interpreter (computing)">interpreter</a>, and it added many new features to the language, including objects, references, <a href="/wiki/Local_variable" title="Local variable">lexical (my) variables</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Module_(programming)" title="Module (programming)" class="mw-redirect">modules</a>. Importantly, modules provided a mechanism for extending the language without modifying the interpreter. This allowed the core interpreter to stabilize, even as it enabled ordinary Perl programmers to add new language features. Perl 5 has been in active development since then.</p>
+<p>Perl 5.001 was released on March 13, 1995. Perl 5.002 was released on February 29, 1996 with the new prototypes feature. This allowed module authors to make subroutines that behaved like Perl <a href="/wiki/Shell_builtin" title="Shell builtin">builtins</a>. Perl 5.003 was released June 25, 1996, as a security release.</p>
+<p>One of the most important events in Perl 5 history took place outside of the language proper and was a consequence of its module support. On October 26, 1995, the <a href="/wiki/Comprehensive_Perl_Archive_Network" title="Comprehensive Perl Archive Network" class="mw-redirect">Comprehensive Perl Archive Network</a> (CPAN) was established as a <a href="/wiki/Software_repository" title="Software repository">repository</a> for <a href="/wiki/Perl_module" title="Perl module">Perl modules</a> and Perl itself; as of April 2012, it carries over 24,500 modules by more than 9,500 authors.<sup id="cite_ref-14" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-14"><span>[</span>15<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
+<p>Perl 5.004 was released on May 15, 1997, and included among other things the UNIVERSAL package, giving Perl a base object to which all classes were automatically derived and the ability to require versions of modules. Another significant development was the inclusion of the <a href="/wiki/CGI.pm" title="CGI.pm">CGI.pm</a> module,<sup id="cite_ref-5004delta_15-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5004delta-15"><span>[</span>16<span>]</span></a></sup> which contributed to Perl's popularity as a CGI scripting language.<sup id="cite_ref-patwardhan02_16-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-patwardhan02-16"><span>[</span>17<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
+<p>Perl also now supported running under Microsoft Windows and several other operating systems.<sup id="cite_ref-5004delta_15-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5004delta-15"><span>[</span>16<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
+<p>Perl 5.005 was released on July 22, 1998. This release included several enhancements to the <a href="/wiki/Regular_expression" title="Regular expression">regex</a> engine, new hooks into the backend through the <code>B::*</code> modules, the <code>qr//</code> regex quote operator, a large selection of other new core modules, and added support for several more operating systems, including <a href="/wiki/BeOS" title="BeOS">BeOS</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-5005delta_17-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5005delta-17"><span>[</span>18<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
+<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;section=4" title="Edit section: 2000–present">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="2000.E2.80.93present">2000–present</span></h3>
+<p>Perl 5.6 was released on March 22, 2000. Major changes included 64-bit support, <a href="/wiki/Unicode" title="Unicode">Unicode</a> string representation, large file support (i.e. files over 2 GiB) and the "our" keyword.<sup id="cite_ref-56delta_18-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-56delta-18"><span>[</span>19<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-561delta_19-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-561delta-19"><span>[</span>20<span>]</span></a></sup> When developing Perl 5.6, the decision was made to switch the versioning scheme to one more similar to other open source projects; after 5.005_63, the next version became 5.5.640, with plans for development versions to have odd numbers and stable versions to have even numbers.</p>
+<p>In 2000, Larry Wall put forth a call for suggestions for a new version of Perl from the community. The process resulted in 361 RFC (request for comments) documents which were to be used in guiding development of Perl 6. In 2001,<sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-20"><span>[</span>21<span>]</span></a></sup> work began on the apocalypses for <a href="/wiki/Perl_6" title="Perl 6">Perl 6</a>, a series of documents meant to summarize the change requests and present the design of the next generation of Perl. They were presented as a digest of the RFCs, rather than a formal document. At this point, Perl 6 existed only as a description of a language.</p>
+<p>Perl 5.8 was first released on July 18, 2002, and had nearly yearly updates since then. The latest version of Perl 5.8 is 5.8.9, released December 14, 2008. Perl 5.8 improved unicode support, added a new IO implementation, added a new thread implementation, improved numeric accuracy, and added several new modules.<sup id="cite_ref-perl58delta_21-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-perl58delta-21"><span>[</span>22<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
+<p>In 2004, work began on the Synopses – originally documents that summarized the Apocalypses, but which became the specification for the Perl 6 language. In February 2005, <a href="/wiki/Audrey_Tang" title="Audrey Tang">Audrey Tang</a> began work on <a href="/wiki/Pugs" title="Pugs">Pugs</a>, a Perl 6 interpreter written in <a href="/wiki/Haskell_(programming_language)" title="Haskell (programming language)">Haskell</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-22" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-22"><span>[</span>23<span>]</span></a></sup> This was the first concerted effort towards making Perl 6 a reality. This effort stalled in 2006.<sup id="cite_ref-23" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-23"><span>[</span>24<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
+<p>On December 18, 2007, the 20th anniversary of Perl 1.0, Perl 5.10.0 was released. Perl 5.10.0 included notable new features, which brought it closer to <a href="/wiki/Perl_6" title="Perl 6">Perl 6</a>. These included a <a href="/wiki/Switch_statement" title="Switch statement">switch statement</a> (called "given"/"when"), regular expressions updates, and the smart match operator, "~~".<sup id="cite_ref-5100delta_24-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5100delta-24"><span>[</span>25<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-perlsyn-smart_25-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-perlsyn-smart-25"><span>[</span>26<span>]</span></a></sup> Around this same time, development began in earnest on another implementation of Perl 6 known as <a href="/wiki/Rakudo_Perl" title="Rakudo Perl" class="mw-redirect">Rakudo Perl</a>, developed in tandem with the <a href="/wiki/Parrot_virtual_machine" title="Parrot virtual machine">Parrot virtual machine</a>. As of November 2009, Rakudo Perl has had regular monthly releases and now is the most complete implementation of <a href="/wiki/Perl_6" title="Perl 6">Perl 6</a>.</p>
+<p>A major change in the development process of Perl 5 occurred with Perl 5.11; the development community has switched to a monthly release cycle, with planned release dates three months ahead.</p>
+<p>On April 12, 2010, Perl 5.12.0 was released. Notable core enhancements include new <code>package NAME VERSION</code> syntax, the Yada Yada operator (intended to mark placeholder code that is not yet implemented), implicit strictures, full <a href="/wiki/Y2038" title="Y2038" class="mw-redirect">Y2038</a> compliance, regex conversion overloading, <a href="/wiki/DTrace" title="DTrace">DTrace</a> support, and <a href="/wiki/Unicode" title="Unicode">Unicode</a> 5.2.<sup id="cite_ref-5120delta_26-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5120delta-26"><span>[</span>27<span>]</span></a></sup> On January 21, 2011, Perl 5.12.3 was released; it contains updated modules and some documentation changes.<sup id="cite_ref-5123delta_27-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5123delta-27"><span>[</span>28<span>]</span></a></sup> Version 5.12.4 was released on June 20, 2011.</p>
+<p>On May 14, 2011, Perl 5.14 was released. On September 26, 2011, the latest version, 5.14.2, was released.</p>
+<p>The latest development release of Perl 5 is 5.15.8, released by Max Maischein on February 20, 2012.</p>
+<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;section=5" title="Edit section: Name">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Name">Name</span></h3>
+<p>Perl was originally named "Pearl". Larry Wall wanted to give the language a short name with positive connotations; he claims that he considered (and rejected) every three- and four-letter word in the dictionary. He also considered naming it after his wife Gloria. Wall discovered the existing <a href="/wiki/PEARL_(programming_language)" title="PEARL (programming language)">PEARL</a> programming language before Perl's official release and changed the spelling of the name.<sup id="cite_ref-richardson1999_28-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-richardson1999-28"><span>[</span>29<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
+<p>When referring to the language, the name is normally capitalized (<i>Perl</i>) as a proper noun. When referring to the interpreter program itself, the name is often uncapitalized (<i>perl</i>) because most Unix-like file systems are case-sensitive. Before the release of the first edition of <i>Programming Perl</i>, it was common to refer to the language as <i>perl</i>; <a href="/wiki/Randal_L._Schwartz" title="Randal L. Schwartz">Randal L. Schwartz</a>, however, capitalized the language's name in the book to make it stand out better when typeset. This case distinction was subsequently documented as canonical.<sup id="cite_ref-capitalization_29-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-capitalization-29"><span>[</span>30<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
+<p>There is some contention about the all-caps spelling "PERL", which the documentation declares incorrect<sup id="cite_ref-capitalization_29-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-capitalization-29"><span>[</span>30<span>]</span></a></sup> and which some core community members consider a <a href="/wiki/Shibboleth" title="Shibboleth">sign of outsiders</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-30" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-30"><span>[</span>31<span>]</span></a></sup> The name is occasionally <a href="/wiki/Backronym" title="Backronym">backronymed</a> as <i>Practical Extraction and Report Language</i>, which appears at the top of the documentation<sup id="cite_ref-richardson1999_28-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-richardson1999-28"><span>[</span>29<span>]</span></a></sup> and in some printed literature.<sup id="cite_ref-31" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-31"><span>[</span>32<span>]</span></a></sup> Several backronyms have been suggested as equally canonical, including Wall's own humorous <i>Pathologically Eclectic Rubbish Lister</i>.<sup id="cite_ref-32" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-32"><span>[</span>33<span>]</span></a></sup> Indeed, Wall claims that the name was intended to inspire many different expansions.<sup id="cite_ref-33" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-33"><span>[</span>34<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
+<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;section=6" title="Edit section: Camel symbol">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Camel_symbol">Camel symbol</span></h3>
+<div class="floatright"><a href="/wiki/File:Perl-camel-small.png" class="image"><img alt="The Camel symbol used by O'Reilly Media" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/0/00/Perl-camel-small.png" width="144" height="149" /></a></div>
+<p><i>Programming Perl</i>, published by <a href="/wiki/O%27Reilly_Media" title="O'Reilly Media">O'Reilly Media</a>, features a picture of a <a href="/wiki/Camel" title="Camel">camel</a> on the cover and is commonly referred to as the "Camel Book".<sup id="cite_ref-schwartz01_34-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-schwartz01-34"><span>[</span>35<span>]</span></a></sup> This image of a camel has become an unofficial symbol of Perl as well as a general <a href="/wiki/Hacker_(programmer_subculture)" title="Hacker (programmer subculture)">hacker</a> emblem, appearing on T-shirts and other clothing items.</p>
+<p>O'Reilly owns the image as a trademark but licenses it for non-commercial use, requiring only an acknowledgement and a link to www.perl.com. Licensing for commercial use is decided on a case by case basis.<sup id="cite_ref-camel_35-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-camel-35"><span>[</span>36<span>]</span></a></sup> O'Reilly also provides "Programming Republic of Perl" logos for non-commercial sites and "Powered by Perl" buttons for any site that uses Perl.<sup id="cite_ref-camel_35-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-camel-35"><span>[</span>36<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
+<h4><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;section=7" title="Edit section: Onion symbol">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Onion_symbol">Onion symbol</span></h4>
+<div class="floatright"><a href="/wiki/File:Onion_64x64.png" class="image"><img alt="The onion logo used by The Perl Foundation" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/a4/Onion_64x64.png" width="64" height="64" /></a></div>
+<p><a href="/wiki/The_Perl_Foundation" title="The Perl Foundation">The Perl Foundation</a> owns an alternative symbol, an onion, which it licenses to its subsidiaries, <a href="/wiki/Perl_Mongers" title="Perl Mongers">Perl Mongers</a>, <a href="/wiki/PerlMonks" title="PerlMonks">PerlMonks</a>, Perl.org, and others.<sup id="cite_ref-onion_36-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-onion-36"><span>[</span>37<span>]</span></a></sup> The symbol is a <a href="/wiki/Visual_pun" title="Visual pun">visual pun</a> on <a href="/wiki/Pearl_onion" title="Pearl onion">pearl onion</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-gillmore98_37-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-gillmore98-37"><span>[</span>38<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
+<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;section=8" title="Edit section: Overview">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Overview">Overview</span></h2>
+<div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Perl_language_structure" title="Perl language structure">Perl language structure</a></div>
+<p>Perl is a general-purpose programming language originally developed for text manipulation, but as of 2010<sup class="plainlinks noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit">[update]</a></sup> is used for a wide range of tasks including <a href="/wiki/System_administration" title="System administration" class="mw-redirect">system administration</a>, <a href="/wiki/Web_development" title="Web development">web development</a>, <a href="/wiki/Computer_network_programming" title="Computer network programming">network programming</a>, games, <a href="/wiki/Bioinformatics" title="Bioinformatics">bioinformatics</a>, and <a href="/wiki/GUI" title="GUI" class="mw-redirect">GUI</a> development.</p>
+<p>The language is intended to be practical (easy to use, efficient, complete) rather than beautiful (tiny, elegant, minimal).<sup id="cite_ref-38" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-38"><span>[</span>39<span>]</span></a></sup> Its major features include support for multiple <a href="/wiki/Programming_paradigm" title="Programming paradigm">programming paradigms</a> (<a href="/wiki/Procedural_programming_language" title="Procedural programming language" class="mw-redirect">procedural</a>, <a href="/wiki/Object-oriented_programming" title="Object-oriented programming">object-oriented</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Functional_programming" title="Functional programming">functional</a> styles), <a href="/wiki/Reference_counting" title="Reference counting">reference counting</a> <a href="/wiki/Memory_management" title="Memory management">memory management</a> (without a cycle-detecting garbage collector), built-in support for text processing, and a large collection of third-party <a href="/wiki/Module_(programming)" title="Module (programming)" class="mw-redirect">modules</a>.</p>
+<p>According to Larry Wall, Perl has two slogans. The first is "<a href="/wiki/There%27s_more_than_one_way_to_do_it" title="There's more than one way to do it">There's more than one way to do it</a>", commonly known as TMTOWTDI. The second slogan is "Easy things should be easy and hard things should be possible".<sup id="cite_ref-programmingperl_7-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-programmingperl-7"><span>[</span>8<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
+<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;section=9" title="Edit section: Features">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Features">Features</span></h3>
+<p>The overall structure of Perl derives broadly from C. Perl is <a href="/wiki/Procedural_programming" title="Procedural programming">procedural</a> in nature, with <a href="/wiki/Variable_(programming)" title="Variable (programming)" class="mw-redirect">variables</a>, <a href="/wiki/Expression_(programming)" title="Expression (programming)" class="mw-redirect">expressions</a>, <a href="/wiki/Assignment_statement" title="Assignment statement" class="mw-redirect">assignment statements</a>, <a href="/wiki/Bracket" title="Bracket">brace</a>-delimited <a href="/wiki/Block_(programming)" title="Block (programming)">blocks</a>, <a href="/wiki/Control_structure" title="Control structure" class="mw-redirect">control structures</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Subroutine" title="Subroutine">subroutines</a>.</p>
+<p>Perl also takes features from shell programming. All variables are marked with leading <a href="/wiki/Sigil_(computer_programming)" title="Sigil (computer programming)">sigils</a>, which unambiguously identify the data type (for example, scalar, array, hash) of the variable in context. Importantly, sigils allow variables to be interpolated directly into strings. Perl has many built-in functions that provide tools often used in shell programming (although many of these tools are implemented by programs external to the shell) such as sorting, and calling on system facilities.</p>
+<p>Perl takes <a href="/wiki/List_(computing)" title="List (computing)" class="mw-redirect">lists</a> from <a href="/wiki/Lisp_(programming_language)" title="Lisp (programming language)">Lisp</a>, <a href="/wiki/Associative_array" title="Associative array">hashes</a> ("associative arrays") from <a href="/wiki/AWK" title="AWK">AWK</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Regular_expression" title="Regular expression">regular expressions</a> from <a href="/wiki/Sed" title="Sed">sed</a>. These simplify and facilitate many parsing, text-handling, and data-management tasks.</p>
+<p>Perl 5 added features that support complex <a href="/wiki/Data_structure" title="Data structure">data structures</a>, <a href="/wiki/First-class_function" title="First-class function">first-class functions</a> (that is, <a href="/wiki/Closure_(computer_science)" title="Closure (computer science)">closures</a> as values), and an object-oriented programming model. These include <a href="/wiki/Reference_(computer_science)" title="Reference (computer science)">references</a>, packages, class-based method dispatch, and <a href="/wiki/Scope_(programming)" title="Scope (programming)" class="mw-redirect">lexically scoped variables</a>, along with <a href="/wiki/Compiler_directive" title="Compiler directive" class="mw-redirect">compiler directives</a> (for example, the <code>strict</code> pragma). A major additional feature introduced with Perl 5 was the ability to package code as reusable modules. Larry Wall later stated that "The whole intent of Perl 5's module system was to encourage the growth of Perl culture rather than the Perl core."<sup id="cite_ref-39" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-39"><span>[</span>40<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
+<p>All versions of Perl do automatic data-typing and automatic memory-management. The interpreter knows the type and storage requirements of every data object in the program; it allocates and frees storage for them as necessary using <a href="/wiki/Reference_counting" title="Reference counting">reference counting</a> (so it cannot deallocate circular data structures without manual intervention). Legal type-conversions — for example, conversions from number to string — are done automatically at run time; illegal type conversions are fatal errors.</p>
+<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;section=10" title="Edit section: Design">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Design">Design</span></h3>
+<p>The design of Perl can be understood as a response to three broad trends in the computer industry: falling hardware costs, rising labor costs, and improvements in compiler technology. Many earlier computer languages, such as <a href="/wiki/Fortran" title="Fortran">Fortran</a> and C, aimed to make efficient use of expensive computer hardware. In contrast, Perl is designed to make efficient use of expensive computer-programmers.</p>
+<p>Perl has many features that ease the task of the programmer at the expense of greater CPU and memory requirements. These include automatic memory management; <a href="/wiki/Dynamic_typing" title="Dynamic typing" class="mw-redirect">dynamic typing</a>; strings, lists, and hashes; regular expressions; introspection; and an <code>eval()</code> function. Perl follows the theory of "no built-in limits",<sup id="cite_ref-schwartz01_34-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-schwartz01-34"><span>[</span>35<span>]</span></a></sup> an idea similar to the <a href="/wiki/Zero_One_Infinity" title="Zero One Infinity" class="mw-redirect">Zero One Infinity</a> rule.</p>
+<p>Wall was trained as a linguist, and the design of Perl is very much informed by linguistic principles. Examples include <a href="/wiki/Huffman_coding" title="Huffman coding">Huffman coding</a> (common constructions should be short), good end-weighting (the important information should come first), and a large collection of language primitives. Perl favors language constructs that are concise and natural for humans to write, even where they complicate the Perl interpreter.</p>
+<p>Perl syntax reflects the idea that "things that are different should look different."<sup id="cite_ref-wall97_40-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-wall97-40"><span>[</span>41<span>]</span></a></sup> For example, scalars, arrays, and hashes have different leading sigils. Array indices and hash keys use different kinds of braces. Strings and regular expressions have different standard delimiters. This approach can be contrasted with languages such as <a href="/wiki/Lisp_programming_language" title="Lisp programming language" class="mw-redirect">Lisp</a>, where the same <a href="/wiki/S-expression" title="S-expression">S-expression</a> construct and basic syntax are used for many different purposes.</p>
+<p>Perl does not enforce any particular programming paradigm (procedural, object-oriented, functional, or others) or even require the programmer to choose among them.</p>
+<p>There is a broad practical bent to both the Perl language and the community and culture that surround it. The preface to <i>Programming Perl</i> begins: "Perl is a language for getting your job done."<sup id="cite_ref-programmingperl_7-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-programmingperl-7"><span>[</span>8<span>]</span></a></sup> One consequence of this is that Perl is not a tidy language. It includes many features, tolerates exceptions to its rules, and employs <a href="/wiki/Heuristics" title="Heuristics" class="mw-redirect">heuristics</a> to resolve syntactical ambiguities. Because of the forgiving nature of the compiler, bugs can sometimes be hard to find. Perl's function documentation remarks on the variant behavior of built-in functions in list and scalar contexts that "In general, they do what you want, unless you want consistency."<sup id="cite_ref-perlfunc_41-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-perlfunc-41"><span>[</span>42<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
+<p>No written specification or standard for the Perl language exists for Perl versions through Perl 5, and there are no plans to create one for the current version of Perl. There has been only one implementation of the interpreter, and the language has evolved along with it. That interpreter, together with its functional tests, stands as a <i>de facto</i> specification of the language. <a href="/wiki/Perl_6" title="Perl 6">Perl 6</a>, however, started with a specification,<sup id="cite_ref-42" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-42"><span>[</span>43<span>]</span></a></sup> and several projects<sup id="cite_ref-43" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-43"><span>[</span>44<span>]</span></a></sup> aim to implement some or all of the specification.</p>
+<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;section=11" title="Edit section: Applications">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Applications">Applications</span></h3>
+<p>Perl has many and varied applications, compounded by the availability of many standard and third-party modules.</p>
+<p>Ever since the early days of the Web, programmers have used Perl to write <a href="/wiki/Common_Gateway_Interface" title="Common Gateway Interface">CGI</a> scripts. Perl is known as one of "the three Ps" (along with <a href="/wiki/Python_(programming_language)" title="Python (programming language)">Python</a> and <a href="/wiki/PHP" title="PHP">PHP</a>), the most popular dynamic languages for writing Web applications. It is also an integral component of the popular <a href="/wiki/LAMP_(software_bundle)" title="LAMP (software bundle)">LAMP</a> <a href="/wiki/Solution_stack" title="Solution stack">solution stack</a> for web development. Large projects written in Perl include <a href="/wiki/CPanel" title="CPanel">cPanel</a>, <a href="/w/index.php?title=Slash_(weblog_system)&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Slash (weblog system) (page does not exist)">Slash</a>, <a href="/wiki/Bugzilla" title="Bugzilla">Bugzilla</a>, <a href="/wiki/Request_Tracker" title="Request Tracker">RT</a>, <a href="/wiki/TWiki" title="TWiki">TWiki</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Movable_Type" title="Movable Type">Movable Type</a>. Many high-traffic websites use Perl extensively. Examples include <a href="/wiki/Amazon.com" title="Amazon.com">Amazon.com</a>, <a href="/wiki/Bbc.co.uk" title="Bbc.co.uk" class="mw-redirect">bbc.co.uk</a>, <a href="/wiki/Priceline.com" title="Priceline.com">Priceline.com</a>, <a href="/wiki/Craigslist" title="Craigslist">Craigslist</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-44" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-44"><span>[</span>45<span>]</span></a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Internet_Movie_Database" title="Internet Movie Database">IMDb</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-45" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-45"><span>[</span>46<span>]</span></a></sup> <a href="/wiki/LiveJournal" title="LiveJournal">LiveJournal</a>, <a href="/wiki/Slashdot" title="Slashdot">Slashdot</a> and <a href="/wiki/Ticketmaster" title="Ticketmaster">Ticketmaster</a>.</p>
+<p>Perl is often used as a <a href="/wiki/Glue_language" title="Glue language">glue language</a>, tying together systems and interfaces that were not specifically designed to interoperate, and for "data munging",<sup id="cite_ref-46" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-46"><span>[</span>47<span>]</span></a></sup> that is, converting or processing large amounts of data for tasks such as creating reports. In fact, these strengths are intimately linked. The combination makes Perl a popular all-purpose language for <a href="/wiki/System_administrator" title="System administrator">system administrators</a>, particularly because short programs can be entered and run on a single command line.</p>
+<p>With a degree of care, Perl code can be made portable across <a href="/wiki/Microsoft_Windows" title="Microsoft Windows">Windows</a> and Unix. Portable Perl code is often used by suppliers of software (both <a href="/wiki/Commercial_off-the-shelf" title="Commercial off-the-shelf">COTS</a> and bespoke) to simplify packaging and maintenance of software build- and deployment-scripts.</p>
+<p>Graphical user interfaces (GUIs) may be developed using Perl. For example, Perl/Tk is commonly used to enable user interaction with Perl scripts. Such interaction may be synchronous or asynchronous, using callbacks to update the GUI. For more information about the technologies involved, see <a href="/wiki/Tk_(computing)" title="Tk (computing)" class="mw-redirect">Tk</a>, <a href="/wiki/Tcl" title="Tcl">Tcl</a> and <a href="/wiki/WxPerl" title="WxPerl">WxPerl</a>.</p>
+<p>Perl is also widely used in finance and in <a href="/wiki/Bioinformatics" title="Bioinformatics">bioinformatics</a>, where it is valued for rapid application development and deployment and for its capability to handle large data-sets.</p>
+<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;section=12" title="Edit section: Implementation">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Implementation">Implementation</span></h3>
+<p>Perl is implemented as a core interpreter, written in C, together with a large collection of modules, written in Perl and C. As of 2010<sup class="plainlinks noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit">[update]</a></sup>, the stable version (5.12.3) is 14.2&#160;<a href="/wiki/Megabyte" title="Megabyte">MB</a> when packaged in a <a href="/wiki/Tar_(file_format)" title="Tar (file format)">tar file</a> and <a href="/wiki/Gzip" title="Gzip">gzip</a> compressed.<sup id="cite_ref-47" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-47"><span>[</span>48<span>]</span></a></sup> The interpreter is 150,000 lines of C code and compiles to a 1&#160;MB executable on typical machine architectures. Alternatively, the interpreter can be compiled to a link library and embedded in other programs. There are nearly 500 modules in the distribution, comprising 200,000 lines of Perl and an additional 350,000 lines of C code. (Much of the C code in the modules consists of character-encoding tables.)</p>
+<p>The interpreter has an object-oriented architecture. All of the elements of the Perl language—scalars, arrays, hashes, coderefs, filehandles—are represented in the interpreter by <a href="/wiki/Struct_(C_programming_language)" title="Struct (C programming language)">C structs</a>. Operations on these structs are defined by a large collection of macros, typedefs, and functions; these constitute the Perl C API. The Perl API can be bewildering to the uninitiated, but its entry points follow a consistent naming-scheme, which provides guidance to those who use it.</p>
+<p>The life of a Perl interpreter divides broadly into a compile phase and a run phase.<sup id="cite_ref-48" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-48"><span>[</span>49<span>]</span></a></sup> In Perl, the <b>phases</b> are the major stages in the interpreter's life-cycle. Each interpreter goes through each phase only once, and the phases follow in a fixed sequence.</p>
+<p>Most of what happens in Perl's compile phase is compilation, and most of what happens in Perl's run phase is execution, but there are significant exceptions. Perl makes important use of its capability to execute Perl code during the compile phase. Perl will also delay compilation into the run phase. The terms that indicate the kind of processing that is actually occurring at any moment are <b>compile time</b> and <b>run time</b>. Perl is in compile time at most points during the compile phase, but compile time may also be entered during the run phase. The compile time for code in a string argument passed to the <code><a href="/wiki/Eval" title="Eval">eval</a></code> built-in occurs during the run phase. Perl is often in run time during the compile phase and spends most of the run phase in run time. Code in <code>BEGIN</code> blocks executes at run time but in the compile phase.</p>
+<p>At compile time, the interpreter parses Perl code into a <a href="/wiki/Abstract_syntax_tree" title="Abstract syntax tree">syntax tree</a>. At run time, it executes the program by <a href="/wiki/Tree_traversal" title="Tree traversal">walking the tree</a>. Text is parsed only once, and the syntax tree is subject to optimization before it is executed, so that execution is relatively efficient. Compile-time optimizations on the syntax tree include <a href="/wiki/Constant_folding" title="Constant folding">constant folding</a> and context propagation, but <a href="/wiki/Peephole_optimization" title="Peephole optimization">peephole optimization</a> is also performed.</p>
+<p>Perl has a <a href="/wiki/Turing-complete" title="Turing-complete" class="mw-redirect">Turing-complete</a> <a href="/wiki/Formal_grammar" title="Formal grammar">grammar</a> because parsing can be affected by run-time code executed during the compile phase.<sup id="cite_ref-49" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-49"><span>[</span>50<span>]</span></a></sup> Therefore, Perl cannot be parsed by a straight <a href="/wiki/Lex_programming_tool" title="Lex programming tool" class="mw-redirect">Lex</a>/<a href="/wiki/Yacc" title="Yacc">Yacc</a> <a href="/wiki/Lexical_analysis" title="Lexical analysis">lexer</a>/<a href="/wiki/Parser" title="Parser" class="mw-redirect">parser</a> combination. Instead, the interpreter implements its own lexer, which coordinates with a modified <a href="/wiki/GNU_bison" title="GNU bison">GNU bison</a> parser to resolve ambiguities in the language.</p>
+<p>It is often said that "Only perl can parse Perl",<sup id="cite_ref-50" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-50"><span>[</span>51<span>]</span></a></sup> meaning that only the Perl interpreter (<i><code>perl</code></i>) can parse the Perl language (<i>Perl</i>), but even this is not, in general, true. Because the Perl interpreter can simulate a Turing machine during its compile phase, it would need to decide the <a href="/wiki/Halting_Problem" title="Halting Problem" class="mw-redirect">Halting Problem</a> in order to complete parsing in every case. It's a long-standing result that the Halting Problem is undecidable, and therefore not even perl can always parse Perl. Perl makes the unusual choice of giving the user access to its full programming power in its own compile phase. The cost in terms of theoretical purity is high, but practical inconvenience seems to be rare.</p>
+<p>Other programs that undertake to parse Perl, such as source-code analyzers and auto-indenters, have to contend not only with ambiguous syntactic constructs but also with the undecidability of Perl parsing in the general case. Adam Kennedy's PPI project focused on parsing Perl code as a document (retaining its integrity as a document), instead of parsing Perl as executable code (which not even Perl itself can always do). It was Kennedy who first conjectured that "parsing Perl suffers from the '<a href="/wiki/Halting_problem" title="Halting problem">Halting Problem</a>'",<sup id="cite_ref-51" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-51"><span>[</span>52<span>]</span></a></sup> which was later proved.<sup id="cite_ref-52" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-52"><span>[</span>53<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
+<p>Perl is distributed with some 120,000 functional tests. These run as part of the normal build process and extensively exercise the interpreter and its core modules. Perl developers rely on the functional tests to ensure that changes to the interpreter do not introduce bugs; additionally, Perl users who see that the interpreter passes its functional tests on their system can have a high degree of confidence that it is working properly.</p>
+<p>Maintenance of the Perl interpreter has become increasingly difficult over the years. The code base has undergone continuous development since 1994. The code has been optimized for performance at the expense of simplicity, clarity, and strong internal interfaces. New features have been added, yet virtually complete backward compatibility with earlier versions is maintained. Major releases of Perl were coordinated by Perl pumpkings,<sup id="cite_ref-53" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-53"><span>[</span>54<span>]</span></a></sup> which handled integrating patch submissions and bug fixes, but the language has since changed to a rotating, monthly release cycle. Development discussion takes place via the perl5_porters mailing list. As of Perl 5.11, development efforts have included refactoring certain core modules known as 'dual lifed' modules out of the Perl core<sup id="cite_ref-5110delta_54-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5110delta-54"><span>[</span>55<span>]</span></a></sup> to help alleviate some of these problems.</p>
+<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;section=13" title="Edit section: Availability">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Availability">Availability</span></h3>
+<p>Perl is <a href="/wiki/Dual_licensed" title="Dual licensed" class="mw-redirect">dual licensed</a> under both the <a href="/wiki/Artistic_License" title="Artistic License">Artistic License</a> and the <a href="/wiki/GNU_General_Public_License" title="GNU General Public License">GNU General Public License</a>. Distributions are available for most <a href="/wiki/Operating_system" title="Operating system">operating systems</a>. It is particularly prevalent on <a href="/wiki/Unix" title="Unix">Unix</a> and <a href="/wiki/Unix-like" title="Unix-like">Unix-like</a> systems, but it has been ported to most modern (and many obsolete) platforms. With only six reported exceptions, Perl can be compiled from <a href="/wiki/Source_code" title="Source code">source code</a> on all <a href="/wiki/POSIX" title="POSIX">POSIX</a>-compliant, or otherwise-Unix-compatible platforms.<sup id="cite_ref-cpanports_55-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-cpanports-55"><span>[</span>56<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
+<p>Because of unusual changes required for the <a href="/wiki/Mac_OS_history" title="Mac OS history" class="mw-redirect">Mac OS Classic</a> environment, a special port called MacPerl was shipped independently.<sup id="cite_ref-macperl_56-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-macperl-56"><span>[</span>57<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
+<p>The <a href="/wiki/CPAN" title="CPAN">Comprehensive Perl Archive Network</a> carries a complete list of supported platforms with links to the distributions available on each.<sup id="cite_ref-57" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-57"><span>[</span>58<span>]</span></a></sup> CPAN is also the source for publicly available Perl modules that are not part of the core Perl distribution.</p>
+<h4><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;section=14" title="Edit section: Windows">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Windows">Windows</span></h4>
+<p>Users of <a href="/wiki/Microsoft_Windows" title="Microsoft Windows">Microsoft Windows</a> typically install one of the native binary distributions of Perl for Win32, most commonly <a href="/wiki/Strawberry_Perl" title="Strawberry Perl">Strawberry Perl</a> or <a href="/wiki/ActivePerl" title="ActivePerl" class="mw-redirect">ActivePerl</a>. Compiling Perl from <a href="/wiki/Source_code" title="Source code">source code</a> under Windows is possible, but most installations lack the requisite C compiler and build tools. This also makes it difficult to install modules from the CPAN, particularly those that are partially written in C.</p>
+<p><a href="/wiki/ActivePerl" title="ActivePerl" class="mw-redirect">ActivePerl</a> is a closed source distribution from <a href="/wiki/ActiveState" title="ActiveState">ActiveState</a> that has regular releases that track the core Perl releases.<sup id="cite_ref-activestate_58-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-activestate-58"><span>[</span>59<span>]</span></a></sup> The distribution also includes the <a href="/wiki/Perl_package_manager" title="Perl package manager">Perl package manager</a> (PPM),<sup id="cite_ref-activestateppm_59-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-activestateppm-59"><span>[</span>60<span>]</span></a></sup> a popular tool for installing, removing, upgrading, and managing the use of common Perl modules.</p>
+<p><a href="/wiki/Strawberry_Perl" title="Strawberry Perl">Strawberry Perl</a> is an open source distribution for Windows. It has had regular, quarterly releases since January 2008, including new modules as feedback and requests come in. Strawberry Perl aims to be able to install modules like standard Perl distributions on other platforms, including compiling XS modules.</p>
+<p>The <a href="/wiki/Cygwin" title="Cygwin">Cygwin</a> emulation layer is another way of running Perl under Windows. Cygwin provides a Unix-like environment on Windows, and both Perl and CPAN are available as standard pre-compiled packages in the Cygwin setup program. Because Cygwin also includes the <a href="/wiki/GNU_Compiler_Collection" title="GNU Compiler Collection">gcc</a>, compiling Perl from source is also possible.</p>
+<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;section=15" title="Edit section: Database interfaces">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Database_interfaces">Database interfaces</span></h2>
+<p>Perl is widely favored for database applications. Its text-handling facilities are useful for generating <a href="/wiki/SQL" title="SQL">SQL</a> queries; arrays, hashes, and automatic memory management make it easy to collect and process the returned data.</p>
+<p>In early versions of Perl, database interfaces were created by relinking the interpreter with a client-side database library. This was sufficiently difficult that it was done for only a few of the most-important and most widely used databases, and it restricted the resulting <code>perl</code> executable to using just one database interface at a time.</p>
+<p>In Perl 5, database interfaces are implemented by <a href="/wiki/Perl_DBI" title="Perl DBI">Perl DBI</a> modules. The DBI (Database Interface) module presents a single, database-independent interface to Perl applications, while the DBD (Database Driver) modules handle the details of accessing some 50 different databases; there are DBD drivers for most <a href="/wiki/American_National_Standards_Institute" title="American National Standards Institute">ANSI</a> <a href="/wiki/SQL" title="SQL">SQL</a> databases.</p>
+<p>DBI provides caching for database handles and queries, which can greatly improve performance in long-lived execution environments such as <a href="/wiki/Mod_perl" title="Mod perl">mod_perl</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-60" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-60"><span>[</span>61<span>]</span></a></sup> helping high-volume systems avert load spikes as in the <a href="/wiki/Slashdot_effect" title="Slashdot effect">Slashdot effect</a>.</p>
+<p>In modern Perl applications, especially those written using <a href="/wiki/Web_application_framework" title="Web application framework">Web application frameworks</a> such as <a href="/wiki/Catalyst_(software)" title="Catalyst (software)">Catalyst</a>, the DBI module is often used indirectly via <a href="/wiki/Object-relational_mapper" title="Object-relational mapper" class="mw-redirect">object-relational mappers</a> such as <a href="/wiki/DBIx::Class" title="DBIx::Class">DBIx::Class</a>, <a href="/w/index.php?title=Class::DBI&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Class::DBI (page does not exist)">Class::DBI</a> or <a href="/w/index.php?title=Rose::DB::Object&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Rose::DB::Object (page does not exist)">Rose::DB::Object</a> which generate SQL queries and handle data transparently to the application author.</p>
+<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;section=16" title="Edit section: Comparative performance">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Comparative_performance">Comparative performance</span></h2>
+<p>The Computer Language Benchmarks Game, a project hosted by <a href="/wiki/Alioth_(Debian)" title="Alioth (Debian)">Alioth</a>, compares the performance of implementations of typical programming problems in several programming languages.<sup id="cite_ref-61" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-61"><span>[</span>62<span>]</span></a></sup> The submitted Perl implementations typically perform toward the high end of the memory-usage spectrum and give varied speed results. Perl's performance in the benchmarks game is typical for interpreted languages.<sup id="cite_ref-62" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-62"><span>[</span>63<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
+<p>Large Perl programs start more slowly than similar programs in compiled languages because perl has to compile the source every time it runs. In a talk at the <a href="/wiki/Yet_Another_Perl_Conference" title="Yet Another Perl Conference">YAPC::Europe 2005</a> conference and subsequent article "A Timely Start", Jean-Louis Leroy found that his Perl programs took much longer to run than he expected because the perl interpreter spent much of the time finding modules because of his over-large include path.<sup id="cite_ref-63" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-63"><span>[</span>64<span>]</span></a></sup> Unlike Java, Python, and Ruby, Perl has only experimental support for pre-compiling.<sup id="cite_ref-64" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-64"><span>[</span>65<span>]</span></a></sup> Therefore Perl programs pay this overhead penalty on every execution. The run phase of typical programs is long enough that <a href="/wiki/Amortized" title="Amortized" class="mw-redirect">amortized</a> startup time is not substantial, but benchmarks that measure very short execution times are likely to be skewed due to this overhead.</p>
+<p>A number of tools have been introduced to improve this situation. The first such tool was Apache's <a href="/wiki/Mod_perl" title="Mod perl">mod_perl</a>, which sought to address one of the most-common reasons that small Perl programs were invoked rapidly: <a href="/wiki/Common_Gateway_Interface" title="Common Gateway Interface">CGI</a> <a href="/wiki/World_Wide_Web" title="World Wide Web">Web</a> development. <a href="/wiki/ActiveState" title="ActiveState">ActivePerl</a>, via Microsoft <a href="/wiki/ISAPI" title="ISAPI" class="mw-redirect">ISAPI</a>, provides similar performance improvements.</p>
+<p>Once Perl code is compiled, there is additional overhead during the execution phase that typically isn't present for programs written in compiled languages such as C or C++. Examples of such overhead include <a href="/wiki/Bytecode" title="Bytecode">bytecode</a> interpretation, reference-counting memory management, and dynamic type-checking.</p>
+<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;section=17" title="Edit section: Optimizing">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Optimizing">Optimizing</span></h3>
+<p>Like any code, Perl programs can be <a href="/wiki/Optimization_(computer_science)" title="Optimization (computer science)" class="mw-redirect">tuned for performance</a> using <a href="/wiki/Benchmark_(computing)" title="Benchmark (computing)">benchmarks</a> and <a href="/wiki/Performance_analysis" title="Performance analysis" class="mw-redirect">profiles</a> after a readable and correct implementation is finished. In part because of Perl's interpreted nature, writing more-efficient Perl will not always be enough to meet one's performance goals for a program.</p>
+<p>In such situations, the most-critical routines of a Perl program can be written in other languages such as <a href="/wiki/C_(programming_language)" title="C (programming language)">C</a> or <a href="/wiki/Assembly_language" title="Assembly language">Assembler</a>, which can be connected to Perl via simple Inline modules or the more-complex-but-flexible <a href="/wiki/XS_(Perl)" title="XS (Perl)">XS</a> mechanism.<sup id="cite_ref-65" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-65"><span>[</span>66<span>]</span></a></sup> Nicholas Clark, a Perl core developer, discusses some Perl design trade-offs and solutions in a 2002 document called "When perl is not quite fast enough".<sup id="cite_ref-66" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-66"><span>[</span>67<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
+<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;section=18" title="Edit section: Perl 6">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Perl_6">Perl 6</span></h2>
+<div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Perl_6" title="Perl 6">Perl 6</a></div>
+<div class="thumb tright">
+<div class="thumbinner" style="width:202px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Camelia.svg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/85/Camelia.svg/200px-Camelia.svg.png" width="200" height="146" class="thumbimage" /></a>
+<div class="thumbcaption">
+<div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Camelia.svg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"><img src="//bits.wikimedia.org/skins-1.20wmf1/common/images/magnify-clip.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></a></div>
+<i>Camelia</i>, the logo for the Perl 6 project.<sup id="cite_ref-67" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-67"><span>[</span>68<span>]</span></a></sup></div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<p>At the 2000 <a href="/wiki/O%27Reilly_Open_Source_Convention" title="O'Reilly Open Source Convention">Perl Conference</a>, <a href="/w/index.php?title=Jon_Orwant&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Jon Orwant (page does not exist)">Jon Orwant</a> made a case for a major new language initiative.<sup id="cite_ref-68" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-68"><span>[</span>69<span>]</span></a></sup> This led to a decision to begin work on a redesign of the language, to be called Perl 6. Proposals for new language features were solicited from the Perl community at large, and more than 300 <a href="/wiki/Request_for_Comments" title="Request for Comments">RFCs</a> were submitted.</p>
+<p><a href="/wiki/Larry_Wall" title="Larry Wall">Larry Wall</a> spent the next few years digesting the RFCs and synthesizing them into a coherent framework for Perl 6. He has presented his design for Perl 6 in a series of documents called "apocalypses", which are numbered to correspond to chapters in <i>Programming Perl</i>. As of January 2011<sup class="plainlinks noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit">[update]</a></sup>, the developing specification of Perl 6 is encapsulated in design documents called Synopses, which are numbered to correspond to Apocalypses.<sup id="cite_ref-syn6_69-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-syn6-69"><span>[</span>70<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
+<p>Perl 6 is not intended to be backward compatible, although there will be a compatibility mode. Perl 6 and Perl 5 are distinct languages with a common ancestry.<sup id="cite_ref-perl6dev_70-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-perl6dev-70"><span>[</span>71<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
+<p>Thesis work by <a href="/wiki/Bradley_M._Kuhn" title="Bradley M. Kuhn">Bradley M. Kuhn</a>, overseen by Larry Wall, considered the possible use of the <a href="/wiki/Java_virtual_machine" title="Java virtual machine">Java virtual machine</a> as a runtime for Perl.<sup id="cite_ref-71" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-71"><span>[</span>72<span>]</span></a></sup> Kuhn's thesis showed this approach to be problematic. In 2001, it was decided that Perl 6 would run on a cross-language <a href="/wiki/Virtual_machine" title="Virtual machine">virtual machine</a> called <a href="/wiki/Parrot_virtual_machine" title="Parrot virtual machine">Parrot</a>. This will mean that other languages targeting the Parrot will gain native access to <a href="/wiki/CPAN" title="CPAN">CPAN</a>, allowing some level of cross-language development.</p>
+<p>In 2005, <a href="/wiki/Audrey_Tang" title="Audrey Tang">Audrey Tang</a> created the <a href="/wiki/Pugs" title="Pugs">pugs</a> project, an implementation of Perl 6 in <a href="/wiki/Haskell_(programming_language)" title="Haskell (programming language)">Haskell</a>. This was, and continues to act as, a test platform for the Perl 6 language (separate from the development of the actual implementation) allowing the language designers to explore. The pugs project spawned an active Perl/Haskell cross-language community centered around the <a href="/wiki/Freenode" title="Freenode">freenode</a> #perl6 IRC channel.</p>
+<p>A number of features in the Perl 6 language now show similarities to Haskell.<sup class="Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources from August 2011">citation needed</span></a></i>]</sup></p>
+<p>As of 2012, Perl 6 development is primarily centered around two compilers<sup id="cite_ref-72" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-72"><span>[</span>73<span>]</span></a></sup>, <a href="/wiki/Rakudo_Perl_6" title="Rakudo Perl 6">Rakudo Perl 6</a>, an implementation running on top of the Parrot virtual machine, and <a href="/w/index.php?title=Niecza&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Niecza (page does not exist)">Niecza</a>, which targets the <a href="/wiki/Common_Language_Runtime" title="Common Language Runtime">Common Language Runtime</a>.</p>
+<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;section=19" title="Edit section: Future of Perl 5">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Future_of_Perl_5">Future of Perl 5</span></h2>
+<p>Development of Perl 5 is also continuing. Perl 5.12.0 was released in April 2010 with some new features influenced by the design of Perl 6.<sup id="cite_ref-5120delta_26-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5120delta-26"><span>[</span>27<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-heise2010_73-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-heise2010-73"><span>[</span>74<span>]</span></a></sup> Perl 5.14.1 was released on June 17, 2011. Perl 5 development versions are released on a monthly basis, with major releases coming out once per year.<sup id="cite_ref-74" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-74"><span>[</span>75<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
+<p>Future plans for Perl 5 include making the core language easier to extend from modules, and providing a small, extensible <a href="/wiki/Meta-object_protocol" title="Meta-object protocol" class="mw-redirect">Meta-object protocol</a> in core.<sup id="cite_ref-75" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-75"><span>[</span>76<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
+<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;section=20" title="Edit section: Perl community">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Perl_community">Perl community</span></h2>
+<p>Perl's culture and community has developed alongside the language itself. <a href="/wiki/Usenet" title="Usenet">Usenet</a> was the first public venue in which Perl was introduced, but over the course of its evolution, Perl's community was shaped by the growth of broadening Internet-based services including the introduction of the World Wide Web. The community that surrounds Perl was, in fact, the topic of Larry Wall's first "State of the Onion" talk.<sup id="cite_ref-76" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-76"><span>[</span>77<span>]</span></a></sup></p>
+<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;section=21" title="Edit section: State of the Onion">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="State_of_the_Onion">State of the Onion</span></h3>
+<p>State of the Onion is the name for Larry Wall’s yearly <a href="/wiki/Keynote" title="Keynote">keynote</a>-style summaries on the progress of Perl and its community. They are characterized by his hallmark humor, employing references to Perl’s culture, the wider hacker culture, Wall’s linguistic background, sometimes his family life, and occasionally even his <a href="/wiki/Christian" title="Christian">Christian</a> background.</p>
+<p>Each talk is first given at various Perl conferences and is eventually also published online.</p>
+<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;section=22" title="Edit section: Perl pastimes">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Perl_pastimes">Perl pastimes</span></h3>
+<dl>
+<dt>JAPHs</dt>
+<dd>In email, Usenet, and message board postings, "<a href="/wiki/Just_another_Perl_hacker" title="Just another Perl hacker">Just another Perl hacker</a>" (JAPH) programs are a common trend, originated by <a href="/wiki/Randal_L._Schwartz" title="Randal L. Schwartz">Randal L. Schwartz</a>, one of the earliest professional Perl trainers.<sup id="cite_ref-77" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-77"><span>[</span>78<span>]</span></a></sup> In the parlance of Perl culture, Perl programmers are known as Perl hackers, and from this derives the practice of writing short programs to print out the phrase "<a href="/wiki/Just_another_Perl_hacker" title="Just another Perl hacker">Just another Perl hacker</a>,". In the spirit of the original concept, these programs are moderately obfuscated and short enough to fit into the signature of an email or Usenet message. The "canonical" JAPH as developed by Schwartz includes the comma at the end, although this is often omitted.<sup id="cite_ref-78" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-78"><span>[</span>79<span>]</span></a></sup></dd>
+<dt>Perl golf</dt>
+<dd>Perl "golf" is the pastime of reducing the number of characters (key "strokes") used in a Perl program to the bare minimum, much as how <a href="/wiki/Golf" title="Golf">golf</a> players seek to take as few shots as possible in a round. The phrase's first use <sup id="cite_ref-perl-golf-coined_79-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-perl-golf-coined-79"><span>[</span>80<span>]</span></a></sup> emphasized the difference between pedestrian code meant to teach a newcomer and terse hacks likely to amuse experienced Perl programmers, an example of the latter being <a href="/wiki/JAPH" title="JAPH" class="mw-redirect">JAPHs</a> that were already used in signatures in Usenet postings and elsewhere. Similar stunts had been an unnamed pastime in the language <a href="/wiki/APL_(programming_language)" title="APL (programming language)">APL</a> in previous decades. The use of Perl to write a program that performed <a href="/wiki/RSA_(algorithm)" title="RSA (algorithm)">RSA</a> encryption prompted a widespread and practical interest in this pastime.<sup id="cite_ref-rsa_80-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-rsa-80"><span>[</span>81<span>]</span></a></sup> In subsequent years, the term "<a href="/wiki/Code_golf" title="Code golf">code golf</a>" has been applied to the pastime in other languages.<sup id="cite_ref-81" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-81"><span>[</span>82<span>]</span></a></sup> A <a href="/wiki/Perl_Golf_Apocalypse" title="Perl Golf Apocalypse">Perl Golf Apocalypse</a> was held at Perl Conference 4.0 in Monterey, California in July 2000.</dd>
+<dt>Obfuscation</dt>
+<dd>As with C, <a href="/wiki/Obfuscated_code" title="Obfuscated code" class="mw-redirect">obfuscated code</a> competitions were a well known pastime in the late 1990s. The <a href="/wiki/Obfuscated_Perl_Contest" title="Obfuscated Perl Contest">Obfuscated Perl Contest</a> was a competition held by <a href="/w/index.php?title=The_Perl_Journal&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="The Perl Journal (page does not exist)">The Perl Journal</a> from 1996 to 2000 that made an arch virtue of Perl's syntactic flexibility. Awards were given for categories such as "most powerful"—programs that made efficient use of space—and "best four-line signature" for programs that fit into four lines of 76 characters in the style of a Usenet <a href="/wiki/Signature_block" title="Signature block">signature block</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-gallo03_82-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-gallo03-82"><span>[</span>83<span>]</span></a></sup></dd>
+<dt>Poetry</dt>
+<dd>Perl poetry is the practice of writing poems that can be compiled as legal Perl code, for example the piece known as <a href="/wiki/Black_Perl" title="Black Perl">Black Perl</a>. This hobby is made possible by the large number of English words that are used in the Perl. New poems are regularly submitted to the community at <a href="/wiki/PerlMonks" title="PerlMonks">PerlMonks</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-83" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-83"><span>[</span>84<span>]</span></a></sup></dd>
+</dl>
+<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;section=23" title="Edit section: Perl on IRC">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Perl_on_IRC">Perl on IRC</span></h3>
+<p>There are a number of <a href="/wiki/Internet_Relay_Chat" title="Internet Relay Chat">IRC</a> channels that offer support for the language and some modules.</p>
+<table class="wikitable">
+<tr>
+<th>IRC Network</th>
+<th>Channels</th>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>irc.freenode.net</td>
+<td>#perl #perl6 #cbstream #perlcafe #poe</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>irc.perl.org</td>
+<td>#moose #poe #catalyst #dbix-class #perl-help #distzilla #epo #corehackers #sdl #win32 #toolchain #padre</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>irc.slashnet.org</td>
+<td>#perlmonks</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>irc.oftc.net</td>
+<td>#perl</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>irc.efnet.net</td>
+<td>#perlhelp</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>irc.rizon.net</td>
+<td>#perl</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td>irc.debian.org</td>
+<td>#debian-perl</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<h3><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;section=24" title="Edit section: CPAN Acme">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="CPAN_Acme">CPAN Acme</span></h3>
+<p>There are also many examples of code written purely for entertainment on the <a href="/wiki/CPAN" title="CPAN">CPAN</a>. <code>Lingua::Romana::Perligata</code>, for example, allows writing programs in <a href="/wiki/Latin" title="Latin">Latin</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-84" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-84"><span>[</span>85<span>]</span></a></sup> Upon execution of such a program, the module translates its source code into regular Perl and runs it.</p>
+<p>The Perl community has set aside the "<a href="/wiki/Acme_Corporation" title="Acme Corporation">Acme</a>" namespace for modules that are fun in nature (but its scope has widened to include exploratory or experimental code or any other module that is not meant to ever be used in production). Some of the Acme modules are deliberately implemented in amusing ways. This includes <code>Acme::Bleach</code>, one of the first modules in the <code>Acme::</code> namespace,<sup id="cite_ref-85" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-85"><span>[</span>86<span>]</span></a></sup> which allows the program's source code to be "whitened" (i.e., all characters replaced with whitespace) and yet still work.</p>
+<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;section=25" title="Edit section: See also">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span></h2>
+<div class="noprint tright portal" style="border:solid #aaa 1px; margin:0.5em 0 0.5em 0.5em;">
+<table style="background:#f9f9f9; font-size:85%; line-height:110%; max-width:175px;">
+<tr>
+<td style="text-align: center;"><a href="/wiki/File:Computer-aj_aj_ashton_01.svg" class="image"><img alt="Portal icon" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c1/Computer-aj_aj_ashton_01.svg/28px-Computer-aj_aj_ashton_01.svg.png" width="28" height="28" /></a></td>
+<td style="padding: 0 0.2em; vertical-align: middle; font-style: italic; font-weight: bold"><a href="/wiki/Portal:Free_software" title="Portal:Free software">Free software  portal</a></td>
+</tr>
+<tr valign="middle">
+<td style="text-align: center;"><a href="/wiki/File:8bit-dynamiclist.gif" class="image"><img alt="Portal icon" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1d/8bit-dynamiclist.gif/28px-8bit-dynamiclist.gif" width="28" height="28" /></a></td>
+<td style="padding: 0 0.2em; vertical-align: middle; font-style: italic; font-weight: bold"><a href="/wiki/Portal:Computer_programming" title="Portal:Computer programming">Computer programming  portal</a></td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+</div>
+<ul>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Outline_of_Perl" title="Outline of Perl">Outline of Perl</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Perl_language_structure" title="Perl language structure">Perl language structure</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Perl_Data_Language" title="Perl Data Language">Perl Data Language</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Perl_Object_Environment" title="Perl Object Environment">Perl Object Environment</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Plain_Old_Documentation" title="Plain Old Documentation">Plain Old Documentation</a></li>
+</ul>
+<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;section=26" title="Edit section: References">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span></h2>
+<div class="reflist references-column-count references-column-count-2" style="-moz-column-count: 2; -webkit-column-count: 2; column-count: 2; list-style-type: decimal;">
+<ol class="references">
+<li id="cite_note-0"><b><a href="#cite_ref-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.perl.org/get.html">"Download Perl"</a>. www.perl.org<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.perl.org/get.html">http://www.perl.org/get.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-09-30</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Download+Perl&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=www.perl.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.perl.org%2Fget.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-1"><b><a href="#cite_ref-1">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://search.cpan.org/dist/perl/">"Download Perl"</a>. search.cpan.org<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://search.cpan.org/dist/perl/">http://search.cpan.org/dist/perl/</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-09-20</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Download+Perl&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=search.cpan.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fsearch.cpan.org%2Fdist%2Fperl%2F&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-licensing-2"><b><a href="#cite_ref-licensing_2-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://dev.perl.org/licenses">"Perl Licensing"</a>. dev.perl.org<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://dev.perl.org/licenses">http://dev.perl.org/licenses</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-08</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Perl+Licensing&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=dev.perl.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fdev.perl.org%2Flicenses&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-3"><b><a href="#cite_ref-3">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Lapworth, Leo. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://learn.perl.org/faq/perlfaq1.html#Whats-the-difference-between-perl-and-Perl-">"General Questions About Perl"</a>. <i>Perl FAQ</i>. Perl.org<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://learn.perl.org/faq/perlfaq1.html#Whats-the-difference-between-perl-and-Perl-">http://learn.perl.org/faq/perlfaq1.html#Whats-the-difference-between-perl-and-Perl-</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 24 February 2012</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=General+Questions+About+Perl&amp;rft.atitle=Perl+FAQ&amp;rft.aulast=Lapworth&amp;rft.aufirst=Leo&amp;rft.au=Lapworth%2C%26%2332%3BLeo&amp;rft.pub=Perl.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Flearn.perl.org%2Ffaq%2Fperlfaq1.html%23Whats-the-difference-between-perl-and-Perl-&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-4"><b><a href="#cite_ref-4">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Perl Tutorial.org. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.perltutorial.org/introducing-to-perl.aspx">"Introducing to Perl"</a>. <i>Perl Tutorial</i><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.perltutorial.org/introducing-to-perl.aspx">http://www.perltutorial.org/introducing-to-perl.aspx</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 24 February 2012</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Introducing+to+Perl&amp;rft.atitle=Perl+Tutorial&amp;rft.aulast=Perl+Tutorial.org&amp;rft.au=Perl+Tutorial.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.perltutorial.org%2Fintroducing-to-perl.aspx&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-sheppard00-5"><b><a href="#cite_ref-sheppard00_5-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Sheppard, Doug (2000-10-16). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.perl.com/pub/2000/10/begperl1.html">"Beginner's Introduction to Perl"</a>. dev.perl.org<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.perl.com/pub/2000/10/begperl1.html">http://www.perl.com/pub/2000/10/begperl1.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-08</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Beginner%27s+Introduction+to+Perl&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Sheppard&amp;rft.aufirst=Doug&amp;rft.au=Sheppard%2C%26%2332%3BDoug&amp;rft.date=2000-10-16&amp;rft.pub=dev.perl.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.perl.com%2Fpub%2F2000%2F10%2Fbegperl1.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-perltimeline-6"><b><a href="#cite_ref-perltimeline_6-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Ashton, Elaine (1999). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://history.perl.org/PerlTimeline.html">"The Timeline of Perl and its Culture (v3.0_0505)"</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://history.perl.org/PerlTimeline.html">http://history.perl.org/PerlTimeline.html</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=The+Timeline+of+Perl+and+its+Culture+%28v3.0_0505%29&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Ashton%2C+Elaine&amp;rft.au=Ashton%2C+Elaine&amp;rft.date=1999&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fhistory.perl.org%2FPerlTimeline.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-programmingperl-7">^ <a href="#cite_ref-programmingperl_7-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-programmingperl_7-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-programmingperl_7-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-programmingperl_7-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Larry_Wall" title="Larry Wall">Wall, Larry</a>, Tom Christiansen and <a href="/w/index.php?title=Jon_Orwant&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Jon Orwant (page does not exist)">Jon Orwant</a> (July 2000). <i>Programming Perl, Third Edition</i>. <a href="/wiki/O%27Reilly_Media" title="O'Reilly Media">O'Reilly Media</a>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-596-00027-8" title="Special:BookSources/0-596-00027-8">0-596-00027-8</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Programming+Perl%2C+Third+Edition&amp;rft.aulast=%5B%5BLarry+Wall%7CWall%2C+Larry%5D%5D%2C+Tom+Christiansen+and+%5B%5BJon+Orwant%5D%5D&amp;rft.au=%5B%5BLarry+Wall%7CWall%2C+Larry%5D%5D%2C+Tom+Christiansen+and+%5B%5BJon+Orwant%5D%5D&amp;rft.date=July+2000&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BO%27Reilly+Media%5D%5D&amp;rft.isbn=0-596-00027-8&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-roderick02-8"><b><a href="#cite_ref-roderick02_8-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation book">Smith, Roderick W. (21 Jun 2002). <i>Advanced Linux Networking</i>. Addison-Wesley Professional. p.&#160;594. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0201774238" title="Special:BookSources/978-0201774238">978-0201774238</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Advanced+Linux+Networking&amp;rft.aulast=Smith&amp;rft.aufirst=Roderick+W.&amp;rft.au=Smith%2C%26%2332%3BRoderick+W.&amp;rft.date=21+Jun+2002&amp;rft.pages=p.%26nbsp%3B594&amp;rft.pub=Addison-Wesley+Professional&amp;rft.isbn=978-0201774238&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-9"><b><a href="#cite_ref-9">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Sheppard, Doug (2000-10-16). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.perl.com/pub/a/2000/10/begperl1.html">"Beginner's Introduction to Perl"</a>. <a href="/wiki/O%27Reilly_Media" title="O'Reilly Media">O'Reilly Media</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.perl.com/pub/a/2000/10/begperl1.html">http://www.perl.com/pub/a/2000/10/begperl1.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2008-07-27</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Beginner%27s+Introduction+to+Perl&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Sheppard&amp;rft.aufirst=Doug&amp;rft.au=Sheppard%2C%26%2332%3BDoug&amp;rft.date=2000-10-16&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BO%27Reilly+Media%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.perl.com%2Fpub%2Fa%2F2000%2F10%2Fbegperl1.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-leonard98-10"><b><a href="#cite_ref-leonard98_10-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Leonard, Andrew. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.salon.com/21st/feature/1998/10/cov_13feature.html">"The joy of Perl"</a>. <a href="/wiki/Salon.com" title="Salon.com" class="mw-redirect">Salon.com</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.salon.com/21st/feature/1998/10/cov_13feature.html">http://www.salon.com/21st/feature/1998/10/cov_13feature.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-08</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=The+joy+of+Perl&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Leonard&amp;rft.aufirst=Andrew&amp;rft.au=Leonard%2C%26%2332%3BAndrew&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BSalon.com%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.salon.com%2F21st%2Ffeature%2F1998%2F10%2Fcov_13feature.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span><sup class="noprint Inline-Template"><span title="&#160;since April 2012" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Link_rot" title="Wikipedia:Link rot">dead link</a></i>]</span></sup></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-11"><b><a href="#cite_ref-11">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://groups.google.com/group/comp.sources.unix/tree/browse_frm/month/1988-02?_done=%2Fgroup%2Fcomp.sources.unix%2Fbrowse_frm%2Fmonth%2F1988-02%3F&amp;">"comp.sources.unix"</a>. <i>Google Groups</i>. <a href="/wiki/Google" title="Google">Google</a>. 1988-02-01<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://groups.google.com/group/comp.sources.unix/tree/browse_frm/month/1988-02?_done=%2Fgroup%2Fcomp.sources.unix%2Fbrowse_frm%2Fmonth%2F1988-02%3F&amp;">http://groups.google.com/group/comp.sources.unix/tree/browse_frm/month/1988-02?_done=%2Fgroup%2Fcomp.sources.unix%2Fbrowse_frm%2Fmonth%2F1988-02%3F&amp;</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-13</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=comp.sources.unix&amp;rft.atitle=Google+Groups&amp;rft.date=1988-02-01&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BGoogle%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fgroups.google.com%2Fgroup%2Fcomp.sources.unix%2Ftree%2Fbrowse_frm%2Fmonth%2F1988-02%3F_done%3D%252Fgroup%252Fcomp.sources.unix%252Fbrowse_frm%252Fmonth%252F1988-02%253F%26&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-12"><b><a href="#cite_ref-12">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.nntp.perl.org/group/perl.perl5.porters/">"perl.perl5.porters archive"</a>. perl.org<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.nntp.perl.org/group/perl.perl5.porters/">http://www.nntp.perl.org/group/perl.perl5.porters/</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-13</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=perl.perl5.porters+archive&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=perl.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nntp.perl.org%2Fgroup%2Fperl.perl5.porters%2F&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-13"><b><a href="#cite_ref-13">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perlhist.html">"perlhist - the Perl history records"</a>. <i>Perl 5 version 12.2 documentation</i>. perldoc.perl.org<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perlhist.html">http://perldoc.perl.org/perlhist.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-21</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=perlhist+-+the+Perl+history+records&amp;rft.atitle=Perl+5+version+12.2+documentation&amp;rft.pub=perldoc.perl.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fperldoc.perl.org%2Fperlhist.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-14"><b><a href="#cite_ref-14">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.cpan.org/">"CPAN"</a>. <a href="/wiki/CPAN" title="CPAN">CPAN</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.cpan.org/">http://www.cpan.org/</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2012-04-14</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=CPAN&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BCPAN%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cpan.org%2F&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-5004delta-15">^ <a href="#cite_ref-5004delta_15-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-5004delta_15-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perl5004delta.html">"perl5004delta - what's new for perl5.004"</a>. <i>Perl 5 version 12.2 documentation</i>. perldoc.perl.org<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perl5004delta.html">http://perldoc.perl.org/perl5004delta.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-08</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=perl5004delta+-+what%27s+new+for+perl5.004&amp;rft.atitle=Perl+5+version+12.2+documentation&amp;rft.pub=perldoc.perl.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fperldoc.perl.org%2Fperl5004delta.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-patwardhan02-16"><b><a href="#cite_ref-patwardhan02_16-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation book">Patwardhan, Nathan; Siever, Ellen; Spainhour, Stephen (2002). <i>Perl in a Nutshell, Second Edition</i>. O'Reilly Media. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-596-00241-1" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-596-00241-1">978-0-596-00241-1</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Perl+in+a+Nutshell%2C+Second+Edition&amp;rft.aulast=Patwardhan&amp;rft.aufirst=Nathan&amp;rft.au=Patwardhan%2C%26%2332%3BNathan&amp;rft.au=Siever%2C%26%2332%3BEllen&amp;rft.au=Spainhour%2C%26%2332%3BStephen&amp;rft.date=2002&amp;rft.pub=O%27Reilly+Media&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-596-00241-1&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-5005delta-17"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5005delta_17-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perl5005delta.html">"perl5005delta - what's new for perl5.005"</a>. <i>Perl 5 version 12.2 documentation</i>. perldoc.perl.org<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perl5005delta.html">http://perldoc.perl.org/perl5005delta.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-21</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=perl5005delta+-+what%27s+new+for+perl5.005&amp;rft.atitle=Perl+5+version+12.2+documentation&amp;rft.pub=perldoc.perl.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fperldoc.perl.org%2Fperl5005delta.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-56delta-18"><b><a href="#cite_ref-56delta_18-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perl56delta.html">"perl56delta - what's new for perl v5.6.0"</a>. <i>Perl 5 version 12.2 documentation</i>. perldoc.perl.org<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perl56delta.html">http://perldoc.perl.org/perl56delta.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-21</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=perl56delta+-+what%27s+new+for+perl+v5.6.0&amp;rft.atitle=Perl+5+version+12.2+documentation&amp;rft.pub=perldoc.perl.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fperldoc.perl.org%2Fperl56delta.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-561delta-19"><b><a href="#cite_ref-561delta_19-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perl561delta.html">"perl56delta - what's new for perl v5.6.x"</a>. <i>Perl 5 version 12.2 documentation</i>. perldoc.perl.org<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perl561delta.html">http://perldoc.perl.org/perl561delta.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-21</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=perl56delta+-+what%27s+new+for+perl+v5.6.x&amp;rft.atitle=Perl+5+version+12.2+documentation&amp;rft.pub=perldoc.perl.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fperldoc.perl.org%2Fperl561delta.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-20"><b><a href="#cite_ref-20">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Wall, Larry. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://dev.perl.org/perl6/doc/design/apo/A01.html">"Apocalypse 1: The Ugly, the Bad, and the Good"</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://dev.perl.org/perl6/doc/design/apo/A01.html">http://dev.perl.org/perl6/doc/design/apo/A01.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-08</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Apocalypse+1%3A+The+Ugly%2C+the+Bad%2C+and+the+Good&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Wall&amp;rft.aufirst=Larry&amp;rft.au=Wall%2C%26%2332%3BLarry&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fdev.perl.org%2Fperl6%2Fdoc%2Fdesign%2Fapo%2FA01.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-perl58delta-21"><b><a href="#cite_ref-perl58delta_21-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perl58delta.html">"perl58delta - what is new for perl v5.8.0"</a>. <i>Perl 5 version 12.2 documentation</i>. perldoc.perl.org<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perl58delta.html">http://perldoc.perl.org/perl58delta.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-21</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=perl58delta+-+what+is+new+for+perl+v5.8.0&amp;rft.atitle=Perl+5+version+12.2+documentation&amp;rft.pub=perldoc.perl.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fperldoc.perl.org%2Fperl58delta.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-22"><b><a href="#cite_ref-22">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.perl.com/pub/a/2005/03/03/pugs_interview.html">"A Plan for Pugs"</a>. <a href="/wiki/O%27Reilly_Media" title="O'Reilly Media">O'Reilly Media</a>. 2005-03-03<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.perl.com/pub/a/2005/03/03/pugs_interview.html">http://www.perl.com/pub/a/2005/03/03/pugs_interview.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-27</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=A+Plan+for+Pugs&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.date=2005-03-03&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BO%27Reilly+Media%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.perl.com%2Fpub%2Fa%2F2005%2F03%2F03%2Fpugs_interview.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-23"><b><a href="#cite_ref-23">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Tang, Audrey (2010-04-21). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.perlmonks.org/?node_id=835936">"Re: How to Implement Perl 6 in Ten Years"</a>. <a href="/wiki/PerlMonks" title="PerlMonks">PerlMonks</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.perlmonks.org/?node_id=835936">http://www.perlmonks.org/?node_id=835936</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-03</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Re%3A+How+to+Implement+Perl+6+in+Ten+Years&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Tang&amp;rft.aufirst=Audrey&amp;rft.au=Tang%2C%26%2332%3BAudrey&amp;rft.date=2010-04-21&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BPerlMonks%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.perlmonks.org%2F%3Fnode_id%3D835936&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-5100delta-24"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5100delta_24-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perl5100delta.html">"perl5100delta - what is new for perl 5.10.0"</a>. <i>Perl 5 version 12.2 documentation</i>. perldoc.perl.org<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perl5100delta.html">http://perldoc.perl.org/perl5100delta.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-08</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=perl5100delta+-+what+is+new+for+perl+5.10.0&amp;rft.atitle=Perl+5+version+12.2+documentation&amp;rft.pub=perldoc.perl.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fperldoc.perl.org%2Fperl5100delta.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-perlsyn-smart-25"><b><a href="#cite_ref-perlsyn-smart_25-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perlsyn.html#Smart-matching-in-detail">"perlsyn - Perl syntax"</a>. <i>Perl 5 version 12.2 documentation</i>. perldoc.perl.org<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perlsyn.html#Smart-matching-in-detail">http://perldoc.perl.org/perlsyn.html#Smart-matching-in-detail</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-21</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=perlsyn+-+Perl+syntax&amp;rft.atitle=Perl+5+version+12.2+documentation&amp;rft.pub=perldoc.perl.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fperldoc.perl.org%2Fperlsyn.html%23Smart-matching-in-detail&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-5120delta-26">^ <a href="#cite_ref-5120delta_26-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-5120delta_26-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perl5120delta.html">"perl5120delta - what is new for perl v5.12.0"</a>. <i>Perl 5 version 12.2 documentation</i>. perldoc.perl.org<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perl5120delta.html">http://perldoc.perl.org/perl5120delta.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-08</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=perl5120delta+-+what+is+new+for+perl+v5.12.0&amp;rft.atitle=Perl+5+version+12.2+documentation&amp;rft.pub=perldoc.perl.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fperldoc.perl.org%2Fperl5120delta.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-5123delta-27"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5123delta_27-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perl5123delta.html">"perldelta - what is new for perl v5.12.3"</a>. <i>Perl 5 version 12.2 documentation</i>. perldoc.perl.org<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perl5123delta.html">http://perldoc.perl.org/perl5123delta.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-08</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=perldelta+-+what+is+new+for+perl+v5.12.3&amp;rft.atitle=Perl+5+version+12.2+documentation&amp;rft.pub=perldoc.perl.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fperldoc.perl.org%2Fperl5123delta.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-richardson1999-28">^ <a href="#cite_ref-richardson1999_28-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-richardson1999_28-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Richardson, Marjorie (1999-05-01). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/3394">"Larry Wall, the Guru of Perl"</a>. <a href="/wiki/Linux_Journal" title="Linux Journal">Linux Journal</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/3394">http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/3394</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-03</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Larry+Wall%2C+the+Guru+of+Perl&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Richardson&amp;rft.aufirst=Marjorie&amp;rft.au=Richardson%2C%26%2332%3BMarjorie&amp;rft.date=1999-05-01&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BLinux+Journal%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.linuxjournal.com%2Farticle%2F3394&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-capitalization-29">^ <a href="#cite_ref-capitalization_29-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-capitalization_29-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perlfaq1.html#What's-the-difference-between-%22perl%22-and-%22Perl%22%3f">"perlfaq1: What's the difference between "perl" and "Perl"?"</a>. <i>perldoc.perl.org - Perl 5 version 12.2 documentation</i><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perlfaq1.html#What's-the-difference-between-%22perl%22-and-%22Perl%22%3f">http://perldoc.perl.org/perlfaq1.html#What's-the-difference-between-%22perl%22-and-%22Perl%22%3f</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=perlfaq1%3A+What%27s+the+difference+between+%22perl%22+and+%22Perl%22%3F&amp;rft.atitle=perldoc.perl.org+-+Perl+5+version+12.2+documentation&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fperldoc.perl.org%2Fperlfaq1.html%23What%27s-the-difference-between-%2522perl%2522-and-%2522Perl%2522%253f&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-30"><b><a href="#cite_ref-30">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a href="/wiki/Randal_L._Schwartz" title="Randal L. Schwartz">Schwartz, Randal</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.perlmonks.org/index.pl?node_id=510594">"PERL as shibboleth and the Perl community"</a>. <a href="/wiki/PerlMonks" title="PerlMonks">PerlMonks</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.perlmonks.org/index.pl?node_id=510594">http://www.perlmonks.org/index.pl?node_id=510594</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2007-06-01</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=PERL+as+shibboleth+and+the+Perl+community&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Schwartz&amp;rft.aufirst=Randal&amp;rft.au=Schwartz%2C%26%2332%3BRandal&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BPerlMonks%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.perlmonks.org%2Findex.pl%3Fnode_id%3D510594&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-31"><b><a href="#cite_ref-31">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text">Steve McConnell (2004) <i>Code Complete,</i> 2nd ed., Microsoft Press, p. 65.</span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-32"><b><a href="#cite_ref-32">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a href="/wiki/Larry_Wall" title="Larry Wall">Wall, Larry</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perl.html#BUGS">"perl - The Perl language interpreter"</a>. <i>Perl 5 version 12.2 documentation</i><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perl.html#BUGS">http://perldoc.perl.org/perl.html#BUGS</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-26</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=perl+-+The+Perl+language+interpreter&amp;rft.atitle=Perl+5+version+12.2+documentation&amp;rft.aulast=Wall&amp;rft.aufirst=Larry&amp;rft.au=Wall%2C%26%2332%3BLarry&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fperldoc.perl.org%2Fperl.html%23BUGS&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-33"><b><a href="#cite_ref-33">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a href="/wiki/Larry_Wall" title="Larry Wall">Wall, Larry</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.perlmonks.org/index.pl?node_id=511722">"Re^7: PERL as shibboleth and the Perl community"</a>. <a href="/wiki/PerlMonks" title="PerlMonks">PerlMonks</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.perlmonks.org/index.pl?node_id=511722">http://www.perlmonks.org/index.pl?node_id=511722</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-02</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Re%5E7%3A+PERL+as+shibboleth+and+the+Perl+community&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Wall&amp;rft.aufirst=Larry&amp;rft.au=Wall%2C%26%2332%3BLarry&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BPerlMonks%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.perlmonks.org%2Findex.pl%3Fnode_id%3D511722&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-schwartz01-34">^ <a href="#cite_ref-schwartz01_34-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-schwartz01_34-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Randal_L._Schwartz" title="Randal L. Schwartz">Schwartz, Randal L</a>; Phoenix, Tom; <a href="/wiki/Brian_D_Foy" title="Brian D Foy" class="mw-redirect">foy, brian</a>. <i>Learning Perl, Third Edition</i>. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-596-00132-2" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-596-00132-2">978-0-596-00132-2</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Learning+Perl%2C+Third+Edition&amp;rft.aulast=Schwartz&amp;rft.aufirst=Randal+L&amp;rft.au=Schwartz%2C%26%2332%3BRandal+L&amp;rft.au=Phoenix%2C%26%2332%3BTom&amp;rft.au=foy%2C%26%2332%3Bbrian&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-596-00132-2&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-camel-35">^ <a href="#cite_ref-camel_35-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-camel_35-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://onlamp.com/pub/a/oreilly/perl/usage/">"The Perl Camel Usage and Trademark Information"</a>. <a href="/wiki/O%27Reilly_Media" title="O'Reilly Media">O'Reilly Media</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://onlamp.com/pub/a/oreilly/perl/usage/">http://onlamp.com/pub/a/oreilly/perl/usage/</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-09</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=The+Perl+Camel+Usage+and+Trademark+Information&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BO%27Reilly+Media%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fonlamp.com%2Fpub%2Fa%2Foreilly%2Fperl%2Fusage%2F&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-onion-36"><b><a href="#cite_ref-onion_36-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.perlfoundation.org/perl_trademark">"Perl Trademark"</a>. <a href="/wiki/The_Perl_Foundation" title="The Perl Foundation">The Perl Foundation</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.perlfoundation.org/perl_trademark">http://www.perlfoundation.org/perl_trademark</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-09</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Perl+Trademark&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BThe+Perl+Foundation%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.perlfoundation.org%2Fperl_trademark&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-gillmore98-37"><b><a href="#cite_ref-gillmore98_37-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation news">Gillmore, Dan (1998-10-25). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1998-10-25/news/9810250094_1_programmers-open-source-movement-programming-community">"Republic Of Perl"</a>. <i>Chicago Tribune</i><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1998-10-25/news/9810250094_1_programmers-open-source-movement-programming-community">http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1998-10-25/news/9810250094_1_programmers-open-source-movement-programming-community</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-10</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Republic+Of+Perl&amp;rft.jtitle=Chicago+Tribune&amp;rft.aulast=Gillmore&amp;rft.aufirst=Dan&amp;rft.au=Gillmore%2C%26%2332%3BDan&amp;rft.date=1998-10-25&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Farticles.chicagotribune.com%2F1998-10-25%2Fnews%2F9810250094_1_programmers-open-source-movement-programming-community&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-38"><b><a href="#cite_ref-38">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Kirrily, Robert. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perlintro.html">"perlintro -- a brief introduction and overview of Perl"</a>. <i>Perl 5 version 12.2 documentation</i>. perldoc.perl.org<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perlintro.html">http://perldoc.perl.org/perlintro.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-10</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=perlintro+--+a+brief+introduction+and+overview+of+Perl&amp;rft.atitle=Perl+5+version+12.2+documentation&amp;rft.aulast=Kirrily&amp;rft.aufirst=Robert&amp;rft.au=Kirrily%2C%26%2332%3BRobert&amp;rft.pub=perldoc.perl.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fperldoc.perl.org%2Fperlintro.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-39"><b><a href="#cite_ref-39">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text">Usenet post, May 10, 1997, with ID 199705101952.MAA00756@wall.org</span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-wall97-40"><b><a href="#cite_ref-wall97_40-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Wall, Larry (1997-03-01). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/2070">"Wherefore Art, Thou?"</a>. <a href="/wiki/Linux_Journal" title="Linux Journal">Linux Journal</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/2070">http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/2070</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-03-13</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Wherefore+Art%2C+Thou%3F&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Wall&amp;rft.aufirst=Larry&amp;rft.au=Wall%2C%26%2332%3BLarry&amp;rft.date=1997-03-01&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BLinux+Journal%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.linuxjournal.com%2Farticle%2F2070&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-perlfunc-41"><b><a href="#cite_ref-perlfunc_41-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perlfunc.html">"perlfunc - Perl builtin functions"</a>. <i>Perl 5 version 12.2 documentation</i>. perldoc.perl.org<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perlfunc.html">http://perldoc.perl.org/perlfunc.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-10</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=perlfunc+-+Perl+builtin+functions&amp;rft.atitle=Perl+5+version+12.2+documentation&amp;rft.pub=perldoc.perl.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fperldoc.perl.org%2Fperlfunc.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-42"><b><a href="#cite_ref-42">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.perl6.org/specification">"Perl 6 Specification"</a>. The Perl 6 Project<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.perl6.org/specification">http://www.perl6.org/specification</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-27</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Perl+6+Specification&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=The+Perl+6+Project&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.perl6.org%2Fspecification&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-43"><b><a href="#cite_ref-43">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.perl6.org/compilers/">"Perl 6 Compilers"</a>. The Perl 6 Project<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.perl6.org/compilers/">http://www.perl6.org/compilers/</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-27</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Perl+6+Compilers&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=The+Perl+6+Project&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.perl6.org%2Fcompilers%2F&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-44"><b><a href="#cite_ref-44">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation book">Gilmore, W. J.. <i>Beginning PHP and MySQL: From Novice to Professional, Fourth Edition</i>. Apress. p.&#160;484. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1430231141" title="Special:BookSources/978-1430231141">978-1430231141</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Beginning+PHP+and+MySQL%3A+From+Novice+to+Professional%2C+Fourth+Edition&amp;rft.aulast=Gilmore&amp;rft.aufirst=W.+J.&amp;rft.au=Gilmore%2C%26%2332%3BW.+J.&amp;rft.pages=p.%26nbsp%3B484&amp;rft.pub=Apress&amp;rft.isbn=978-1430231141&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-45"><b><a href="#cite_ref-45">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.imdb.com/help/search?domain=helpdesk_faq&amp;index=1&amp;file=techinfo">"IMDb Helpdesk: What software/hardware are you using to run the site?"</a>. Internet Movie Database<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.imdb.com/help/search?domain=helpdesk_faq&amp;index=1&amp;file=techinfo">http://www.imdb.com/help/search?domain=helpdesk_faq&amp;index=1&amp;file=techinfo</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-02-12</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=IMDb+Helpdesk%3A+What+software%2Fhardware+are+you+using+to+run+the+site%3F&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=Internet+Movie+Database&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.imdb.com%2Fhelp%2Fsearch%3Fdomain%3Dhelpdesk_faq%26index%3D1%26file%3Dtechinfo&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-46"><b><a href="#cite_ref-46">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://books.perl.org/book/95">"Perl Books - Book: Data Munging with Perl"</a>. <i>Perl.org</i><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://books.perl.org/book/95">http://books.perl.org/book/95</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved December 30, 2010</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Perl+Books+-+Book%3A+Data+Munging+with+Perl&amp;rft.atitle=Perl.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.perl.org%2Fbook%2F95&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-47"><b><a href="#cite_ref-47">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.cpan.org/src">"Perl Source Code"</a>. <a href="/wiki/CPAN" title="CPAN">CPAN</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.cpan.org/src">http://www.cpan.org/src</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-27</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Perl+Source+Code&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BCPAN%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cpan.org%2Fsrc&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-48"><b><a href="#cite_ref-48">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text">A description of the Perl 5 interpreter can be found in <i>Programming Perl</i>, 3rd Ed., chapter 18. See particularly page 467, which carefully distinguishes run phase and compile phase from run time and compile time. Perl "time" and "phase" are often confused.</span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-49"><b><a href="#cite_ref-49">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a href="/wiki/Randal_L._Schwartz" title="Randal L. Schwartz">Schwartz, Randal</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.perlmonks.org/index.pl?node_id=44722">"On Parsing Perl"</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.perlmonks.org/index.pl?node_id=44722">http://www.perlmonks.org/index.pl?node_id=44722</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2007-01-03</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=On+Parsing+Perl&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Schwartz&amp;rft.aufirst=Randal&amp;rft.au=Schwartz%2C%26%2332%3BRandal&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.perlmonks.org%2Findex.pl%3Fnode_id%3D44722&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-50"><b><a href="#cite_ref-50">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="ftp://ftp.ora.com/pub/labs/tpj/tpj2.pdf">"The Perl Journal #19/9.26"</a>. <a href="/wiki/O%27Reilly_Media" title="O'Reilly Media">O'Reilly Media</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="ftp://ftp.ora.com/pub/labs/tpj/tpj2.pdf">ftp://ftp.ora.com/pub/labs/tpj/tpj2.pdf</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-02-04</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=The+Perl+Journal+%2319%2F9.26&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BO%27Reilly+Media%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=ftp%3A%2F%2Fftp.ora.com%2Fpub%2Flabs%2Ftpj%2Ftpj2.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-51"><b><a href="#cite_ref-51">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Kennedy, Adam (2006). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://search.cpan.org/~adamk/PPI-1.215/lib/PPI.pm">"PPI—Parse, Analyze and Manipulate Perl (without perl)"</a>. <a href="/wiki/CPAN" title="CPAN">CPAN</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://search.cpan.org/~adamk/PPI-1.215/lib/PPI.pm">http://search.cpan.org/~adamk/PPI-1.215/lib/PPI.pm</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=PPI%E2%80%94Parse%2C+Analyze+and+Manipulate+Perl+%28without+perl%29&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Kennedy%2C+Adam&amp;rft.au=Kennedy%2C+Adam&amp;rft.date=2006&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BCPAN%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fsearch.cpan.org%2F%7Eadamk%2FPPI-1.215%2Flib%2FPPI.pm&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-52"><b><a href="#cite_ref-52">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation Journal">"Rice's Theorem". <i>The Perl Review</i> <b>4</b> (3): 23–29. Summer 2008.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Rice%27s+Theorem&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Perl+Review&amp;rft.date=Summer+2008&amp;rft.volume=4&amp;rft.issue=3&amp;rft.pages=23%E2%80%9329&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span> and <span class="citation Journal">"Perl is Undecidable". <i>The Perl Review</i> <b>5</b> (0): 7–11. Fall 2008.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Perl+is+Undecidable&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Perl+Review&amp;rft.date=Fall+2008&amp;rft.volume=5&amp;rft.issue=0&amp;rft.pages=7%E2%80%9311&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span>, available online at <span class="citation web">Kegler, Jeffrey. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.jeffreykegler.com/Home/perl-and-undecidability">"Perl and Undecidability"</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.jeffreykegler.com/Home/perl-and-undecidability">http://www.jeffreykegler.com/Home/perl-and-undecidability</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Perl+and+Undecidability&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Kegler%2C+Jeffrey&amp;rft.au=Kegler%2C+Jeffrey&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jeffreykegler.com%2FHome%2Fperl-and-undecidability&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-53"><b><a href="#cite_ref-53">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.perlfoundation.org/perl5/index.cgi?pumpking">http://www.perlfoundation.org/perl5/index.cgi?pumpking</a></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-5110delta-54"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5110delta_54-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perl5110delta.html">"perl5110delta - what is new for perl v5.11.0"</a>. <i>Perl 5 version 12.2 documentation</i>. perldoc.perl.org<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://perldoc.perl.org/perl5110delta.html">http://perldoc.perl.org/perl5110delta.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-08</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=perl5110delta+-+what+is+new+for+perl+v5.11.0&amp;rft.atitle=Perl+5+version+12.2+documentation&amp;rft.pub=perldoc.perl.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fperldoc.perl.org%2Fperl5110delta.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-cpanports-55"><b><a href="#cite_ref-cpanports_55-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Hietaniemi, Jarkko (1998). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.cpan.org/ports/">"Perl Ports (Binary Distributions)"</a>. CPAN.org<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.cpan.org/ports/">http://www.cpan.org/ports/</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Perl+Ports+%28Binary+Distributions%29&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Hietaniemi%2C+Jarkko&amp;rft.au=Hietaniemi%2C+Jarkko&amp;rft.date=1998&amp;rft.pub=CPAN.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cpan.org%2Fports%2F&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-macperl-56"><b><a href="#cite_ref-macperl_56-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.macperl.com/">"The MacPerl Pages"</a>. Prime Time Freeware. 1997<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.macperl.com/">http://www.macperl.com/</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=The+MacPerl+Pages&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.date=1997&amp;rft.pub=Prime+Time+Freeware&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.macperl.com%2F&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-57"><b><a href="#cite_ref-57">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.cpan.org/ports/">"Perl Ports (Binary Distributions)"</a>. <a href="/wiki/CPAN" title="CPAN">CPAN</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.cpan.org/ports/">http://www.cpan.org/ports/</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-27</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Perl+Ports+%28Binary+Distributions%29&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BCPAN%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cpan.org%2Fports%2F&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-activestate-58"><b><a href="#cite_ref-activestate_58-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.activestate.com/activeperl">"ActivePerl is Perl for Windows, Mac, Linux, AIX, HP-UX &amp; Solaris"</a>. <a href="/wiki/ActiveState" title="ActiveState">ActiveState Software</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.activestate.com/activeperl">http://www.activestate.com/activeperl</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-09</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=ActivePerl+is+Perl+for+Windows%2C+Mac%2C+Linux%2C+AIX%2C+HP-UX+%26+Solaris&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BActiveState%7CActiveState+Software%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.activestate.com%2Factiveperl&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-activestateppm-59"><b><a href="#cite_ref-activestateppm_59-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://docs.activestate.com/activeperl/5.12/faq/ActivePerl-faq2.html">"Using PPM"</a>. <a href="/wiki/ActiveState" title="ActiveState">ActiveState Software</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://docs.activestate.com/activeperl/5.12/faq/ActivePerl-faq2.html">http://docs.activestate.com/activeperl/5.12/faq/ActivePerl-faq2.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-09</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Using+PPM&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BActiveState%7CActiveState+Software%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fdocs.activestate.com%2Factiveperl%2F5.12%2Ffaq%2FActivePerl-faq2.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-60"><b><a href="#cite_ref-60">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Bekman, Stas. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://perl.apache.org/docs/1.0/guide/performance.html#Efficient_Work_with_Databases_under_mod_perl">"Efficient Work with Databases under mod_perl"</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://perl.apache.org/docs/1.0/guide/performance.html#Efficient_Work_with_Databases_under_mod_perl">http://perl.apache.org/docs/1.0/guide/performance.html#Efficient_Work_with_Databases_under_mod_perl</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2007-09-01</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Efficient+Work+with+Databases+under+mod_perl&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Bekman&amp;rft.aufirst=Stas&amp;rft.au=Bekman%2C%26%2332%3BStas&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fperl.apache.org%2Fdocs%2F1.0%2Fguide%2Fperformance.html%23Efficient_Work_with_Databases_under_mod_perl&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-61"><b><a href="#cite_ref-61">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://alioth.debian.org/projects/shootout/">"Alioth: The Computer Language Benchmarks Game: Project Info"</a>. <a href="/wiki/Alioth" title="Alioth" class="mw-redirect">Alioth</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://alioth.debian.org/projects/shootout/">http://alioth.debian.org/projects/shootout/</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-13</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Alioth%3A+The+Computer+Language+Benchmarks+Game%3A+Project+Info&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BAlioth%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Falioth.debian.org%2Fprojects%2Fshootout%2F&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-62"><b><a href="#cite_ref-62">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://shootout.alioth.debian.org/u32/benchmark.php?test=all〈=all&amp;d=data&amp;v8=on&amp;lua=on&amp;python=on&amp;php=on&amp;perl=on&amp;yarv=on">Boxplot Summary "Which programming languages are fastest?"</a>. <i>Computer Language Benchmarks Game</i>. <a href="/wiki/Alioth" title="Alioth" class="mw-redirect">Alioth</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://shootout.alioth.debian.org/u32/benchmark.php?test=all〈=all&amp;d=data&amp;v8=on&amp;lua=on&amp;python=on&amp;php=on&amp;perl=on&amp;yarv=on">http://shootout.alioth.debian.org/u32/benchmark.php?test=all〈=all&amp;d=data&amp;v8=on&amp;lua=on&amp;python=on&amp;php=on&amp;perl=on&amp;yarv=on</a> Boxplot Summary</span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-13</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Which+programming+languages+are+fastest%3F&amp;rft.atitle=Computer+Language+Benchmarks+Game&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BAlioth%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fshootout.alioth.debian.org%2Fu32%2Fbenchmark.php%3Ftest%3Dall%E3%80%88%3Dall%26d%3Ddata%26v8%3Don%26lua%3Don%26python%3Don%26php%3Don%26perl%3Don%26yarv%3Don+Boxplot+Summary&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-63"><b><a href="#cite_ref-63">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Leroy, Jean-Louis (2005-12-01). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.perl.com/pub/a/2005/12/21/a_timely_start.html">"A Timely Start"</a>. O'Reilly<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.perl.com/pub/a/2005/12/21/a_timely_start.html">http://www.perl.com/pub/a/2005/12/21/a_timely_start.html</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=A+Timely+Start&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Leroy%2C+Jean-Louis&amp;rft.au=Leroy%2C+Jean-Louis&amp;rft.date=2005-12-01&amp;rft.pub=O%27Reilly&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.perl.com%2Fpub%2Fa%2F2005%2F12%2F21%2Fa_timely_start.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-64"><b><a href="#cite_ref-64">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Beattie, Malcolm and Enache Adrian (2003). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://search.cpan.org/~nwclark/perl-5.8.8/ext/B/B/Bytecode.pm#KNOWN_BUGS">"B::Bytecode Perl compiler's bytecode backend"</a>. <a href="/wiki/CPAN" title="CPAN">CPAN</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://search.cpan.org/~nwclark/perl-5.8.8/ext/B/B/Bytecode.pm#KNOWN_BUGS">http://search.cpan.org/~nwclark/perl-5.8.8/ext/B/B/Bytecode.pm#KNOWN_BUGS</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=B%3A%3ABytecode+Perl+compiler%27s+bytecode+backend&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Beattie%2C+Malcolm+and+Enache+Adrian&amp;rft.au=Beattie%2C+Malcolm+and+Enache+Adrian&amp;rft.date=2003&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BCPAN%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fsearch.cpan.org%2F%7Enwclark%2Fperl-5.8.8%2Fext%2FB%2FB%2FBytecode.pm%23KNOWN_BUGS&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-65"><b><a href="#cite_ref-65">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Ingerson, Brian. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://search.cpan.org/~sisyphus/Inline-0.47/Inline.pod">"Inline - search.cpan.org"</a>. <a href="/wiki/CPAN" title="CPAN">CPAN</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://search.cpan.org/~sisyphus/Inline-0.47/Inline.pod">http://search.cpan.org/~sisyphus/Inline-0.47/Inline.pod</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-26</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Inline+-+search.cpan.org&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Ingerson&amp;rft.aufirst=Brian&amp;rft.au=Ingerson%2C%26%2332%3BBrian&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BCPAN%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fsearch.cpan.org%2F%7Esisyphus%2FInline-0.47%2FInline.pod&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span><sup class="noprint Inline-Template"><span title="&#160;since April 2012" style="white-space: nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Link_rot" title="Wikipedia:Link rot">dead link</a></i>]</span></sup></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-66"><b><a href="#cite_ref-66">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Clark, Nicholas. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.ccl4.org/~nick/P/Fast_Enough/">"When perl is not quite fast enough"</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.ccl4.org/~nick/P/Fast_Enough/">http://www.ccl4.org/~nick/P/Fast_Enough/</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-02</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=When+perl+is+not+quite+fast+enough&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Clark&amp;rft.aufirst=Nicholas&amp;rft.au=Clark%2C%26%2332%3BNicholas&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ccl4.org%2F%7Enick%2FP%2FFast_Enough%2F&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-67"><b><a href="#cite_ref-67">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://perl6.org/">"Perl 6"</a>. The Perl 6 Project<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://perl6.org/">http://perl6.org/</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-02-27</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Perl+6&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=The+Perl+6+Project&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fperl6.org%2F&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-68"><b><a href="#cite_ref-68">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Torkington, Nathan. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.nntp.perl.org/group/perl.perl6.meta/2000/10/msg424.html">"Transcription of Larry's talk"</a>. nntp.perl.org<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.nntp.perl.org/group/perl.perl6.meta/2000/10/msg424.html">http://www.nntp.perl.org/group/perl.perl6.meta/2000/10/msg424.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-25</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Transcription+of+Larry%27s+talk&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Torkington&amp;rft.aufirst=Nathan&amp;rft.au=Torkington%2C%26%2332%3BNathan&amp;rft.pub=nntp.perl.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nntp.perl.org%2Fgroup%2Fperl.perl6.meta%2F2000%2F10%2Fmsg424.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-syn6-69"><b><a href="#cite_ref-syn6_69-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://perlcabal.org/syn/">"Official Perl 6 Documentation"</a>. The Perl 6 Project<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://perlcabal.org/syn/">http://perlcabal.org/syn/</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-25</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Official+Perl+6+Documentation&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=The+Perl+6+Project&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fperlcabal.org%2Fsyn%2F&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-perl6dev-70"><b><a href="#cite_ref-perl6dev_70-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://dev.perl.org/perl6/">"Perl 6 - dev.perl.org"</a>. dev.perl.org<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://dev.perl.org/perl6/">http://dev.perl.org/perl6/</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-25</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Perl+6+-+dev.perl.org&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=dev.perl.org&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fdev.perl.org%2Fperl6%2F&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-71"><b><a href="#cite_ref-71">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation Journal"><a href="/wiki/Bradley_M._Kuhn" title="Bradley M. Kuhn">Kuhn, Bradley</a> (January 2001). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.ebb.org/bkuhn/writings/technical/thesis/"><i>Considerations on Porting Perl to the Java Virtual Machine</i></a>. University of Cincinnati<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.ebb.org/bkuhn/writings/technical/thesis/">http://www.ebb.org/bkuhn/writings/technical/thesis/</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2008-06-28</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Considerations+on+Porting+Perl+to+the+Java+Virtual+Machine&amp;rft.aulast=Kuhn&amp;rft.aufirst=Bradley&amp;rft.au=Kuhn%2C%26%2332%3BBradley&amp;rft.date=January+2001&amp;rft.pub=University+of+Cincinnati&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ebb.org%2Fbkuhn%2Fwritings%2Ftechnical%2Fthesis%2F&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-72"><b><a href="#cite_ref-72">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://perl6.org/compilers/features">"Feature comparison of Perl 6 compilers"</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://perl6.org/compilers/features">http://perl6.org/compilers/features</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Feature+comparison+of+Perl+6+compilers&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fperl6.org%2Fcompilers%2Ffeatures&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-heise2010-73"><b><a href="#cite_ref-heise2010_73-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.h-online.com/open/news/item/Perl-5-12-0-released-Update-976919.html">"Perl 5.12.0 released - Update"</a>. Heise Media UK. 2010-04-13<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.h-online.com/open/news/item/Perl-5-12-0-released-Update-976919.html">http://www.h-online.com/open/news/item/Perl-5-12-0-released-Update-976919.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-08</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Perl+5.12.0+released+-+Update&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.date=2010-04-13&amp;rft.pub=Heise+Media+UK&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.h-online.com%2Fopen%2Fnews%2Fitem%2FPerl-5-12-0-released-Update-976919.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-74"><b><a href="#cite_ref-74">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://lwn.net/Articles/484297/">"The unstoppable Perl release train?"</a>. LWN.net. 2012-02-29<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://lwn.net/Articles/484297/">http://lwn.net/Articles/484297/</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2012-03-28</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=The+unstoppable+Perl+release+train%3F&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.date=2012-02-29&amp;rft.pub=LWN.net&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Flwn.net%2FArticles%2F484297%2F&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-75"><b><a href="#cite_ref-75">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://lwn.net/SubscriberLink/487216/8491ce8b050bfd59/">"Perl 5.16 and beyond"</a>. 2012-03-12<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://lwn.net/SubscriberLink/487216/8491ce8b050bfd59/">http://lwn.net/SubscriberLink/487216/8491ce8b050bfd59/</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Perl+5.16+and+beyond&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.date=2012-03-12&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Flwn.net%2FSubscriberLink%2F487216%2F8491ce8b050bfd59%2F&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-76"><b><a href="#cite_ref-76">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a href="/wiki/Larry_Wall" title="Larry Wall">Wall, Larry</a> (1997-08-20). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.wall.org/~larry/keynote/keynote.html">"Perl Culture (AKA the first State of the Onion)"</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.wall.org/~larry/keynote/keynote.html">http://www.wall.org/~larry/keynote/keynote.html</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Perl+Culture+%28AKA+the+first+State+of+the+Onion%29&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Wall&amp;rft.aufirst=Larry&amp;rft.au=Wall%2C%26%2332%3BLarry&amp;rft.date=1997-08-20&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.wall.org%2F%7Elarry%2Fkeynote%2Fkeynote.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-77"><b><a href="#cite_ref-77">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation newsgroup"><a href="/wiki/Randal_L._Schwartz" title="Randal L. Schwartz">Randal L. Schwartz</a> (1999-05-02). "<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="news:http://groups.google.com/group/comp.lang.perl.misc/msg/ecc405feeefc120c?pli=1">Who is Just another Perl hacker?</a>". <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="news:comp.lang.perl.misc">comp.lang.perl.misc</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://groups.google.com/group/comp.lang.perl.misc/msg/ecc405feeefc120c?pli=1">(Web link)</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2007-11-12</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=%5Bnews%3Ahttp%3A%2F%2Fgroups.google.com%2Fgroup%2Fcomp.lang.perl.misc%2Fmsg%2Fecc405feeefc120c%3Fpli%3D1+Who+is+Just+another+Perl+hacker%3F%5D&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=%5B%5BRandal+L.+Schwartz%5D%5D&amp;rft.au=%5B%5BRandal+L.+Schwartz%5D%5D&amp;rft.date=1999-05-02&amp;rft.pub=%5Bnews%3Acomp.lang.perl.misc+comp.lang.perl.misc%5D&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-78"><b><a href="#cite_ref-78">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a href="/wiki/Randal_L._Schwartz" title="Randal L. Schwartz">Schwartz, Randal</a> (2005-03-31). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.perlmonks.org/bare/?node_id=443856">"Canonical JAPH"</a>. <a href="/wiki/PerlMonks" title="PerlMonks">PerlMonks</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.perlmonks.org/bare/?node_id=443856">http://www.perlmonks.org/bare/?node_id=443856</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-05-16</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Canonical+JAPH&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Schwartz&amp;rft.aufirst=Randal&amp;rft.au=Schwartz%2C%26%2332%3BRandal&amp;rft.date=2005-03-31&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BPerlMonks%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.perlmonks.org%2Fbare%2F%3Fnode_id%3D443856&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-perl-golf-coined-79"><b><a href="#cite_ref-perl-golf-coined_79-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation newsgroup">Greg Bacon (1999-05-28). "<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="news:7imnti$mjh$1@info2.uah.edu">Re: Incrementing a value in a slice</a>". <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="news:comp.lang.perl.misc">comp.lang.perl.misc</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://groups.google.com/group/comp.lang.perl.misc/msg/7b97c434492c8d20">(Web link)</a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-07-12</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=%5Bnews%3A7imnti%24mjh%241%40info2.uah.edu+Re%3A+Incrementing+a+value+in+a+slice%5D&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Greg+Bacon&amp;rft.au=Greg+Bacon&amp;rft.date=1999-05-28&amp;rft.pub=%5Bnews%3Acomp.lang.perl.misc+comp.lang.perl.misc%5D&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-rsa-80"><b><a href="#cite_ref-rsa_80-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Back, Adam. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.cypherspace.org/rsa/pureperl.html">"RSA in 5 lines of perl"</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.cypherspace.org/rsa/pureperl.html">http://www.cypherspace.org/rsa/pureperl.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-10</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=RSA+in+5+lines+of+perl&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Back&amp;rft.aufirst=Adam&amp;rft.au=Back%2C%26%2332%3BAdam&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cypherspace.org%2Frsa%2Fpureperl.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-81"><b><a href="#cite_ref-81">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://codegolf.com/">"Code Golf: What is Code Golf?"</a>. 29degrees. 2007<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://codegolf.com/">http://codegolf.com/</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Code+Golf%3A+What+is+Code+Golf%3F&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.date=2007&amp;rft.pub=29degrees&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fcodegolf.com%2F&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-gallo03-82"><b><a href="#cite_ref-gallo03_82-0">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation book">Gallo, Felix (2003). [oreilly.com/catalog/tpj3/chapter/ch43.pdf "The Zeroth Obfuscated Perl Contest"]. In Jon Orwant. <i>Games, diversions, and Perl culture: best of the Perl journal</i>. O'Reilly Media<span class="printonly">. oreilly.com/catalog/tpj3/chapter/ch43.pdf</span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-12</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=The+Zeroth+Obfuscated+Perl+Contest&amp;rft.atitle=Games%2C+diversions%2C+and+Perl+culture%3A+best+of+the+Perl+journal&amp;rft.aulast=Gallo&amp;rft.aufirst=Felix&amp;rft.au=Gallo%2C%26%2332%3BFelix&amp;rft.date=2003&amp;rft.pub=O%27Reilly+Media&amp;rft_id=oreilly.com%2Fcatalog%2Ftpj3%2Fchapter%2Fch43.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-83"><b><a href="#cite_ref-83">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.perlmonks.org/?node_id=1590">"Perl Poetry"</a>. <a href="/wiki/PerlMonks" title="PerlMonks">PerlMonks</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.perlmonks.org/?node_id=1590">http://www.perlmonks.org/?node_id=1590</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2011-01-27</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Perl+Poetry&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.pub=%5B%5BPerlMonks%5D%5D&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.perlmonks.org%2F%3Fnode_id%3D1590&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-84"><b><a href="#cite_ref-84">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Conway, Damian. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~damian/papers/HTML/Perligata.html">"Lingua::Romana::Perligata -- Perl for the XXI-imum Century"</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~damian/papers/HTML/Perligata.html">http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~damian/papers/HTML/Perligata.html</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=Lingua%3A%3ARomana%3A%3APerligata+--+Perl+for+the+XXI-imum+Century&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Conway%2C+Damian&amp;rft.au=Conway%2C+Damian&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.csse.monash.edu.au%2F%7Edamian%2Fpapers%2FHTML%2FPerligata.html&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+<li id="cite_note-85"><b><a href="#cite_ref-85">^</a></b> <span class="reference-text"><span class="citation web">Brocard, Leon (2001-05-23). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://use.perl.org/~acme/journal/200">"use Perl; Journal of acme"</a>. use Perl<span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://use.perl.org/~acme/journal/200">http://use.perl.org/~acme/journal/200</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.btitle=use+Perl%3B+Journal+of+acme&amp;rft.atitle=&amp;rft.aulast=Brocard%2C+Leon&amp;rft.au=Brocard%2C+Leon&amp;rft.date=2001-05-23&amp;rft.pub=use+Perl&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fuse.perl.org%2F%7Eacme%2Fjournal%2F200&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
+</ol>
+</div>
+<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;section=27" title="Edit section: Further reading">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="Further_reading">Further reading</span></h2>
+<ul>
+<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://shop.oreilly.com/product/0636920018452.do">Learning Perl</a> 6th Edition (2011), O'Reilly. Beginner-level introduction to Perl.</li>
+<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://onyxneon.com/books/modern_perl/">Modern Perl</a> 2nd Edition (2011-2012), Onyx Neon. Describes <a href="/w/index.php?title=Modern_Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Modern Perl (page does not exist)">Modern Perl</a> programming techniques.</li>
+<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://shop.oreilly.com/product/9780596004927.do">Programming Perl</a> 4th Edition (2012), O'Reilly. The definitive Perl reference.</li>
+<li><i><a href="/wiki/Perl_Cookbook" title="Perl Cookbook">Perl Cookbook</a></i>, <a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0596003137" class="internal mw-magiclink-isbn">ISBN 0-596-00313-7</a>. Practical Perl programming examples.</li>
+<li><span class="citation book">Dominus, Mark Jason (2005). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://hop.perl.plover.com/book/"><i>Higher Order Perl</i></a>. Morgan Kaufmann. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/1-55860-701-3" title="Special:BookSources/1-55860-701-3">1-55860-701-3</a><span class="printonly">. <a rel="nofollow" class="external free" href="http://hop.perl.plover.com/book/">http://hop.perl.plover.com/book/</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Higher+Order+Perl&amp;rft.aulast=Dominus&amp;rft.aufirst=Mark+Jason&amp;rft.au=Dominus%2C%26%2332%3BMark+Jason&amp;rft.date=2005&amp;rft.pub=Morgan+Kaufmann&amp;rft.isbn=1-55860-701-3&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fhop.perl.plover.com%2Fbook%2F&amp;rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Perl"><span style="display: none;">&#160;</span></span> Functional programming techniques in Perl.</li>
+</ul>
+<h2><span class="editsection">[<a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit&amp;section=28" title="Edit section: External links">edit</a>]</span> <span class="mw-headline" id="External_links">External links</span></h2>
+<table class="metadata plainlinks mbox-small" style="border:1px solid #aaa; background-color:#f9f9f9;">
+<tr>
+<td colspan="2" style="margin: auto; text-align: center">Find more about <b>Perl</b> on Wikipedia's <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Wikimedia_sister_projects" title="Wikipedia:Wikimedia sister projects">sister projects</a>:</td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td><a href="//en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Special:Search/Perl" title="Search Wiktionary"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f8/Wiktionary-logo-en.svg/23px-Wiktionary-logo-en.svg.png" width="23" height="25" /></a></td>
+<td><a class="external text" href="//en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Special:Search/Perl">Definitions and translations</a> from Wiktionary<br /></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td><a href="//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:Search/Category:Perl_(programming_language)" title="Search Commons"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg/18px-Commons-logo.svg.png" width="18" height="25" /></a></td>
+<td><a class="external text" href="//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:Search/Category:Perl_(programming_language)">Images and media</a> from Commons<br /></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td><a href="//en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Special:Search/Topic:Perl" title="Search Wikiversity"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1b/Wikiversity-logo-en.svg/25px-Wikiversity-logo-en.svg.png" width="25" height="23" /></a></td>
+<td><a class="external text" href="//en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Special:Search/Topic:Perl">Learning resources</a> from Wikiversity<br /></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td><a href="//en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Special:Search/Perl" title="Search Wikiquote"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Wikiquote-logo.svg/21px-Wikiquote-logo.svg.png" width="21" height="25" /></a></td>
+<td><a class="external text" href="//en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Special:Search/Perl">Quotations</a> from Wikiquote<br /></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td><a href="//en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Special:Search/Perl_Programming" title="Search Wikibooks"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fa/Wikibooks-logo.svg/25px-Wikibooks-logo.svg.png" width="25" height="25" /></a></td>
+<td><a class="external text" href="//en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Special:Search/Perl_Programming">Textbooks</a> from Wikibooks<br /></td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<ul>
+<li><span class="official website"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.perl.org">Official website</a></span> Perl.org</li>
+<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.cpan.org/">Comprehensive Perl Archive Network</a> The canonical location for Perl code and modules</li>
+<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.perlfoundation.org/">The Perl Foundation</a></li>
+<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.perlmonks.org/">PerlMonks</a> A community committed to sharing Perl knowledge and coding tips</li>
+</ul>
+<table cellspacing="0" class="navbox" style="border-spacing:0;;">
+<tr>
+<td style="padding:2px;">
+<table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit;;">
+<tr>
+<th scope="col" style=";" class="navbox-title" colspan="2">
+<div class="noprint plainlinks hlist navbar mini" style="">
+<ul>
+<li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Perl" title="Template:Perl"><span title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;">v</span></a></li>
+<li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Perl" title="Template talk:Perl"><span title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;">t</span></a></li>
+<li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Perl&amp;action=edit"><span title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;">e</span></a></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="" style="font-size:110%;"><strong class="selflink">Perl</strong></div>
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr style="height:2px;">
+<td></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style=";;">People</th>
+<td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist">
+<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
+<ul>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Larry_Wall" title="Larry Wall">Larry Wall</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Randal_L._Schwartz" title="Randal L. Schwartz">Randal L. Schwartz</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Damian_Conway" title="Damian Conway">Damian Conway</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Allison_Randal" title="Allison Randal">Allison Randal</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Audrey_Tang" title="Audrey Tang">Audrey Tang</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Simon_Cozens" title="Simon Cozens">Simon Cozens</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Sean_M._Burke" title="Sean M. Burke">Sean M. Burke</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Chromatic_(programmer)" title="Chromatic (programmer)">chromatic</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Adam_Kennedy_(programmer)" title="Adam Kennedy (programmer)">Adam Kennedy</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Brian_d_foy" title="Brian d foy">brian d foy</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Mark_Jason_Dominus" title="Mark Jason Dominus">Mark Jason Dominus</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Jesse_Vincent" title="Jesse Vincent">Jesse Vincent</a></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr style="height:2px">
+<td></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style=";;">Things</th>
+<td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist">
+<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
+<ul>
+<li><a href="/wiki/The_Perl_Foundation" title="The Perl Foundation">The Perl Foundation</a>
+<ul>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Perl_Mongers" title="Perl Mongers">Perl Mongers</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/PerlMonks" title="PerlMonks">PerlMonks</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/CPAN" title="CPAN">archives</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Perl_module" title="Perl module">module</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Perl_virtual_machine" title="Perl virtual machine">Perl VM</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Parrot_virtual_machine" title="Parrot virtual machine">Parrot</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Yet_Another_Perl_Conference" title="Yet Another Perl Conference">YAPC</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/BioPerl" title="BioPerl">Bioperl</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Plack_(software)" title="Plack (software)">Plack</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/PSGI" title="PSGI">PSGI</a></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr style="height:2px">
+<td></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style=";;">Frameworks</th>
+<td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist">
+<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
+<ul>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Catalyst_(software)" title="Catalyst (software)">Catalyst</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Mason_(Perl)" title="Mason (Perl)">Mason</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Maypole_framework" title="Maypole framework">Maypole</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Dancer_(software)" title="Dancer (software)">Dancer</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Moose_(Perl)" title="Moose (Perl)">Moose</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Mojolicious" title="Mojolicious">Mojolicious</a></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr style="height:2px;">
+<td></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="navbox-abovebelow" style=";" colspan="2">
+<div><b><a href="/wiki/Outline_of_Perl" title="Outline of Perl">Outline</a></b> • <b><a href="/wiki/Category:Perl" title="Category:Perl">Category</a></b></div>
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<table cellspacing="0" class="navbox" style="border-spacing:0;;">
+<tr>
+<td style="padding:2px;">
+<table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks hlist collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit;;">
+<tr>
+<th scope="col" style=";" class="navbox-title" colspan="2">
+<div class="noprint plainlinks hlist navbar mini" style="">
+<ul>
+<li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:FOSS" title="Template:FOSS"><span title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;">v</span></a></li>
+<li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:FOSS" title="Template talk:FOSS"><span title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;">t</span></a></li>
+<li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:FOSS&amp;action=edit"><span title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;">e</span></a></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+<div class="" style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/wiki/Free_and_open_source_software" title="Free and open source software">Free and open source software</a></div>
+</th>
+</tr>
+<tr style="height:2px;">
+<td></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style=";;">General</th>
+<td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd">
+<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
+<ul>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Copyleft" title="Copyleft">Copyleft</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Free_software" title="Free software">Free software</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/The_Free_Software_Definition" title="The Free Software Definition">Free Software Definition</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Gratis_versus_libre" title="Gratis versus libre">Gratis versus libre</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_free_and_open_source_software_packages" title="List of free and open source software packages">List of free and open source software packages</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_open_source_Android_applications" title="List of open source Android applications">List of open source Android applications</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_free_software_web_applications" title="List of free software web applications">List of free software web applications</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_free_software_project_directories" title="List of free software project directories">List of project directories</a>/<a href="/wiki/Comparison_of_open_source_software_hosting_facilities" title="Comparison of open source software hosting facilities">Comparison of hosting facilities</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_formerly_proprietary_software" title="List of formerly proprietary software">List of formerly proprietary software</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Open-source_software" title="Open-source software">Open-source software</a></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr style="height:2px">
+<td></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/wiki/Comparison_of_open_source_operating_systems" title="Comparison of open source operating systems">Operating system families</a></th>
+<td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even">
+<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
+<ul>
+<li><a href="/wiki/AROS_Research_Operating_System" title="AROS Research Operating System">AROS</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Berkeley_Software_Distribution" title="Berkeley Software Distribution">BSD</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Darwin_(operating_system)" title="Darwin (operating system)">Darwin</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/ECos" title="ECos">eCos</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/FreeDOS" title="FreeDOS">FreeDOS</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/GNU" title="GNU">GNU</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Haiku_(operating_system)" title="Haiku (operating system)">Haiku</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Inferno_(operating_system)" title="Inferno (operating system)">Inferno</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Linux" title="Linux">Linux</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Mach_(kernel)" title="Mach (kernel)">Mach</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/MINIX" title="MINIX">MINIX</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/OpenSolaris" title="OpenSolaris">OpenSolaris</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Plan_9_from_Bell_Labs" title="Plan 9 from Bell Labs">Plan 9</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/ReactOS" title="ReactOS">ReactOS</a></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr style="height:2px">
+<td></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/wiki/Open_source_software_development" title="Open source software development">Development</a></th>
+<td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd">
+<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
+<ul>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Eclipse_(software)" title="Eclipse (software)">Eclipse</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/FreeBASIC" title="FreeBASIC">FreeBASIC</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Free_Pascal" title="Free Pascal">Free Pascal</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/GNU_Compiler_Collection" title="GNU Compiler Collection">GCC</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Gambas" title="Gambas">Gambas</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Java_(programming_language)" title="Java (programming language)">Java</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Low_Level_Virtual_Machine" title="Low Level Virtual Machine" class="mw-redirect">LLVM</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Lua_(programming_language)" title="Lua (programming language)">Lua</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/NetBeans" title="NetBeans">NetBeans</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Open64" title="Open64">Open64</a></li>
+<li><strong class="selflink">Perl</strong></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/PHP" title="PHP">PHP</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Python_(programming_language)" title="Python (programming language)">Python</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/ROSE_compiler_framework" title="ROSE compiler framework" class="mw-redirect">ROSE</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Ruby_(programming_language)" title="Ruby (programming language)">Ruby</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Tcl" title="Tcl">Tcl</a></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr style="height:2px">
+<td></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/wiki/History_of_free_and_open-source_software" title="History of free and open-source software">History</a></th>
+<td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even">
+<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
+<ul>
+<li><a href="/wiki/GNU#History" title="GNU">GNU</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/History_of_Haiku_(operating_system)" title="History of Haiku (operating system)">Haiku</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/History_of_Linux" title="History of Linux">Linux</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Mozilla" title="Mozilla">Mozilla</a>
+<ul>
+<li><a href="/wiki/History_of_Mozilla_Application_Suite" title="History of Mozilla Application Suite">Application Suite</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/History_of_Firefox" title="History of Firefox">Firefox</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/History_of_Mozilla_Thunderbird" title="History of Mozilla Thunderbird">Thunderbird</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr style="height:2px">
+<td></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style=";;">Organizations</th>
+<td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd">
+<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
+<ul>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Apache_Software_Foundation" title="Apache Software Foundation">Apache Software Foundation</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Android_Open_Source_Project" title="Android Open Source Project" class="mw-redirect">Android Open Source Project</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Blender_Foundation" title="Blender Foundation">Blender Foundation</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Eclipse_Foundation" title="Eclipse Foundation">Eclipse Foundation</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/FreeBSD_Foundation" title="FreeBSD Foundation">FreeBSD Foundation</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Freedesktop.org" title="Freedesktop.org">freedesktop.org</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Free_Software_Foundation" title="Free Software Foundation">Free Software Foundation</a>
+<ul>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Free_Software_Foundation_Europe" title="Free Software Foundation Europe">Europe</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Free_Software_Foundation_of_India" title="Free Software Foundation of India">India</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Free_Software_Foundation_Latin_America" title="Free Software Foundation Latin America">Latin America</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Free_Software_Movement_of_India" title="Free Software Movement of India">FSMI</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/GNOME_Foundation" title="GNOME Foundation">GNOME Foundation</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/GNU_Project" title="GNU Project">GNU Project</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Google_Code" title="Google Code">Google Code</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/KDE_e.V." title="KDE e.V.">KDE e.V.</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Linux_Foundation" title="Linux Foundation">Linux Foundation</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Mozilla_Foundation" title="Mozilla Foundation">Mozilla Foundation</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Open_Source_Geospatial_Foundation" title="Open Source Geospatial Foundation">Open Source Geospatial Foundation</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Open_Source_Initiative" title="Open Source Initiative">Open Source Initiative</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Software_Freedom_Conservancy" title="Software Freedom Conservancy">Software Freedom Conservancy</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/SourceForge" title="SourceForge">SourceForge</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Symbian_Foundation" title="Symbian Foundation">Symbian Foundation</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/The_Document_Foundation" title="The Document Foundation">The Document Foundation</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Xiph.Org_Foundation" title="Xiph.Org Foundation">Xiph.Org Foundation</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/XMPP_Standards_Foundation" title="XMPP Standards Foundation">XMPP Standards Foundation</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/X.Org_Foundation" title="X.Org Foundation">X.Org Foundation</a></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr style="height:2px">
+<td></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/wiki/Free_software_licence" title="Free software licence">Licences</a></th>
+<td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even">
+<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
+<ul>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Apache_License" title="Apache License">Apache</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Artistic_License" title="Artistic License">Artistic</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Beerware" title="Beerware">Beerware</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/BSD_licenses" title="BSD licenses">BSD</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/GNU_General_Public_License" title="GNU General Public License">GNU GPL</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/GNU_Lesser_General_Public_License" title="GNU Lesser General Public License">GNU LGPL</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/ISC_license" title="ISC license">ISC</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/MIT_License" title="MIT License">MIT</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Mozilla_Public_License" title="Mozilla Public License">MPL</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Shared_source#Open_Source_licenses" title="Shared source">Ms-PL/RL</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Zlib_License" title="Zlib License">zlib</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Public_domain" title="Public domain">Public domain</a>/<a href="/wiki/CC0#Public_domain_tools" title="CC0" class="mw-redirect">CC0</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/WTFPL" title="WTFPL">WTFPL</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_FSF_approved_software_licenses" title="List of FSF approved software licenses" class="mw-redirect">FSF approved licenses</a></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr style="height:2px">
+<td></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style=";;">Licence standards</th>
+<td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd">
+<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
+<ul>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Open_Source_Definition" title="Open Source Definition" class="mw-redirect">Open Source Definition</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/The_Free_Software_Definition" title="The Free Software Definition">The Free Software Definition</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Debian_Free_Software_Guidelines" title="Debian Free Software Guidelines">Debian Free Software Guidelines</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Definition_of_Free_Cultural_Works" title="Definition of Free Cultural Works">Definition of Free Cultural Works</a></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr style="height:2px">
+<td></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style=";;">Challenges</th>
+<td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even">
+<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
+<ul>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Binary_blob" title="Binary blob">Binary blob</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Contributor_License_Agreement" title="Contributor License Agreement">Contributor License Agreement</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Digital_rights_management" title="Digital rights management">Digital rights management</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Graphics_hardware_and_FOSS" title="Graphics hardware and FOSS">Graphics hardware compatibility</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/License_proliferation" title="License proliferation">License proliferation</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Mozilla_Corporation_software_rebranded_by_the_Debian_project" title="Mozilla Corporation software rebranded by the Debian project">Mozilla software rebranding</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Proprietary_software" title="Proprietary software">Proprietary software</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/SCO-Linux_controversies" title="SCO-Linux controversies">SCO-Linux controversies</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Open_source_software_security" title="Open source software security">Security</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Software_patents_and_free_software" title="Software patents and free software">Software patents</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Hardware_restrictions" title="Hardware restrictions">Hardware restrictions</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Trusted_Computing" title="Trusted Computing">Trusted Computing</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Windows_8#Secure_boot" title="Windows 8">Secure Boot</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Viral_license" title="Viral license">Viral license</a></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr style="height:2px">
+<td></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style=";;">Other topics</th>
+<td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd">
+<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
+<ul>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Alternative_terms_for_free_software" title="Alternative terms for free software">Alternative terms</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Free_software_community" title="Free software community" class="mw-redirect">Community</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Linux_distribution" title="Linux distribution">Linux distribution</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Fork_(software_development)" title="Fork (software development)">Forking</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Free_software_movement" title="Free software movement">Movement</a></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Microsoft_Open_Specification_Promise" title="Microsoft Open Specification Promise">Microsoft Open Specification Promise</a></li>
+<li><i><a href="/wiki/Revolution_OS" title="Revolution OS">Revolution OS</a></i></li>
+<li><i><a href="/wiki/The_Cathedral_and_the_Bazaar" title="The Cathedral and the Bazaar">The Cathedral and the Bazaar</a></i></li>
+<li><a href="/wiki/Comparison_of_open_source_and_closed_source" title="Comparison of open source and closed source">Comparison with closed source</a></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</td>
+</tr>
+<tr style="height:2px;">
+<td></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="navbox-abovebelow" style=";" colspan="2">
+<div>
+<ul>
+<li><b><img alt="Wikipedia book" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/89/Symbol_book_class2.svg/16px-Symbol_book_class2.svg.png" width="16" height="16" /> <a href="/wiki/Book:Free_and_Open_Source_Software" title="Book:Free and Open Source Software">Book:Free and Open Source Software</a></b></li>
+<li><b><img alt="Category" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg/16px-Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg.png" width="16" height="14" /> <a href="/wiki/Category:Free_software" title="Category:Free software">Category:Free software</a></b></li>
+<li><b><img alt="Portal" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/f/fd/Portal-puzzle.svg/16px-Portal-puzzle.svg.png" width="16" height="14" /> <a href="/wiki/Portal:Free_software" title="Portal:Free software">Portal:Free software</a></b></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+<p><span id="interwiki-de-ga"></span></p>
+
+
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+	<h5>Personal tools</h5>
+	<ul>
+		<li id="pt-userpage"><a href="/wiki/User:Shlomif" title="Your user page [.]" accesskey=".">Shlomif</a></li>
+		<li id="pt-mytalk"><a href="/wiki/User_talk:Shlomif" title="Your talk page [n]" accesskey="n">My talk</a></li>
+		<li id="pt-preferences"><a href="/wiki/Special:Preferences" title="Your preferences">My preferences</a></li>
+		<li id="pt-watchlist"><a href="/wiki/Special:Watchlist" title="The list of pages that you are monitoring for changes [l]" accesskey="l">My watchlist</a></li>
+		<li id="pt-mycontris"><a href="/wiki/Special:Contributions/Shlomif" title="A list of your contributions [y]" accesskey="y">My contributions</a></li>
+		<li id="pt-logout"><a href="/w/index.php?title=Special:UserLogout&amp;returnto=Perl" title="Log out">Log out</a></li>
+	</ul>
+</div>
+
+<!-- /0 -->
+			<div id="left-navigation">
+				
+<!-- 0 -->
+<div id="p-namespaces" class="vectorTabs">
+	<h5>Namespaces</h5>
+	<ul>
+					<li  id="ca-nstab-main" class="selected"><span><a href="/wiki/Perl"  title="View the content page [c]" accesskey="c">Article</a></span></li>
+					<li  id="ca-talk"><span><a href="/wiki/Talk:Perl"  title="Discussion about the content page [t]" accesskey="t">Talk</a></span></li>
+			</ul>
+</div>
+
+<!-- /0 -->
+
+<!-- 1 -->
+<div id="p-variants" class="vectorMenu emptyPortlet">
+	<h4>
+		</h4>
+	<h5><span>Variants</span><a href="#"></a></h5>
+	<div class="menu">
+		<ul>
+					</ul>
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+</div>
+
+<!-- /1 -->
+			</div>
+			<div id="right-navigation">
+				
+<!-- 0 -->
+<div id="p-views" class="vectorTabs">
+	<h5>Views</h5>
+	<ul>
+					<li id="ca-view" class="selected"><span><a href="/wiki/Perl" >Read</a></span></li>
+					<li id="ca-edit"><span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=edit"  title="You can edit this page. &#10;Please use the preview button before saving. [e]" accesskey="e">Edit</a></span></li>
+					<li id="ca-history" class="collapsible"><span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=history"  title="Past versions of this page [h]" accesskey="h">View history</a></span></li>
+					<li id="ca-unwatch" class="icon"><span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;action=unwatch&amp;token=f3a6ccebc87b13bc834e3ae7212384b0%2B%5C"  title="Remove this page from your watchlist [w]" accesskey="w">Unwatch</a></span></li>
+			</ul>
+</div>
+
+<!-- /0 -->
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+<div id="p-cactions" class="vectorMenu">
+	<h5><span>Actions</span><a href="#"></a></h5>
+	<div class="menu">
+		<ul>
+							<li id="ca-move"><a href="/wiki/Special:MovePage/Perl"  title="Rename this page [m]" accesskey="m">Move</a></li>
+					</ul>
+	</div>
+</div>
+
+<!-- /1 -->
+
+<!-- 2 -->
+<div id="p-search">
+	<h5><label for="searchInput">Search</label></h5>
+	<form action="/w/index.php" id="searchform">
+				<div id="simpleSearch">
+						<input type="text" name="search" value="" title="Search Wikipedia [f]" accesskey="f" id="searchInput" />						<button type="submit" name="button" title="Search Wikipedia for this text" id="searchButton" width="12" height="13"><img src="//bits.wikimedia.org/skins-1.20wmf1/vector/images/search-ltr.png?303-4" alt="Search" /></button>								<input type='hidden' name="title" value="Special:Search"/>
+		</div>
+	</form>
+</div>
+
+<!-- /2 -->
+			</div>
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+				<!-- /logo -->
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+<!-- navigation -->
+<div class="portal" id='p-navigation'>
+	<h5>Navigation</h5>
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+			<li id="n-mainpage-description"><a href="/wiki/Main_Page" title="Visit the main page [z]" accesskey="z">Main page</a></li>
+			<li id="n-contents"><a href="/wiki/Portal:Contents" title="Guides to browsing Wikipedia">Contents</a></li>
+			<li id="n-featuredcontent"><a href="/wiki/Portal:Featured_content" title="Featured content – the best of Wikipedia">Featured content</a></li>
+			<li id="n-currentevents"><a href="/wiki/Portal:Current_events" title="Find background information on current events">Current events</a></li>
+			<li id="n-randompage"><a href="/wiki/Special:Random" title="Load a random article [x]" accesskey="x">Random article</a></li>
+			<li id="n-sitesupport"><a href="//wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Special:Landingcheck?landing_page=WMFJA085&amp;language=en&amp;utm_source=donate&amp;utm_medium=sidebar&amp;utm_campaign=20101204SB002" title="Support us">Donate to Wikipedia</a></li>
+		</ul>
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+<div class="portal" id='p-interaction'>
+	<h5>Interaction</h5>
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+		<ul>
+			<li id="n-help"><a href="/wiki/Help:Contents" title="Guidance on how to use and edit Wikipedia">Help</a></li>
+			<li id="n-aboutsite"><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:About" title="Find out about Wikipedia">About Wikipedia</a></li>
+			<li id="n-portal"><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Community_portal" title="About the project, what you can do, where to find things">Community portal</a></li>
+			<li id="n-recentchanges"><a href="/wiki/Special:RecentChanges" title="A list of recent changes in the wiki [r]" accesskey="r">Recent changes</a></li>
+			<li id="n-contact"><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Contact_us" title="How to contact Wikipedia">Contact Wikipedia</a></li>
+		</ul>
+	</div>
+</div>
+
+<!-- /interaction -->
+
+<!-- TOOLBOX -->
+<div class="portal" id='p-tb'>
+	<h5>Toolbox</h5>
+	<div class="body">
+		<ul>
+			<li id="t-whatlinkshere"><a href="/wiki/Special:WhatLinksHere/Perl" title="List of all English Wikipedia pages containing links to this page [j]" accesskey="j">What links here</a></li>
+			<li id="t-recentchangeslinked"><a href="/wiki/Special:RecentChangesLinked/Perl" title="Recent changes in pages linked from this page [k]" accesskey="k">Related changes</a></li>
+			<li id="t-upload"><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Upload" title="Upload files [u]" accesskey="u">Upload file</a></li>
+			<li id="t-specialpages"><a href="/wiki/Special:SpecialPages" title="A list of all special pages [q]" accesskey="q">Special pages</a></li>
+			<li id="t-permalink"><a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;oldid=489286078" title="Permanent link to this revision of the page">Permanent link</a></li>
+<li id="t-cite"><a href="/w/index.php?title=Special:Cite&amp;page=Perl&amp;id=489286078" title="Information on how to cite this page">Cite this page</a></li>		</ul>
+	</div>
+</div>
+
+<!-- /TOOLBOX -->
+
+<!-- coll-print_export -->
+<div class="portal" id='p-coll-print_export'>
+	<h5>Print/export</h5>
+	<div class="body">
+		<ul id="collectionPortletList"><li id="coll-create_a_book"><a href="/w/index.php?title=Special:Book&amp;bookcmd=book_creator&amp;referer=Perl" title="Create a book or page collection" rel="nofollow">Create a book</a></li><li id="coll-download-as-rl"><a href="/w/index.php?title=Special:Book&amp;bookcmd=render_article&amp;arttitle=Perl&amp;oldid=489286078&amp;writer=rl" title="Download a PDF version of this wiki page" rel="nofollow">Download as PDF</a></li><li id="t-print"><a href="/w/index.php?title=Perl&amp;printable=yes" title="Printable version of this page [p]" accesskey="p">Printable version</a></li></ul>	</div>
+</div>
+
+<!-- /coll-print_export -->
+
+<!-- LANGUAGES -->
+<div class="portal" id='p-lang'>
+	<h5>Languages</h5>
+	<div class="body">
+		<ul>
+			<li class="interwiki-als"><a href="//als.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="als" hreflang="als">Alemannisch</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-ar"><a href="//ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%B1%D9%84" title="بيرل" lang="ar" hreflang="ar">العربية</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-bn"><a href="//bn.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A6%AA%E0%A6%BE%E0%A6%B0%E0%A7%8D%E0%A6%B2_(%E0%A6%AA%E0%A7%8D%E0%A6%B0%E0%A7%8B%E0%A6%97%E0%A7%8D%E0%A6%B0%E0%A6%BE%E0%A6%AE%E0%A6%BF%E0%A6%82_%E0%A6%AD%E0%A6%BE%E0%A6%B7%E0%A6%BE)" title="পার্ল (প্রোগ্রামিং ভাষা)" lang="bn" hreflang="bn">বাংলা</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-zh-min-nan"><a href="//zh-min-nan.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="zh-min-nan" hreflang="zh-min-nan">Bân-lâm-gú</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-bg"><a href="//bg.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D1%8A%D1%80%D0%BB_(%D0%B5%D0%B7%D0%B8%D0%BA_%D0%B7%D0%B0_%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B3%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BC%D0%B8%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B5)" title="Пърл (език за програмиране)" lang="bg" hreflang="bg">Български</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-bs"><a href="//bs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="bs" hreflang="bs">Bosanski</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-ca"><a href="//ca.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="ca" hreflang="ca">Català</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-cs"><a href="//cs.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="cs" hreflang="cs">Česky</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-cy"><a href="//cy.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl_(cyfrifiadureg)" title="Perl (cyfrifiadureg)" lang="cy" hreflang="cy">Cymraeg</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-da"><a href="//da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="da" hreflang="da">Dansk</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-pdc"><a href="//pdc.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="pdc" hreflang="pdc">Deitsch</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-de"><a href="//de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl_(Programmiersprache)" title="Perl (Programmiersprache)" lang="de" hreflang="de">Deutsch</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-et"><a href="//et.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="et" hreflang="et">Eesti</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-el"><a href="//el.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="el" hreflang="el">Ελληνικά</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-es"><a href="//es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="es" hreflang="es">Español</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-eo"><a href="//eo.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="eo" hreflang="eo">Esperanto</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-eu"><a href="//eu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="eu" hreflang="eu">Euskara</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-fa"><a href="//fa.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%BE%D8%B1%D9%84_(%D8%B2%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%86_%D8%A8%D8%B1%D9%86%D8%A7%D9%85%D9%87%E2%80%8C%D9%86%D9%88%DB%8C%D8%B3%DB%8C)" title="پرل (زبان برنامه‌نویسی)" lang="fa" hreflang="fa">فارسی</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-fr"><a href="//fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl_(langage)" title="Perl (langage)" lang="fr" hreflang="fr">Français</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-ga"><a href="//ga.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="ga" hreflang="ga">Gaeilge</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-gl"><a href="//gl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="gl" hreflang="gl">Galego</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-gu"><a href="//gu.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%AA%AA%E0%AA%B0%E0%AB%8D%E0%AA%B2" title="પર્લ" lang="gu" hreflang="gu">ગુજરાતી</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-ko"><a href="//ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/%ED%8E%84" title="펄" lang="ko" hreflang="ko">한국어</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-hi"><a href="//hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B2" title="पर्ल" lang="hi" hreflang="hi">हिन्दी</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-hr"><a href="//hr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="hr" hreflang="hr">Hrvatski</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-id"><a href="//id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="id" hreflang="id">Bahasa Indonesia</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-it"><a href="//it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="it" hreflang="it">Italiano</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-he"><a href="//he.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="he" hreflang="he">עברית</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-ka"><a href="//ka.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E1%83%9E%E1%83%94%E1%83%A0%E1%83%9A%E1%83%98" title="პერლი" lang="ka" hreflang="ka">ქართული</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-ku"><a href="//ku.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="ku" hreflang="ku">Kurdî</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-la"><a href="//la.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="la" hreflang="la">Latina</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-lv"><a href="//lv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="lv" hreflang="lv">Latviešu</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-lb"><a href="//lb.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl_(Programm%C3%A9iersprooch)" title="Perl (Programméiersprooch)" lang="lb" hreflang="lb">Lëtzebuergesch</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-lt"><a href="//lt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="lt" hreflang="lt">Lietuvių</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-hu"><a href="//hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl_(programoz%C3%A1si_nyelv)" title="Perl (programozási nyelv)" lang="hu" hreflang="hu">Magyar</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-mk"><a href="//mk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="mk" hreflang="mk">Македонски</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-ml"><a href="//ml.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%B4%AA%E0%B5%87%E0%B4%B3%E0%B5%8D%E2%80%8D" title="പേള്‍" lang="ml" hreflang="ml">മലയാളം</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-mr"><a href="//mr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B2_(%E0%A4%B8%E0%A4%82%E0%A4%97%E0%A4%A3%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%AD%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B7%E0%A4%BE)" title="पर्ल (संगणकभाषा)" lang="mr" hreflang="mr">मराठी</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-ms"><a href="//ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="ms" hreflang="ms">Bahasa Melayu</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-my"><a href="//my.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="my" hreflang="my">မြန်မာဘာသာ</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-nl"><a href="//nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl_(programmeertaal)" title="Perl (programmeertaal)" lang="nl" hreflang="nl">Nederlands</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-ja"><a href="//ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="ja" hreflang="ja">日本語</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-no"><a href="//no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="no" hreflang="no">‪Norsk (bokmål)‬</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-nn"><a href="//nn.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="nn" hreflang="nn">‪Norsk (nynorsk)‬</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-pl"><a href="//pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="pl" hreflang="pl">Polski</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-pt"><a href="//pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="pt" hreflang="pt">Português</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-ro"><a href="//ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="ro" hreflang="ro">Română</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-ru"><a href="//ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="ru" hreflang="ru">Русский</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-sah"><a href="//sah.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="sah" hreflang="sah">Саха тыла</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-sq"><a href="//sq.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="sq" hreflang="sq">Shqip</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-simple"><a href="//simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="simple" hreflang="simple">Simple English</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-sk"><a href="//sk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="sk" hreflang="sk">Slovenčina</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-sl"><a href="//sl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="sl" hreflang="sl">Slovenščina</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-ckb"><a href="//ckb.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%BE%DB%8E%D8%B1%DA%B5_(%D9%88%DB%8E%D8%A8_%D8%AF%D8%A7%DA%95%D8%B4%D8%AA%D9%86)" title="پێرڵ (وێب داڕشتن)" lang="ckb" hreflang="ckb">کوردی</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-sr"><a href="//sr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%BB_(%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B3%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BC%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8_%D1%98%D0%B5%D0%B7%D0%B8%D0%BA)" title="Перл (програмски језик)" lang="sr" hreflang="sr">Српски / Srpski</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-sh"><a href="//sh.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="sh" hreflang="sh">Srpskohrvatski / Српскохрватски</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-fi"><a href="//fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="fi" hreflang="fi">Suomi</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-sv"><a href="//sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="sv" hreflang="sv">Svenska</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-ta"><a href="//ta.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%AE%AA%E0%AF%86%E0%AE%B0%E0%AF%8D%E0%AE%B3%E0%AF%8D" title="பெர்ள்" lang="ta" hreflang="ta">தமிழ்</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-th"><a href="//th.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%B8%A0%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%A9%E0%B8%B2%E0%B9%80%E0%B8%9E%E0%B8%B4%E0%B8%A3%E0%B9%8C%E0%B8%A5" title="ภาษาเพิร์ล" lang="th" hreflang="th">ไทย</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-tg"><a href="//tg.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%BB_(%D0%B7%D0%B0%D0%B1%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%B8_%D0%B1%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%B0%D1%81%D0%BE%D0%B7%D3%A3)" title="Перл (забони барномасозӣ)" lang="tg" hreflang="tg">Тоҷикӣ</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-tr"><a href="//tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="tr" hreflang="tr">Türkçe</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-uk"><a href="//uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="uk" hreflang="uk">Українська</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-ur"><a href="//ur.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="ur" hreflang="ur">اردو</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-vi"><a href="//vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="vi" hreflang="vi">Tiếng Việt</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-bat-smg"><a href="//bat-smg.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="bat-smg" hreflang="bat-smg">Žemaitėška</a></li>
+			<li class="interwiki-zh"><a href="//zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl" title="Perl" lang="zh" hreflang="zh">中文</a></li>
+		</ul>
+	</div>
+</div>
+
+<!-- /LANGUAGES -->
+			</div>
+		<!-- /panel -->
+		<!-- footer -->
+		<div id="footer">
+							<ul id="footer-info">
+											<li id="footer-info-lastmod"> This page was last modified on 26 April 2012 at 09:31.<br /></li>
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+additional terms may apply.
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+</html>

File MediaWiki-CleanupHTML/t/system.t

+#!/usr/bin/perl
+
+use strict;
+use warnings;
+
+use Test::More tests => 2;
+
+use MediaWiki::CleanupHTML;
+
+{
+    my $filename = 't/data/English-Wikipedia-Perl-Page-2012-04-26.html';
+    open my $fh, '<:encoding(UTF-8)', $filename
+        or die "Cannot open '$filename' for input - $!";
+    my $cleaner = MediaWiki::CleanupHTML->new({ fh => $fh });
+
+    # TEST
+    ok ($cleaner, "Object was created.");
+
+    my $out_buffer = '';
+    open my $out_fh, '>:encoding(UTF-8)', \$out_buffer,
+        or die "Cannot write to out_buffer - $!";
+
+    $cleaner->print_into_fh($out_fh);
+   
+    $cleaner->destroy_resources();
+
+    # TEST
+    ok(1, "Success."); 
+
+}
+