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<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE>Linux-IL FAQ</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY BGCOLOR="#FFFFFF">

<CENTER><IMG SRC="images/Penguin-s.gif" HEIGHT=108 WIDTH=94></CENTER>

<CENTER>
<H1>Linux-IL FAQ</H1>

Shlomi Fish (<A HREF="http://vipe.technion.ac.il/shlomif/cgi-bin/forward.cgi?t=shlomi_fish">Mail Shlomi Fish</A>)<BR>
<BR>
Last Updated: October 30, 1999
</CENTER>

<HR>

This document is a list of frequently asked questions and the pertinent
answers pertaining to the Linux operating system, its use in Israel and
to the use of the Linux-IL mailing list.<P>

This document can be found at the following URL:<BR>
<A HREF="http://www.linux.org.il/linux-il-faq.html"><B>http://www.linux.org.il/linux-il-faq.html</B></A><BR>

<BR>
The General structure is:<BR><BR>




<UL>
<A HREF="#section1"><B>Section 1</B> - Administrativia</A>
<UL><A HREF="#question1.1">Q1.1) Where can one get this FAQ?</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question1.2">Q1.2) What is Linux-IL?</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question1.3">Q1.3) How can one subscribe, unsubscribe and post to the Linux-IL mailing list?</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question1.4">Q1.4) Where can I find information on Linux in Israel?</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question1.5">Q1.5) Where can I obtain Linux in Israel?</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question1.6">Q1.6) I need some help and/or information about Linux. Who can I contact?</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question1.7">Q1.7) What other activities and services does Linux-IL have besides the mailing-list?</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question1.8">Q1.8) Where should I look for information before posting to the mailing-list?</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question1.9">Q1.9) What sites in Israel carry Linux software?</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question1.10">Q1.10) Who are the contributors to this FAQ?</A>
</UL>
<A HREF="#section2"><B>Section 2</B> - General Information</A>
<UL><A HREF="#question2.1">Q2.1) What is Linux?</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question2.2">Q2.2) Why should one install Linux?</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question2.3">Q2.3) Will Linux runs Microsoft PowerPoint (Excel, Word, whatever)?</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question2.4">Q2.4) Is Linux the perfect operating system? Should I use another OS instead of Linux?</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question2.5">Q2.5) Which is better Linux or FreeBSD?</A>
</UL>
<A HREF="#section3"><B>Section 3</B> - Installation</A>
<UL><A HREF="#question3.1">Q3.1) What should be done first and foremost?</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question3.2">Q3.2) What version of Linux should one install?</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question3.3">Q3.3) Where does one get support for Linux</A>
</UL>
<A HREF="#section4"><B>Section 4</B> - Networking</A>
<UL><A HREF="#question4.1">Q4.1) What type of networking does Linux support?</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question4.2">Q4.2) Can Linux be connected via SLIP or PPP from home? How about ISDN?</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question4.3">Q4.3) Where can I find Linux connection scripts for Israeli Internet service providers (ISPs)?</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question4.4">Q4.4) Can Linux be an Internet server?</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question4.5">Q4.5) How can I connect Linux to non-UNIX platforms?</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question4.6">Q4.6) Is Linux secure enough for firewalls?</A>
</UL>
<A HREF="#section5"><B>Section 5</B> - The X11-Windows System</A>
<UL><A HREF="#question5.1">Q5.1) What is X11?</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question5.2">Q5.2) Is there an X11 implementation for Linux? Is there more than one?</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question5.3">Q5.3) Is my graphics card supported by the X11 server?</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question5.4">Q5.4) What is a window manager? What window managers are there?</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question5.5">Q5.5) When I try to compile a program it complains that it cannot link libXm. What's wrong?</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question5.6">Q5.6) How can I write programs that display X-windows graphics and controls?</A>
</UL>
<A HREF="#section6"><B>Section 6</B> - Hebrew</A>
<UL><A HREF="#question6.1">Q6.1) Where can I find information about Hebrew support in Linux?</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question6.2">Q6.2) I'd like some links to Hebrew resources on the web.</A>
</UL>
<A HREF="#section7"><B>Section 7</B> - Commonly Asked Questions</A>
<UL><A HREF="#question7.1">Q7.1) I cannot run a program named foo (which I just compiled) by typing "foo" at the command prompt.</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question7.2">Q7.2) How do I increase the total number of filehandles in the system?</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question7.3">Q7.3) How can I effectively share files among Windows 95/NT, Linux, and Solaris (or another flavour of UNIX) hosts that are connected to the same network?</A>
<BR><A HREF="#question7.4">Q7.4) I'd like to run "foo" (= my favourite UNIX or Linux-based application) on Windows 95/98/NT. What do I do?</A>
</UL>
</UL>
<HR>
<A NAME="section1"></A><H2>Administrativia</H2>

This section deals with general questions in regard to this FAQ, Linux-IL and
its mailing list.


<UL>
<A NAME="question1.1"></A><B>Q1.1) Where can one get this FAQ?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

This FAQ can be found at the following URL:<BR>
<BR>
<UL><A HREF="http://www.linux.org.il/linux-il-faq.html">http://www.linux.org.il/linux-il-faq.html</A></UL><BR>
<BR>
Please read this FAQ before posting questions to the mailing list.<BR>

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question1.2"></A><B>Q1.2) What is Linux-IL?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

Linux-IL is a loosely bound group of
people who share a common interest in the Linux operating system. This
group maintains a presence of the Linux operating system at various trade
shows, and promotes the use of the Linux operating system.<BR>
<BR>
In addition, Linux-IL is also the name of the mailing list used
by the Linux-IL members.<BR>

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question1.3"></A><B>Q1.3) How can one subscribe, unsubscribe and post to the Linux-IL mailing list?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

To subscribe to the list send a mail message containing the following line to
<A HREF="mailto:linux-il-request@linux.org.il">linux-il-request@linux.org.il</A>:<BR>
<BR>
<UL><B>subscribe</B></UL>
<BR>
To unsubscribe from the list send a mail message containing the following line to
the very same address:<BR>
<BR>
<UL><B>unsubscribe</B></UL>
<BR>
To send a message to the mailing-list send the message to
<A HREF="mailto:linux-il@linux.org.il">linux-il@linux.org.il</A>.<P>

We have a mailing-list archive and it can be found at the following URL:<BR>
<A HREF="http://plasma-gate.weizmann.ac.il/Linux/maillists/">http://plasma-gate.weizmann.ac.il/Linux/maillists/</A><BR>

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question1.4"></A><B>Q1.4) Where can I find information on Linux in Israel?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

The official location of the Linux-IL website is:<BR>
<BR>
<UL><A HREF="http://www.linux.org.il/"><B>http://www.linux.org.il/</B></A></UL>
<BR>
This WWW site also contains links to other web and FTP sites related to Linux.<BR>

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question1.5"></A><B>Q1.5) Where can I obtain Linux in Israel?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

The following sites carry the RedHat distribution:<BR>
<BR>
<A HREF="ftp://tochna.technion.ac.il/pub/linux/">ftp://tochna.technion.ac.il/pub/linux/</A><BR>
<A HREF="http://mirrors.netvision.net.il/">http://mirrors.netvision.net.il/</A><BR>
<A HREF="ftp://ftp.technion.ac.il/pub/Linux/RedHat/">ftp://ftp.technion.ac.il/pub/Linux/RedHat/</A><BR>
<A HREF="ftp://redhat.netvision.net.il/pub/mirrors/ftp.redhat.com/">ftp://redhat.netvision.net.il/pub/mirrors/ftp.redhat.com/</A><BR>
<A HREF="http://redhat.israsrv.net.il/">http://redhat.israsrv.net.il/</A><BR>

<BR>
A more updated list can be found at our homepage in the "Linux Resources" section.<BR>
<BR>
The following Israeli companies carry RedHat distributions:<BR>
<A HREF="http://www.tcltek.co.il/">Tcl Tek</A><BR>
<A HREF="http://www.pf1.co.il/">PF1</A><BR>
<BR>

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question1.6"></A><B>Q1.6) I need some help and/or information about Linux. Who can I contact?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

There's a list of paid consultants on our homepage.

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question1.7"></A><B>Q1.7) What other activities and services does Linux-IL have besides the mailing-list?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

There's a semi-annual Linux Installation Party that takes
place in the Technion. In the installation party (or InstaParty for short),
Linux newbies bring their computers or hard-disks, so more experienced
users can install and configure Linux for them. The InstaParties are also
used to sell (without substantial profit :-)) Linux CD-ROMs, shirts and
other merchandise. The URL for information regarding those installation parties
is <A HREF="http://instaparty.israel.eu.org/">here</A>.<BR>
<BR>
We sometimes organize Linux-IL meetings or Linux dinners, in which many
members of the list can see each other face to face and actively discuss
Linux and other computer-related issues. To be aware of an upcoming installation
party, meeting or dinner, one should subscribe to the mailing list, or
at least visit its archives for time to time to watch for announcements.<BR>

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question1.8"></A><B>Q1.8) Where should I look for information before posting to the mailing-list?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

<B>1.</B> Assuming you have Linux installed, you can check the on-line
system manuals. Type <I>"man &lt;command/function name&gt;"</I> or
<I>"command -h"</I> or <I>"command --help"</I> to get more help about a
specific command or function. The command
<I>"apropos &lt;string&gt;"</I> will search for a command or functions
whose description contains &lt;string&gt;.<P>

The GNU info utility offer detailed guides to some commands and can be
invoked with <I>"info"</I>.<P>

<B>2.</B> Refer to the /usr/doc directory. The internal structure of the
subdirectories may vary among distributions, but all of them use this
path to store VERY useful documentation, along with FAQs and HOWTOs.<P>

<B>3.</B> Refer to the <A HREF="http://www.docs.cs.huji.ac.il/Linux/mdw/">Linux Documentation Project</A>.
Take look at the so-called HOWTO's and mini-HOWTO's that are related to
what you are trying to do. The LDP books may also be of help. Plus, the
LDP includes a rich hieararchy of links with Linux resources that may
help you.<P>

<B>4.</B> Take a look at the other questions on this FAQ.<P>

<B>5.</B> Try to search for an answer by using
<A HREF="http://www.dejanews.com/">Deja News</A>,
<A HREF="http://www.mailarchive.com/">The Mailing-List Archive</A>,
or the <A HREF="http://plasma-gate.weizmann.ac.il/Linux/maillists/">Linux-IL archive</A>.
With Deja-News try using the newsgroup filters "comp.os.linux.*" or "comp.*".<P>

<B>6.</B> Ask IRC participants for advice. On EFNET, channels #linux,
#LinuxOS and #unix are suitable for that.<P>

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question1.9"></A><B>Q1.9) What sites in Israel carry Linux software?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

Linuxberg mirrors:<BR>
<BR>
<A HREF="http://linuxberg.netvision.net.il/">http://linuxberg.netvision.net.il/</A><BR>
<A HREF="http://linuxberg.inter.net.il/">http://linuxberg.inter.net.il/</A><BR>
<A HREF="http://israsrv.linuxberg.com/">http://israsrv.linuxberg.com/</A><BR>
<BR>
Sunsite mirror:<BR>
<BR>
<A HREF="http://sunsite.huji.ac.il/">http://sunsite.huji.ac.il/</A><BR>
<BR>
The Tel-Aviv University FTP site:<BR>
<BR>
<A HREF="ftp://ftp.tau.ac.il/">ftp://ftp.tau.ac.il/</A><BR>
<BR>
Freshmeat mirror at Israsrv:<BR>
<A HREF="http://il.me.mirrors.freshmeat.net/">http://il.me.mirrors.freshmeat.net/</A><BR>
<BR>
Kernel Mirrors:<BR>
<A HREF="http://il1.kernel.org/">http://il1.kernel.org/</A><BR>
<A HREF="http://il2.kernel.org/">http://il2.kernel.org/</A><BR>

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question1.10"></A><B>Q1.10) Who are the contributors to this FAQ?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

Current Contributers are:<BR>
<BR>
<UL>
Shlomi Fish (shlomif@vipe.technion.ac.il)<BR>
</UL>

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<A NAME="section2"></A><H2>General Information</H2>

This section deals with various questions regarding what Linux is, and whether
you should or should not use it.


<UL>
<A NAME="question2.1"></A><B>Q2.1) What is Linux?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

Linux is a version of UNIX, which runs on many platforms including
Intel-based machines (also known as PCs or i386's). Linux has some
substantial advantages over Windows 95/98 and NT: it's faster as a
networking server and workstation, it's completely open-source; it's
free and has a free software development kit, and is more stable.<BR>
<BR>
It is however, as other UNIX clones, less trivial to learn and
manage than Windows or MacOS. Most of the management is done on the command
line, and on writing several scripts, which requires programming languages.
Several commercial and free projects rose to make Linux easier for the
inexperienced user. The most notable are the
<A HREF="http://www.kde.org/">KDE</A> and
<A HREF="http://www.gnome.org/">GNOME</A> desktops and
<A HREF="http://www.solucorp.qc.ca/linuxconf/">linux-conf</A>.<BR>
<BR>
Still, don't use Linux, unless you are prepared to invest some time
in learning how to operate it. IMO, a good working knowledge of a modern
UNIX system like Linux, is a must for any computer user.<BR>

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question2.2"></A><B>Q2.2) Why should one install Linux?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

See above.<BR>

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question2.3"></A><B>Q2.3) Will Linux runs Microsoft PowerPoint (Excel, Word, whatever)?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

The simple answer is <B>NO</B>. Therefore, do not look at Linux as
a Windows (whatever flavour) replacement --- it is not.<BR>
<BR>
The complex answer is <B>MAYBE</B>. Linux runs several emulators:

<P>&nbsp;
<TABLE>
<TR>
<TD>DOSEMU</TD>

<TD>MS-DOS emulator. Very robust and successful.</TD>
</TR>

<TR>
<TD>WINE</TD>

<TD>MS-Windows emulator. Quite functional
</TD>
</TR>

<TR>
<TD>Executor</TD>

<TD>shareware/commercial Mac emulator.</TD>
</TR>
<TR>
<TD>VMWare</TD>
<TD>An i386 (Pentium) emulator, under which you can run Windows or another Linux.</TD>
</TABLE>
<BR>
Various other emulators exist for a multitude of platforms, including Commodore64,
Amiga, Oric, and many more.<BR>
<BR>
Some companies sell such office software that can natively run on Linux,
without an emulator, and often supports the same formats as the popular
Windows based products. Here's a partial list of some dominant examples:
<BR><A HREF="http://www.corel.com/products/unix.htm">Corel's Products for
UNIX</A> (Not all support Linux at the moment)
<BR><A HREF="http://www.sun.com/staroffice/">Star Office</A>
<BR><A HREF="http://www.redhat.com/">Applixware Office Suite</A>
<BR>

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question2.4"></A><B>Q2.4) Is Linux the perfect operating system? Should I use another OS instead of Linux?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

Linux can be regarded as the best operating system todate for many
reasons. It's free, it's open-source, it has a large, dedicated and professional
users community, and one can get excellent support for it while paying
for an Internet connection alone.

<P>Nevertheless, the other operating systems for Intel-based computers,
much less non-Intel based computers, may be preferable depending on your
needs and situation. This FAQ does not have the volume for an entire "which
OS is best on every situation" discussion, and opinions may vary even between
Linux-IL members. Still here is some general guidelines:

<P>Installing Linux on a second partition much less a spare computer cannot
do you any harm. If you want to study the UNIX environment and/or experience
with myriad aspects of computer developement, then Linux is <B>the</B>
OS for you. If you plan to use UNIX extensively after you have learned
it, you may want to switch to another flavour of UNIX. In any case, because of
its cheapness and popularity, Linux is the best UNIX flavour to get the ropes
of UNIX.

<P>Linux is particularily good for networking purposes too, but remember
that if something goes wrong, there's usually no-one you can blame for
it. Plus, some heavy and commercial products (e.g: databse servers, CADs)
for UNIX, do not yet have a Linux port. 

<P>At the moment, Linux has a certain lack of "serious" software in fields
such as: home and office use (wordprocessors, spreadsheets), graphics,
sound-editing and games. Windows 98 is still the best choice at the moment
if that's what you want to do. This situation is also changing rapidly,
and may not be so true, even a year from now.<BR>

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question2.5"></A><B>Q2.5) Which is better Linux or FreeBSD?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

This has been the topic of a much on-going discussion in the
mailing-list. You can search our archives with the keyword "FreeBSD" to
find posts that discuss it.<BR>
<BR>
Generally speaking, there is no clear-cut answer. Here are the opinions
of some people regarding the subject:<BR>
<BR>
<B><I>Shlomi Fish</I></B>: "Linux is more commonly used than FreeBSD,
and it has much more material on-line. Thus, one can get better support
for it than for FreeBSD. Linux also supports a wider range of hardware
than FreeBSD does. For these reasons, I do not recommend FreeBSD for
people who are just starting to use UNIX.<BR>
<BR>
Some claim that FreeBSD is faster than Linux, and a few claim the
opposite. I worked on a FreeBSD workstation, and work on Linux
regularily, but it's hard for me to assess either claim, because both
were quite fast."

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<A NAME="section3"></A><H2>Installation</H2>

This section pertains to the installation of Linux from scratch.


<UL>
<A NAME="question3.1"></A><B>Q3.1) What should be done first and foremost?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

1. You should read chapters 1 and 2 of <A HREF="http://www.docs.cs.huji.ac.il/Linux/mdw/LDP/gs/gs.html">"The Linux Installation and Getting
Started Guide".</A><BR>
<BR>
2. You should read the <A HREF="http://www.docs.cs.huji.ac.il/Linux/mdw/HOWTO/Installation-HOWTO.html">"Linux Installation HOWTO"</A>.<BR>
<BR>
3. You should go through the <A HREF="http://www.docs.cs.huji.ac.il/Linux/mdw/HOWTO/Hardware-HOWTO.html">"Linux Hardware Compatibility HOWTO"</A> and
check whether your hardware is supported. There's especially a problem with the so-called
Win-modems, but you can install Linux without using its modem.<BR>
<BR>
4. Select a distribution. The currently popular ones are <A HREF="http://www.redhat.com/">RedHat</A>
and <A HREF="http://www.debian.org/">Debian</A>. RedHat is slightly easier to
install and manage than Debian. Other distributions include:
<A HREF="http://www.caldera.com/">Caldera OpenLinux</A> (a commercial distribution),
Mandrake, <A HREF="http://www.cdrom.com/">Slackware</A> and S.u.s.e.<BR>
<BR>
5. Read whatever documentation that comes on your CD regarding installation.<BR>
<BR>
6. Free some time for the installation and install.<BR>
<BR>
Alternatively you can attend an installation party and get Linux installed for you.

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question3.2"></A><B>Q3.2) What version of Linux should one install?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

You should check the distributions homepages to find what their latest version is.
As of October 30, 1999 the most recent version of RedHat is RedHat 6.1 and of Debian
is Debian 2.1. <BR>
<BR>
There is some confusion between the distributions versions and the
kernel version. The kernel is the core of the Linux operating systems
and is included in all distribution. Its version is independant of the
distribution's version. As of September 17, 1999 the most recent stable
kernel is 2.2.12, but you should check
<A HREF="http://www.linuxhq.com/">Linux-HQ</A> for the updated
information.<BR>
<BR>

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question3.3"></A><B>Q3.3) Where does one get support for Linux</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

You can get some support from the mailing-list, as long as you make
enough research before posting to the list. We don't like newbie
questions very much.<BR>
<BR>
In Israel, <A HREF="http://www.pf1.co.il/">PF1</A> and various other
consultant firms offers support for Linux. Also check our consultants
page.<BR>
<BR>
Abroad, <A HREF="http://www.redhat.com/">RedHat</A> and
<A HREF="http:/www.caldera.com/">Caldera</A> offer support for
Linux.<BR>

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<A NAME="section4"></A><H2>Networking</H2>


<UL>
<A NAME="question4.1"></A><B>Q4.1) What type of networking does Linux support?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

Linux support a very wide range of networking services. A partial list
of the protocols supported is:<BR>
<BR>
<CENTER><TABLE BORDER >
<TR>
<TD ALIGN=CENTER COLSPAN="2">
<H2>
Protocols&nbsp;</H2>
</TD>
</TR>

<TR>
<TD>TCP/IP</TD>

<TD>TCP/IP is the standard Internet protocol. Linux supports all standard
Unix services such as WWW, NFS, FTP, Telnet, NIS, etc.</TD>
</TR>

<TR>
<TD>PPP</TD>

<TD>PPP is a popular protocol used to route TCP/IP (and most other protocols,
like IPX and appletalk) over serial links. Linux can act as both a PPP
client or a PPP server, maintaining enormous amounts of connections.</TD>
</TR>

<TR>
<TD>SLIP</TD>

<TD>SLIP is a somewhat outdated protocol to route TCP/IP over serial links.
Linux can act both as a SLIP client and as a SLIP server.</TD>
</TR>

<TR>
<TD>IPX</TD>

<TD>IPX is the default protocol used in Novell networks. It is used to
access Novell servers, or emulate them. See Q4.3.</TD>
</TR>

<TR>
<TD>SMB</TD>

<TD>SMB is the protocol used in Microsoft networks. It is used to access
Windows machines (Emulate an NT server), See Q4.3.&nbsp;
<BR>SMB rides NetBIOS (Microsoft NetBEUI) which in turn rides TCP/IP. Windows
supports SMB over raw NetBIOS, but Linux doesn't, yet.</TD>
</TR>

<TR>
<TD>AppleTalk</TD>

<TD>Yes, Linux can act as a file/printer server for Mac networks. In many
places the same machine serves as an Appletalk, Netware and SMB server
at the same time, meaning one can share all resources with peers of all
kinds.</TD>
</TR>
</TABLE></CENTER>
<BR>
A partial list of the hardware devices supported is:<BR>
<BR>
<CENTER><TABLE BORDER >
<TR>
<TD ALIGN=CENTER COLSPAN="2">
<H2>
Hardware Devices</H2>
</TD>
</TR>

<TR>
<TD>Ethernet</TD>

<TD>An enormous amount of Ethernet cards are support by Linux. Chances
are that if you have it, it's supported.</TD>
</TR>

<TR>
<TD>ISDN</TD>

<TD>ISDN is supported by Linux, though some cards are not. Be sure to
check the isdn4linux package.</TD>
</TR>

<TR>
<TD>Frame Relay</TD>

<TD>Linux can utilize Frame Relay devices. This means a Linux machine can
replace a router. Two FR routing cards supported are <A HREF="http://www.sangoma.com">Sangoma</A>
and <A HREF="http://www.etinc.com">Emerging Technologies</A>. </TD>
</TR>

<TR>
<TD>Token Ring</TD>

<TD>Linux supports Token Ring networks.</TD>
</TR>

<TR>
<TD>ARCnet</TD>

<TD>Linux supports ARCnet cards, if you can still find them, that is.</TD>
</TR>
</TABLE></CENTER>

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question4.2"></A><B>Q4.2) Can Linux be connected via SLIP or PPP from home? How about ISDN?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

Yes, Read the <A HREF="http://www.docs.cs.huji.ac.il/Linux/mdw/HOWTO/NET3-4-HOWTO.html">NET3-4 HOWTO</A>,
<A HREF="http://www.docs.cs.huji.ac.il/Linux/mdw/HOWTO/PPP-HOWTO.html">PPP HOWTO</A> and
<A HREF="http://www.docs.cs.huji.ac.il/Linux/mdw/HOWTO/ISP-Hookup-HOWTO.html">ISP Hookup HOWTO</A>, Your Internet
service provider may have a pre-prepared script for Linux, so be sure to
check its site. Just make sure you don't have one of those Win-modems
which aren't supported by Linux yet.<BR>
<BR>
About ISDN: connecting Linux to an ISDN ISP in Israel has known to be
problematic mainly because  Linux does not support all ISDN cards. Still,
our mailing list archives contain some useful information and instructions
for doing just that.<BR>

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question4.3"></A><B>Q4.3) Where can I find Linux connection scripts for Israeli Internet service providers (ISPs)?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

Some ISPs already supply information for connecting any Linux box with
the required components: IBM-Net (<A HREF="http://help.ibm.net/helplib/linuxp.html">PPP</A>
&amp; <A HREF="http://help.ibm.net/helplib/linuxs.html">SLIP</A>),
<A HREF="ftp://download.netvision.net.il/pub/support/Linux/pppscript.tar.gz">Netvision</A>,
<A HREF="http://plasma-gate.weizmann.ac.il/Linux/maillists/98/03/msg00305.html">ISDN.net</A>.

<P>You can find a web-page in Hebrew with connection instructions for
several Israeli ISPs <A HREF="http://tx.technion.ac.il/~tzafrir/dial-up_setup_heb.html">here</A>.

<P>If you are a newbie, you can post a message to the list, asking those
who belong to the same ISP as you do, to send you the script they already
have. <BR>

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question4.4"></A><B>Q4.4) Can Linux be an Internet server?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

Yes, In fact, almost all ISPs in Israel use Linux, and it was rated the most popular
OS for Internet servers in the world. Linux can efficiently function as
a web server, mail server, news server, IRC server, DNS, file server,
router, database server, firewall and many others.<BR>

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question4.5"></A><B>Q4.5) How can I connect Linux to non-UNIX platforms?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

In addition to standard Unix services (NFS, telnet, FTP, etc.), Linux
can converse with a wide range of non-Unix machines. Following is a list
of useful gadgets in this realm:<BR>
<BR>
<UL>
<TABLE BORDER >
<TR>
<TD>
<CENTER><B><A HREF="http://www.samba.org/">SAMBA</A></B></CENTER>
</TD>

<TD>SAMBA utilizes the SMB protocol to talk to Windows (3.11, 95/98, NT) networks.
It allows Linux to easily replace an NT server (server), or access shares
on other computers (client).</TD>
</TR>

<TR>
<TD>
<CENTER><B><A HREF="ftp://ftp.gwdg.de/pub/linux/misc/ncpfs/">ncpfs</A></B></CENTER>
</TD>

<TD>NCPFS utilizes the NCP protocol to talk to Novell servers and clients.
It allows Linux to easily mount and print via a Novell server. Linux-based
Novell servers are currently under development.</TD>
</TR>

<TR>
<TD>
<CENTER><B><A HREF="http://www.umich.edu/~rsug/netatalk/">Netatalk</A></B></CENTER>
</TD>

<TD>Net-a-talk utilizes the Appletalk protocol to talk to Apple networks.
It allows Linux to replace Appletalk servers and can provide other services.</TD>
</TR>

<TR>
<TD><B><A HREF="http://www.odyssey.co.il/~heksterb/Software/afpfs/">afpfs</A></B></TD>

<TD>afpfs allows Linux to be an appleshare client.</TD>
</TR>
</TABLE>
</UL>
<BR>
Linux can also read, and sometimes write to a large number of file-systems
that are natively used by other OSes. A partial list includes: FAT (MS-DOS'
filesystems), VFAT (Win95's), FAT32 (used by Windows 98),
NTFS (NT's filesystem), HFS (Macintosh' filesystem), UFS (the filesystem
of FreeBSD and other UNIXes), and others.

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question4.6"></A><B>Q4.6) Is Linux secure enough for firewalls?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

Yes, Security patches to linux kernels and apps are some of the
fastest-supplied in the industry. The Linux kernel is not famous for
it, but packet filtering and even masquarading are built into the kernel
and provide a very efficient and cheap way to build a firewall.

For details check the <A HREF="http://www.docs.cs.huji.ac.il/Linux/mdw/HOWTO/IPCHAINS-HOWTO.html">IP-chains HOWTO</A> and the
<A HREF="http://www.docs.cs.huji.ac.il/Linux/mdw/HOWTO/Firewall-HOWTO.html">Firewall HOWTO</A>.

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<A NAME="section5"></A><H2>The X11-Windows System</H2>


<UL>
<A NAME="question5.1"></A><B>Q5.1) What is X11?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

X11, or X-Windows is the standard GUI interface to UNIX. It replaces the
standard text console interface. It also provides applications a standard and
portable way of displaying graphics. <BR>
<BR>
X11 is in no way related to MS-Windows or the Macintosh and, in fact,
pre-dates them.<BR>
<BR>
X11 is also frequently referred to as X11R5, X11R6, etc.. The final
release of X11 is X11R6.4 .<BR>

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question5.2"></A><B>Q5.2) Is there an X11 implementation for Linux? Is there more than one?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

Yes and yes.<BR>
<BR>
Most distributions of Linux come with
<A HREF="http://www.xfree86.org/">XFree86</A>. As of September 17, 1999
the current version of XFree86 is 3.3.5, but you can check what is
the most up-to-date version on its web-site.<BR>
<BR>
There are also two commercial X11 implementations for Linux:
<A HREF="http://www.xinside.com/">Accelarated X</A> and
<A HREF="http://www.metrolink.com/">Metro-X</A>.<BR>

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question5.3"></A><B>Q5.3) Is my graphics card supported by the X11 server?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

Read the server's documentation.

<UL>
<LI>
A list of graphics cards supported by XFree86 is <A HREF="http://www.xfree86.org/cardlist.html">here</A></LI>
<LI>
A list of graphics cards supported by Accelerated X is <A HREF="http://www.xinside.com/Pages/CardChipMfgrIndex.html">here</A>.</LI>
<LI>
A list of graphics cards supported by Metro-X is <A HREF="http://www.metrolink.com/metrox434-intel/index.html">here</A>.</LI>
</UL>

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question5.4"></A><B>Q5.4) What is a window manager? What window managers are there?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

A window manager is what allows one to manage windows (such as virtual
consoles), move them, resize them and do other things to them on the
fly.<BR>
<BR>
There are quite a few window managers. Look
<A HREF="http://www.csv.warwick.ac.uk/~csuoq/window_managers/">here</A>
for an extensive page that deals with window managers.<BR>
<BR>
The KDE desktop comes with its own window manager called kwm. The GNOME
desktop uses either Enlightenment or IceWM, two window managers that
can also be used without it.<BR>

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question5.5"></A><B>Q5.5) When I try to compile a program it complains that it cannot link libXm. What's wrong?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

libXm, libXrm, libXuil and some other libraries are part of <A
HREF="http://www.opengroup.org/">Motif</A>. Motif is not free and in
order to compile programs that require it, it should be purchased
separately.<BR>
<BR>
Alternatively, you could try to install
<A HREF="http://www.lesstif.org/">Lesstif</A>, which is a free
replacement for Motif, but may be a bit incomplete.

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question5.6"></A><B>Q5.6) How can I write programs that display X-windows graphics and controls?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

There are several toolkits which you can use, and you can find a list
of them <A HREF="http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Vista/7184/guitool.html">here</A>.<BR>
<BR>
The most popular toolkits (a.k.a widget libraries) are
<A HREF="http://www.gtk.org/">Gtk</A>, which is used by the GNOME
desktop, <A HREF="http://www.gimp.org/">The GIMP</A> and several other
programs; <A HREF="http://www.troll.no/">Qt</A> which is used by the KDE
desktop and related programs; and
<A HREF="http://www.opengroup.org/">Motif</A>/<A HREF="http://www.lesstif.org">Lesstif</A>
which are used by many commercial and free programs.<BR>
<BR>
Gtk and Qt have bindings for many other languages besides C/C++. For
interpreted languages there's also the Tk toolkit which is available
for <A HREF="http://w4.lns.cornell.edu/~pvhp/ptk/ptkTOC.html">Perl</A>,
<A HREF="http://www.python.org/">Python</A>,
<A HREF="http://kaolin.unice.fr/">Scheme</A>,
and <A HREF="http://sunscript.sun.com/">Tcl</A>.<BR>
<BR>
Be warned that you are not allowed to use Qt to develop commercial
or closed-source applications, unless you pay for the commercial
version which costs quite a bit.<BR>
<BR>
Another option is to write your programs in Java and use either one of
its toolkits.<BR>


</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<A NAME="section6"></A><H2>Hebrew</H2>


<UL>
<A NAME="question6.1"></A><B>Q6.1) Where can I find information about Hebrew support in Linux?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

The <A HREF="http://www.docs.cs.huji.ac.il/Linux/mdw/HOWTO/Hebrew-HOWTO.html">Hebrew HOWTO</A> 
contains some information about using Hebrew with Linux. You should
also try to search in our mailing list archives.<BR>
<BR>
Note that the Hebrew HOWTO is quite out-to-date.

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question6.2"></A><B>Q6.2) I'd like some links to Hebrew resources on the web.</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

<OL>
<LI><A HREF="http://www.kde.org/">KDE</A> has a Hebrew locale.

<LI>There's an application called kikbd which is part of the KDE
kdebase package that can be used to get support for the Hebrew keyboard
under X.

<LI><A HREF="http://hebgtk.hectic.net/">Heb-gtk</A> supplies the
X-windows user with widgets for editting bi-directional text.

<LI><A HREF="http://www.vim.org/">Vim</A> is a console text editor with a
compile-time option to support Hebrew input (both logical and visual).

<LI>Fonts - You can use Hebrew TrueType fonts by using
<A HREF="ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/X11/fonts/">xfstt</A>.
(some distributions already have it installed). There are also Hebrew
fonts from
<A HREF="http://www.elmar.co.il/">Elmar software</A>.

<LI><B>Hebrew LaTeX</B> (see the Hebrew HOWTO) enables you to compose
bi-directional Post-Script documents using the LaTeX formatting
language.

<LI>There's an <B>Hebrew-enabled version of Emacs</B> . (also take a look at the
Hebrew HOWTO).


</OL>


</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<A NAME="section7"></A><H2>Commonly Asked Questions</H2>


<UL>
<A NAME="question7.1"></A><B>Q7.1) I cannot run a program named foo (which I just compiled) by typing "foo" at the command prompt.</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

Well, if the program file resides in the current directory than usually
all you need to do is type "./foo" and press Enter instead of just "foo".
Unlike MS-DOS, or the Windows command prompt, the UNIX shell does not automatically
run programs that are found in the current directory. You can add "." to
the command path, but it's considered a security hazard for many
reasons.<BR>
<BR>
Other possible causes for this problem:<BR>
1. Merely typing "gcc foo.c" will generate a file named "a.out", so
you need to type "./a.out" instead. (type "gcc foo.c -o foo" to designate
"foo" as the name of the program file)<BR>
2. It's possible that the program file cannot find a certain shared
library (a DLL in Windows terminology). You'll need to install the latter
before you can run the program.<BR>

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question7.2"></A><B>Q7.2) How do I increase the total number of filehandles in the system?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

For kernel version 2.2.x and above run the following command as
root:<BR>
<BR>
<B>echo $NR_FILES > /proc/sys/fs/file-max</B><BR>
<BR>
Replace $NR_FILES with the number of simultaneously open file-handles
you wish to have in the system. (for instance,
"echo 8192 > /proc/sys/fs/file-max" will increase or decrease them to
8192).<BR>
<BR>
For kernel versions 2.0.x you will need to modify the kernel sources.
Extending the number beyond 1024 is especially problematic and there's
a report on how to do it on the following message that appeared on
Linux-IL:<BR>
<BR>
<A HREF="http://plasma-gate.weizmann.ac.il/Linux/maillists/98/04/msg00186.html">
http://plasma-gate.weizmann.ac.il/Linux/maillists/98/04/msg00186.html</A><BR>
<BR>
In any case you are advised to upgrade to kernel version 2.2.x.

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question7.3"></A><B>Q7.3) How can I effectively share files among Windows 95/NT, Linux, and Solaris (or another flavour of UNIX) hosts that are connected to the same network?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

There are several approaches to resolve this problem:

<P>1. Use a commerical third-party NFS driver for Windows. Those products
cost quite a bit and have known to be problematic.

<P>2. Mount the Windows volume or volumes (a.k.a. SMB or NetBIOS volumes)
on a Linux host by using Linux' smbfs and then share that directory by
NFS so the Solarises can mount it. This solution has the distadvantage
of increasing the network traffic, and is generally considered unstable
and ill-advised.

<P>3. The <A HREF="http://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/system/filesystems/smbfs">/system/filesystems/smbfs</A>
sub-directory of the SunSite Linux archive contains several tools that
establish a local NFS server program on the non-Linux UNIX machine, which
reads the SMB volume. The CPU of the UNIX machine will be overloaded by
this operation, but there will be no extra network traffic.

<P>4. You can try coding your own kernel module to allow mounting of SMB
volumes, while using Linux' smbfs as a reference. It may not be possible
for some flavours of UNIX, and in any case - will require a lot of work.
Advisable for devoted hackers only.<BR>

</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>
<UL>
<A NAME="question7.4"></A><B>Q7.4) I'd like to run "foo" (= my favourite UNIX or Linux-based application) on Windows 95/98/NT. What do I do?</B>
<BR><BR><BR><UL>

There are several packages that allow you to do just that:

<P><A HREF="http://www.delorie.com/djgpp/">DJGPP</A> - a free GNU-like environment,
that runs on both OSes (as well as DOS with a DPMI service), but recognizes
long filenames on Windows 95/98 alone. The distribution contains many applications
from ls, grep, less, etc. to GNU emacs and gcc. Every program can run on
its own, and work inside a DOS box very nicely. The best solution if you
just want to have one or more small utilities around, and if you don't
want to port anything too complex from UNIX to Windows.

<P><A HREF="http://www.cygnus.com/misc/gnu-win32/">Cygwin32</A> - A half-free,
half-commercial GNU-like stack for Windows 95/98 and Windows NT. It has fork(),
sockets and all, but relies on the fact that a 3MB DLL (cygwin.dll) will
be around. The programs do not work very well from a DOS box, but porting
a large and complex project is better done with it rather than DJGPP.

<P>The commercial release, which you can order from Cygnus Solutions, will
enable you to even program Windows GUI applications, with UNIX-like features.

<P><A HREF="http://www.softway.com/">OpenNT</A> - A fully commercial (one
license costs $300) UNIX-like subsystem for Windows NT only, OpenNT can
compile and run any UNIX source code that is portable enough (including
X-windows based programs and libraries, and programs that rely on heavy
terminal use), as well as develop UNIX programs that directly use the Windows
GUI. In short - paaaartyyyy!

<P>Note that it's a subsystem, which means that your NT system will be
heavily hacked with low-level drivers, when you install it. Thus, installing
OpenNT may cause unexpected problems. But since Windows NT will eventually
cause you unexpected problems no matter what you do, it shouldn't be a
major concern. ;-)

<P>Apart from those, some UNIX programs have a 100% Win32 ports of them.
Prominant examples include:
<A HREF="http://www.activeware.com/">Perl for Win32</A>,
the <A HREF="http://www.apache.org/docs/windows">Apache web-server for Win32</A>,
<A HREF="http://sunscript.sun.com/">Tcl/Tk</A>,
<A HREF="http://www.python.org/">Python</A>,
Ssh,
the <A HREF="http://php.netvision.net.il/">PHP</A> server-side scripting package,
<A HREF="http://user.sgic.fi/~tml/gimp/win32/">Gtk+ and The GIMP</A>,
and <A HREF="http://www.vim.org/">ViM</A>.
You should do a web-search to find if anything you like
is also available for Windows 95/98 and NT in a free or commercial form.

<P>Do not expect that any of those solutions will run those programs as
fast as Linux does. Windows 95 and Windows NT are known to be slower than
Linux is, and there's little a third-party software developer can do about
it.

<P>There are also other alternatives you may try. Like running a Windows
emulator (wine or WABI) on the Linux, (with Windows applications running
slower, and many potential problems). Or a crazy X-windows/VNC/NFS-Samba/ssh-scp
based system. (not recommended for newbies or users with an overloaded
network).</UL>
</UL>
<BR><BR>

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