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Perl-for-Newbies: added <h1 id="..."> and other changes. Resynced.

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lib/tutorials/perl-for-newbies/lect1-all-in-one/index.html

 "Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1
 </title>
 </head>
-<body><div class="page" id="page--DIR">
+<body><div class="page">
 
 <div class="center"><script type="text/javascript">
 google_ad_client = "pub-2480595666283917";
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--DIR">
 "Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1
 </h1>
 <h2>Contents</h2>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--intro--DIR">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--intro--DIR">Introduction</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--intro--DIR">
 1. Introduction
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--intro--capabilities--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--intro--DIR">Introduction</a> → <a href="#page--intro--capabilities--PAGE">The capabilities of Perl</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--intro--capabilities--PAGE">
 1.1. The capabilities of Perl
 </h1>
 <ul class="point">
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--intro--history--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--intro--DIR">Introduction</a> → <a href="#page--intro--history--PAGE">A brief history of Perl</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--intro--history--PAGE">
 1.2. A brief history of Perl
 </h1>
 <p>
 well as writing GUI applications.
 </p>
 <h3>Links:</h3>
+<ul>
+<li>
 <p>
-<a href="http://history.perl.org/PerlTimeline.html">
-http://history.perl.org/PerlTimeline.html
-</a>
-- The perl TimeLine
+<a href="http://history.perl.org/PerlTimeline.html">The Perl Timeline</a>
 </p>
+</li>
+<li>
 <p>
-<a href="http://www.weblint.org/~neilb/perl/VHLL/slide01.html">
-http://www.weblint.org/~neilb/perl/VHLL/slide01.html
-</a> -
-<i>The Taming of the Camel</i>:
-a lecture by Larry Wall about the Evolution of Perl
+<a href="http://www.perlfoundation.org/perl5/index.cgi?history">Perl's history
+on the Perl 5 Wiki</a>
 </p>
+</li>
+<li>
+<p>
+<a href="http://www.shlomifish.org/lecture/Perl/Newbies/vhll-slides.pdf"><i>The
+Taming of the Camel</i></a> - a lecture by Larry Wall about the Evolution of Perl
+</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--intro--devel_cycle--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--intro--DIR">Introduction</a> → <a href="#page--intro--devel_cycle--PAGE">The perl development cycle</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--intro--devel_cycle--PAGE">
 1.3. The perl development cycle
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--output--DIR">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--output--DIR">Basic Output (The "Hello World" program)</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--output--DIR">
 2. Basic Output (The "Hello World" program)
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--output--semicolons--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--output--DIR">Basic Output (The "Hello World" program)</a> → <a href="#page--output--semicolons--PAGE">More about semicolons</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--output--semicolons--PAGE">
 2.1. More about semicolons
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--expressions--DIR">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--expressions--DIR">Expressions</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--expressions--DIR">
 3. Expressions
 </h1>
 <p>
 is worth a thousand words:
 </p>
 <div class="code_block"><pre>
-<span class="Statement">print</span> <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">5 + 6 = </span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>, <span class="Constant">5+6</span>, <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Special">\n</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
-<span class="Statement">print</span> <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">(2 + 3) * 6 = </span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>, (<span class="Constant">2+3</span>)*<span class="Constant">6</span>, <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Special">\n</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
-<span class="Statement">print</span> <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">2 + 3 * 6 = </span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>, <span class="Constant">2+3</span>*<span class="Constant">6</span>, <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Special">\n</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
+<span class="Statement">print</span> <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">5 + 6 = </span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>, <span class="Constant">5</span>+<span class="Constant">6</span>, <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Special">\n</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
+<span class="Statement">print</span> <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">(2 + 3) * 6 = </span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>, (<span class="Constant">2</span>+<span class="Constant">3</span>)*<span class="Constant">6</span>, <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Special">\n</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
+<span class="Statement">print</span> <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">2 + 3 * 6 = </span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>, <span class="Constant">2</span>+<span class="Constant">3</span>*<span class="Constant">6</span>, <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Special">\n</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
 <span class="Statement">print</span> <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">2 raised to the power of 8 is </span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>, <span class="Constant">2</span>**<span class="Constant">8</span>, <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Special">\n</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
-<span class="Statement">print</span> <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">10-5 = </span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>, <span class="Constant">10-5</span>, <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">. 5-10 = </span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>, <span class="Constant">5-10</span>, <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Special">\n</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
+<span class="Statement">print</span> <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">10-5 = </span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>, <span class="Constant">10</span>-<span class="Constant">5</span>, <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">. 5-10 = </span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>, <span class="Constant">5</span>-<span class="Constant">10</span>, <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Special">\n</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
 <span class="Statement">print</span> <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">2/3 = </span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>, <span class="Constant">2</span>/<span class="Constant">3</span>, <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Special">\n</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
 </pre></div>
 <p>
 The output of this program is:
 </p>
 <div class="code_block"><pre>
-5 + 6 = 11
-(2 + 3) * 6 = 30
-2 + 3 * 6 = 20
-2 raised to the power of 8 is 256
-10-5 = 5. 5-10 = -5
-2/3 = 0.666666666666667
+
 </pre></div>
 <p>
 The operators have the same precendence as their mathemtical equivalents. The
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--expressions--operators--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--expressions--DIR">Expressions</a> → <a href="#page--expressions--operators--PAGE">Operators and Precendence</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--expressions--operators--PAGE">
 3.1. Operators and Precendence
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--expressions--functions--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--expressions--DIR">Expressions</a> → <a href="#page--expressions--functions--PAGE">Functions</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--expressions--functions--PAGE">
 3.2. Functions
 </h1>
 <p>
 The output of this program is:
 </p>
 <div class="code_block"><pre>
-ong string
- lon
-A long
+
 </pre></div>
 <p>( You may notice that the position of the first character is 0. )</p>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--expressions--strings--DIR">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--expressions--DIR">Expressions</a> → <a href="#page--expressions--strings--DIR">More about strings</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--expressions--strings--DIR">
 3.3. More about strings
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--expressions--strings--escape--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--expressions--DIR">Expressions</a> → <a href="#page--expressions--strings--DIR">More about strings</a> → <a href="#page--expressions--strings--escape--PAGE">Escape Sequences</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--expressions--strings--escape--PAGE">
 3.3.1. Escape Sequences
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--variables--DIR">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--variables--DIR">Variables</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--variables--DIR">
 4. Variables
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--variables--plus-equal--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--variables--DIR">Variables</a> → <a href="#page--variables--plus-equal--PAGE">"+=" and friends</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--variables--plus-equal--PAGE">
 4.1. "+=" and friends
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--input--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--input--PAGE">Input</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--input--PAGE">
 5. Input
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--for_loop--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--for_loop--PAGE">The For Loop</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--for_loop--PAGE">
 6. The For Loop
 </h1>
 <p>
 For example, the following program prints all the numbers from 1 to 100:
 </p>
 <div class="code_block"><pre>
-<span class="Statement">for</span> <span class="Identifier">$i</span> (<span class="Constant">1.</span>.<span class="Constant">100</span>)
+<span class="Statement">for</span> <span class="Identifier">$i</span> (<span class="Constant">1..100</span>)
 {
     <span class="Statement">print</span> <span class="Identifier">$i</span>, <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Special">\n</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
 }
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--conditionals--DIR">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--conditionals--DIR">Conditionals</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--conditionals--DIR">
 7. Conditionals
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--conditionals--numerical--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--conditionals--DIR">Conditionals</a> → <a href="#page--conditionals--numerical--PAGE">Numerical Comparison Operators</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--conditionals--numerical--PAGE">
 7.1. Numerical Comparison Operators
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--conditionals--string--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--conditionals--DIR">Conditionals</a> → <a href="#page--conditionals--string--PAGE">String Comparison Operators</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--conditionals--string--PAGE">
 7.2. String Comparison Operators
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--conditionals--boolean--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--conditionals--DIR">Conditionals</a> → <a href="#page--conditionals--boolean--PAGE">Boolean Operators</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--conditionals--boolean--PAGE">
 7.3. Boolean Operators
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--conditionals--true_vs_false--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--conditionals--DIR">Conditionals</a> → <a href="#page--conditionals--true_vs_false--PAGE">True Expressions vs. False Expressions</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--conditionals--true_vs_false--PAGE">
 7.4. True Expressions vs. False Expressions
 </h1>
 <p>
 </li>
 <li>
 A special value called <tt>undef</tt>. This is the default value of every
-variable that was not initialized before it was accessed.
+variable that was not initialised before it was accessed.
 </li>
 </ol>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--conditionals--elsif--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--conditionals--DIR">Conditionals</a> → <a href="#page--conditionals--elsif--PAGE">elsif</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--conditionals--elsif--PAGE">
 7.5. elsif
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--while--DIR">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--while--DIR">The While Loop</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--while--DIR">
 8. The While Loop
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--while--last_and_next--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--while--DIR">The While Loop</a> → <a href="#page--while--last_and_next--PAGE">last and next</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--while--last_and_next--PAGE">
 8.1. last and next
 </h1>
 <p>
 <span class="Identifier">$size</span> = &lt;&gt;;
 <span class="Statement">chomp</span>(<span class="Identifier">$size</span>);
 
-ROW_LOOP: <span class="Statement">for</span> <span class="Identifier">$row</span> (<span class="Constant">1</span> .. <span class="Identifier">$size</span>)
+<span class="Statement">ROW_LOOP:</span> <span class="Statement">for</span> <span class="Identifier">$row</span> (<span class="Constant">1</span> .. <span class="Identifier">$size</span>)
 {
-    <span class="Statement">for</span> <span class="Identifier">$column</span> (<span class="Constant">1</span> .. (<span class="Identifier">$size</span><span class="Constant">+1</span>))
+    <span class="Statement">for</span> <span class="Identifier">$column</span> (<span class="Constant">1</span> .. (<span class="Identifier">$size</span>+<span class="Constant">1</span>))
     {
         <span class="Statement">if</span> (<span class="Identifier">$column</span> &gt; <span class="Identifier">$row</span>)
         {
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--arrays--DIR">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--arrays--DIR">Arrays</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--arrays--DIR">
 9. Arrays
 </h1>
 <p>
 <span class="Identifier">$primes</span>[<span class="Identifier">$num_primes</span>] = <span class="Constant">2</span>;
 <span class="Identifier">$num_primes</span>++;
 
-MAIN_LOOP:
+<span class="Statement">MAIN_LOOP:</span>
 <span class="Statement">for</span> <span class="Identifier">$number_to_check</span> (<span class="Constant">3</span> .. <span class="Constant">200</span>)
 {
-    <span class="Statement">for</span> <span class="Identifier">$p</span> (<span class="Constant">0</span> .. (<span class="Identifier">$num_primes</span><span class="Constant">-1</span>))
+    <span class="Statement">for</span> <span class="Identifier">$p</span> (<span class="Constant">0</span> .. (<span class="Identifier">$num_primes</span>-<span class="Constant">1</span>))
     {
         <span class="Statement">if</span> (<span class="Identifier">$number_to_check</span> % <span class="Identifier">$primes</span>[<span class="Identifier">$p</span>] == <span class="Constant">0</span>)
         {
     <span class="Identifier">$num_primes</span>++;
 }
 
-<span class="Statement">for</span> <span class="Identifier">$p</span> (<span class="Constant">0</span> .. (<span class="Identifier">$num_primes</span><span class="Constant">-1</span>))
+<span class="Statement">for</span> <span class="Identifier">$p</span> (<span class="Constant">0</span> .. (<span class="Identifier">$num_primes</span>-<span class="Constant">1</span>))
 {
     <span class="Statement">print</span> <span class="Identifier">$primes</span>[<span class="Identifier">$p</span>], <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">, </span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
 }
 <span class="Comment"># what might confuse the interpreter</span>
 <span class="Identifier">$primes</span>[<span class="Constant">0</span>] = <span class="Constant">2</span>;
 
-MAIN_LOOP:
+<span class="Statement">MAIN_LOOP:</span>
 <span class="Statement">for</span> <span class="Identifier">$number_to_check</span> (<span class="Constant">3</span> .. <span class="Constant">200</span>)
 {
     <span class="Statement">for</span> <span class="Identifier">$p</span> (<span class="Constant">0</span> .. <span class="Identifier">$#primes</span>)
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--arrays--comma--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--arrays--DIR">Arrays</a> → <a href="#page--arrays--comma--PAGE">The ',' operator</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--arrays--comma--PAGE">
 9.1. The ',' operator
 </h1>
 <p>
 In perl the comma (<tt>,</tt>) is an operator, which we encountered before
 in function calls. The comma concatenates two arrays. We can use it to
-initialize an array in one call:
+initialise an array in one call:
 </p>
 <div class="code_block"><pre>
 <span class="Identifier">@lines</span> = (<span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">One fish</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>, <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">Two fish</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>, <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">Red fish</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>, <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">Blue fish</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>);
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--arrays--negative_indexes--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--arrays--DIR">Arrays</a> → <a href="#page--arrays--negative_indexes--PAGE">Negative Indexes</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--arrays--negative_indexes--PAGE">
 9.2. Negative Indexes
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--arrays--foreach--DIR">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--arrays--DIR">Arrays</a> → <a href="#page--arrays--foreach--DIR">The foreach loop</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--arrays--foreach--DIR">
 9.3. The foreach loop
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--arrays--foreach--for_and_dotdot--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--arrays--DIR">Arrays</a> → <a href="#page--arrays--foreach--DIR">The foreach loop</a> → <a href="#page--arrays--foreach--for_and_dotdot--PAGE">The for keyword and the .. operator</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--arrays--foreach--for_and_dotdot--PAGE">
 9.3.1. The for keyword and the .. operator
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--arrays--functions--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--arrays--DIR">Arrays</a> → <a href="#page--arrays--functions--PAGE">Built-In Array Functions</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--arrays--functions--PAGE">
 9.4. Built-In Array Functions
 </h1>
 <h2>push</h2>
 <span class="Comment"># what might confuse the interpreter</span>
 <span class="Identifier">@primes</span> = (<span class="Constant">2</span>);
 
-MAIN_LOOP:
+<span class="Statement">MAIN_LOOP:</span>
 <span class="Statement">for</span> <span class="Identifier">$number_to_check</span> (<span class="Constant">3</span> .. <span class="Constant">200</span>)
 {
     <span class="Statement">foreach</span> <span class="Identifier">$p</span> (<span class="Identifier">@primes</span>)
 <p>
 Notice that <tt>push</tt> is equivalent to typing
 <tt>@array = (@array, $extra_elem)</tt>, but it is recommended
-to use it, because it minimizes error and it executes faster.
+to use it, because it minimises error and it executes faster.
 </p>
 <h2>pop</h2>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--arrays--x--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 1</a> → <a href="#page--arrays--DIR">Arrays</a> → <a href="#page--arrays--x--PAGE">The x operator</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--arrays--x--PAGE">
 9.5. The x operator
 </h1>
 <p>

lib/tutorials/perl-for-newbies/lect2-all-in-one/index.html

 "Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2
 </title>
 </head>
-<body><div class="page" id="page--DIR">
+<body><div class="page">
 
 <div class="center"><script type="text/javascript">
 google_ad_client = "pub-2480595666283917";
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--DIR">
 "Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2
 </h1>
 <h2 id="contents">Contents</h2>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--for--DIR">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--for--DIR">The for Loop</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--for--DIR">
 1. The for Loop
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--for--next--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--for--DIR">The for Loop</a> → <a href="#page--for--next--PAGE">Behaviour of next in the for Loop</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--for--next--PAGE">
 1.1. Behaviour of next in the for Loop
 </h1>
 <p>
 For example, the following program prints the first 200 primes:
 </p>
 <div class="code_block"><pre>
-MAIN_LOOP: <span class="Statement">for</span>(
+<span class="Statement">MAIN_LOOP:</span> <span class="Statement">for</span>(
     <span class="Identifier">@primes</span>=(<span class="Constant">2</span>), <span class="Identifier">$i</span>=<span class="Constant">3</span> ;
     <span class="Statement">scalar</span>(<span class="Identifier">@primes</span>) &lt; <span class="Constant">200</span> ;
     <span class="Identifier">$i</span>++
 <div class="code_block"><pre>
 <span class="Identifier">@primes</span> = (<span class="Constant">2</span>);
 <span class="Identifier">$i</span> = <span class="Constant">3</span>;
-MAIN_LOOP:
+<span class="Statement">MAIN_LOOP:</span>
 <span class="Statement">while</span> (<span class="Statement">scalar</span>(<span class="Identifier">@primes</span>) &lt; <span class="Constant">200</span>)
 {
     <span class="Statement">foreach</span> <span class="Identifier">$p</span> (<span class="Identifier">@primes</span>)
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--for--whence_for--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--for--DIR">The for Loop</a> → <a href="#page--for--whence_for--PAGE">Whence for?</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--for--whence_for--PAGE">
 1.2. Whence for?
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--hashes--DIR">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--hashes--DIR">Hashes</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--hashes--DIR">
 2. Hashes
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--hashes--functions--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--hashes--DIR">Hashes</a> → <a href="#page--hashes--functions--PAGE">Hash-Related Functions</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--hashes--functions--PAGE">
 2.1. Hash-Related Functions
 </h1>
 <h2>delete</h2>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--my--DIR">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--my--DIR">Declaring Local Variables with "my"</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--my--DIR">
 3. Declaring Local Variables with "my"
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--my--use_strict--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--my--DIR">Declaring Local Variables with "my"</a> → <a href="#page--my--use_strict--PAGE">"use strict", Luke!</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--my--use_strict--PAGE">
 3.1. "use strict", Luke!
 </h1>
 <p>
 that was not declared with <tt>my</tt> it will generate an error.
 </p>
 <p>
-Using <tt>use strict</tt> is in most cases a good idea, because it minimizes
+Using <tt>use strict</tt> is in most cases a good idea, because it minimises
 the number of errors because of typos. Just type <tt>use strict;</tt> at the
 beginning of your program and you can sleep better at nights.
 </p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--my--use_warnings--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--my--DIR">Declaring Local Variables with "my"</a> → <a href="#page--my--use_warnings--PAGE">"use warnings", Luke!</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--my--use_warnings--PAGE">
 3.2. "use warnings", Luke!
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--functions--DIR">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--functions--DIR">Functions</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--functions--DIR">
 4. Functions
 </h1>
 <p>
 <span class="Statement">use strict</span>;
 <span class="Statement">use warnings</span>;
 
-<span class="Statement">sub</span><span class="Identifier"> </span><span class="Identifier">min_and_max</span>
+<span class="Statement">sub </span><span class="Identifier">min_and_max</span>
 {
     <span class="Statement">my</span> (<span class="Identifier">@numbers</span>);
 
 }
 
 <span class="Statement">my</span> (<span class="Identifier">@test_array</span>, <span class="Identifier">@ret</span>);
-<span class="Identifier">@test_array</span> = (<span class="Constant">123</span>, <span class="Constant">23</span> , <span class="Constant">-6</span>, <span class="Constant">7</span> , <span class="Constant">80</span>, <span class="Constant">300</span>, <span class="Constant">45</span>, <span class="Constant">2</span>, <span class="Constant">9</span>, <span class="Constant">1000</span>, <span class="Constant">-90</span>, <span class="Constant">3</span>);
+<span class="Identifier">@test_array</span> = (<span class="Constant">123</span>, <span class="Constant">23</span> , -<span class="Constant">6</span>, <span class="Constant">7</span> , <span class="Constant">80</span>, <span class="Constant">300</span>, <span class="Constant">45</span>, <span class="Constant">2</span>, <span class="Constant">9</span>, <span class="Constant">1000</span>, -<span class="Constant">90</span>, <span class="Constant">3</span>);
 
 <span class="Identifier">@ret</span> = min_and_max(<span class="Identifier">@test_array</span>);
 
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--functions--recursion--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--functions--DIR">Functions</a> → <a href="#page--functions--recursion--PAGE">Function Recursion</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--functions--recursion--PAGE">
 4.1. Function Recursion
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--functions--shift--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--functions--DIR">Functions</a> → <a href="#page--functions--shift--PAGE">Use of "shift" in Functions</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--functions--shift--PAGE">
 4.2. Use of "shift" in Functions
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--files--DIR">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--files--DIR">File Input/Output</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--files--DIR">
 5. File Input/Output
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--files--print--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--files--DIR">File Input/Output</a> → <a href="#page--files--print--PAGE">Using "print" with Files</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--files--print--PAGE">
 5.1. Using "print" with Files
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--files--readline--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--files--DIR">File Input/Output</a> → <a href="#page--files--readline--PAGE">The &lt;FILEHANDLE&gt; Operator</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--files--readline--PAGE">
 5.2. The &lt;FILEHANDLE&gt; Operator
 </h1>
 <p>
-Just like <tt>print</tt> can be generalized to files, so can the
+Just like <tt>print</tt> can be generalised to files, so can the
 <tt>&lt;&gt;</tt> which we encountered before. If you place the name of the
 filehandle inside the operator, it will read a line from the file opened by
 that filehandle.
 <span class="Statement">open</span> <span class="Identifier">I</span>, <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">&lt;</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>, <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">input.txt</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
 <span class="Statement">open</span> <span class="Identifier">O</span>, <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">&gt;</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>, <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">output.txt</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
 
-<span class="Statement">while</span> (<span class="Identifier">$line</span> = &lt;I&gt;)
+<span class="Statement">while</span> (<span class="Identifier">$line</span> = <span class="Identifier">&lt;I&gt;</span>)
 {
     <span class="Comment"># We aren't chomping it so we won't lose the newline.</span>
     <span class="Statement">print</span> <span class="Identifier">O</span> <span class="Identifier">$line_num</span>, <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">: </span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>, <span class="Identifier">$line</span>;
 <span class="Identifier">$lines_num</span> = <span class="Constant">0</span>;
 <span class="Identifier">$filename</span> = <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">input.txt</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
 <span class="Statement">open</span> <span class="Identifier">I</span>,  <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">&lt;</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>, <span class="Identifier">$filename</span>;
-<span class="Statement">while</span> (<span class="Identifier">$line</span> = &lt;I&gt;)
+<span class="Statement">while</span> (<span class="Identifier">$line</span> = <span class="Identifier">&lt;I&gt;</span>)
 {
     <span class="Identifier">$c</span> = <span class="Statement">substr</span>(<span class="Identifier">$line</span>, <span class="Constant">0</span>, <span class="Constant">1</span>);
     <span class="Statement">if</span> (<span class="Statement">lc</span>(<span class="Identifier">$c</span>) <span class="Statement">eq</span> <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">a</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>)
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--argv--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--argv--PAGE">The @ARGV Array</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--argv--PAGE">
 6. The @ARGV Array
 </h1>
 <p>
 
 <span class="Statement">open</span> <span class="Identifier">I</span>, <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">&lt;</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>, <span class="Identifier">$filename</span>;
 <span class="Statement">open</span> <span class="Identifier">O</span>, <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">&gt;</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>, <span class="Identifier">$filename</span>.<span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">.bak</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
-<span class="Statement">print</span> <span class="Identifier">O</span> <span class="Statement">join</span>(<span class="Constant">&quot;&quot;</span>,&lt;I&gt;);
+<span class="Statement">print</span> <span class="Identifier">O</span> <span class="Statement">join</span>(<span class="Constant">&quot;&quot;</span>,<span class="Identifier">&lt;I&gt;</span>);
 <span class="Statement">close</span>(<span class="Identifier">I</span>);
 <span class="Statement">close</span>(<span class="Identifier">O</span>);
 </pre></div>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--regexps--DIR">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--regexps--DIR">Regular Expressions</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--regexps--DIR">
 7. Regular Expressions
 </h1>
 <p>
 </ol>
 <p>
 Some perl functions such as <tt>split</tt> and <tt>grep</tt> (which will be
-covered later) can utilize regular expressions to do other tasks.
+covered later) can utilise regular expressions to do other tasks.
 </p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--regexps--syntax--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--regexps--DIR">Regular Expressions</a> → <a href="#page--regexps--syntax--PAGE">Syntax</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--regexps--syntax--PAGE">
 7.1. Syntax
 </h1>
 <p>
 
 <span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">$string</span> = <span class="Statement">shift</span>(<span class="Identifier">@ARGV</span>);
 
-<span class="Statement">if</span> (<span class="Identifier">$string</span> =~<span class="Statement"> /</span><span class="Constant">hello</span><span class="Statement">/</span>)
+<span class="Statement">if</span> (<span class="Identifier">$string</span> =~ <span class="Statement">/</span><span class="Constant">hello</span><span class="Statement">/</span>)
 {
     <span class="Statement">print</span> <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">The string contains the word </span><span class="Special">\&quot;</span><span class="Constant">hello</span><span class="Special">\&quot;</span><span class="Constant">.</span><span class="Special">\n</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
 }
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--regexps--multi_char--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--regexps--DIR">Regular Expressions</a> → <a href="#page--regexps--multi_char--PAGE">".", "[ ... ]"</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--regexps--multi_char--PAGE">
 7.2. ".", "[ ... ]"
 </h1>
 <p>
 
 <span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">$string</span> = <span class="Statement">lc</span>(<span class="Statement">shift</span>(<span class="Identifier">@ARGV</span>));
 
-<span class="Statement">if</span> (<span class="Identifier">$string</span> =~<span class="Statement"> /</span><span class="Constant">l</span><span class="Special">...</span><span class="Constant">x</span><span class="Statement">/</span>)
+<span class="Statement">if</span> (<span class="Identifier">$string</span> =~ <span class="Statement">/</span><span class="Constant">l</span><span class="Special">...</span><span class="Constant">x</span><span class="Statement">/</span>)
 {
     <span class="Statement">print</span> <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">True</span><span class="Special">\n</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
 }
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--regexps--asterisk--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--regexps--DIR">Regular Expressions</a> → <a href="#page--regexps--asterisk--PAGE">The "*" and Friends</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--regexps--asterisk--PAGE">
 7.3. The "*" and Friends
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--regexps--grouping--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--regexps--DIR">Regular Expressions</a> → <a href="#page--regexps--grouping--PAGE">Grouping</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--regexps--grouping--PAGE">
 7.4. Grouping
 </h1>
 <p>
 
 <span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">$string</span> = <span class="Statement">lc</span>(<span class="Statement">shift</span>(<span class="Identifier">@ARGV</span>));
 
-<span class="Statement">if</span> (<span class="Identifier">$string</span> =~<span class="Statement"> /</span><span class="Constant">the</span><span class="Special">(?:</span><span class="Constant"> </span><span class="Special">+[a-z]+)*</span><span class="Constant"> </span><span class="Special">+</span><span class="Constant">there</span><span class="Statement">/</span>)
+<span class="Statement">if</span> (<span class="Identifier">$string</span> =~ <span class="Statement">/</span><span class="Constant">the</span><span class="Special">(?:</span><span class="Constant"> </span><span class="Special">+[a-z]+)*</span><span class="Constant"> </span><span class="Special">+</span><span class="Constant">there</span><span class="Statement">/</span>)
 {
     <span class="Statement">print</span> <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">True</span><span class="Special">\n</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
 }
 
 <span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">$string</span> = <span class="Statement">lc</span>(<span class="Statement">shift</span>(<span class="Identifier">@ARGV</span>));
 
-<span class="Statement">if</span> (<span class="Identifier">$string</span> =~<span class="Statement"> /</span><span class="Special">\[\{</span><span class="Special">[0-9]+(?:</span><span class="Constant">,</span><span class="Special">[0-9]+)+</span><span class="Special">\}</span><span class="Special">(?:</span><span class="Constant">;</span><span class="Special">\{</span><span class="Special">(?:[0-9]+(?:</span><span class="Constant">,</span><span class="Special">[0-9]+)+)</span><span class="Special">\}</span><span class="Special">)+</span><span class="Special">\]</span><span class="Statement">/</span>)
+<span class="Statement">if</span> (<span class="Identifier">$string</span> =~ <span class="Statement">/</span><span class="Special">\[\{</span><span class="Special">[0-9]+(?:</span><span class="Constant">,</span><span class="Special">[0-9]+)+</span><span class="Special">\}</span><span class="Special">(?:</span><span class="Constant">;</span><span class="Special">\{</span><span class="Special">(?:[0-9]+(?:</span><span class="Constant">,</span><span class="Special">[0-9]+)+)</span><span class="Special">\}</span><span class="Special">)+</span><span class="Special">\]</span><span class="Statement">/</span>)
 {
     <span class="Statement">print</span> <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">True</span><span class="Special">\n</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
 }
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--regexps--alternation--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--regexps--DIR">Regular Expressions</a> → <a href="#page--regexps--alternation--PAGE">Alternation with "|"</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--regexps--alternation--PAGE">
 7.5. Alternation with "|"
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--regexps--binding--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--regexps--DIR">Regular Expressions</a> → <a href="#page--regexps--binding--PAGE">Binding to the Beginning or the End of a String</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--regexps--binding--PAGE">
 7.6. Binding to the Beginning or the End of a String
 </h1>
 <p>
 
 <span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">$string</span> = <span class="Statement">shift</span>;
 
-<span class="Statement">if</span> (<span class="Identifier">$string</span> =~<span class="Statement"> /</span><span class="Constant">^</span><span class="Special">[Aa]*</span><span class="Constant">$</span><span class="Statement">/</span>)
+<span class="Statement">if</span> (<span class="Identifier">$string</span> =~ <span class="Statement">/</span><span class="Constant">^</span><span class="Special">[Aa]*</span><span class="Constant">$</span><span class="Statement">/</span>)
 {
     <span class="Statement">print</span> <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">The string you entered is all A's!</span><span class="Special">\n</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
 }
 
 <span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">$string</span> = <span class="Statement">shift</span>;
 
-<span class="Statement">if</span> (<span class="Identifier">$string</span> =~<span class="Statement"> /</span><span class="Special">\.\.\.</span><span class="Constant"> </span><span class="Special">*</span><span class="Constant">$</span><span class="Statement">/</span>)
+<span class="Statement">if</span> (<span class="Identifier">$string</span> =~ <span class="Statement">/</span><span class="Special">\.\.\.</span><span class="Constant"> </span><span class="Special">*</span><span class="Constant">$</span><span class="Statement">/</span>)
 {
     <span class="Statement">print</span> <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">The string you entered ends with an ellipsis.</span><span class="Special">\n</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
 }
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--regexps--substitute--DIR">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--regexps--DIR">Regular Expressions</a> → <a href="#page--regexps--substitute--DIR">Substituting using Regular Expressions</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--regexps--substitute--DIR">
 7.7. Substituting using Regular Expressions
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--regexps--substitute--e_switch--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--regexps--DIR">Regular Expressions</a> → <a href="#page--regexps--substitute--DIR">Substituting using Regular Expressions</a> → <a href="#page--regexps--substitute--e_switch--PAGE">The "e" Switch</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--regexps--substitute--e_switch--PAGE">
 7.7.1. The "e" Switch
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--regexps--substitute--ungreedy--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--regexps--DIR">Regular Expressions</a> → <a href="#page--regexps--substitute--DIR">Substituting using Regular Expressions</a> → <a href="#page--regexps--substitute--ungreedy--PAGE">Ungreedy Matching with *? and Friends</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--regexps--substitute--ungreedy--PAGE">
 7.7.2. Ungreedy Matching with *? and Friends
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--regexps--flags--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--regexps--DIR">Regular Expressions</a> → <a href="#page--regexps--flags--PAGE">Useful Flags</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--regexps--flags--PAGE">
 7.8. Useful Flags
 </h1>
 <p>
 their occurence:
 </p>
 <div class="code_block"><pre>
-<span class="PreProc">use strict</span>;
-<span class="PreProc">use warnings</span>;
+<span class="Statement">use strict</span>;
+<span class="Statement">use warnings</span>;
 
 <span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">$index</span> = <span class="Constant">0</span>;
-<span class="Statement">sub</span><span class="Identifier"> </span><span class="Identifier">put_index</span>
+<span class="Statement">sub </span><span class="Identifier">put_index</span>
 {
     <span class="Identifier">$index</span>++;
     <span class="Statement">return</span> <span class="Identifier">$index</span>;
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--regexps--esc_seqs--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--regexps--DIR">Regular Expressions</a> → <a href="#page--regexps--esc_seqs--PAGE">Useful Escape Sequences</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--regexps--esc_seqs--PAGE">
 7.9. Useful Escape Sequences
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--regexps--next_step--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--regexps--DIR">Regular Expressions</a> → <a href="#page--regexps--next_step--PAGE">The Next Step</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--regexps--next_step--PAGE">
 7.10. The Next Step
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--interpolation--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--interpolation--PAGE">String Interpolation</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--interpolation--PAGE">
 8. String Interpolation
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--useful_funcs--DIR">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--useful_funcs--DIR">Useful Functions</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--useful_funcs--DIR">
 9. Useful Functions
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--useful_funcs--split--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--useful_funcs--DIR">Useful Functions</a> → <a href="#page--useful_funcs--split--PAGE">split</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--useful_funcs--split--PAGE">
 9.1. split
 </h1>
 <p>
 <span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">$user_name</span> = <span class="Statement">shift</span>;
 
 <span class="Statement">open</span> <span class="Identifier">I</span>, <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">&lt;</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>, <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">/etc/passwd</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
-<span class="Statement">while</span> (<span class="Identifier">$line</span> = &lt;I&gt;)
+<span class="Statement">while</span> (<span class="Identifier">$line</span> = <span class="Identifier">&lt;I&gt;</span>)
 {
     <span class="Identifier">@parts</span> = <span class="Statement">split</span>(<span class="Statement">/</span><span class="Constant">:</span><span class="Statement">/</span>, <span class="Identifier">$line</span>);
     <span class="Statement">if</span> (<span class="Identifier">$parts</span>[<span class="Constant">0</span>] <span class="Statement">eq</span> <span class="Identifier">$user_name</span>)
 <span class="Statement">close</span>(<span class="Identifier">I</span>);
 
 <span class="Statement">print</span> <span class="Identifier">$user_name</span> . <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">'s user ID was not found!</span><span class="Special">\n</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
-<span class="Statement">exit</span>(<span class="Constant">-1</span>);
+<span class="Statement">exit</span>(-<span class="Constant">1</span>);
 </pre></div>
 <p>
 The following code splits a sentence into words and prints them:
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--useful_funcs--map--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--useful_funcs--DIR">Useful Functions</a> → <a href="#page--useful_funcs--map--PAGE">map</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--useful_funcs--map--PAGE">
 9.2. map
 </h1>
 <p>
 
 <span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">@array</span> = (<span class="Constant">20</span>, <span class="Constant">3</span>, <span class="Constant">1</span>, <span class="Constant">9</span>, <span class="Constant">100</span>, <span class="Constant">88</span>, <span class="Constant">75</span>);
 
-<span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">@new_array</span> = (<span class="Statement">map</span> { <span class="Identifier">$_</span>*<span class="Constant">2</span>; } <span class="Identifier">@array</span>);
+<span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">@new_array</span> = (<span class="Statement">map {</span> <span class="Identifier">$_</span>*<span class="Constant">2</span>; <span class="Statement">}</span> <span class="Identifier">@array</span>);
 
 <span class="Statement">print</span> <span class="Statement">join</span>(<span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">,</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>, <span class="Identifier">@new_array</span>), <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Special">\n</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
 </pre></div>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--useful_funcs--sort--DIR">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--useful_funcs--DIR">Useful Functions</a> → <a href="#page--useful_funcs--sort--DIR">sort</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--useful_funcs--sort--DIR">
 9.3. sort
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--useful_funcs--sort--cmp--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--useful_funcs--DIR">Useful Functions</a> → <a href="#page--useful_funcs--sort--DIR">sort</a> → <a href="#page--useful_funcs--sort--cmp--PAGE">&lt;=&gt; and cmp</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--useful_funcs--sort--cmp--PAGE">
 9.3.1. &lt;=&gt; and cmp
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--useful_funcs--grep--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--useful_funcs--DIR">Useful Functions</a> → <a href="#page--useful_funcs--grep--PAGE">grep</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--useful_funcs--grep--PAGE">
 9.4. grep
 </h1>
 <p>
 <span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">$filename</span> = <span class="Statement">shift</span>;
 
 <span class="Statement">open</span> <span class="Identifier">I</span>, <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">&lt;</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>, <span class="Identifier">$filename</span>;
-<span class="Statement">while</span> (<span class="Identifier">$l</span> = &lt;I&gt;)
+<span class="Statement">while</span> (<span class="Identifier">$l</span> = <span class="Identifier">&lt;I&gt;</span>)
 {
     <span class="Statement">chomp</span>(<span class="Identifier">$l</span>);
     <span class="Statement">push</span> <span class="Identifier">@lines</span>, <span class="Identifier">$l</span>;
 <span class="Comment"># Filter the comments</span>
 <span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">@comments</span> = <span class="Statement">grep</span>(<span class="Statement">/</span><span class="Constant">^#</span><span class="Statement">/</span>, <span class="Identifier">@lines</span>);
 <span class="Comment"># Filter out the long comments</span>
-<span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">@short_comments</span> = (<span class="Statement">grep</span> { <span class="Statement">length</span>(<span class="Identifier">$_</span>) &lt;= <span class="Constant">80</span> ; } <span class="Identifier">@comments</span>);
+<span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">@short_comments</span> = (<span class="Statement">grep {</span> <span class="Statement">length</span>(<span class="Identifier">$_</span>) &lt;= <span class="Constant">80</span> ; <span class="Statement">}</span> <span class="Identifier">@comments</span>);
 
 <span class="Statement">print</span> <span class="Statement">join</span>(<span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Special">\n</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>, <span class="Identifier">@short_comments</span>), <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Special">\n</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
 </pre></div>
 <span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">@primes</span> = (<span class="Constant">2</span>);
 <span class="Statement">for</span>(<span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">$n</span>=<span class="Constant">3</span> ; <span class="Statement">scalar</span>(<span class="Identifier">@primes</span>) &lt; <span class="Constant">100</span> ; <span class="Identifier">$n</span>++)
 {
-    <span class="Statement">if</span> (<span class="Statement">scalar</span>(<span class="Statement">grep</span> { <span class="Identifier">$n</span> % <span class="Identifier">$_</span> == <span class="Constant">0</span> ; } <span class="Identifier">@primes</span>) == <span class="Constant">0</span>)
+    <span class="Statement">if</span> (<span class="Statement">scalar</span>(<span class="Statement">grep {</span> <span class="Identifier">$n</span> % <span class="Identifier">$_</span> == <span class="Constant">0</span> ; <span class="Statement">}</span> <span class="Identifier">@primes</span>) == <span class="Constant">0</span>)
     {
         <span class="Statement">push</span> <span class="Identifier">@primes</span>, <span class="Identifier">$n</span>;
     }
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--references--DIR">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--references--DIR">References</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--references--DIR">
 10. References
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--references--hanoi--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--references--DIR">References</a> → <a href="#page--references--hanoi--PAGE">Example: The Towers of Hanoi</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--references--hanoi--PAGE">
 10.1. Example: The Towers of Hanoi
 </h1>
 <p>
     [ ]
     );
 
-<span class="Statement">sub</span><span class="Identifier"> </span><span class="Identifier">print_towers</span>
+<span class="Statement">sub </span><span class="Identifier">print_towers</span>
 {
     <span class="Statement">for</span>(<span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">$a</span>=<span class="Constant">0</span>;<span class="Identifier">$a</span>&lt;<span class="Constant">3</span>;<span class="Identifier">$a</span>++)
     {
     <span class="Statement">print</span> <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Special">\n\n</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
 }
 
-<span class="Statement">sub</span><span class="Identifier"> </span><span class="Identifier">move_column</span>
+<span class="Statement">sub </span><span class="Identifier">move_column</span>
 {
     <span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">$source</span> = <span class="Statement">shift</span>;
     <span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">$dest</span> = <span class="Statement">shift</span>;
         <span class="Statement">return</span>;
     }
     <span class="Comment"># Find the third column </span>
-    <span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">$intermediate</span> = <span class="Constant">0+1+2</span>-<span class="Identifier">$source</span>-<span class="Identifier">$dest</span>;
-    move_column(<span class="Identifier">$source</span>, <span class="Identifier">$intermediate</span>, <span class="Identifier">$how_many</span><span class="Constant">-1</span>);
+    <span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">$intermediate</span> = <span class="Constant">0</span>+<span class="Constant">1</span>+<span class="Constant">2</span>-<span class="Identifier">$source</span>-<span class="Identifier">$dest</span>;
+    move_column(<span class="Identifier">$source</span>, <span class="Identifier">$intermediate</span>, <span class="Identifier">$how_many</span>-<span class="Constant">1</span>);
     <span class="Comment"># Print the current state</span>
     print_towers();
     <span class="Comment"># Move one disk. Notice the dereferncing of the arrays</span>
     <span class="Comment"># using @{$ref}.</span>
     <span class="Statement">push</span> @{<span class="Identifier">$towers</span>[<span class="Identifier">$dest</span>]}, <span class="Statement">pop</span>(@{<span class="Identifier">$towers</span>[<span class="Identifier">$source</span>]});
-    move_column(<span class="Identifier">$intermediate</span>, <span class="Identifier">$dest</span>, <span class="Identifier">$how_many</span><span class="Constant">-1</span>);
+    move_column(<span class="Identifier">$intermediate</span>, <span class="Identifier">$dest</span>, <span class="Identifier">$how_many</span>-<span class="Constant">1</span>);
 }
 
 <span class="Comment"># Move the entire column</span>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--references--backslash--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--references--DIR">References</a> → <a href="#page--references--backslash--PAGE">\ - Taking a Reference to an Existing Variable</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--references--backslash--PAGE">
 10.2. \ - Taking a Reference to an Existing Variable
 </h1>
 <p>
 
 <span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">$sum</span> = <span class="Constant">0</span>;
 
-<span class="Statement">sub</span><span class="Identifier"> </span><span class="Identifier">update_sum</span>
+<span class="Statement">sub </span><span class="Identifier">update_sum</span>
 {
     <span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">$ref_to_sum</span> = <span class="Statement">shift</span>;
     <span class="Statement">foreach</span> <span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">$item</span> (<span class="Identifier">@_</span>)
     }
 }
 
-update_sum(<span class="Identifier">\$sum</span>, <span class="Constant">5</span>, <span class="Constant">4</span>, <span class="Constant">9</span>, <span class="Constant">10</span>, <span class="Constant">11</span>);
-update_sum(<span class="Identifier">\$sum</span>, <span class="Constant">100</span>, <span class="Constant">80</span>, <span class="Constant">7</span>, <span class="Constant">24</span>);
+update_sum(\<span class="Identifier">$sum</span>, <span class="Constant">5</span>, <span class="Constant">4</span>, <span class="Constant">9</span>, <span class="Constant">10</span>, <span class="Constant">11</span>);
+update_sum(\<span class="Identifier">$sum</span>, <span class="Constant">100</span>, <span class="Constant">80</span>, <span class="Constant">7</span>, <span class="Constant">24</span>);
 
 <span class="Statement">print</span> <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Special">\$</span><span class="Constant">sum is now </span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>, <span class="Identifier">$sum</span>, <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Special">\n</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
 </pre></div>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--references--square_brackets--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--references--DIR">References</a> → <a href="#page--references--square_brackets--PAGE">[ @array ] - a Dynamic Reference to an Array</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--references--square_brackets--PAGE">
 10.3. [ @array ] - a Dynamic Reference to an Array
 </h1>
 <p>
 <span class="Statement">use strict</span>;
 <span class="Statement">use warnings</span>;
 
-<span class="Statement">sub</span><span class="Identifier"> </span><span class="Identifier">vector_sum</span>
+<span class="Statement">sub </span><span class="Identifier">vector_sum</span>
 {
     <span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">$v1_ref</span> = <span class="Statement">shift</span>;
     <span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">$v2_ref</span> = <span class="Statement">shift</span>;
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--references--curly_brackets--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--references--DIR">References</a> → <a href="#page--references--curly_brackets--PAGE">{ %hash } - a Dynamic Reference to a Hash</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--references--curly_brackets--PAGE">
 10.4. { %hash } - a Dynamic Reference to a Hash
 </h1>
 <p>
     ],
 };
 
-<span class="Statement">sub</span><span class="Identifier"> </span><span class="Identifier">get_contents</span>
+<span class="Statement">sub </span><span class="Identifier">get_contents</span>
 {
     <span class="Statement">return</span> <span class="Identifier">$contents</span>;
 }
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--references--arrow--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--references--DIR">References</a> → <a href="#page--references--arrow--PAGE">The Arrow Operators</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--references--arrow--PAGE">
 10.5. The Arrow Operators
 </h1>
 <p>
 <hr />
 
 </div>
-<div class="page" id="page--references--dereferencing--PAGE">
+<div class="page">
 <table class="page-nav-bar top" summary=""><tr><td>
 <a href="#page--DIR" class="nav" accesskey="c">Contents</a></td>
 <td>
 <div class="bread">
 <a href="#page--DIR">"Perl for Perl Newbies" - Part 2</a> → <a href="#page--references--DIR">References</a> → <a href="#page--references--dereferencing--PAGE">Dereferencing</a>
 </div>
-<h1>
+<h1 id="page--references--dereferencing--PAGE">
 10.6. Dereferencing
 </h1>
 <p>
 
 <span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">$array_ref</span> = [<span class="Constant">5</span>, <span class="Constant">6</span>, <span class="Constant">7</span>, <span class="Constant">10</span>, <span class="Constant">24</span>, <span class="Constant">90</span>, <span class="Constant">14</span>];
 <span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">$a</span> = <span class="Constant">&quot;</span><span class="Constant">Hello World!</span><span class="Constant">&quot;</span>;
-<span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">$b</span> = <span class="Identifier">\$a</span>;
+<span class="Statement">my</span> <span class="Identifier">$b</span> = \<span class="Identifier">$a</span>;