1. Steve Losh
  2. .plan


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I'm going to try keeping a .plan. Let's see how this goes.

June 2016


  • Created this thing.
  • Added a fish alias to make it easier to edit.
  • Also added a Vim mapping...


  • Added Prolog list support to Bones. Need to think about the UI more, but it speeds things up considerably (I don't fully understand why yet...).

  • Started playing guitar again after a month of so of not at all. Truss rod is all out of whack thanks to the changing weather.

  • Read some more AMOP. My brain hurts.

  • Read more Masters of Doom.

  • Noticed the dynamic-extent declaration of a fleted function in Alexandria's extremum... should look into this for the bigass labels in Bones.

  • Did a bit more from the Mazes book.



  • Went to a talk by Tony Hoare at my school. It was interesting, but the more I dive into purely theoretical things the more I realize I really love actually making the computer do things.

  • Started watching the ELS 2016 videos. I wish I could have made it this year, but unfortunately my school schedule conflicted. Next year!

  • Asked for help/advice/feedback on the UI for Bones: https://gist.github.com/sjl/1f4bb73967663af0f9276b491af84140

  • Implemented cut for Bones. I simplified the book's fuckery quite a bit and it turned out to work pretty well, after chasing down a couple of other pre-existing bugs.


  • Discovered a bug in the Bones compiler, and I think the best way to fix it is to rewrite the bulk of the compiler. This sounds bad, but "rewrite the compiler" has been on my list of things to do for a while now, so it's as good a time as any.

  • The compiler is pretty crufty because it started out with me trying to wrap my head around the awful WAM book and grew organically. Now that I've got a fairly solid understanding of how this shit works, my second attempt should be nicer.

  • Watched more ELS 2016 videos.

  • Finished reading the main part of AMOP. Gonna put it down and move on to LOL instead of trying to power through reading the entire MOP spec.

  • Started rewriting the Bones compiler. Made good progress, will probably take another day or so to get working and then another day to clean up.

  • I really should go through and type hint all the stuff in that compiler. The type hints have proven useful in the rest of the project.

  • Started thinking about what an inspector plugin for cl-nrepl would look like. The "dump the object" code I wrote for the new compiler is ugly and painful to write -- if I just had a nice inspector I wouldn't need to fuck around with writing it.


  • Read more LOL.
  • Logistic travel stuff.



  • Implemented Aldous-Broder and a bunch of code cleanup for Mazes.


  • Downloading/updating everything to prepare for my long-ass flight back to the states tomorrow.

  • Grabbing doc trees with wget, but also might try out Dash to see if it can reduce this pain a bit.

  • Roswell broke when I updated it through Homebrew and I had to manually remove all its cached files in ~/.roswell for it to work again. Computers are garbage.


  • Flew back to the states for a short visit.
  • Fixed a pair of really nasty bugs in Bones on the plane.

2016-06-11 - 2016-06-23

  • Traveling in the US. I miss American food.

  • I had left a cache of paper books at a friend's place in the US, so I read through a few while I was there.

  • Read through ANSI Common Lisp. Pretty basic, nothing too advanced in it. It reminded me how much I hate Paul Graham's function/variable naming style. Aim for brevity of ideas, not characters.

  • Read/skimmed Successful Lisp. Also pretty basic, but kind of weird at the same time. It seemed to just skim a lot of topics and not really go in-depth enough on any of them. Except for the chapter about the bit-twiddling operations, which I haven't seen in any other Lisp book (except maybe CLtL2). I don't think I'd recommend it.

  • Read through most of the OpenGL SuperBible. Graphics programming is some really neat and powerful stuff wrapped in a hilarious nest of disgusting syntax and boilerplate.

  • I really want to play around with shaders and such, but the C++ development environment seems like an enourmous pain in the ass. There's also CEPL but I'm worried that I should really know some OpenGL before diving into that. I might poke at WebGL a bit as a middle ground.

  • Read through On Writing by Stephen King. Some good advice in there, especially about just reading and writing a lot. I haven't been reading enough lately -- so from now on the Kindle is gonna replace my phone while on the bus.


  • Still jet lagged. Catching up on things back in Iceland.

  • Halfway through Salem's Lot. I forgot how much I loved reading fiction.

  • Grabbed a bunch of GDC talks from this thread to watch later.

  • Read more LOL. This dude is a wonderful nutbag. The chapter on efficiency is crazy, but interesting. I might use some of its ideas in Bones once I've got that to a stable place.

  • Watched the Juice it or Lose It talk from that Reddit thread. Really nice. Simple stuff like tweening makes a big difference.


  • Watched the "Ellie: Buddy AI in The Last of Us" GDC talk over breakfast. It was really interesting. The idea that making Ellie stick close to the player means that any mistakes become the player's fault (so they won't blame her) seems obvious now, but wasn't before I watched it.

  • Finally finished up a blog post that's been halfway done for months. Might post it on Monday.

  • Finished LOL (though I had to tap out halfway through the final Forth chapter). My dude certainly has a lot of fresh, hot, steaming takes. I'd recommend the book, but only with a rabbit-sized grain of salt.

  • Watched the ELS 2016 talk "Type Checking on Heterogeneous Sequences in Common Lisp". Seems a lot like the Clojure spec stuff that was released shortly after.

  • Started a blog post about Lisp and symbols which turned into a 5k word monster. Gonna edit it down over the next few days and post it some time next week.


  • Watched the "Antichamber: An Overnight Success, Seven Years in the Making" GDC video. Pretty inspiring, though I think he still probably underestimates how much luck matters.

  • Started reading The Implementation of Prolog. Some good ideas and explanations in here, though the coding style is maddening. I might even try a clean rewrite of Bones a year or two down the line, using some of the concepts I'm seeing here.

  • Started doing the Coding Math series again. Finished episode 28.

  • Started back into the Mazes book again. Implemented Wilson's Algorithm in my little demo.


  • Printed off and read the manuals for two Lisp things I've been meaning to look into: iterate and parenscript.

  • parenscript seems like an ugly, practical compile-to-JS Lisp. It's not pretty, but it has macros so I make it pretty if desired. And at least it's not abandoned like Wisp.

  • iterate is neat. I can definitely see how it's cleaner than loop. There are some parts that seem tricky, but I have the feeling that they're edge cases that I only say because I read the manual cover-to-cover -- I doubt they'd appear much in real life. I really should just bite the bullet and start using it -- there's no other way to learn -- but loop is like a comfortable rut I've found myself stuck in...

  • Did the first few lessons of Learning WebGL. So far I understand everything (reading the SuperBible helped a ton). I'm beginning to think graphics programming seems really tough because it's usually done in weak languages that can't abstract for shit like C and JS. Most of the boilerplate in these tutorials could be abstracted away with some careful inline functions or macros. But maybe I'll change my mind once I dive in more.



  • Watched "Designing Monument Valley" over breakfast. This style of game isn't my particular cup of tea, but the talk was interesting. He mentioned a few times that mechanics get in the way of the storytelling/experience and while that can be true, maybe even most of the time, I kept thinking about Dwarf Fortress as a counterexample. If you read the DF subreddit or forums you see countless stories and characters unfold, each one unique, and all of them created by the interaction of the player's imagination and the game's procedural mechanics. I'd love to make a game like that.

  • Posted a blog post about symbolic computation.

  • Added support for dynamic calling (Prolog's call/1) in Bones. This lets you write not/1 trivially, which we need for some GDL games.

  • Fixed a nasty unrelated bug in the bind! function of Bones' VM.


  • Watched the "Obsessive Compulsive Development" GDC talk over breakfast. It was refreshing to see a talk about a game that didn't turn out to be a huge success. Lots of good advice in it which seems obvious in retrospect, but I can see how in the heat of the moment it would be easy to lose sight of the bigger picture.

  • Did another episode of Coding Math. This one is about writing a tweening library. I ended up writing a ridiculous pair of tweening macros that will tween arbitrary places with a nice simple UI. It's much more general than the Javascript version, which is limited to tweening (unnested) properties of objects. Want to tween the car of a slot of an entry in a hash table? No problem! (tween-place! (car (slot-value (gethash 'foo table) 'myslot)) 500 2.0 #'tween-linear) I shudder to think how you'd do this in a language without macros...

  • Added support for running Bones' test suite on CCL. Up til now I've just been using SBCL for development, but I accidentally opened the wrong REPL today and didn't notice until I got a traceback for something stupid I typed, so apparently it Just Works™ on CCL too. SBCL is currently much faster, but I'm pretty pleased that it runs correctly on another implementation with zero extra effort. It's so nice to be working in a language with an actual standard. I put the CCL testing into the precommit hook to help keep me honest going forward.

  • Ported two GDL games (hanoi7_bugfix and aipsrovers01) into Bones' examples/ directory. Now that I can write not/1 it was trivial, and should be trivial for all GDL games. It is really tedious to do by hand though, so I really want to write a GDL to Bones translator. But to do that I think I need to sort out the assert/retract situation.

  • More Learning WebGL.

  • Added the Hunt and Kill algorithm to Mazes, and also started diving into iterate by switching over a few of the loops. I'm never gonna learn if I don't just force myself to jump in the deep end.

Assertion and Retraction in Bones

I've been thinking about the best way to implement the rule assertion/retraction UI in Bones and I have a few ideas. The current stopgap UI of "all the parts of a predicate need to be defined in a single (rules ...) call" is really awful to work with.

There are a few ways I could solidify this. One way would be to delay compilation of all the predicates until you call a top-level (compile), at which point all the predicates would be compiled and fixed forever. This would let you split apart the rules, but not assert/retract things at runtime without rebuilding the entire WAM, which is kind of shitty.

On the other end, I could implement full dynamic assertion/retraction. This would be the most flexible, but has drawbacks. There would probably be a lot of wasted compilation: if you do (fact (foo 1)) (fact (bar 2)) (fact (baz 3)) it would compile foo three times, throwing the first two away. I'd also need to implement a garbage collection algorithm for the code store, which seems like a lot of work and a large cost at runtime.

An idea I've been rolling around in my head is to try to trade off some flexibility for speed by using a kind of "stack-based" assertion/retraction scheme. You would add rules one at a time and it would delay compiling them until you call (allocate-logic-stack-frame), at which point it would compile everything and record the current top of the code store (and which predicates have been defined). Then you could define more predicates, as long as they weren't already used in a previous "frame", and freeze the frame again to use them. When you want to retract, you would only be able to pop an entire frame of predicates in one go.

This gives you less control -- you can only retract entire frames, and if you want to retract something you defined way back at the start you're also forced to retract everything that came later. But the benefit is that you don't have to suffer useless recompilation, and you don't need to wait for garbage collection.

This is probably my GGP mindset showing, because this would be perfect for using with GDL. When you receive the rules of the game you compile them all, and freeze the stack. Then for each state you can just compile and push the next and does predicates into the new top frame, and pop it when you're finished examining the state.

July 2016


  • More Learning WebGL.

  • Another episode of Coding Math. Penner's easing functions are beautiful little functions clouded by a haze of godawful programming style. I tried to write my versions to be a bit more readable, at the expense of some speed.

  • Finished The Road. Meh.


  • Watched the "Programming Context-Aware Dialog in The Last of Us" GDC talk by Jason Gregory. Really neat stuff. This is the kind of AAA game I'd love to work on. Vanilla FPS, sports, etc games bore the shit out of me, but The Last of Us has a lot more depth to it.

    I admit I did twitch a bit when I saw the infix (('speaker 'health) > 0.5) notation in their Scheme-like dialog scripting language -- I guess even Naughty Dog isn't perfect, hah.

  • Shaved a yak related to packages in cl-nrepl that I've been meaning to get to for a long time. Really I need to rewrite that whole project now that I'm not a complete noob in Common Lisp.

  • Did episode 32 in Coding Math. I decided to use Common Lisp's multiple return values for everything this time instead of taking/returning vectors everywhere, just to see how it felt.

    Implementing the core functions felt really nice with multiple values, but when it came to the drawing code things got a bit more awkward. Needing to use multiple-value-(call/bind) to get things done is kind of a pain in CL because of how verbose things can get. I could make some read macros to ease the pain, but it's probably not worth it.

    I'm trying to come up with a good rule of thumb for when to use multiple values and when not to. Multiple value return obviously only gives you one level of "hierarchy" to work with, so e.g. instead of (values x1 y2 x2 y2) it's probably better to do (values point1 point2). Also if the items are the same "importance" it's probably also better to just return a structure of some kind -- the fact that CL treats the value first differently makes it seem like it's special when really point1 isn't any more important than point2.

    I think the general rule I'll follow (for now) is to use multiple value returns very sparingly, and only when one of the values is different than the rest and is obviously the "most important" one.

  • Worked on Mazes some more. I did a tiny bit more of the [book][Mazes book] but mostly it was me playing around with iterate.

    Iterate is turning out to be cool. I made some custom drivers for my maze grids and a couple of custom clauses that are really neat. (averaging (...some expr...) :into some-var) will keep track of the average of the expression over the life of the loop, and (timing run-time :since-start-into v1 :per-iteration-into v2) sets vars to store timing info. And they even work together -- in run-stats I average the per-iteration times together.

  • More Learning WebGL.


  • Watched the "Network Programming for Physics Programmers" GDC talk over breakfast. Impressive results, but I wonder how specific they are to his particular data set (or at least the physics engine).

  • Did a few more episodes of Coding Math. Ran into a weird issue with Sketch's polygon function... I'll have to ask vydd about that in IRC the next time I have an internet connection.

  • Switched Bones over to use ?question-style for logic variables instead of the previous :keyword-style. Aside from updating the tests it was about three lines worth of change, which is good.

Variable UI in Bones

I'm still not happy with the ?question-style though. First, the check becomes less elegant and efficient:

(declaim (optimize (speed 3) (safety 0) (debug 0)))

(defun* variablep (term)
  (:returns boolean)
  (declare (inline keywordp))
  (keywordp term))

; disassembly for VARIABLEP
; Size: 64 bytes. Origin: #x1006B80692
; 92:       4881F917001020   CMP RCX, 537919511               ; no-arg-parsing entry point
; 99:       741B             JEQ L2
; 9B:       8D41F1           LEA EAX, [RCX-15]
; 9E:       A80F             TEST AL, 15
; A0:       7506             JNE L0
; A2:       8079F145         CMP BYTE PTR [RCX-15], 69
; A6:       740E             JEQ L2
; A8: L0:   B917001020       MOV ECX, 537919511
; AD: L1:   488BD1           MOV RDX, RCX
; B0:       488BE5           MOV RSP, RBP
; B3:       F8               CLC
; B4:       5D               POP RBP
; B5:       C3               RET
; B6: L2:   488B4119         MOV RAX, [RCX+25]
; BA:       483B057FFFFFFF   CMP RAX, [RIP-129]               ; #<PACKAGE "KEYWORD">
; C1:       B917001020       MOV ECX, 537919511
; C6:       41BB4F001020     MOV R11D, 537919567              ; T
; CC:       490F44CB         CMOVEQ RCX, R11
; D0:       EBDB             JMP L1

(defun* variablep (term)
  (:returns boolean)
  (and (symbolp term)
    (char= (char (symbol-name term) 0) #\?)))

; disassembly for VARIABLEP
; Size: 99 bytes. Origin: #x1006B1C2AF
; 2AF:       4881FA17001020   CMP RDX, 537919511              ; no-arg-parsing entry point
; 2B6:       7418             JEQ L2
; 2B8:       8D42F1           LEA EAX, [RDX-15]
; 2BB:       A80F             TEST AL, 15
; 2BD:       7506             JNE L0
; 2BF:       807AF145         CMP BYTE PTR [RDX-15], 69
; 2C3:       740B             JEQ L2
; 2C5: L0:   BA17001020       MOV EDX, 537919511
; 2CA: L1:   488BE5           MOV RSP, RBP
; 2CD:       F8               CLC
; 2CE:       5D               POP RBP
; 2CF:       C3               RET
; 2D0: L2:   488B4A11         MOV RCX, [RDX+17]
; 2D4:       8D41F1           LEA EAX, [RCX-15]
; 2D7:       A80F             TEST AL, 15
; 2D9:       7506             JNE L3
; 2DB:       8079F1E5         CMP BYTE PTR [RCX-15], -27
; 2DF:       742C             JEQ L6
; 2E1: L3:   8D41F1           LEA EAX, [RCX-15]
; 2E4:       A80F             TEST AL, 15
; 2E6:       751F             JNE L5
; 2E8:       8079F1E1         CMP BYTE PTR [RCX-15], -31
; 2EC:       7519             JNE L5
; 2EE:       0FB64101         MOVZX EAX, BYTE PTR [RCX+1]
; 2F2: L4:   4883F83F         CMP RAX, 63
; 2F6:       BA17001020       MOV EDX, 537919511
; 2FB:       41BB4F001020     MOV R11D, 537919567             ; T
; 301:       490F44D3         CMOVEQ RDX, R11
; 305:       EBC3             JMP L1
; 307: L5:   0F0B0A           BREAK 10                        ; error trap
; 30A:       02               BYTE #X02
; 30B:       0F               BYTE #X0F                       ; NIL-ARRAY-ACCESSED-ERROR
; 30C:       9B               BYTE #X9B                       ; RCX
; 30D: L6:   8B4101           MOV EAX, [RCX+1]
; 310:       EBE0             JMP L4

In practice this probably won't be too bad (though this is something Bones checks a lot during the initial parsing pass).

On the plus side, it matches what most other logic libraries use, so it's familiar. It also matches GDL, so I won't have to transform things when parsing a GDL game, which is nice. It'll also let me write a macro to bind results to variables, which is a nicer UI than having to pull them out of a data structure.


  • Watched the "Julia: To Lisp or Not To Lisp?" talk from ELS 2016. I wish he had gone further in depth on how Julia does macros. He showed a simple timeit macro but I would have liked to know how to introspect the expressions a macro gets and work with them.

    One of the things that makes Lisp macros so nice is that the expressions macros get (and the tools you use to work on them) are the same kinds of things you use everywhere else in the language (lists, symbols, etc). This makes it really frictionless to switch back and forth. If your macros are getting some special AST_Node type that you need to learn to work with it feels a lot more like work.

  • Poked around in #lisp and #sbcl to clear up some performance-related questions I had about Lisp arrays. I have exciting new ideas for Bones.

  • Added anonymous variables and the *_void instructions to Bones. This was more difficult than I anticipated, but part of it was a bunch of refactoring that had to happen along the way.


  • Did the "Intro to Fractals" episode of Coding Math. Fun stuff. Need to play around with animating them like he did at the very end.

  • More Learning WebGL.

  • Spent most of the day implementing the "logic stack" assertion/retraction I rambled about a while back.

    It works, and it looks pretty good in action! It also cut the time in my little benchmark almost in half (because we only need to compile the state code once instead of like 3+ times at each node), and it's MUCH nicer to read rule definitions now.

    I'm thinking that programatically parsing/running GDL games is actually feasible now, so I think that'll be my next step. Once I can run arbitrary GDL games without having to translate the logic by hand I'll have a LOT more nice test cases.


  • Cleaned up the UI of Bones a bit. The new function/macro pairs are a lot cleaner to read and work with.

  • Got a couple of books out of the RU library before it closes for a few weeks in the summer. Started going through Algorithms and Networking for Computer Games and made a little sandbox repo to play around in.

  • Hacked together a quick proof of concept GDL player that can read and search arbitrary GDL games. It's so nice to see things finally starting to come together!


  • Chatted with my advisor about Bones and GGP stuff. Lots of new ideas!


  • More Coding Math.

  • After rereading the section of the WAM book on anonymous variables I realized I could clean things up a lot in Bones. I knew it had to be easier than I was making it.

  • More Mazes.


  • Watched the "Designing Downwell Around One Key Mechanic" GDC talk over breakfast. No revolutionary ideas in it, but I love "case studies" of really well-done things like this. It's the same reason I love books like Gregory Heisler's 50 Portraits -- you can learn a lot from listening to someone experienced talk about what goes through their mind as they create something.

  • Finished the Learning WebGL series. I'd definitely recommend it. It's a really good introduction to OpenGL if you just want to learn how the damn graphics card works without fucking around with the nightmarish C/C++ build/ecosystem. Just open a browser and start hitting OpenGL.

  • Started the WebGL Fundamentals series. I want to get a second look at this stuff before I dive in and try to poke at it with Lisp.

  • Started screwing around with parenscript in my little sandbox.

  • Poked a bit more at the ANCG book. Gonna try to take this one in bite-sized pieces.

  • More Coding Math.

  • Poked around at some basic GGP games, which revealed some bugs and memory problems in Bones, so I fixed them.


  • Watched the "Learning Through Failure - Portico" GDC talk. Short but good. I think the best idea in is was "players only learn through failure when they understand what went wrong".

  • Brain dumped some stuff about Bones below.

  • Removed the stupid garbage set-* opcodes from Bones and consolidated them into the unify-* opcodes like God intended. Proceeded to rename those stupid unify-* opcodes to subterm-* so mortals can understand what the fuck is going on.

  • Poked a bit and pushing the constant optimization down into the compilation phase, but ran into a bit of a wall so I threw away the diff. Might take another stab at it later once I let it roll around in my head a bit.

  • Mostly refactored the Bones code store to be a simple-array, after profiling indicates that most of the runtime is spent in data vector refs.

Splitting the Bones Store

Up until now I've been writing Bones as mostly a transliteration of what's in the WAM book. This means, for example, that the heap/stack are just arrays of bytes in memory. This made it easy to follow along with the book, but I'm at the point now where I feel like I've wrapped my head around it and am ready to move on. My idea for the next big step in Bones is to split the store into two separate arrays.

The WAM store consists of "cells", each of which has a type and a value. For example, reference cells have a type of REF and their value is an index/pointer to whatever they're bound to. Because I wanted to pack everything into a single Lisp array, I've implemented this by storing a cell as an (unsigned-byte 16) with a few of the low-order bits used for a type tag. So to check the type of a cell, you mask off everything but the low-order bits. To get the value, you shift it right.

This works, and is pretty memory-efficient, but has a couple of problems. First: you need to do masks and shifts all the time which are extra instructions. But that's probably not a really huge problem in practice -- CPUs are fast. The bigger issue is that because the value of a cell has to be packed into part of an unsigned-byte, you can basically only store integers as cell values. For REF (and STR) cells this is fine (they're just indexes into the store array), but for functor cells it's not ideal. Bones currently keeps what is essentially a symbol table to map functor/arity pairs to integers, which is really ugly.

This is an annoying layer of indirection, but it also limits us further. I'd really like to let Bones work with arbitrary Lisp objects. For example, you could say something like (fact (username sally "sal")) and the string there would Just Work. You'd also get support for numerics basically for free (though I might still special-case those a bit).

So the solution I've been rolling around in my head for a while is to split the store into two separate arrays: an array of types and an array of values. The types array would just store small unique integer tags, so it could be packed pretty tightly (maybe four-bit bytes for each tag). The values array would just be a normal Lisp (vector t). This means each cell would be 64 bits, and you could store pointers to normal Lisp objects.

This would let us ditch the symbol table entirely. Now a functor cell would just have a tag of FUN and the value would be a pointer directly to the Lisp symbol. We'd still need to handle the arity, but we can just follow every FUN cell with a second cell containing the Lisp fixnum for the arity.

Crucially, SBCL (and CCL, possibly others) will still store fixnums immediately in the array, so for REF and STR cells we don't need to suffer an extra memory deref -- we've still got the index right there in the array's contiguous hunk of memory. And we actually don't need to deref even for functors in this new scheme; the functor values are pointers, but since we just need to compare them with eq and it just compares the pointers themselves.

This also has another possible benefit: we don't need the WAM at (query) compile time. Currently when you compile a query you need to have the WAM object present, so Bones can shove any functors in the query inside its symbol table. But now we just store the functor symbols directly, so there's no need to have the WAM available at compile time.

This means that for queries which are completely known at compile time, we can do the expensive compilation of query-to-WAM-bytecode at compile time instead of runtime with a compiler macro. For example: if we have something like (defun legal-moves () (query-all (legal ?role ?move))) we can, at Lisp compile-time, process that (legal ?role ?move) query into a hunk of WAM bytecode and turn it into: (defun legal-moves () (query-all #<array of WAM bytecode>)). Then at runtime we just load that into the query area of the code store and go -- no expensive bytecode compilation needed.

For dynamic queries where we need to build the query at runtime (e.g. (defun legal-moves-for (role) (invoke-query-all `(legal ,role ?move)))) we can't do this, unfortunately.

So there are a bunch of benefits to splitting up the store, but of course there are also drawbacks. Obviously it will use more memory, but I don't care much about that. Popping things off the stack/heap will also become more expensive because now we need to null out references to Lisp objects when we pop them, so they can be GC'ed properly.

It also makes another idea I've had slightly more complicated.

Prolog on the GPU

A few months back when I was thinking about topics for my upcoming master's thesis one of the things on my list was seeing if I could get my WAM queries running on the GPU using OpenGL. This could potentially speed things up when you want to know all the results of a query and not just the first.

The basic idea would be something like this.

Ahead of time:

  • Write an implementation of the WAM bytecode interpreter (not the compiler, just the VM part) in GLSL as a vertex (or possible compute?) shader.
  • For each predicate, note how many different choices it has (essentially the number of try/retry/trust instructions).

The idea would be to divide up the and/or tree of Prolog choices into N subtrees, where N is the number of GPU cores you've got. Then each core searches a portion of the subtree and you merge the results at the end.

At query time:

  • Push the WAM code store to the graphics card as a texture.
  • Walk the and/or tree of predicates breadth-first to generate M <= N "traces", each of which is a list of which choice you picked at a given node.
  • Push all those different traces to the vertex shader as vertices.
  • Each time the vertex shader runs, it gets one trace which essentially tells it which direction to take at each choice point it encounters, so it can skip the backtracking and just dive head-first down this one path.
  • Once it reaches the end of the trace, it just continues normally and starts backtracking when necessary.
  • Results can get written to a texture framebuffer or something and pulled out at the end.
  • Merge the results from all the vertices.

This parallel mode would be heavily restricted. Things like cut would cut off (no pun intended) the trace at that point, forcing full processing by the shader from that point on. And of course anything with side effects would just error out. But when you're just grinding through unification of basic Prolog terms it might potentially speed things up (though the latency to/from the graphics card memory could be a problem).

All this is just an idea I've had for the far future, but I've been thinking about it because if I split up the WAM store and start treating functors as Lisp object pointers, that complicates things. We can easily push integers up to the graphics card, but if functors are pointers (which can potentially get moved around by GC) what can we do?

For a while I thought it was unsolvable, but now I think there might be a way. If we just keep a global "object index" that maps Lisp objects to integers, we can use those integers as stand-ins for the actual objects when we're on the GPU. Of course that would interfere with GC, but there's a solution. Most modern implementations support hash tables with weak values, so if we use that for the index I think it would fix the problem. We'd be able to map objects to fixnums without interfering with GC and leaking memory.


  • Finished up the Bones code store refactor and a couple of other minor things.

  • Switched over the Bones main store to be a simple-array too. Another performance increase. I've switched to a new game for benchmarking because the previous one was starting to finish too fast for me to be confident in getting sane results. I think that's a good sign.

  • Puttered around with a bunch of other little optimizations. Not super productive, but I did learn a lot along the way, so I think it was worth it.

  • Today's commits took the runtime for the aipsrovers01 game from about 47 seconds down to 19 seconds. Not too bad!


  • Watched the "Interpreting Feedback & Maintaining Your Vision" GDC talk. I like the idea of not backing down and changing to try to give users exactly what they want all the time.

    The last slide in the talk is the best -- a game is a conduit to get some idea/experience from your head into the players' heads. Players give you feedback based on what happens in their heads, but they don't know what's going on in yours, so you need to interpret their feedback keeping that in mind.

  • More Coding Math.

  • Implemented last call optimization in Bones. Not much of a speed improvement for the particular GGP games I've been testing with, but it had to happen at some point, so we can write actual Prolog without blowing the stack.

  • Got a good start on splitting apart the Bones store like I wrote about above. It'll probably take another day or two two finish up.


  • Spent an hour or so cleaning up my .vimrc and plugins, and moving fully to neovim.

    The catalyst was discovering miniyank. I've been using YankRing for years, but it has always been super janky. The way the original YankRing works is to rebind all the keys that could possibly result in yanking text, like d, c, x, and y to a function that handles them. As you might imagine, this can cause problems -- especially with plugins like Paredit that need to manage those keys too. Miniyank hooks into a new neovim event, which lets it do what it needs to do without all the hacky workarounds.

  • Finished splitting apart the Bones main WAM store into separate type/value arrays.


  • Watched the "Distributed High Performance Computing in Common Lisp" talk from ELS 2016 over breakfast. It would be really fun to try to get a GGP player running on an 11k-core supercomputer...

  • Got Bones to run on ECL. I needed to hack policy-cond to do it, but I talked to the ECL maintainer in IRC and hopefully I should be able to remove the hack in the future. Performance is pretty bad, but at least it runs!

  • Tried out the PAIP tries for Hype's transposition tables, but they don't seem to be much better than a vanilla CL hash table, at least in SBCL. Oh well.

  • Wrote a real nasty macro to improve the performance of Bones' hot loop.

  • Remapped a couple of more keys on my keyboard and I feel like I'm going insane, but I think it'll be worth it in the long run.


  • Got nerd sniped by /r/lisp.

  • Tried to work on more Coding Math but something I did yesterday with Roswell completely fucked my CCL/Sketch situation. First SDL2 wouldn't build at all. Then it built, but the key input, title bar, and cmd-tabbing are all broken when running from the command line. ClozureCL.app works, until I do something that throws an exception, then it just hangs forever and can't be cmd-tabbed back to.

    I don't know why I keep trying to ever update anything on my computer. Everything always breaks all the time because programming, especially graphics/GUI programming, is a dumpster fire. I should just never update anything ever. A fucking lab mouse would have learned by now.

  • Added support for arbitrary Lisp objects in the Bones heap, and hooked it up for numbers for now. This is the first real Lisp/Prolog interop I've got, which is pretty cool. It also means I can excise the stupid number-munging code from Hype.

  • Refactored the Bones compiler to use structs in a few places instead of CLOS classes to reduce consing a bit. Also fixed a couple of other hot points and split apart the horrifically large compiler.lisp file.

  • Removed the functor table from the WAM. This is the first step toward making Bones GC-friendly.

  • Finished the Bones store split by splitting apart functor cells into functor and arity cell pairs. Now that I know this is going to work I'm excited for what I can do with Prolog/Lisp interop in the future.


  • Started wrapping my head around the WAM's clause indexing. I think I mostly understand the idea -- I'll need to let it roll around a bit before I try to implement it though.

  • Went through and removed defstar from Bones entirely because apparently the fucking thing is GPL'ed. This is why we can't have nice things.

  • Made a tiny little ncurses demo with cl-charms in my sandbox. I'm thinking about porting Silt to Common Lisp for the August 2016 Lisp Game Jam, so I figured I should make sure things actually work before the jam starts.

    I was pleasantly surprised to see that cl-charms just worked right out of the box, even inside neovim's terminal emulator.

  • Ported a few of my solutions to 99 Prolog Problems from Prolog over to Bones as unit tests. I found one bug in Bones itself from them, and I expect they'll be good to have as test cases in the future.

  • Fought with Roswell a bit to get it to rebuild my lispindent script. The problem was that I has installed ECL under Roswell to test Bones with, and this had switched the default Lisp implementation for Roswell to ECL, which made it shit the bed when trying to ros build. The solution was to ros use SBCL again.


  • Wrote a compiler macro in Bones to precompile static queries to WAM bytecode at compile time, allowing us to run them by simply loading the code store with the contents of the precompiled array and firing off the main loop. This is a lot faster, and ends up saving a lot of consing too.

  • Did a bit more in the ANCG book. Tried to use gnuplot to plot the data for a spectral RNG test and it was behaving poorly.

    The plot would open up under iTerm2, not have a Mac title bar or entry in the command-tab switcher, etc. For my future self who's run into this shit again: the problem is that you're launching it from a tmux process that's been detached through a logout. You need to kill the entire tmux process (not just the session, all the sessions) and restart it. This is also what was fucking up sketch for me the other day. Computers are garbage.

  • Another episode of Coding Math.

2016-07-18 - 2016-07-21

  • Planning and traveling in the Westfjords.


  • Started plugging Hype into cl-ggp to see if I can make this whole circus run. It kind of does. I worked out a couple bugs in cl-ggp, and one of the games uncovered a bug in Bones that I should fix.
  • Fixed the bug in Bones.
  • Now that I've fixed the bug in Bones my little stupid Common Lisp random-move player can play games (and lose) against the Clojure player using GGP-Base that my partner and I made last semester. The yak has been shaved!
  • My copy of The Art of Prolog finally made it through the mail system, so I started reading that.
  • I also borrowed the copy of General Game Playing that was sitting around in the CADIA lab and started skimming over that. Most of it is the stuff we covered in class, I just want to fill in any gaps in my knowledge.


  • Another episode of Coding Math. I'm nearing the end!
  • Read more of the GGP Book. I should implement some of these simple players (again) in Hype as an exercise.
  • Started adding examples/exercises from The Art of Prolog to Bones as unit tests. I get more practice and Bones gets more test coverage. We're getting two birds stoned at once.
  • More WebGL Fundamentals.
  • Another section of ANCG. It's slow going, but mostly because I'm trying to do other things along the way. For example, I wrote a frequencies function that does the same as Clojure's frequencies so I could test my results, and to do that I wrote a little iterate driver too. Lots of naked yaks.
  • Fixed a bunch of shit in Ooze that has been bugging me for a while. Also started to thing about its successor.


  • More Coding Math.
  • More Bones tests from TAOP.
  • Started cleaning up my vector math stuff from Coding Math. Might make it into its own little library so I can use it in other things.

2016-07-25 - 2016-07-31

  • Traveling around Iceland with a friend who was visiting.
  • Read Hillbilly Elegy after reading [this interview][Hillbilly Elegy Interview]. It was a really interesting book. You should read it if you want to understand how what's happening in the US could possibly be happening. Luckily the book doesn't strike too close to home for me, but growing up in rural Pennsylvania I definitely saw bits and pieces of what he describes.
  • Read the Lisp Hackers book.
  • Finished reading Engines of Logic. It was interesting, but kind of a weird mix. I expected a basic pop science book about the history of logic and computing, and for the most part that's what it was, but it was written by a mathematician and has some really strangely-explained examples of particular mathematical concepts that were really hard to follow. For example: I already understood Cantor's diagonalization argument before reading the book, but I still found it hard to follow the author's explanation of it. The author seems to be trying to "dumb down" the explanations but does it in a way that makes it harder to grasp overall.

August 2016



  • Started sketching out some basic structure on Silt2 for the jam. I think I'm going to try using a state machine as the main game loop and see how it goes.



  • Started working on Silt2 for real. Spent some time figuring out how to make Diamond-Square terrain tile/wrap properly. It's not as simple as people make it out to be, but I think I've got it working nicely now. Gonna have to remember to write a little blog post about that.
  • Set up my build process so I can deploy Silt2 as I work on it. You can telnet silt.stevelosh.com to play what I've got so far. It's not much though -- really just the basic terrain/height generation for now. But it's a start.
  • Played around a bit with cl-ecs but quickly ran into a use case it doesn't really cover. In true Lisp fashion I decided to roll my own entity/component system and got something hacked together enough to work for now.


  • More work on Silt2. Revamped the entity component system a bit to make it a lot more performant. Happy with the progress so far.
  • Finally got around to consolidating all my utils.lisp files in various projects into my own personal utility library, because the world definitely needs another one of those.


  • Played a bunch more DCSS. I'm addicted. This does not bode well for my productivity.
  • Worked on Silt2 more. Added rotting fruit, creatures, eating, inspection, random names, and a bunch more. It's starting to come together. Four more days left for the jam.
  • Fixed the UTF-8 issues with the Silt telnet server. I just had to force export LANG=en_US.UTF-8 before running the Lisp binary in the telnet script.
  • Fixed another funny bug on the Silt server. Building the Silt binary with Roswell means that when it runs save-lisp-and-die it saves everything, including the initial seed for the random number generator. So every time you telneted to the server you'd get the same initial world generated. I fixed that by reseeding before each world gen.



  • Pretty much wrapping up Silt2. Just need to balance it a bit and write up a little blog post and call it done.
  • Split out the entity/aspect/system stuff from Silt into its own library called beast ("Basic Entity/Aspect/System Toolkit").


  • Almost done with Silt2. Might add a few more artifacts tomorrow but otherwise it's done. Time to move on.


  • Added a Links page to my website. I've been meaning to do this for a while. It's going to be a place for me to dump links to blogs/etc that I want to remember to check every now and then.
  • Fixed the system redefinition clobbering bug in beast.


  • Submitted Silt2 to the game jam. It's as done as it's ever gonna get. I'm pretty happy with how it turned out.
  • Wrote up some docs for beast. Gonna officially release it in the next couple of days.


  • Wrote up a postmortem blog post for the Lisp game jam. Gonna post it on Monday.


  • Finally getting back to Coding Math. Sadly I'm almost done with the entire series.
  • Wrote up some real nasty iterate drivers to make looping over nested things easier.


  • Did the first two kinematics episodes of Coding Math. Fun!
  • Wrote a couple of horrifying macros in my utility library.
  • Ascended in DCSS for the first time!




  • First day of school! But it's not really too different for me because I'm not taking classes, jut going to be working on my thesis for the next two semesters.
  • Made a hilarious Markov chain mashup bot.


  • Watched the IRDC talk about Dijkstra Maps and spent way too much time playing around with them.
  • More Coding Math.
  • Finished the GGP Book. It was pretty mediocre.


  • Lots of chatting with my advisor and paper-printing for thesis topics.


  • Finished the final episode of Coding Math!
  • Started playing around with Binary Decision Diagrams. Made a trivial implementation and some code to build/eval them and draw them with Graphviz. Watched part of Knuth's "Fun with BDDs" talk as inspiration.
  • Continuing my cover-to-cover, exerciseless read through of SICP.
  • Added a unit test to Bones and did a bunch of refactoring/cleanup I've been meaning to get to. It's not much, but I haven't worked on it in a while and I want to get back to it, so I wanted to just do something so tomorrow it won't feel like I haven't worked on it in forever.


  • Puttered around with minor code/paper/book stuff all day.


  • Printed off a bunch of material about GGP and BDDs to read.
  • Spent way too long fucking around with enscript to make a little shell script to convert source code to a readable/printable PDF.
  • Played around with SICP's Huffman trees a bit. Started off by using cl-adt to represent them but it turned out to be kind of a pain, so I switched over to vanilla defstruct and it worked great.

Reading Code

Thinking back to On Writing one of the things I took away is that to be a good author you need to read other authors' work a lot.

I think as programmers we often forget to just sit down from time to time and read other programmers' work from cover to cover. Reading snippets and blog posts is fine, but it's kind of like going through life only reading the Cliff Notes versions of every book. Reading a complete work is something different.

So I'm going to start reading code more often. I started by printing off all of Alexandria, which is only about fifty or so A4 pages.

I read part of it and already saw things I could use to improve some of my existing stuff. Some of my own little toolkit can be replaced with things from Alexandria I never knew existed, e.g. my gethash-or-init is almost an exact duplicate of ensure-hash. I also saw a couple of patterns in the Alexandria code that gave me ideas for new utilities/abstractions, like abstracting the:

(let ((results nil))
    (push thing results)

pattern out into a gathering macro:

  (gather thing)

So even after just one day it's already paying off. Once I finish reading Alexandria I'll move on to cl-ppcre and then who knows where from there.


  • With Stephan's help I got part of his GDL Reasoner Benchmark up and running. I think I should be able to plug in Temperance with another day or so of work. It'll be nice to have a decent benchmark.
  • Changed Temperance's API to be more functional (e.g. instead of (query foo) using a global variable for a database it's now (query db foo)). This should make maintenance and composing things saner, at the cost of a bit of extra typing.
  • More SICP. Finished playing around with Huffman Trees.


  • Finished plugging Temperance (and PAIProlog) into the GDL benchmark suite.


  • More chatting/printing about BDDs.
  • Read part of the CFFI manual.
  • Played around with cl-charms a bit more. Spent far too long trying to get iterm2/tmux/ncurses working nicely together to allow me to set colors. Ultimately I failed, which led to...
  • Reading the Wikipedia article on color difference and thinking about an idea.


  • Took a step back and read through SBCL's FFI documentation, because trying to read the CFFI docs was like biting into a brick. I think I mostly understand how sb-alien works now. Playing around with wrapping up some C stdlib functions in define-alien-routine was helpful, and then I compiled linenoise and loaded/wrapped that successfully, so I've at least got something running.
  • Watched the GDC talk from Brian Moriarty about the making of Loom. I never played the game, but the talk was really inspiring.
  • More BDD reading.



  • Non-computer stuff.


  • Finished writing up a rough plan for my thesis.
  • Poked around with rs-colors, fixing a bug (learning about make-load-form in the process) and filing another one.


  • Dove into CFFI again. This time I had a bit more of a base after poking at SBCL's FFI stuff, and it was a bit more productive. I wrapped linenoise pretty much entirely.
  • Saw a talk at my school about music recommendation systems. I wish I had time to poke around at building one myself. All music recommendation engines are garbage at what I want them for, but I'm probably an edge case so unless I make something myself I'll continue to sort through tons of crap to find what I want.
  • More SICP. I'm up to the digital circuits part with all the mutability everywhere and it's delightfully filthy.


  • More SICP.
  • Too much Caves of Qud. I like the depth and aesthetic of the game, but damn is the interface clunky, especially the equipment menus.

September 2016


  • Read through the PDF manual of CUDD, which I may end up using in my thesis.



  • Continued digging into Peter Kissmann's thesis on General Game Playing and BDDs.
  • Added more unit tests to Temperance from TAOP.


  • Did some stuff for the blues course Una and I are starting to teach tomorrow.
  • Read more of Kissmann's thesis.
  • Implemented the first half of the streams section of SICP. I've used streams before in Clojure but it's fun to go through the SICP stuff and make everything from scratch.


  • It's my birthday!
  • More SICP streams.


  • Been thinking more about what direction I want to take for implementing my BDD/thesis stuff. I was thinking about using CUDD, but unfortunately all the Lisp wrappers around it are unmaintained and broken. I poked around a bit at wrapping it myself but it seems like a big effort.

    But today I had another idea. Kissmann's thesis used the Java wrapper around CUDD, so I could do that. I sure as hell don't want to write Java, so I suppose I could do things in Clojure, but honestly I don't really like Clojure that much either. But then I remembered ABCL, an implementation of Common Lisp that runs on the JVM. This might be a good place to start. It would let me use the Java wrapper libraries and write the rest of my code in ANSI Common Lisp. If I have spare time down the road I could try my hand at wrapping CUDD, and then porting the rest of my code to something else will be trivial.


  • Installed ABCL.
  • Ported cl-nrepl to work with ABCL, took one line of code.
  • Got Temperance running in ABCL. Required no changes to Temperance, but I did have to hack policy-cond a bit more. But the test suite passes. Nice.
  • After getting those working, I think my plan from yesterday might be feasible.
  • Watched Knuth talk about ZDDs and I think these might end up being an even better fit for my thesis than BDDs. Must investigate further.


  • Cleaned up beast a bit and submitted it for inclusion to Quicklisp.
  • Started sketching out a project for my thesis' game player. Gonna call it Scully because it deals with incomplete-information games.
  • Got some basic socket-based communication up and running for Scully with usocket, so eventually she'll be able to have multiple "brains" running in parallel to solve a given game, and each brain will be isolated to its own process. That way if a particular strategy blows the heap it doesn't kill the entire player.


  • Non-computer stuff.


  • Fixed a bug in my hacky documentation generator.
  • Minor feature addition to cl-ggp to make my life easier.
  • Tore out the socket communication stuff from Scully. It's more complexity that doesn't help my actual goal for the project, so out it goes.
  • Implemented the basic vanilla GDL random player for Scully. Shaved a couple of yaks along the way, but now it's running in ABCL properly.
  • Played around with some code after watching this youtube video.


  • Cleaned up a couple things in my utility library.
  • Added support for GDL-II to cl-ggp. Started patching support for it into Scully too. Just need a bit more to get a legal/random player up and running.


  • Got Scully mostly working with GDL-II (brute-force, random/legal moves only). A good start.
  • Started going through the Learning How to Learn Coursera course. Seems like there are some good ideas but god damn is it cheesy. Talk to me like a human being, not an idiot child who needs fuckin zombies shoved into everything to keep their attention.
  • More SICP. Going through the nondeterministic evaluation section now. Would be fun to implement some day, but I've got enough projects floating around at the moment, so I'll just be content with reading it for now.


  • More SICP. Started the logic programming section. Using streams is a clever way to model the logic of returning multiple results from unification.
  • Played around with making some directed acyclic graphs in Lisp, mostly with a functional style.
  • Started watching Lloyd Reynolds' Italic Calligraphy series. I've been writing exclusively in italic for a year or two now, and while it looks okay I've kinda stalled on getting any better. Hopefully this series will kick my ass into gear.


  • Finally came up with a way to macroexpand iterate clauses. Added it to cl-losh.


  • More thesis reading.
  • Slapped together a tiny blog post for tomorrow.


  • Converted my site about 90% of the way to using [Hugo][]. I've been using an ancient version of Hyde for years now and I'm terrified that it's gonna die when something in the OS X Python stack kicks the bucket. Plus Hugo is a lot faster, which is nice.