Source

hg-review / bundled / flask / docs / becomingbig.rst

Becoming Big

Your application is becoming more and more complex? If you suddenly realize that Flask does things in a way that does not work out for your application there are ways to deal with that.

Flask is powered by Werkzeug and Jinja2, two libraries that are in use at a number of large websites out there and all Flask does is bring those two together. Being a microframework Flask does not do much more than combining existing libraries - there is not a lot of code involved. What that means for large applications is that it's very easy to take the code from Flask and put it into a new module within the applications and expand on that.

Flask is designed to be extended and modified in a couple of different ways:

  • Flask extensions. For a lot of reusable functionality you can create extensions. For extensions a number of hooks exist throughout Flask with signals and callback functions.
  • Subclassing. The majority of functionality can be changed by creating a new subclass of the :class:`~flask.Flask` class and overriding methods provided for this exact purpose.
  • Forking. If nothing else works out you can just take the Flask codebase at a given point and copy/paste it into your application and change it. Flask is designed with that in mind and makes this incredible easy. You just have to take the package and copy it into your application's code and rename it (for example to framework). Then you can start modifying the code in there.

Why consider Forking?

The majority of code of Flask is within Werkzeug and Jinja2. These libraries do the majority of the work. Flask is just the paste that glues those together. For every project there is the point where the underlying framework gets in the way (due to assumptions the original developers had). This is natural because if this would not be the case, the framework would be a very complex system to begin with which causes a steep learning curve and a lot of user frustration.

This is not unique to Flask. Many people use patched and modified versions of their framework to counter shortcomings. This idea is also reflected in the license of Flask. You don't have to contribute any changes back if you decide to modify the framework.

The downside of forking is of course that Flask extensions will most likely break because the new framework has a different import name. Furthermore integrating upstream changes can be a complex process, depending on the number of changes. Because of that, forking should be the very last resort.

Scaling like a Pro

For many web applications the complexity of the code is less an issue than the scaling for the number of users or data entries expected. Flask by itself is only limited in terms of scaling by your application code, the data store you want to use and the Python implementation and webserver you are running on.

Scaling well means for example that if you double the amount of servers you get about twice the performance. Scaling bad means that if you add a new server the application won't perform any better or would not even support a second server.

There is only one limiting factor regarding scaling in Flask which are the context local proxies. They depend on context which in Flask is defined as being either a thread, process or greenlet. If your server uses some kind of concurrency that is not based on threads or greenlets, Flask will no longer be able to support these global proxies. However the majority of servers are using either threads, greenlets or separate processes to achieve concurrency which are all methods well supported by the underlying Werkzeug library.

Dialogue with the Community

The Flask developers are very interested to keep everybody happy, so as soon as you find an obstacle in your way, caused by Flask, don't hesitate to contact the developers on the mailinglist or IRC channel. The best way for the Flask and Flask-extension developers to improve it for larger applications is getting feedback from users.