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Nikolaj Sjujskij committed d765922

Change "--" to "–"

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 Having learned my lesson, I will make no promises or predictions this time
 with respect to future releases of the APF, but my honest intention is for
 v9.0 to signal the start of a period of steady APF development on all
-fronts: annotation content, World Wide Web version, typeset version --
+fronts: annotation content, World Wide Web version, typeset version 
 everything. In a sense I still consider v9.0 an 'intermediate' version, and
 I have Plans for major improvements all over. We will just have to see how
 (and when!) it all plays out; for now I hope that v9.0 will be a welcome
 would be a good idea to distil some of these discussions into something
 with a little more persistence and staying power than individual Usenet
 articles (remember that this all took place long before something like
-Google Groups -- or indeed even the World Wide Web itself -- existed!). And
+Google Groups  or indeed even the World Wide Web itself  existed!). And
 so the "`The Annotated Pratchett File`_" was born, and (because I was brave or
 foolish enough to volunteer) I became its editor.
 
 in ascending order by page number, with that number referring to the
 edition I actually own myself, which will typically be the original UK
 hardcover edition. (Some of the earlier books also list paperback page
-numbers -- for more information please read the "`Page Numbers`_" section in
+numbers  for more information please read the "`Page Numbers`_" section in
 the "`Editorial Comments`_" chapter.)
 
 Each annotation is prefixed by either a '+', denoting an annotation that is
   in which many of the "Swords_" adventures take place. However, Terry
   explicitly denied this when I suggested it on alt.fan.pratchett:
 
-  "Bravd and the Weasel were indeed takeoffs of Leiber characters -- there
-  was a lot of that sort of thing in "`The Colour of Magic`_". But I didn't --
-  at least consciously, I suppose I must say -- create Ankh-Morpork as a
+  "Bravd and the Weasel were indeed takeoffs of Leiber characters – there
+  was a lot of that sort of thing in "`The Colour of Magic`_". But I didn't –
+  at least consciously, I suppose I must say – create Ankh-Morpork as a
   takeoff of Lankhmar."
 
 - [p. 11/11] "[...] two lesser directions, which are Turnwise and
   only."
 
   An interesting consideration is just when Lord Vetinari became Patrician.
-  Clearly this isn't him (Vetinari eating crystallised jellyfish? -- I
+  Clearly this isn't him (Vetinari eating crystallised jellyfish?  I
   don't think so. Besides, "`Interesting Times`_" makes it quite clear that
   Vetinari does not know who Rincewind is).
 
 
   "I'm pretty certain that the same Patrician was in all the books. [...]
   He's clearly lost weight and got more austere. It must be the pressure.
-  As for racehorses and so on -- Vetinari is not the first Patrician, and
+  As for racehorses and so on  Vetinari is not the first Patrician, and
   no doubt the earlier ones, like Lord Snapcase, were often crazed, greedy
   and acquisitive. So he has inherited all sorts of things. But he doesn't
   change anything without a reason."
 
   When the people on afp were not immediately prepared to take his word for
-  this (after all, what does he know -- he's only the author...), Terry
+  this (after all, what does he know  he's only the author...), Terry
   conceded:
 
   "How about: maybe he was Vetinari, but written by a more stupid writer?"
   give the house some 'cute' punning name. Since the Dun/Done association
   is well-known, one of the more common names (though it is a matter of
   discussion if anyone has ever actually seen a house with this name) is
-  'Dunroamin' -- that is "done roaming" -- i.e. the owners of the house
+  'Dunroamin'  that is "done roaming"  i.e. the owners of the house
   have finished "travelling the world" and are now settled down to a life
   of the Daily Mail, golf and coffee mornings. From this, we get that a
   retirement home for gods not possessing much taste, might just be named
   translation would have been the singular form: 'Zweiblume').
 
   'Rjinswand', however, is merely something that was intended to *sound*
-  foreign -- it is not a word in any language known to the readers of
+  foreign  it is not a word in any language known to the readers of
   alt.fan.pratchett.
 
 - [p. 172/149] "[...] a specialist in the breakaway oxidation phenomena of
 
   "Space... the final frontier. These are the voyages of the Starship
   Enterprise. Its five-year mission: to explore strange new worlds, to seek
-  out new life and new civilisations -- to boldly go where no man has gone
+  out new life and new civilisations  to boldly go where no man has gone
   before."
 
   This became "where no-one has gone before" only in the newer, more
   Scandinavian language (the letters used are from the Danish/Norwegian
   alphabet), but it isn't.
 
-  Terry remarks: "The point is that Krullian isn't Swedish -- it's *just a
+  Terry remarks: "The point is that Krullian isn't Swedish  it's *just a
   language that looks foreign*. In the same way, I hope the hell that when
   "`Witches Abroad`_" is translated the translators use some common sense when
   dealing with Nanny Ogg's fractured Esperanto."
   few years ago the pubs opened at 11 a.m.
 
   If you try really hard (one of my correspondents did) you can see this as
-  a very elaborate joke via the chain: Around Elevenish --> Late in the
-  morning --> Late --> Dead --> Book of the Dead. But I doubt if even Terry
+  a very elaborate joke via the chain: Around Elevenish –> Late in the
+  morning –> Late –> Dead –> Book of the Dead. But I doubt if even Terry
   is *that* twisted.
 
 - [p. 10/10] Dandelion Clock
 
   "No. I'm fairly honest about this stuff. I didn't even see the film until
   long after the book was done. Once again, I'd say it's an easy parallel
-  -- what with the Masque of the Red Death and stuff like that, the joke is
+   what with the Masque of the Red Death and stuff like that, the joke is
   just lying there waiting for anyone to pick it up."
 
   "`The Masque of the Red Death`_" is a well-known story by Edgar Allan Poe,
       "I used to be a pilot," Tom explained.
       "I'm into homosexual necrophilia," said Tom in dead earnest.
 
-- [p. 30/30] "[...] the only forest in the whole universe to be called --
-  in the local language -- Your Finger You Fool, [...]"
+- [p. 30/30] "[...] the only forest in the whole universe to be called –
+  in the local language – Your Finger You Fool, [...]"
 
   The miscommunication between natives and foreign explorers Terry
   describes here occurs in our world as well. Or rather: it is *rumoured*,
   Death's domain. The best known example of this can be found in the tragic
   legend of Orpheus and Eurydice. Orpheus went to fetch his departed loved
   one, talked Hades (the Greek version of Death) into it, but had to leave
-  without looking back. Of course he looked -- and she was gone forever. A
+  without looking back. Of course he looked  and she was gone forever. A
   contemporary retelling of the Orpheus legend can be found in Neil
   Gaiman's "Sandman_" series.
 
 
   "Actually, magically appearing/disappearing shops were a regular feature
   of fantasy stories, particularly in the old "Unknown_" magazine. They
-  always sold the hero something he didn't -- at the time -- know he
+  always sold the hero something he didn't  at the time  know he
   needed, or played some other vital part in the plot. And I think they
   even turned up on the early Twilight Zones too. You're referring to a
   Leiber story called Bazaar of the Bizarre or something similar, where a
   have flippers in place of feet and spend most of their time swimming.
 
 - [p. 213/213] "'They do say if it's summa cum laude, then the living is
-  easy --.'"
+  easy .'"
 
   Substituting "graduation with distinction" for the Latin "summa cum
   laude" gives a perfectly unexceptional sentiment, but it is, of course,
   supposed to be the basis of the "witches flying around on broomsticks"
   myth).
 
-- Kirby caricatures himself as the pointy-eared wizard on the back cover --
+- Kirby caricatures himself as the pointy-eared wizard on the back cover 
   anyone who has seen his picture in "`The Josh Kirby Posterbook`_" can
   confirm this.
 
 
   "Liber Paginarum Fulvarum is a kind of shared gag. It's in the dedication
   of "`Equal Rites`_", too. Although I think we've got the shade of yellow
-  wrong -- I think there's another Latin word for a kind of yellow which is
+  wrong  I think there's another Latin word for a kind of yellow which is
   closer to the Yellow Pages colour."
 
   The other word for yellow Terry is thinking of may possibly be 'gilvus',
   'translations' like 'It's all Klatchian to me' can work, but if I went
   the whole hog and 'discworlded' every name and term, then the books would
   be even more impenetrable and would probably only be read by people who
-  like learning Klingon. I do my best -- French fries can't exist on
-  Discworld, for example -- but I think 'gypsies' is allowable."
+  like learning Klingon. I do my best – French fries can't exist on
+  Discworld, for example – but I think 'gypsies' is allowable."
 
 - [p. 80/79] "If broomsticks were cars, this one would be a split-window
   Morris Minor."
   consisting of little arms which flip out of the body at roof level, just
   behind the doors. Furnish the cabin in a post-War austerity style, and
   power the result with a 1935 vintage 850cc straight four engine pulling
-  about 30bhp. In its day, in 1948, this was the height of desirability --
+  about 30bhp. In its day, in 1948, this was the height of desirability 
   so much so that for its first few years it was only available for export.
 
   Even in the Nineties, a fair number of Moggies are still going, er,
   which works, because they're so easy to maintain. And the split-screen
   ones are very definitely collectors' items.
 
-- [p. 111/109] "Bel-Shamharoth, C'hulagen, the Insider -- the hideous old
+- [p. 111/109] "Bel-Shamharoth, C'hulagen, the Insider  the hideous old
   dark gods of the Necrotelicomnicom, [...]"
 
   The Necrotelicomnicom is another reference to the Phonebook of the Dead
   under the tongue of a deceased person. This was done so that the departed
   loved one would have some change handy to pay Charon with (the grumpy old
   ferryman who transported departed souls over the river Styx towards the
-  afterlife -- but only if they paid him first).
+  afterlife  but only if they paid him first).
 
   The Eastern European version has a similar background.
 
 
         Sto lat, sto lat, niech zyje, zyje nam.
         Sto lat, sto lat, niech zyje, zyje nam.
-        Jeszcze raz, jeszcze raz -- niech zyje, zyje nam.
+        Jeszcze raz, jeszcze raz  niech zyje, zyje nam.
         Niech zyje nam!
 
   Which loosely translates to:
   DM(Unseen) means that Cutwell holds a Doctorate in Magic from Unseen
   University. It's the usual way of writing an academic qualification in
   Britain (e.g. DD for Doctor of Divinity, or PhD for Doctor of Philosophy)
-  -- though the University name ought to be in Latin.
+   though the University name ought to be in Latin.
 
 - [p. 84/69] "[...] just like a Cheshire cat only much more erotic."
 
   Sisters`_" (see the annotation for p. 213/212 of that book).
 
 - [p. 99/81] "'[...] the princesses were so noble they, they could pee
-  through a dozen mattresses --'"
+  through a dozen mattresses '"
 
   Albert here mangles the Grimm fairy tale known as "`The Princess and the
   Pea`_", in which a princess proves her nobility to her future husband and
   Caroc = Tarot and Ching Aling = I Ching: two ways of accessing the
   Distilled Wisdom of the Ancients, and all that.
 
-- [p. 118/97] "I SHALL CALL IT -- DEATH'S GLORY."
+- [p. 118/97] "I SHALL CALL IT  DEATH'S GLORY."
 
   In the fishing world there exists a popular dry fly called Greenwell's
   Glory, named after its inventor, a 19th century parson.
 
-- [p. 126/103] "'-- and then she thought he was dead, and she killed
+- [p. 126/103] "' and then she thought he was dead, and she killed
   herself, and then he woke up and so he did kill himself, [...]'"
 
   Ysabell starts to list off a number of tragic romances, mostly mangled
   tragedy "`Romeo and Juliet`_", or perhaps the original source: Ovid's
   "`Pyramus and Thisbe`_".
 
-- [p. 127/104] "'-- swam the river every night, but one night there was
-  this storm and when he didn't arrive she --'"
+- [p. 127/104] "'– swam the river every night, but one night there was
+  this storm and when he didn't arrive she –'"
 
   This is the saga of Hero and Leander. Leander swam the Hellespont each
   night to be with Hero (who was a virgin (yeah, sure!) in the service of
 
   On the subject of scrumpy, Terry writes:
 
-  "I can speak with authority, having lived a short walking -- to get
-  there, at least, although it seemed to take longer coming back --
+  "I can speak with authority, having lived a short walking – to get
+  there, at least, although it seemed to take longer coming back –
   distance from a real cider house.
 
   1) You are unlikely to buy scrumpy anywhere but from a farm or a pub in a
 - [p. 66/61] "The study of genetics on the Disc had failed at an early
   stage, when wizards tried the experimental crossing of such well known
   subjects as fruit flies and sweet peas. Unfortunately they didn't grasp
-  the fundamentals, and the resultant offspring -- a sort of green bean
-  thing that buzzed -- led a short sad life before being eaten by a passing
+  the fundamentals, and the resultant offspring – a sort of green bean
+  thing that buzzed – led a short sad life before being eaten by a passing
   spider."
 
   Sweet peas were used by Mendel in his early genetic experiments. Fruit
   how he himself visualises the Patrician:
 
   "I can't remember the guy's name, but I've always pictured the Patrician
-  as looking like the father in "Beetlejuice_" -- the man also played the
+  as looking like the father in "Beetlejuice_"  the man also played the
   Emperor of Austria in "Amadeus_". And maybe slightly like the head bad guy
   in "`Die Hard`_"."
 
         So twice five miles of fertile ground
         With walls and towers were girded round
 
-- [p. 122/111] "[...] 'sherbet and, and -- young women.'"
+- [p. 122/111] "[...] 'sherbet and, and  young women.'"
 
   'Sherbet' is a cooling Oriental fruit drink (also a frozen dessert) as
   well as a fizzy sweet powder children eat as a sweet, and which comes in
 - [p. 125/113] "My name is Creosote, Seriph of Al Khali, [...]"
 
   Ok, lessee: Creosote parodies the proverbially rich Croesus (king of
-  Lidya -- which lies in what is now Turkey -- in the 6th century BC),
+  Lidya  which lies in what is now Turkey  in the 6th century BC),
   'Serif' is a typographical term which also puns on 'caliph', and 'Al
   Khali' is pronounced 'alkali' (just covering all the bases here, as my
   original source put it), but probably refers to the Rub' al Khali desert
   individuals. They murdered prominent individuals; hence, "assassin" in
   English came to mean a politically motivated murderer.
 
-  The name derives from the Arabic "hashashin" -- Marco Polo and other
+  The name derives from the Arabic "hashashin"  Marco Polo and other
   European chroniclers claimed that the Assassins used hashish to stimulate
   their fearless acts. For example, Brewer writes:
 
 
   I did an electronic search across the entire King James bible for
   "jewelled melons", but those appear to be an invention of Creosote's.
-  Fine by me -- I was already slightly shocked to find out that "thy hair
+  Fine by me  I was already slightly shocked to find out that "thy hair
   is as a flock of goats" was a genuine Biblical compliment and not
   something Terry had made up.
 
   the palace of the Emirs of Granada in 15th century Spain. As Terry says:
 
   "Incidentally, the Seriph's palace, the Rhoxie, is indeed a 'resonance'
-  with the Alhambra -- a famous Moorish palace which became a synonym for
+  with the Alhambra  a famous Moorish palace which became a synonym for
   an impressive building, and later became a common cinema name as in Odeon
   and, yes, Roxy."
 
   be admitted to if you managed a test. The test was to sit in a corner,
   and *not* think of a white bear.
 
-- [p. 215/193] Significant Quest --> Trivial Pursuit.
+- [p. 215/193] Significant Quest > Trivial Pursuit.
 
 - [p. 227/204] "Other things besides the cream floated to the top, he
   reflected sourly."
   Rincewind, nerving himself up to distract the Things in the Dungeon
   Dimensions so that Coin can escape, is anticipating Granny Weatherwax in
   this little speech. The theme is clearly important to Terry from the
-  humanist angle, but its roots are in the occult -- actively holding in
+  humanist angle, but its roots are in the occult  actively holding in
   mind who and what you are is a traditional exercise in a number of
   mystical teachings. Note that this statement is the result of the
   inspiration particle which hit Rincewind on p. 165/149.
   Transcendence but Go Straight To Oblivion; [...]"
 
   Probably the most famous Chance (or Community Chest) card in Monopoly:
-  "GO TO JAIL -- Go directly to Jail. Do not pass Go. Do not collect
+  "GO TO JAIL  Go directly to Jail. Do not pass Go. Do not collect
   $200.". (or 200 pounds, or 200 guilders, or 200 of whatever currency you
   care to name).
 
   considerably."
 
   Terry says: "Magrat is pronounced Magg-rat. Doesn't matter what I think
-  is right -- *everyone* I've heard pronounce it has pronounced it
+  is right  *everyone* I've heard pronounce it has pronounced it
   Maggrat."
 
   "In Margaret Murray's book "The Witch Cult in Western Europe" you will
   'Greebo' is a word that was widely used in the early seventies to
   describe the sort of man who wanders around in oil-covered denim and
   leather (with similar long hair) and who settles disagreements with a
-  motorcycle chain -- the sort who would like to be a Hell's Angel but
+  motorcycle chain  the sort who would like to be a Hell's Angel but
   doesn't have enough style.
 
 - [p. 50/50] "'Well met by moonlight,' said Magrat politely. 'Merry meet. A
-  star shines on --'"
+  star shines on '"
 
   Magrat's first greeting comes from "`A Midsummer Night's Dream_: "Ill met
   by moonlight, proud Titania". See also the annotation for p. 350/252 of "`Lords
   all reason, a new day would soon dawn."
 
   The first scene of the first act of Shakespeare's "Hamlet_" starts at
-  midnight, and describes a scene lasting about fifteen minutes -- yet the
+  midnight, and describes a scene lasting about fifteen minutes  yet the
   act ends at dawn. Likewise, the summoning of WxrtHltl-jwlpklz the demon
   takes place at night, but ends with the quote given above.
 
   inconsistencies. After all, Greebo is supposed to have only *one* eye.
 
   But since then, Terry has explained on a.f.p: "Greebo is loosely modelled
-  on a real cat I knew when I was a kid -- he had two eyes, but one was
+  on a real cat I knew when I was a kid  he had two eyes, but one was
   sort of pearly coloured. He's *blind* in one eye."
 
 - [p. 88/87] "Magrat was picking flowers and talking to them."
                     swallow?"
       Arthur: "What do you mean? An African or European
               swallow?"
-      Bridgekeeper: "Huh? I -- I don't know that! Auuuuuuuugh!"
+      Bridgekeeper: "Huh? I  I don't know that! Auuuuuuuugh!"
 
 - [p. 103/103] "[...] (a dandelion clock at about 2 pm)."
 
   annotation for p. 324/271 of "`Moving Pictures`_".
 
 - [p. 167/166] "'"`Brothers! And yet may I call all men brother, for on this
-  night --_'"
+  night _'"
 
   This is (in spirit) the St Crispin's Day speech from "`King Henry V`_". See
   the annotation for p. 239/238.
   I nevertheless think there is a reference here: act 1, scene 3.
 
 - [p. 213/212] "I'd like to know if I could compare you to a summer's day.
-  Because -- well, June 12th was quite nice, and ..."
+  Because  well, June 12th was quite nice, and ..."
 
   One of Shakespeare's more famous sonnets (Sonnet XVIII, to be precise)
   starts out:
   A reference to Richard the Third. A rather appropriate reference: in
   Shakespeare's "`Richard III`_", he is presented as an evil, lame,
   hunchbacked king, whom Henry must kill to save England. This is not
-  historically correct -- rather it is how Henry would have liked people to
+  historically correct  rather it is how Henry would have liked people to
   remember it. Had Shakespeare strayed from the 'official' version he would
-  have found himself in deep trouble with Henry's heirs -- royalty was
+  have found himself in deep trouble with Henry's heirs  royalty was
   taken seriously in those days.
 
 - [p. 213/213] "'It's art,' said Nanny. 'It wossname, holds a mirror up to
 
   "Pyramids_" is split into four 'Books', a structure that gives it a unique
   position amongst the otherwise chapterless Discworld novels ("`The Colour
-  of Magic`_" doesn't really count -- it's a collection of linked novellas,
+  of Magic`_" doesn't really count  it's a collection of linked novellas,
   not a single novel with chapters or sections).
 
   Book I is "`The Book of Going Forth`_", which refers to "`The Book of Going
 
   The most visible effect of this accord is the presumptuous little legend
   under the sign at the entrance to towns and villages saying "Little
-  Puddlebury -- twinned with Obermacht am Rhein". Some towns (Croydon
+  Puddlebury  twinned with Obermacht am Rhein". Some towns (Croydon
   springs to mind) got a little over-enthusiastic about twinning, with the
   result that they are coupled to several towns, which makes the sign
   saying "Croydon welcomes careful drivers" look reminiscent of a
   seventeen-year-old's jacket at a Guns n' Roses concert.
 
-  You may -- or may not -- care to know that the UK town of Cowes has a
+  You may  or may not  care to know that the UK town of Cowes has a
   twin relation with the New Zealand township of Bulls.
 
 - [p. 11/11] "Teppic paused alongside a particularly repulsive gargoyle
 
   Terry was once asked at a talk if he was always fully in control of his
   characters and events or if they tended to run away with him. The answer
-  was: always in control -- with one single exception. The whole of the
+  was: always in control  with one single exception. The whole of the
   assassin examination sequence in "Pyramids_" was written "almost in a
   trance" with no idea of what was to happen next. It is one of his
   favourite bits.
   "Er. I may as well reveal this one. That section of the book is 'somewhat
   like' "`Tom Brown's Schooldays`_". A bully (right hand man to the famous
   Flashman) was Speedicut. Speedicut is (was?) a name for a type of
-  lawnmower -- I know, because I had to push the damn thing... Hence...
+  lawnmower  I know, because I had to push the damn thing... Hence...
   Fliemoe.
 
   Well, it's better than mugging old ladies..."
   [...]."
 
   At a British public school/grammar school sports day, the pupil who
-  overall won the most, was declared 'Victor Ludorum' -- "Winner of the
+  overall won the most, was declared 'Victor Ludorum'  "Winner of the
   games".
 
 - [p. 45/45] "He could send for Ptraci, his favourite handmaiden."
   TP, conforming to the sometimes bloody annoying Usenet habit of
   acronymising everything longer than two words or four characters,
   whichever comes first. Hence DW stands for Discworld, TCOM for "`The
-  Colour of Magic`_", and APF for Annotated Pratchett File -- but you already
+  Colour of Magic`_", and APF for Annotated Pratchett File  but you already
   knew that).
 
   I was later informed that 'Pterry' was also the name of a pterodactyl on
 
 - [p. 50/49] "It's rather like smashing a sixer in conkers."
 
-  Conkers are the nuts of the Horse Chestnut -- not the one you eat, the
+  Conkers are the nuts of the Horse Chestnut  not the one you eat, the
   other one with the really spiky outer covering. It is a regular autumn
   pass-time in England for school-boys to put conkers on the end of bits of
   string, and commence doing battle.
   are of course the usual collection of bogus seventeeners and
   sixty-seveners which circulate the black market of the playing field).
   There is a black art as to how to ensure that your conker becomes a sixer
-  -- baking very slowly in the oven overnight, is one approach, as is
+   baking very slowly in the oven overnight, is one approach, as is
   soaking for a week in vinegar. Most of these methods tend to make the
   conkers, if anything, more rather than less brittle. There's probably a
   lesson for us all in there somewhere.
   as before'. Hence the quip later on: "Ibid you already know".
 
   The only one left is Endos the Listener, who is perhaps meant to portray
-  the standard second-man-in-a-Socratic-dialogue -- the man who spends the
+  the standard second-man-in-a-Socratic-dialogue  the man who spends the
   entire dialogue saying things like "That is correct, Socrates", "I
   agree", "you're right", "your reasoning appears correct", and the like.
 
 
   A famous quotation from John Keats' 'Ode on a Grecian Urn':
 
-        'Beauty is truth, truth beauty,' -- that is all
+        'Beauty is truth, truth beauty,'  that is all
         Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know.
 
 - [p. 204/195] "[...] ships called the "`Marie Celeste`_", [...]"
   of camels is achieved by taking two bricks and smashing the animal's
   testicles between them.
 
-- [p. 250/239] "'Go, tell the Ephebians --' he began."
+- [p. 250/239] "'Go, tell the Ephebians ' he began."
 
   This is a paraphrase of "Go tell the Spartans", which is the beginning of
   the memorial for the Spartan soldiers who got massacred by the Persians
   writing: "Mostly in the Discworld books, particularly "Mort_", the phrase
   is "There's no justice" so that it can be balanced with "There's just
   me/you/us". And that phrase is truly generic. Really, so is "There ain't
-  no justice" -- it's just that Niven does use it a lot and, I suspect,
+  no justice"  it's just that Niven does use it a lot and, I suspect,
   uses it because it is familiar to readers. Admittedly, it's become 'his'
   via repetition. But there's a difference between using an established
   phrase which another author has commandeered and using one *specifically*
-  associated with one person -- "Make my day" has one owner, whereas "There
+  associated with one person  "Make my day" has one owner, whereas "There
   ain't no justice" is a cliche. To be honest, I didn't have anything
-  particularly in mind when Charley uttered the phrase -- but if you think
+  particularly in mind when Charley uttered the phrase  but if you think
   it's a Niven reference, fair enough."
 
 - [p. 76/70] "'Do *real* wizards leap about after a tiny spell and start
   unafraid."
 
   "But down these mean streets a man must go who is not himself mean, who
-  is neither tarnished nor afraid." is a well-known quote -- that describes
-  Carrot to a tee -- from Raymond Chandler's essay "`The Simple Art of
+  is neither tarnished nor afraid." is a well-known quote – that describes
+  Carrot to a tee – from Raymond Chandler's essay "`The Simple Art of
   Murder`_".
 
 - [p. 93/85] "'Who loves you, pussycat?', said Nobby under his breath."
   sailing to the jewel in the crown, India, and therefore the most
   expensive, meaning that only the aristocracy could afford them.
 
-  (The above explanation is in fact quite false -- that is, it's true that
+  (The above explanation is in fact quite false  that is, it's true that
   posh means upper class, but the acronym is one of these persistent, oh so
   plausible, after-the-fact etymologies, which are nearly always wrong.)
 
   smoking in public; 75 pigeons were executed in 1963 in Tripoli for
   ferrying stolen money across the Mediterranean; and in 1916, "five-ton
   Mary" the elephant killed her trainer and was subsequently sentenced to
-  death by hanging -- a sentence that involved a 100-ton derrick and a
+  death by hanging  a sentence that involved a 100-ton derrick and a
   steam shovel. But the law is fair, and sometimes the animals get the
   better of it: when in 1713 a Franciscan monastery brought the termites
   who had been infesting their buildings to trial, a Brazilian court ruled
   who had a basketball-like game where the baskets were also stone discs
   with holes in them. The tale that the losers got sacrificed is probably
   untrue. But the winners were allowed to take the possession of any
-  spectators they chose -- no one hung around after the game in those days.
+  spectators they chose  no one hung around after the game in those days.
 
   Other sources say that it was the *winners* who got the privilege of
   being sacrificed. Oh well, whether it was losers, spectators, or winners
-  -- at least *somebody* got sacrificed.
+   at least *somebody* got sacrificed.
 
 - [p. 52/47] "[...] a giant-sized statue of Quetzovercoatl, the Feathered
   Boa."
 
   Refers to an old and rather obscene British drinking song called 'The
   Ball of Kerrymuir', which, according to Terry: "[...] belongs in the same
-  category as 'Colonel Bogey' -- everyone knows a line or two [sorry...
+  category as 'Colonel Bogey'  everyone knows a line or two [sorry...
   everyone male and in the UK, anyway]".
 
   For a sample of the lyrics to this song, see the "`Song...`_" section in
   The song's title was changed into the slightly more convincing-sounding
   'The Ball of Philodelphus' in the small-format UK paperback of "Eric_".
 
-- [p. 99/82] "-- vestal virgins, Came down from
+- [p. 99/82] " vestal virgins, Came down from
   Heliodeliphilodelphiboschromenos, And when the ball was over, There were
-  --"
+  "
 
   From one of the more printable verses of 'The Ball of Kerrymuir' (see
   previous annotation):
         There were four and twenty less
 
   One page later (p. 100/83) there is a final reference to the song: "--
-  the village harpy she was there --"
-
-- [p. 115/96] "'Multiple choice they call it, it's like painting the --
-  painting the -- painting something very big that you have to keep on
+  the village harpy she was there –"
+
+- [p. 115/96] "'Multiple choice they call it, it's like painting the –
+  painting the – painting something very big that you have to keep on
   painting, sort of thing.'"
 
   The British proverb this refers to is "it's like painting the Forth
   93/93 of "`The Light Fantastic`_"), who charmed Hades and Persephone into
   releasing Eurydice by virtue of his lyre-playing.
 
-- [p. 153/124] "Pour encouragy le -- poor encoura -- to make everyone sit
+- [p. 153/124] "Pour encouragy le  poor encoura  to make everyone sit
   up and damn well take notice."
 
   "Pour encourager les autres." See the annotation for p. 114/104 of
   Sometimes people send me annotations that are so beautifully outrageous
   that I simply *have* to include them. For instance, the walruses may be
   connected to the boiling mercury mentioned earlier in the text, via the
-  chain: boiling mercury --> mad hatters --> Lewis Carroll --> walrus.
+  chain: boiling mercury > mad hatters > Lewis Carroll > walrus.
 
   Isn't it a beauty?
 
   form of 'bugger off', and 'yob' is an old term now almost entirely
   synonymous to the phrase "English football supporter" (apparently Mark
   Twain once said: "they are not fit to be called boys, they should be
-  called yobs"). The word probably derives from 'back-chat' -- a 19th
+  called yobs"). The word probably derives from 'back-chat'  a 19th
   century London thieves' argot in which words were turned round in order
   to confuse police eavesdroppers. Not so far removed from Polari, in fact
   (see the "`Words From The Master`_" section in Chapter 5).
   inclusion. Since then *two* other people have pointed it out to me...
 
   Terry later remarked, in response to someone mentioning the "`Doctor in
-  the House`_" movie on the net: "I remember that film -- the student in
+  the House`_" movie on the net: "I remember that film  the student in
   question was played by Kenneth More. All he had to do, though, was fail
-  -- the people who drew up the will involving Victor thought they were
+   the people who drew up the will involving Victor thought they were
   cleverer than that. Maybe they'd seen the film..."
 
 - [p. 41/34] Movie producer Thomas Silverfish is directly modelled on movie
 
   Some people were wondering if this doesn't contradict the information we
   get about Elves later, in "`Lords and Ladies`_", such as that they can only
-  enter our World during Circle Time -- besides, Elves would hardly be the
+  enter our World during Circle Time  besides, Elves would hardly be the
   type of beings to become actors, one should think.
 
   The answer can be found in "`Lords and Ladies`_" as well, however, on p.
   229/165:
 
       Ridcully: "Elves? Everyone knows elves don't exist any more. Not
-         proper elves. I mean, there's a few folk who say they're elves --"
+         proper elves. I mean, there's a few folk who say they're elves "
 
       Granny Weatherwax: "Oh, yeah. Elvish ancestry. Elves and humans breed
          all right, as if that's anything to be proud of. But you just get
          a race o' skinny types with pointy ears and a tendency to giggle
          and burn easily in sunshine. I ain't talking about them. There's
          no harm in them. I'm talking about real wild elves, what we ain't
-         seen here for --"
+         seen here for "
 
 - [p. 88/73] "'We just call it the 'Hiho' song. That's all it was.
   Hihohiho. Hihohiho.'"
                wearing sunglasses"
       Jake: "Hit it."
 
-- [p. 197/164] "'In a word -- im-possible!' 'That's two words,' said
+- [p. 197/164] "'In a word  im-possible!' 'That's two words,' said
   Dibbler."
 
   Another Goldwynism: "I can tell you in two words: im-possible."
   subliminal advertising to actually have any measurable effect on an
   audience.
 
-- [p. 223/186] "'It always starts off with this mountain --'"
+- [p. 223/186] "'It always starts off with this mountain '"
 
   Ginger's dream describes the characteristic 'logo' scenes of all the
   major movie companies. The mountain is from Paramount ("there are stars
 - [p. 297/249] The climactic scene of the novel is not only a "`King Kong`_"
   reversal spoof. Terry says the 50 ft. woman also refers to the
   protagonist from the 1958 movie "`Attack of the 50 Ft. Woman`_" (recently
-  and redundantly remade with Daryl Hannah in the title role -- if there's
+  and redundantly remade with Daryl Hannah in the title role  if there's
   one movie that did not need to be remade it was this one, trust me).
 
 - [p. 304/254] "'If it bleeds, we can kill it!'"
   the soil..."
 
   Whatever the original idea behind Morris dancing was, it long ago indeed
-  became associated with Spring ("As fit as [...] a morris for May Day" --
+  became associated with Spring ("As fit as [...] a morris for May Day" 
   Shakespeare), and nowadays many Morris teams begin their dancing season
   with a May Day performance. See the `_"...and Dance`_" section of Chapter 5
   for more on Morris dancing.
   <ftp://ftp.uu.net/doc/literary/obi/Edgar.Allan.Poe/The.Pit.And.The.Pendulum.Z>
 
 - [p. 25/24] "'What I could do with right now is one of Mr Dibbler's famous
-  meat pies --' And then he died."
+  meat pies ' And then he died."
 
   The attributed last words of William Pitt the younger were: "I think I
   could eat one of Bellamy's veal pies."
 - [p. 60/55] The address of the Fresh Start Club: _668 Elm Street`_".
 
   Connects a reference to the "`Nightmare on Elm Street`_" series of horror
-  movies with the tentative title for a "`Good Omens`_" sequel: _668 -- The
+  movies with the tentative title for a "`Good Omens`_" sequel: _668  The
   Neighbour of the Beast`_" (see the "`Good Omens`_" annotation on that
   subject).
 
   sherry,' said the Bursar."
 
   VSOP is a type of brandy, not sherry. RSVP, of course, stands for
-  "Respondez s'il vous plait" -- i.e. please reply [to this invitation].
+  "Respondez s'il vous plait"  i.e. please reply [to this invitation].
 
 - [p. 105/94] "'Don't stand in the doorway, friend. Don't block up the
   hall.'"
   extraordinary amounts of mail about this annotation, and so far there
   have been seven different phrases mentioned, namely:
 
-      -- toss another shrimp on the barbie for you
-      -- throw another shrimp on the barbie
-      -- chuck another prawn on the barbie
-      -- slap a prawn on the barbie for you
-      -- shove a couple more prawns on the barbie
-      -- pop another prawn on the barbie for you
-      -- put another prawn on the barbie for you
+      – toss another shrimp on the barbie for you
+      – throw another shrimp on the barbie
+      – chuck another prawn on the barbie
+      – slap a prawn on the barbie for you
+      – shove a couple more prawns on the barbie
+      – pop another prawn on the barbie for you
+      – put another prawn on the barbie for you
 
   So, can anybody tell me (a) whether the ad said 'shrimp' or 'prawn', (b)
   whether the "for you" was actually part of the sentence or not, and (c)
 
   Gary Cooper does this a few times in the 1941 movie "`Sergeant York`_".
   According to my source, Cooper's explanation in the movie was "It cuts
-  down the haze a mite" -- or something along those lines.
+  down the haze a mite"  or something along those lines.
 
 - [p. 182/160] "'It's from the Dungeon Dimensions!' said the Dean. 'Cream
   the basket!'"
   of the owner of the house, but would only cast the shadow at the exact
   time of the owner's death.
 
-- [p. 204/179] "Remember -- wild, uncontrolled bursts..."
-
-  From the movie "`Aliens_: "Remember -- short, controlled bursts...". This
+- [p. 204/179] "Remember – wild, uncontrolled bursts..."
+
+  From the movie "`Aliens_: "Remember – short, controlled bursts...". This
   entire section is filled with action-movie references ('Yo!'), but
   "`Alien_/"Aliens_" seems to have been a particularly fruitful source. Many
   quotes and events have direct counterparts: "Yeah, but secreted from
 
   When questioned about this, Terry said: "Do you really think I'm some
   kind of dumbo to miss that kind of opportunity? I wrote 400 extra words
-  to get it on a left-hand page in the hardcover -- then Corgi shuffled
+  to get it on a left-hand page in the hardcover  then Corgi shuffled
   people in the production department when it was going through and my
   careful instructions disappeared into a black hole. Go on... tell me more
   about comic timing..."
   without permision. Any violation is the basis for legal action. Books
   containing DESIDERATA are published by Crown Publishers, N.Y.C. and can
   be obtained from Tim Tiley Ltd., Bristol. The author was Max Ehrmann.
-  Other permissions must be obtained from the owner of the copyright --
+  Other permissions must be obtained from the owner of the copyright 
   Robert L. Bell, 427 South Shore Drive, Sarasota, Florida, USA 34234.
 
 - [p. 16/15] "'Wish *I* was going to Genua,' she said."
 - [p. 20/18] "'Tempers Fuggit. Means that was then and this is now,' said
   Nanny."
 
-  Well -- almost. The actual Latin phrase is "tempus fugit": "time flies".
+  Well  almost. The actual Latin phrase is "tempus fugit": "time flies".
 
 - [p. 27/24] "As Nanny Ogg would put it, when it's teatime in Genua it's
   Tuesday over here..."
   on-line versions (see the annotation for p. 34/34 of "`The Light
   Fantastic`_").
 
-- [p. 122/107] "Are you the taxgatherers, dear?' 'No, ma'am, we're --' '--
+- [p. 122/107] "Are you the taxgatherers, dear?' 'No, ma'am, we're ' '--
   fairies,' said Fairy Hedgehog quickly."
 
   This is a "`Blues Brothers`_" reference: in the film, the dialogue goes:
   In the jargon of American military planners, the DEFCON scale (for
   "`Defence Readiness Condition`_") is used to describe the level of
   preparedness of U.S. military forces. I quote from "`The Language of
-  Nuclear War -- An Intelligent Citizen's Dictionary`_" by H. Eric Semler,
+  Nuclear War  An Intelligent Citizen's Dictionary`_" by H. Eric Semler,
   James J. Benjamin, Jr., and Adam P. Gross:
 
   "DEFCON 5 describes a state in which forces are at normal readiness,
   macoutte (straw sack). Chickens are sacrificed to him by twisting their
   neck till they are dead.
 
-- [p. 176/154] "So he said 'Get me an alligator sandwich -- and make it
+- [p. 176/154] "So he said 'Get me an alligator sandwich  and make it
   quick!'"
 
-  It is obvious that Granny is trying to tell a joke here -- and failing
+  It is obvious that Granny is trying to tell a joke here  and failing
   miserably. The problem was that quite a few readers (including yours
   truly) were having trouble figuring out what that joke was supposed to be
   in the first place.
 
   "It is (I hope) obvious that Granny Weatherwax has absolutely no sense of
   humour but she has, as it were, heard about it. She has no grasp of how
-  or why jokes work -- she's one of those people who say "And then what
+  or why jokes work  she's one of those people who say "And then what
   happened?" after you've told them the punchline. She can vaguely remember
-  the one-liner "Give me an alligator sandwich -- and make it snappy!" but
+  the one-liner "Give me an alligator sandwich  and make it snappy!" but
   since she's got no idea of why it's even mildly amusing she gets
   confused... all that she can remember is that apparently the man wants it
   quickly."
   followed up with:
 
   "As a matter of fact, I'm pretty sure I first came across the joke in an
-  ancient US comedy routine -- Durante or someone like him. It sounds
+  ancient US comedy routine  Durante or someone like him. It sounds
   burlesque."
 
   See the annotation for p. 195/159 of "Mort_" for another type of meta-joke
   based on the alligator joke.
 
-- [p. 177/155] Emberella --> Embers; Cinderella --> Cinders...
+- [p. 177/155] Emberella > Embers; Cinderella > Cinders...
 
 - [p. 179/157] "'I am called Saturday.' 'Man Saturday, eh?' said Nanny Ogg."
 
   "Seeing the elephant" also resonates nicely with "`The Lord of the Rings`_",
   where Bilbo complains wistfully that he never got to see an elephant on
   *his* adventures 'abroad': "[...] Aragorn's affairs, and the White
-  Council, and Gondor, and the Horsemen, and Southrons, and oliphaunts --
-  did you really see one, Sam? -- and caves and towers and golden trees and
+  Council, and Gondor, and the Horsemen, and Southrons, and oliphaunts –
+  did you really see one, Sam? – and caves and towers and golden trees and
   goodness knows what besides. I evidently came back by much too straight a
   road from my trip. I think Gandalf might have shown me round a bit."
 
   The specific phrasing of the motto refers to what Galileo supposedly
   uttered under his breath after recanting his theory to the Inquisition
   (mirrored by Didactylos having to do the same in front of Vorbis); "E pur
-  si muove" -- "And yet it moves". This explains why the Chelonists say
+  si muove"  "And yet it moves". This explains why the Chelonists say
   "The Turtle Moves" and not, say, "It's A Turtle" or "We're On A Turtle".
   After all, the point of contention is the existence of the turtle, not
   whether it's mobile or stationary.
   is standing on, and she answers: on the back of a second, even larger
   turtle. But, asks the scientist, what does *that* turtle stand on? To
   which the lady triumphantly answers: "You're very clever, young man, but
-  it's no use -- it's turtles all the way down!".
+  it's no use  it's turtles all the way down!".
 
 + [p. 53/39] "'He was eight feet tall? With a very long beard? And a huge
   staff? And the glow of the holy horns shining out of his head?'"
 
 - [p. 83/60] "Below it, the doors of the Great Temple, each one made of
   forty tons of gilded bronze, opened by the breath (it was said) of the
-  Great God Himself, swung open ponderously and -- and this was the holy
-  part -- silently."
+  Great God Himself, swung open ponderously and – and this was the holy
+  part – silently."
 
   The doors of a temple in Alexandria were opened by a steam engine
   designed by the Greek philosopher Hero. With similar legends surrounding
   earliest executive toy?) There is no evidence that he ever used the
   invention for any real work (e.g. opening doors).
 
-- [p. 87/64] "'And -- that other one. The *eminence grease*.'"
+- [p. 87/64] "'And  that other one. The *eminence grease*.'"
 
   Eminence grise = "grey eminence", as in "shadowy power".
 
   American friends tracked variations of it back to the last century and
   the anonymous mists of folk Christianity. So I used it, like everyone
   else has done. Like 'Lord of the Dance', it's one of those songs that
-  transcends a specific religion -- and also a very attractive use of
+  transcends a specific religion  and also a very attractive use of
   language."
 
 - [p. 105/77] "The Voice of the Turtle was heard in the land."
   by Archimedes.
 
 - [p. 152/110] "[...] if Xeno the Ephebian said, 'All Ephebians are liars
-  --'"
+  '"
 
   This is the Liar Paradox again. See the annotation for p. 252/222 of
   "`Witches Abroad`_".
   therefore we am.'"
 
   Play on Descartes' famous philosophical pronouncement "Cogito, ergo sum"
-  -- "I think, therefore I am".
+   "I think, therefore I am".
 
 - [p. 153/111] "'Thesis plus antithesis equals hysteresis,' said Ibid."
 
 
   Or, as the "`Goon Show`_" put it:
 
-      -- "What's a Greek urn?"
-      -- "It's a vase made by Greeks for storing liquid."
-      -- "I wasn't expecting that answer."
-      -- "Neither were quite a few smart-alec listeners."
+      – "What's a Greek urn?"
+      – "It's a vase made by Greeks for storing liquid."
+      – "I wasn't expecting that answer."
+      – "Neither were quite a few smart-alec listeners."
 
 - [p. 178/128] "'Worried, eh? Feeling a bit Avis Domestica? Cluck-cluck?'"
 
-  Actually, the Latin name for 'chicken' is "`Gallus Domesticus`_" -- even
+  Actually, the Latin name for 'chicken' is "`Gallus Domesticus`_"  even
   though 'avis' by itself does mean 'bird'.
 
 - [p. 178/129] "He caught a glimpse of a circle of damp sand, covered with
   prefix meaning "right" as in "right hand". 'Sinistr-' is the prefix
   meaning "left". Hence: ambi-sinister = having two left hands.
 
-- [p. 182/131] "The Library of Ephebe was -- before it burned down -- the
+- [p. 182/131] "The Library of Ephebe was  before it burned down  the
   second biggest on the Disc."
 
   Refers of course to our world's Alexandrian Library. Brewer tells us that
   story "`The Library of Babel`_", where a vast universe is described which
   contains *all* possible books (assuming a finite alphabet and a fixed
   book size the number of all possible books is mindbogglingly huge, but
-  finite) -- in random order. Most books in such a library would appear
+  finite)  in random order. Most books in such a library would appear
   written by the 'monkey and typewriter' brigade, but all the coherent
   books, whether actually written or not, are in there as well.
 
   steam. I think I could do something with a pair of revolving balls.'"
 
   Urn's steam engines are more or less identical to the ones that were
-  described by Archimedes and used in ancient Ephebe -- I mean Greece.
+  described by Archimedes and used in ancient Ephebe  I mean Greece.
   These engines also used copper spheres as heating vessels, and these
   spheres did, in fact, have a regrettable tendency to explode, which is
   what limited their use until some bright person thought of adding
   When the centrifugal force gets large enough to lift the balls up, the
   movement opens a safety valve that lets off the steam, causing the
   rotation to slow down and the balls to come down again, closing the
-  valve, etc. -- a simple but ingenious negative feedback device.
+  valve, etc.  a simple but ingenious negative feedback device.
 
 - [p. 264/190] "There was a city once [...] there were canals, and gardens.
   There was a lake. They had floating gardens on the lake,[...]. Great
 
   A solution doesn't 'come along'; it's built into the fabric of the story
   from an early stage. "`Guards! Guards!`_" and "`Interesting Times`_" both use
-  this device. I'd suggest that such a resolution is perfectly valid -- as
+  this device. I'd suggest that such a resolution is perfectly valid  as
   they say, using a gun to shoot the bad guy in Act 3 is only okay if the
   gun has been on the wall since Act 1. In "`Small Gods`_", though, not a
   single new thing is introduced or resurrected in order to defeat Vorbis
-  -- he's defeated because of the way various characters react to events.
+   he's defeated because of the way various characters react to events.
   The problem contains the solution coiled inside.
 
   If it's cowardice not to kill off your heroes but let them survive
   This is another Christopher Marlowe quote, from "`The Jew of Malta`_" (act
   IV, scene i):
 
-      Barnadine: "Thou hast committed --"
+      Barnadine: "Thou hast committed "
       Barabas: "Fornication? But that was in another country; and besides,
                 the wench is dead."
 
   for a book on hunting, and by pop-group A-ha as an album title. It
   originally is the title of an old Scandinavian fairy tale, which can be
   found in a book by Kay Nielsen, titled "`East of the Sun and West of the
-  Moon -- Old Tales from the North`_". Terry has confirmed that this book was
+  Moon  Old Tales from the North`_". Terry has confirmed that this book was
   his source for the phrase.
 
   'Behind the North Wind': from the title of a book by George McDonald: "`At
 - [p. 118/86] "[...] universes swoop and spiral around one another like
   [...] a squadron of Yossarians with middle-ear trouble."
 
-  Terry writes: "Can it be that this is forgotten? Yossarian -- the 'hero'
-  of "`Catch-22`_" -- was the bomber pilot who flew to the target twisting and
-  jinking in an effort to avoid the flak -- as opposed to the Ivy League
+  Terry writes: "Can it be that this is forgotten? Yossarian – the 'hero'
+  of "`Catch-22`_" – was the bomber pilot who flew to the target twisting and
+  jinking in an effort to avoid the flak – as opposed to the Ivy League
   types who just flew nice and straight..."
 
   A minor correction: Yossarian was not the pilot, but rather the
   increasing mass).
 
   Since theoretical physicists don't like odd numbers they have postulated
-  the existence of a sixth quark -- 'truth', which was only recently
+  the existence of a sixth quark  'truth', which was only recently
   created at FermiLab in the USA.
 
   The beauty and truth quarks are often called 'bottom' and 'top'
 
   Granny refers to the traditional explanation for hanging horseshoes over
   the door, which is that they bring luck, but only if placed with the open
-  side up -- otherwise the luck would just run out the bottom.
+  side up  otherwise the luck would just run out the bottom.
 
 - [p. 172/125] "'Good morrow, brothers, and wherehap do we whist this merry
   day?' said Carter the baker."
   habits could well be explained by taking into account the fact that the
   Discworld has eight seasons (see first footnote in "`The Colour of Magic`_"
   on p. 11/11), which might result in e.g. two autumns a year. And of
-  course, on our world April *is* indeed a month in Autumn -- in the
+  course, on our world April *is* indeed a month in Autumn  in the
   southern hemisphere (don't ask me if that also holds for a Discworld,
   though).
 
   (octarine?) onion.
 
 + [p. 193/139] "'I mean, we used to have a tradition of rolling boiled eggs
-  downhill on Soul Cake Tuesday, but --'"
+  downhill on Soul Cake Tuesday, but '"
 
   It is in fact a Lithuanian tradition (one of many) to roll boiled eggs
   downhill on Easter Sunday in a game similar to lawn bowls. The idea is to
   actual Morris step, and "bean setting" is the name of a dance and, by
   extension, a name for a move used in that dance.
 
-- [p. 298/215] "'Girls used to go up there if they wanted to get --'"
+- [p. 298/215] "'Girls used to go up there if they wanted to get '"
 
   Women who wished to conceive would spend the night on the um, appropriate
   bit of the Cerne Abbas Giant site in Dorset. See the annotation for p.
   Pratchett Archives contain a file with more information about the oghamic
   alphabet, including pictures of the individual characters.
 
-- [p. 307/221] "'Hiho, hiho --'"
+- [p. 307/221] "'Hiho, hiho '"
 
   See the annotation for p. 88/73 of "`Moving Pictures`_".
 
   made of iron at all, was it so effective against the Elves? Terry
   answers:
 
-  "A tin bath isn't made out of tin. It's invariably galvanised iron -- ie,
+  "A tin bath isn't made out of tin. It's invariably galvanised iron  ie,
   zinc dipped. They certainly rust after a while."
 
 - [p. 382/274] "[...] he called it "`The Taming Of The Vole`_" [...]"
   "Discworld and some associated names are subject to various forms of
   trademark, but we don't make a big thing about it. We've had to take some
   very gentle action in the past and the trademarking is a precautionary
-  measure -- it's too late to do it when you're knee-deep in lawyers. There
+  measure  it's too late to do it when you're knee-deep in lawyers. There
   will be a computer game next year, and possibly a record album. We have
   to do this stuff.
 
-  But -- I stress -- it's not done to discourage fans, or prevent the
+  But  I stress  it's not done to discourage fans, or prevent the
   general usage of Discworld, etc, in what I'd loosely call fandom. By now
   afp readers ought to know that. It's been done so that we have a decent
   lever if there's a BIG problem."
   Terry replied:
 
   "Hmm. We wondered about the cover 'giving away half the plot' and decided
-  to go with it -- especially since Josh got the Gonne exactly right from
+  to go with it  especially since Josh got the Gonne exactly right from
   the description. But I'd say it's pretty obvious VERY early in the book
   what sort of thing we're dealing with. That's what distinguishes a
   'police procedural' from a mystery; after all, you know from the start
   Arthurian legend, Holy Grail, that kind of stuff.
 
 - [p. 24/18] "Silicon Anti-Defamation League had been going on at the
-  Patrician, and now --"
+  Patrician, and now "
 
   Cf. the real life Jewish Anti-Defamation League.
 
   blood.
 
 - [p. 64/47] "Captain Vimes paused at the doorway, and then thumped the
-  palm of his hand on his forehead. [...] 'Sorry, excuse me -- mind like a
-  sieve these days -- [...]'"
+  palm of his hand on his forehead. [...] 'Sorry, excuse me – mind like a
+  sieve these days – [...]'"
 
   Acting like a bumbling fool, making as if to leave, then smacking his
   head, 'remembering' something in the doorway, and unleashing an absolute
   Street Blues`_" is the one that I was immediately reminded of.
 
 - [p. 94/71] "'That's three beers, one milk, one molten sulphur on coke
-  with phosphoric acid --'"
+  with phosphoric acid '"
 
   Phosphoric acid is in fact an ingredient of Coca Cola. It's part of the
   0.5 % that isn't water or sugar.
 
 - [p. 135/102] "A lot of equipment had been moved away, however, to make
   room for a billiard table. [...] 'My word. Perhaps we're adding just the
-  right amount of camphor to the nitro-cellulose after all --'"
+  right amount of camphor to the nitro-cellulose after all '"
 
   In reality, nitro-cellulose (also known as guncotton) is an extremely
   explosive substance that was discovered by people trying to make
 
   Terry has confirmed that Grope Alley is based on Threadneedle Street in
   the City of London, which used to be the haunt of prostitutes and hence
-  rejoiced in the name 'Gropecunte Lane' -- its modern name is just a more
+  rejoiced in the name 'Gropecunte Lane'  its modern name is just a more
   euphemistic way of putting things. It's the site of the Bank of England.
   Some would consider this to be appropriate.
 
   windscreen [...]"
 
   Take an old, battered car of the type that the Waynes and Kevins of our
-  world (boyfriends to Sharon and Tracey -- see the annotation for p.
-  106/95 of "`Reaper Man`_") often drive -- a Ford Cortina or Capri is the
+  world (boyfriends to Sharon and Tracey – see the annotation for p.
+  106/95 of "`Reaper Man`_") often drive – a Ford Cortina or Capri is the
   usual candidate in the UK. Respray it metallic purple. Some go-faster
   stripes, possibly a la 'Starsky and Hutch' may be appropriate at this
   time. Plaster rear window with car stickers in dubious taste: "Passion
-  wagon -- don't laugh it could be your daughter inside", "My other car is
+  wagon  don't laugh it could be your daughter inside", "My other car is
   a Porsche", or even: "I <heart> Ankh-Morpork". Advanced students might
   like to experiment with a stick-on cuddly Garfield in the rear window.
   Put in stretch seat-covers, preferably in luminous pink fur. Add a
   Dew,' she read."
 
   Terry is not referring to Mountain Dew, the American soft drink, but is
-  using the term in its original meaning, as a colloquialism for whisky --
+  using the term in its original meaning, as a colloquialism for whisky 
   particularly, the homemade 'moonshine' variety.
 
 - [p. 218/165] VIA CLOACA
   Loofah is a genus of tropical climbing plant bearing a fruit, the fibrous
   skeleton of which is used for scrubbing backs in the bath.
 
-- [p. 238/180] "'Hi-ho -- '-- hi-ho --' 'Oook oook oook oook ook --'"
+- [p. 238/180] "'Hi-ho – '– hi-ho ' 'Oook oook oook oook ook '"
 
   The dwarvish hiho-song. See the annotation for p. 88/73 of "`Moving
   Pictures`_".
 
 - [p. 251/190] "'All right, no one panic, just stop what you're doing, stop
   what you're doing, please. I'm Corporal Nobbs, Ankh-Morpork City Ordnance
-  Inspection City Audit -- [...] Bureau ... Special ... Audit ...
+  Inspection City Audit  [...] Bureau ... Special ... Audit ...
   Inspection.'"
 
   Nobby is imitating Eddie Murphy. Terry explains:
   would be called esker or kame, which are of course fluvioglacial products
   rather than just glacial.
 
-  Hey, don't look at me -- I'm just the messenger...
+  Hey, don't look at me  I'm just the messenger...
 
 - [p. 258/196] "Sometimes it's better to light a flamethrower than curse
   the darkness."
   From the old saying: "It is better to light a candle than curse the
   darkness".
 
-- [p. 258/196] "'Lord Vetinari won't stop at sarcasm. He might use' --
-  Colon swallowed -- '*irony*.'"
+- [p. 258/196] "'Lord Vetinari won't stop at sarcasm. He might use' –
+  Colon swallowed – '*irony*.'"
 
   This reminded many correspondents of Monty Python's 'Dinsdale' sketch:
 
   the tour of duty was fixed so the 'grunts' knew exactly how long, to the
   day, until they were due back in 'the world'. A short timer was one who
   didn't have long to go and therefore didn't want to put himself at undue
-  risk -- hence "I'm too short for this shit".
+  risk  hence "I'm too short for this shit".
 
   Another popular reference to this expression is "I'm too old for this
   shit", a catchphrase for Danny Glover's character in the "`Lethal Weapon`_"
   novel, and only then did I understand how the phrase came by its bad
   reputation:
 
-  "It was a dark and stormy night; the rain fell in torrents -- except at
+  "It was a dark and stormy night; the rain fell in torrents  except at
   occasional intervals, when it was checked by a violent gust of wind which
   swept up the streets (for it is in London that our scene lies), rattling
   along the housetops, and fiercely agitating the scanty flame of the lamps
   "As far as I'm aware, the Death/Dr Who 'coincidences' are in the mind of
   the beholders :-) Death can move through space and time, yes, but that's
   built in to the character. I made his house bigger on the inside than the
-  outside so that I could have quiet fun with people's perceptions -- in
+  outside so that I could have quiet fun with people's perceptions  in
   the same way that humans live in tiny 'conceptual' rooms inside the
   vastness of the 'real' rooms. Only Death (or those humans who currently
   have Death-perception) not only sees but even experiences their full
 
   She got the name because it's the one that gets the most variation, and
   got the hairstyle because it's been a nice weird hairstyle ever since the
-  Bride of Frankenstein. She's not based on anyone, as far as I know --
+  Bride of Frankenstein. She's not based on anyone, as far as I know 
   certainly not Neil's Death, who is supercool and by no means a
   necronerd."
 
 
   In 1981, Steinman recorded the album "`Bad For Good`_" by himself (he either
   had a falling out with Meatloaf or the latter had voice problems at the
-  time -- the story is not clear on this point) but in any case Steinman
+  time  the story is not clear on this point) but in any case Steinman
   had originally intended the album as a Meatloaf project, but eventually
   decided to use his own vocals). On that album appeared a song (soliloquy,
   really), called 'Love and Death and an American Guitar', which begins
   I suppose I might as well mention the rest of the story while I'm at it,
   or else my mailbox will start filling up again: in 1993, Steinman and
   Meatloaf finally teamed up together again and recorded the album "`Bat out
-  of Hell II -- Back to Hell`_". The track called 'Wasted Youth' turned out
+  of Hell II  Back to Hell`_". The track called 'Wasted Youth' turned out
   to be a re-recording of 'American Guitar', but it is still recited by Jim
   Steinman himself.
 
 - [p. 26/20] "I MAY BE SOME TIME, said Death."
 
-  Terry *likes* this quote -- it's the third time he's used it. See also
+  Terry *likes* this quote  it's the third time he's used it. See also
   the annotations for p. 258/226 of "`Reaper Man`_" and p. 236/170 of "`Small
   Gods`_".
 
 
   The line from 'The Raven' fully goes: "Quoth the raven 'Nevermore'."
 
-  Quoth the Raven -- get it?
+  Quoth the Raven  get it?
 
 - [p. 56/42] "Lunch was Dead Man's Fingers and Eyeball Pudding, [...]"
 
   thinking out loud about the many people who didn't get the Djelibeybi
   reference (see the annotation for p. 17/17 of "Pyramids_"):
 
-  "[...] say Djelibeybi OUT LOUD -- I must have had twenty letters (and one
+  "[...] say Djelibeybi OUT LOUD  I must have had twenty letters (and one
   or two emails) from people who didn't twig until the third time round...
   oh god... do they have them in the US? Should it have been called
   Emmenemms, or Hersheba... hmm, Hersheba... could USE that, yes, little
   and movies that "`Soul Music`_" has been copied from: the whole Klatchian
   Foreign Legion bit has its roots in 'Beau Geste', which was *the* Foreign
   Legion movie. It must be one of the most parodied, echoed and copied
-  movies of all time -- it was so influential that it is probably where
+  movies of all time  it was so influential that it is probably where
   most people's ideas of the FFL originate."
 
 - [p. 112/84] "There was a riot going on."
 - [p. 120/90] "'Cliff? Can't see anyone lasting long in *this* business
   with a name like *Cliff*'."
 
-  A reference to Cliff Richard -- see the annotation for p. 48/45 of
+  A reference to Cliff Richard  see the annotation for p. 48/45 of
   "`Johnny and the Dead`_".
 
 - [p. 121/91] "'Moving around on your seat like you got a pant full of
 
   One of my favourite Pratchett puns ever. Thelonious Monk is one of our
   world's most highly regarded jazz musicians (though he played the piano,
-  not the horn -- you'd want Miles Davis for that).
+  not the horn  you'd want Miles Davis for that).
 
 - [p. 220/166] "'Cavern Deep, Mountain High?' said Glod."
 
 - [p. 264/199] "'We're Certainly Dwarfs', said Dibbler. 'Yes, that might
   work.'"
 
-  Terry is a fan of a fairly obscure band (in Europe at least -- in America
+  Terry is a fan of a fairly obscure band (in Europe at least  in America
   they are a bit better known) called They Might Be Giants (he has
   mentioned on a.f.p. that their 'Where your Eyes don't Go' is the scariest
-  song he's ever heard -- not that scary is a word I'd normally associate
+  song he's ever heard  not that scary is a word I'd normally associate
   with TMBG, mind you, but then I don't know that particular song).
 
   Anyway, 'We're Certainly Dwarfs' appears to be the Discworld answer to
 
 - [p. 265/199] "'So now we're Suck,' said Crash."
 
-  Suck --> KISS.
+  Suck > KISS.
 
 - [p. 270/203] "[...] a name like JOE'S LIVERY STABLE, [...]"
 
   In Daniel Pinkwater's book "`Lizard Music`_" a major character is the
   Chicken Man, an apparently homeless man who walks around with a chicken
   perched on his head (under a hat). The Chicken Man is a lot more together
-  than The Duck Man -- he periodically does little street shows featuring
+  than The Duck Man  he periodically does little street shows featuring
   the chicken, who does tricks. According to Pinkwater, the Chicken Man was
   based on a real person who lived in Chicago.
 
 - [p. 278/209] "'They follow actors and musicians around,' he said,
-  'because of, you know, the glamour and everything --'"
+  'because of, you know, the glamour and everything '"
 
   While it is obvious that Buddy is talking about the phenomenon of
   groupies, it is also interesting to note that the word 'glamour' is
 - [p. 300/226] "'In like Flint, eh?'"
 
   "In like Flynn" is the normal expression, going back to Errol Flynn's
-  sexual transgressions -- at one point he was even charged with statutory
+  sexual transgressions  at one point he was even charged with statutory
   rape, arrested and brought to trial, then acquitted.
 
 - [p. 306/231] ""`I can feel it. Every day. It's getting closer..._"
   Physics`_", then became "`Imperial Wizard`_" for a few days, and finally ended
   up as "`Interesting Times_:
 
-  "Rincewind and Cohen are having such fun -- that is to say, death and
-  terror attend them at every step -- on the Counterweight Continent and
+  "Rincewind and Cohen are having such fun – that is to say, death and
+  terror attend them at every step – on the Counterweight Continent and
   the Forbidden City of the Agatean Empire that it might well end up being
   called: "`Imperial Wizard`_" ...which ought to sell well in the US. In some
   States, anyway."
   "The editor and my main beta-test reader have raised objections to the
   title "`Unclear Physics`_". They think it's a lovely title but they don't
   think it's a good one for this book. Nor do I, because I've got a better
-  use for it -- I've realised how to utilize the squash court in UU... So
+  use for it  I've realised how to utilize the squash court in UU... So
   it will be the original working title: "`Interesting Times`_". At least for
   this week."
 
   [...]"
 
   A paternoster (in this context) is a closed-loop elevator of linked
-  carriages, somewhat like the bucket chain principle applied to people --
+  carriages, somewhat like the bucket chain principle applied to people 
   or in this case, ants.
 
 - [p. 45/36] "[...] the aquarium had been lowered on its davits so that the
   French during the Taiping Rebellion of 1860. Terry acknowledges:
 
   "I had 'storming the winter palace' in mind because, yes, the events of
-  the Russian revolution are more familiar to us -- and then I came across
+  the Russian revolution are more familiar to us  and then I came across
   the storming of the summer palace while reading up on Chinese torture. It
   took me some effort not to find some joke about the Taiping Rebellion, I
   have to say... and as for the Boxer Rising..."
   totally different meanings. Languages such as Chinese and Japanese pay
   great attention to the pitch and intonation of words, and the same word
   with a different intonation can indeed have radically different meanings.
-  (Of course not all different meanings are due to intonation -- there are
+  (Of course not all different meanings are due to intonation  there are
   other possibilities, such as vowel lengths, and some words just naturally
   have many different meanings).
 
   "During WWII Hollywood obviously made a lot of gung-ho war movies. But...
   who could play the Japanese? The Japanese in the US were banged up in
   holiday camps in Death Valley or someplace. So the producers roped in
-  anyone who 'looked Japanese' -- mainly Koreans, the story runs. The
+  anyone who 'looked Japanese'  mainly Koreans, the story runs. The
   actors didn't really have lines since their job was, basically, to be
   shot by John Wayne. In order to give them something 'Japanese sounding'
   to say, some genius suggested they shout, very fast, "I tie your shoe,
   utilised.
 
 - [p. 11] "'We're going to have to get Mr Cripslock to engrave page 11
-  again,' he said mournfully. 'He's spelt "famine" with seven letters --'"
+  again,' he said mournfully. 'He's spelt "famine" with seven letters '"
 
   A reference to the celebrated 'famine' error in the Corgi paperback
   edition of "`Good Omens`_". See the annotation for p. 154/98 of "`Good
   Omens`_".
 
-- [p. 12] "'Well, my old granny used to make Spotted Dick --'"
+- [p. 12] "'Well, my old granny used to make Spotted Dick '"
 
   See the annotation for p. 88/77 of "`Witches Abroad`_".
 
 
 - [p. 32] "She at least respected anyone's right to recreate themselves."
 
-  As does Terry himself -- see the annotation for p. 20/15 of "`Soul Music`_".
+  As does Terry himself  see the annotation for p. 20/15 of "`Soul Music`_".
 
 - [p. 36] "'"`The Joye of Snacks`_",' she read out loud."
 
   act 1. This occurs when Christine and Raoul secretly pledge their love
   for each other, which the Phantom overhears.
 
-- [p. 47] "'It's white bone! He has no nose!' [...] 'Then how does he --'
+- [p. 47] "'It's white bone! He has no nose!' [...] 'Then how does he '
   Agnes began."
 
   From the old joke, made famous by Monty Python's "The funniest joke in
   the world" sketch:
 
-      -- My dog has no nose.
-      -- How does he smell?
-      -- Terrible.
+      – My dog has no nose.
+      – How does he smell?
+      – Terrible.
 
   And yes, I know this joke isn't the one that the sketch is named after.
   The funniest joke in the world (which, in the German translation,
   Nunstuck git und Slotermeyer? Ja! Beiherhund das Oder die Flipperwaldt
   gersput!"
 
-- [p. 56] "'"`Schneide meinen eigenen Hals`_" --'"
+- [p. 56] "'"`Schneide meinen eigenen Hals`_" '"
 
   German for: "Cut My Own Throat".
 
   "`Discworld Merchandise FAQ`_", available from the Pratchett Archives.
 
   One particular item of jewellery they sell is the _anorankh`_", a small
-  model of an Egyptian cross wearing an anorak. (Don't ask -- but in case
+  model of an Egyptian cross wearing an anorak. (Don't ask  but in case
   you think you want to know: the precise story of how the anorankh came
   into existence can be found in the "`Holy Anorankh`_" file, also available
   from the Pratchett Archives.)
   resident net.goddess and therefore one of the most 'visible' females on
   the group, was one of the most popular proposal targets. (For more
   detailed information about marriage proposals and other characteristic
-  a.f.p. habits, see the "`A.f.p. Timeline`_" file, also available from -- you
-  guessed it -- the Pratchett Archives.)
+  a.f.p. habits, see the "`A.f.p. Timeline`_" file, also available from – you
+  guessed it – the Pratchett Archives.)
 
   With all this background information in mind, I'll let Colette herself
   tell the rest of the story:
   On 31st December 1994, completely out of the blue, I got an email from
   Terry. In it he said he was doing the polishing draft of "Maskerade_" and
   which of the following two characters would I like to be called Colette
-  -- the make-up girl at the Opera House, or one of the 'young ladies' at
+   the make-up girl at the Opera House, or one of the 'young ladies' at
   Mrs. Palm's and that mention might be made of her interesting earrings.
   When I had picked myself up off the floor, and being the mischievous soul
   that I am, I wrote back to Terry and asked if Colette could be one of the
   but also to receive lots of marriage proposals from men she hardly knew.
 
   When I got my copy of "Maskerade_" signed, Terry wrote in it 'What's a
-  nice girl like you doing in a book like this?' -- a dedication in the
+  nice girl like you doing in a book like this?'  a dedication in the
   same league as that which he wrote when he signed my Discworld game
   booklet, which was 'To Colette, Will you marry me?'"
 
   different roles in the same play.
 
   Many people have also spotted that the description Terry gives of Walter
-  Plinge -- beret, brown coat, nervousness, clumsy -- is very similar to
+  Plinge  beret, brown coat, nervousness, clumsy  is very similar to
   that of Frank Spencer, the lead character in the British television
   comedy "`Some Mothers Do 'Ave 'Em`_". Frank Spencer was played by Michael
   Crawford, who went on to become truly famous as the original... Phantom
 
   See the annotation for p. 239/172 of "`Lords and Ladies`_".
 
-- [p. 149] "Let us examine the role of Laura in "`Il Truccatore`_" -- "The
+- [p. 149] "Let us examine the role of Laura in "`Il Truccatore`_"  "The
   Master Of Disguise", also sometimes vulgarly known as "The Man with a
   Thousand Faces"...'"
 
   for the City Watch in "`The Discworld Companion`_".
 
 - [p. 257] "[...] as the opening bars of the duet began, opened her mouth
-  -- 'Stop right there!'"
+   'Stop right there!'"
 
   A strong resonance with Ellen Foley's character refusing to continue the
   duet 'Paradise by the Dashboard Light' with Meatloaf halfway through the
 + [frontispiece] The mottoes and crests are mostly explained in the book,
   but for completeness they are:
 
-        Edward St John de Nobbes: "capite omnia" -- "take it all"
-
-        Gerhardt Sock (butcher): "futurus meus est in visceris" -- "my
+        Edward St John de Nobbes: "capite omnia" – "take it all"
+
+        Gerhardt Sock (butcher): "futurus meus est in visceris" – "my
           future is in the entrails"
 
-        Vetinari: "si non confectus non reficiat" -- "if it ain't broke,
+        Vetinari: "si non confectus non reficiat"  "if it ain't broke,
           don't fix it" (a saying popularised by Lyndon B Johnson,
           though possibly older)
 
-        Assassins Guild: "nil mortifice sine lucre" -- "no killing
+        Assassins Guild: "nil mortifice sine lucre"  "no killing
           without payment"
 
-        Rudolph Potts (baker): "quod subigo farinam" -- "because I knead
+        Rudolph Potts (baker): "quod subigo farinam"  "because I knead
           the dough"
 
-        Thieves' Guild: "acutus id verberat" -- "sharp's the word"
-
-        Vimes family: "protego et servio" -- "I protect and serve". In the
-          centre of the crest is the number 177, which -- we learnt in "`Men
-          at Arms`_" -- is Vimes' own badge number.
+        Thieves' Guild: "acutus id verberat" – "sharp's the word"
+
+        Vimes family: "protego et servio" – "I protect and serve". In the
+          centre of the crest is the number 177, which – we learnt in "`Men
+          at Arms`_" – is Vimes' own badge number.
 
 + [p. 7] "WE HEAR YOU WANT A GOLEM."
 
 + [p. 8] "'Yeah, right, but you hear stories ... Going mad and making
   too many things, and that.'"
 
-  One episode in the life of the golem of Prague -- the best known of the
-  mythical creatures -- tells that the golem was ordered to fetch water,
+  One episode in the life of the golem of Prague – the best known of the
+  mythical creatures – tells that the golem was ordered to fetch water,
   but never told to stop, thus causing a flood. This is very similar to
   (and may be borrowed from) the classic children's story "`The Sorcerer's
   Apprentice`_" ("`Der Zauberlehrling`_", a German poem by Goethe), also used in
   Bluemantle (Terry gives us the 'Pardessus Chatain' or 'Brown Overcoat').
 
   Senior to the pursuivants are the kings of arms, although none really
-  corresponds to 'Dragon'. This has been linked with 'Dracula' -- the most
-  famous vampire of all -- which is itself a title meaning 'little dragon'.
+  corresponds to 'Dragon'. This has been linked with 'Dracula' – the most
+  famous vampire of all – which is itself a title meaning 'little dragon'.
   It also harks back to "`Guards! Guards!`_", in which a dragon actually
   *became* king of Ankh-Morpork, albeit briefly.
 
 
 + [p. 36] More Latatian.
 
-  "Excretus Est Ex Altitudine" -- Shat On From a Great Height; "Depositatum
-  De Latrina" -- Chucked Down The Toilet.
+  "Excretus Est Ex Altitudine" – Shat On From a Great Height; "Depositatum
+  De Latrina" – Chucked Down The Toilet.
 
 + [p. 38] "'The butcher, the baker and the candlestick-maker.'"
 
 + [p. 44] "'Delphine Angua von Uberwald,' read the Dragon aloud."
 
   Uberwald (on "`The Discworld Mapp`_" spelled with an umlaut over the U) is
-  'Over/beyond the forest' in German. In Latin, that's "Transylvania" -- a
+  'Over/beyond the forest' in German. In Latin, that's "Transylvania"  a
   part of Romania traditionally associated with the undead (most
   prominently, Count Dracula).
 
 + [p. 45] "Men said things like 'peace in our time' or 'an empire that
   will last a thousand years,' [...]"
 
-  "peace in our time" -- Neville Chamberlain, British Prime Minister, in
+  "peace in our time"  Neville Chamberlain, British Prime Minister, in
   1938.
 
-  "an empire that will last a thousand years" -- Adolf Hitler, on the Third
+  "an empire that will last a thousand years"  Adolf Hitler, on the Third
   Reich.
 
 + [p. 46] "Constable Visit was an Omnian, [...]"
 
   All he golems' names are Yiddish, and Dorfl is no exception, although I'm
   not too sure what his means. It could be a pun on "Stedtl", which means
-  "ghetto" -- Stadt is German for "town", Dorf for "village". In Austria,
+  "ghetto"  Stadt is German for "town", Dorf for "village". In Austria,
   'Dorfl' is indeed a word used to denote a small village.
 
 + [p. 93] "'Feeding the yudasgoat?'"
   James I and Charles I. The court took its name from a star-shaped
   decoration in the ceiling.
 
-  The decoration in the ceiling of the Rats Chamber -- a group of rats with
-  their tails tied together -- is called a rat king. According to Maarten
+  The decoration in the ceiling of the Rats Chamber – a group of rats with
+  their tails tied together – is called a rat king. According to Maarten
   't Hart, in "Rats_" (translated from the Dutch), some 57 rat kings have
   been found since the 17th century, although several are of dubious
   authenticity. They are often found alive, and can contain as few as three
 
 + [p. 177] "'... push off back to the Yard, job done and dusted.'"
 
-  This phrase relates to the act of distempering a wall -- another oblique
+  This phrase relates to the act of distempering a wall  another oblique
   hint at the wallpaper theory.
 
 + [p. 181] "'*Now* we're cooking with charcoal!'"
   already knows enough to dismiss it in fairly short order.
 
 + [p. 195] "'Then there's this one about the Klatchian who walks into a
-  pub with a tiny piano -- '"
+  pub with a tiny piano  '"
 
   The joke as adapted by thee goode folkes of alt.fan.pratchett goes like
   this:
   Never mind Robocop, however: one correspondent has posited that the
   entire candle factory sequence is a clever amalgam of the endings to
   *both* "Terminator_" movies. I will let him explain this to you in his
-  own words -- I couldn't bring myself to paraphrase or edit it down:
+  own words  I couldn't bring myself to paraphrase or edit it down:
 
   "The candle factory itself, with all the candle production lines is
   reminiscent of the robotics in the automated factory that Reese
   from elsewhere (heart as opposed to head).
 
   In T1, Reese finds a metal bar and tries to fight an opponent he can't
-  possibly beat -- exactly as Carrot does. When Angua finds herself
+  possibly beat  exactly as Carrot does. When Angua finds herself
   facing the injured king, it is similar to the scene in T1 after
   Reese's death, when the torso of the Terminator pulls itself along
   after the injured Sarah, grabbing at her legs (which the king also
   ammo just at the crucial point. When it appears that the seemingly
   invincible king has survived everything and is about to finish the job
   and kill Carrot, the thought-to-be-dead Dorfl makes a last-gasp
-  interjection which finally kills the king -- much like the resurrected
+  interjection which finally kills the king  much like the resurrected
   Arnie appears just in time to kill the T-1000 in T2. Oh, and finally,
   the molten tallow that Cheery almost falls into is, of course, the
   molten metal at the end of T2."
   I want more golems on the city payroll. How else can they resurrect the
   fire service?"
 
-  The names of the golems, again, are Yiddish. "Klutz" -- a clumsy clod or
-  bungler (from German); "Bobkes" -- beans, but only metaphorically;
-  something worthless or nonsensical (from Russian); "Shmata" -- a rag, or
+  The names of the golems, again, are Yiddish. "Klutz" – a clumsy clod or
+  bungler (from German); "Bobkes" – beans, but only metaphorically;
+  something worthless or nonsensical (from Russian); "Shmata" – a rag, or
   piece of cloth; used both literally and to describe a person of weak
   character (from Polish).
 
 + [p. 285] "'*Not* a problem, me old china,' he said."
 
-  Rhyming slang: china plate -- mate, friend.
+  Rhyming slang: china plate  mate, friend.
 
 + [p. 285] "'Somewhere, A Crime Is Happening,' said Dorfl."
 
   it isn't then you've lost nothing, right?'"
 
   This is a rephrasing of Pascal's Wager: "If you believe in God and turn
-  out to be incorrect, you have lost nothing -- but if you don't believe in
+  out to be incorrect, you have lost nothing  but if you don't believe in
   God and turn out to be incorrect, you will go to hell. Therefore it is
   foolish to be an atheist." (Formulation quoted from the alt.atheism
   "Common Arguments" webpage,
   Clarence, Earl of Emsworth, as an all-purpose call to food, and used in
   the enforced absence of his pig man to get the mighty Empress back to the
   trough. As such it is perhaps not surprising that Gouger, Rooter, Tusker
-  and Snouter did not accelerate away at the sound -- they were presumably
+  and Snouter did not accelerate away at the sound  they were presumably
   waiting for Albert to produce the nosebags.
 
 + [p. 48] "'Look at robins, now. [...] all they got to do is go
 
   "Shlimazel" is a Yiddish word meaning someone who always has bad luck, a
   sad sack, a terminally unsuccessful person. (From German "schlimm",
-  meaning "bad", and the Hebrew "mazal", meaning "luck" -- or
+  meaning "bad", and the Hebrew "mazal", meaning "luck"  or
   "constellation", as in "ill-starred".)
 
 + [p. 54] "'Did you check the list?' YES, TWICE. ARE YOU SURE THAT'S
 
 + [p. 73] "In general outline, at least. But with more of a PG rating."
 
-  PG = Parental Guidance suggested -- a film classification used in the USA
+  PG = Parental Guidance suggested  a film classification used in the USA
   and the UK, meaning that "some material may not be suitable for
   children".
 
   Clearly the Discworld version of "The twelve days of Christmas" is rather
   less, umm, unilateral.
 
-+ [p. 83] "'*-- the rising of the sun, and the running of the deer --*'"
++ [p. 83] "'* the rising of the sun, and the running of the deer *'"
 
   The song is 'The Holly and the Ivy':
 
   exist, so the coincidences are not surprising".
 
   The 'Strong Anthropic Principle' says that "the universe *can* only exist
-  at all because it has these properties -- it would be impossible for it
+  at all because it has these properties  it would be impossible for it
   to develop any other way."
 
   In some quarters, the idea has re-ignited the old 'argument-from-design'
   advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic."
 
 + [p. 94] "'Interesting. Saves all that punching holes in bits of card and
-  hitting keys you lads are forever doing, then --'"
+  hitting keys you lads are forever doing, then '"
 
   Holes punched in cards were used to input programs and data to computers
   up until roughly the early 1970s, when keyboards became standard.
 
   Intel's problem was that, although it has almost all of the market for
   personal computer chips, its lawyers couldn't stop rival manufacturers
-  from making chips that were technically identical -- or, very often,
+  from making chips that were technically identical  or, very often,
   better and cheaper. Its response was to launch the 'Intel Inside'
   sticker, to attach to a computer's case in the hope of persuading end
   customers that this made it better.
         We'll hunt the cutty wren...
 
   In Ireland until quite recently, the hunting of the wren on St. Stephen's
-  day -- Dec. 26th -- was a very real tradition. People did kill a wren and
+  day  Dec. 26th  was a very real tradition. People did kill a wren and
   hang it on a branch of a holly tree, taking it from house to house rather
   like children trick-or-treating on Hallowe'en.
 
   vice-versa.
 
   In the early 1970s there appeared a sort of proto-virus called the
-  'Cookie Monster', which cropped up on a number of computers -- notably
+  'Cookie Monster', which cropped up on a number of computers  notably
   Multics-based machines. What would happen is that unsuspecting users
   would suddenly find messages demanding cookies on their terminals, and
   they would not be able to proceed until they typed 'COOKIE' or
-  'HAVECOOKIE', etc. -- in much the same way as Hex is 'cured' by typing
+  'HAVECOOKIE', etc.  in much the same way as Hex is 'cured' by typing
   'DRYDFRORGPILLS'.
 
   For more details see: <http://www.multicians.org/cookie.html>
 
   The usual phrase is, of course, "talk the talk and walk the walk",
   meaning to both say and do the right thing. If anyone can definitively
-  point to the origin of this phrase, I'd be interested to know it --
+  point to the origin of this phrase, I'd be interested to know it 
   possibly from the US civil rights movement of the 1960s.
 
   It's been mentioned more than once that the Stanley Kubrick movie "`Full
   with California, where modern buildings fall over with distressing
   regularity.
 
-  Britain has things called leylines -- ancient sites so arranged that they
+  Britain has things called leylines  ancient sites so arranged that they
   draw a perfectly straight line across a map, allegedly impossible to
   trace without modern cartographical techniques.
 
 
   They were Roman household gods.
 
-  There are many beautiful shrines to them -- there was at least one in
+  There are many beautiful shrines to them  there was at least one in
   every well-to-do ancient Roman house. The god that saw to it "that the
   bread rose" was called Priapus, a god of fertility, who was
   conventionally represented by or with a huge phallus.
   cannon balls to collapse.
 
 + [p. 181] "[...] OTHER PEOPLE HAVE NO HOMES. IS THIS FAIR? 'Well, of
-  course, that's the big issue --' Albert began."
+  course, that's the big issue ' Albert began."
 
   In the UK and Australia, "`The Big Issue`_" is a magazine sold by the
   homeless. In many cities all over the world similar projects have been
   cladism. This method of classification is called "dichotomous key
   classification": unfortunately Ponder has left out the conventional first
   step in this kind of identification, which is something along the lines
-  of "can it move unassisted?" -- if so, go to animal, if not, go to
+  of "can it move unassisted?"  if so, go to animal, if not, go to
   plants.
 
   In our world, there is also some classificational confusion concerning
         If you haven't got a penny a ha'penny will do
         And if you haven't got a ha'penny then God bless you.
 
-+ [p. 195] "'-- nobody knows how good we can live, on boots three times a
++ [p. 195] "' nobody knows how good we can live, on boots three times a
   day...'"
 
   A standard children's song, once (apparently) popular at Girl Guide
   "Bah! Humbug!".
 
 + [p. 208] "'[...] letting me hire a boat and sail around to the islands of
-  --'"
+  '"
 
   Darwin gathered much of the data for his version of evolutionary theory
   while in the Galapagos Islands, which he visited on HMS "Beagle_".
 
 + [p. 212] "'You know what happens to kids who suck their thumbs, there's
-  this big monster with scissors all --'"
+  this big monster with scissors all '"
 
   There is a classic set of children's stories called (in English)
   "`Slovenly Peter`_", by Heinrich Hoffman, originally written in German circa
 + [title] "Jingo_"
 
   "By jingo!" is an archaic, jocular oath, of obscure origin, used in
-  Britain in the 18th and 19th centuries. The word -- with derived forms
-  such as 'jingoism' and 'jingoistic' -- became associated with aggressive,
+  Britain in the 18th and 19th centuries. The word – with derived forms
+  such as 'jingoism' and 'jingoistic' – became associated with aggressive,
   militaristic nationalism as a result of a popular song dating from the
   Turko-Russian war of 1877-78, which began:
 
   In the 1963 comedy "`Mouse on the Moon`_", the Duchy of Grand Fenwick
   competes with the USA and USSR to put the first human on the moon. The
   Fenwick rocket gets there first, but someone points out that this doesn't
-  matter -- the glory will go to whoever gets *home* first. The Americans
+  matter  the glory will go to whoever gets *home* first. The Americans
   and Russians quickly make their excuses and leave, pausing only to enter
   the wrong capsules before sorting themselves out.
 
 
 + [p. 18] "'It's about time Johnny Klatchian was taught a lesson,'"
 
-  "Johnny Foreigner" is a generic, disparaging term used by Britons of --
+  "Johnny Foreigner" is a generic, disparaging term used by Britons of 
   well, foreigners. During the First World War, the more specific term
   "Johnny Turk" appeared.
 
   structures that were already ancient..."
 
   Leshp bears a resemblance to H. P. Lovecraft's similarly strange-sounding
-  creation, R'lyeh -- an ancient, now submerged island in the Pacific,
+  creation, R'lyeh  an ancient, now submerged island in the Pacific,
   inhabited by alien Things with strange architecture, which rises at very
   long intervals and sends people mad all over the world. For full details,
   see Lovecraft's "`The Call of Cthulhu`_".
 
   The original Fanny Adams was an eight-year-old girl in Alton, Hampshire,
   whose dismembered body was discovered in 1867. About the same time,
-  tinned mutton was first introduced in the Royal Navy, and the sailors --
-  not noted for their sensitivity -- took to calling the (rather
+  tinned mutton was first introduced in the Royal Navy, and the sailors –
+  not noted for their sensitivity – took to calling the (rather
   disgusting) meat "Sweet Fanny Adams". Hence the term came to mean
   something worthless, and finally to mean "nothing at all".
 
 
 + [p. 62] "'[...] it is still law that every citizen should do one hour's
   archery practice every day. Apparently the law was made in 1356 and it's
-  never been --'"
-
-  In 1363, in England, Edward III -- then in the early stages of the
-  Hundred Years' War with France -- ordered that all men should practise
+  never been –'"
+
+  In 1363, in England, Edward III – then in the early stages of the
+  Hundred Years' War with France – ordered that all men should practise
   archery on Sundays and holidays; this law remained technically in force
   for some time after the longbow was effectively obsolete as a weapon of
   war.
   the early 19th century. "`Sawney Bean, the Man-Eater of Midlothian`_" was
   supposedly based on a real 13th-century Scottish legal case; also
   published about this time were two French versions, both set in Paris.
-  All of these were claimed to be based on true stories -- but then, this
+  All of these were claimed to be based on true stories  but then, this
   pretence was standard practice for novelists at the time. The "original"
   version of Sweeney Todd was written by Edward Lloyd under the title of
   "`The String of Pearls`_", published around 1840.
 + [p. 85] "'He just kills people for money. Snowy can't read and write.'"
 
   In later editions of the book, this sentence was altered to 'Snowy can
-  barely read and write' -- presumably for consistency with the Clue about
+  barely read and write'  presumably for consistency with the Clue about
   the notebook (p. 106).
 
 + [p. 87] "'Dis is der Riot Act.'"
   The Riot Act was an old British law that allowed the authorities to use
   deadly force to break up crowds who were gathered for subversive
   purposes, such as trade unionists or Chartists. It was an unusual law in
-  that it had to be read out to the crowd before it came into force --
-  hence the significance of Detritus' attempt to read it -- and the crowd
+  that it had to be read out to the crowd before it came into force –
+  hence the significance of Detritus' attempt to read it – and the crowd
   was then supposed to be given a reasonable time to disperse. However, it
   was wide open to abuse, and was associated with some very nasty
   incidents, such as the Peterloo Massacre in 1818. It was not finally
 
 + [p. 99] "'That one had plants growing on him!'"
 
-  It has been pointed out -- and I feel bound to inflict the thought on
-  others -- that Stoolie is technically a grassy gnoll. (And if *that*
+  It has been pointed out – and I feel bound to inflict the thought on
+  others – that Stoolie is technically a grassy gnoll. (And if *that*
   doesn't mean anything to you in the context of political assassinations
-  -- be thankful.)
+   be thankful.)
 
 + [p. 100] _'Rinse 'n' Run Scalp Tonic'_[...] "Snowy had cleaned, washed
   and gone."
 + [p. 104] "'Hah,' said the Dis-organizer."
 
   See the annotation for p. 73 of "`Feet of Clay`_". According to legend, Dis
-  is also the name of a city in Hell -- particularly appropriate to a
+  is also the name of a city in Hell  particularly appropriate to a
   demon-powered organiser.
 
 + [p. 111] "'Apparently it's over a word in their holy book, [...] The
   Elharibians say it translates as "God" and the Smalies say it's "Man".'"
 
   One of the most intractable disputes in the early Christian church was
-  over the nature of Christ -- to what extent he was God or man. In 325,
+  over the nature of Christ  to what extent he was God or man. In 325,
   the Council of Nicea tried to settle the question with the Nicean Creed,
   but the dispute immediately re-emerged over a single word of the creed:
   one school said that it was "homoousios" (of one substance), the other
   that it should be "homoiousios" (of similar substance). The difference in
-  the words is a single iota -- the smallest letter in the Greek alphabet
-  -- and the schism (between Eastern and Western churches) continues to
+  the words is a single iota – the smallest letter in the Greek alphabet
+  – and the schism (between Eastern and Western churches) continues to
   this day.
 
 + [p. 115] "Why play cards with a shaved deck?"
   'passed away last month'.
 
 + [p. 154] "'I thought that was for drillin' into the bottom of enemy ships
-  --'"
+  '"
 
   The first working submarine was a one-man, hand-propelled vessel called
   the Turtle, designed to use an augur to attach explosive charges to the
 + [p. 192] "'"If you would seek peace, prepare for war."'"
 
   From the 4th/5th century Roman writer Vegetius: "Qui desiderat pacem,
-  praeparet bellum" -- "Let him who desires peace, prepare for war."
+  praeparet bellum"  "Let him who desires peace, prepare for war."
 
 + [p. 204] "'"Gulli, Gulli and Beti"'"
 
         and Betty, when you call me, you can call me Al.
 
 + [p. 210] "'[...] I thought that a flying column of guerrilla soldiers
-  --'"
+  '"
 
   Since getting into his flowing white robes, Carrot appears to be fast
   turning into Lawrence of Arabia. See also the annotations for pp. 259 and
 
   One of the best-known (in the west, at least) works of Arabic literature
   is "`The Thousand and One Nights`_". Several classics of children's
-  literature -- including Aladdin and Sinbad the Sailor -- appear in this
+  literature  including Aladdin and Sinbad the Sailor  appear in this
   collection. Nobby's version would appear to be rather more PG-rated.
 
 + [p. 224] "'Especially the one about the man who went into the tavern with
 + [p. 249] "'That's a Make-Things-Bigger device, isn't it? [...] They were
   invented only last year.'"
 
-  Judging from the name, this could be one of Leonard's creations -- but
+  Judging from the name, this could be one of Leonard's creations  but
   actually we've learned in "`Soul Music`_" (p. 137) that this particular
   invention was the work of Ponder Stibbons at Unseen University.
 
 
 + [p. 9] "[...] one particular planet whose inhabitants watched, with mild
   interest, huge continent-wrecking slabs of ice slap into another world
-  which was, in astronomical terms, right next door -- *and then did
+  which was, in astronomical terms, right next door  *and then did
   nothing about it* because that sort of thing only happens in Outer
   Space."
 
 + [p. 101] "'Because, in fact, history already *depends* on your treading
   on any ants that you happen to step on.'"
 
-  The "closed loop" theory of time travel -- that all the loose ends *will*
-  be tied up, even if it's not immediately obvious how -- contrasts with
+  The "closed loop" theory of time travel – that all the loose ends *will*
+  be tied up, even if it's not immediately obvious how – contrasts with
   the "trousers of time" model. It was well expressed in the film "`The
   Terminator`_", although the sequel promptly abandoned the idea.
 
   Terry was himself a guest on 9 September 1997, and chose the following
   list:
 
-      - 'Symphonie Fantastique: Dream of a Witches' Sabbath' -- Berlioz,
+      - 'Symphonie Fantastique: Dream of a Witches' Sabbath'  Berlioz,
          London Symphony Orchestra/Sir Eugene Goossens.
-      - 'Thomas the Rhymer' -- Steeleye Span.
-      - 'The Race for the Rheingold Stakes' -- Bernard Miles.
-      - 'The Marriage of Figaro: Voi che sapete' -- Mozart, Petra Lang, ms;
+      - 'Thomas the Rhymer' – Steeleye Span.
+      - 'The Race for the Rheingold Stakes' – Bernard Miles.
+      - 'The Marriage of Figaro: Voi che sapete' – Mozart, Petra Lang, ms;
          Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, Amsterdam/Nikolaus Harnoncourt.
-      - 'Bat out of Hell' -- Meatloaf.
-      - 'Silk Road Theme' -- Kitaro.
-      - 'Great Southern Land' -- Icehouse.
-      - 'Four Seasons: Summer' -- Vivaldi, Israel Philharmonic
+      - 'Bat out of Hell' – Meatloaf.
+      - 'Silk Road Theme' – Kitaro.
+      - 'Great Southern Land' – Icehouse.
+      - 'Four Seasons: Summer' – Vivaldi, Israel Philharmonic
          Orchestra/Itzhak Perlman, v.
 
 + [p. 109] "'An' I expect you don't even know that we happen to produce
   some partic'ly fine wines [...] yew *bastard*?'"
 
-  Expresses a phenomenon known in Australia as 'cultural cringe' -- a
+  Expresses a phenomenon known in Australia as 'cultural cringe'  a