fdisk / doc / fdisk.info

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This is fdisk.info, produced by makeinfo version 4.13 from fdisk.texi.

Copyright (C) 2006 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

   Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or
any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover
Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
Free Documentation License".

INFO-DIR-SECTION GNU partitioning software
START-INFO-DIR-ENTRY
* fdisk: (fdisk).                          GNU fdisk User Manual
END-INFO-DIR-ENTRY


File: fdisk.info,  Node: Top,  Next: About,  Up: (dir)

GNU fdisk User Manual
*********************

This document describes the use of GNU Cfdisk, a curses based program
for creating, destroying, resizing, checking and copying hard drive
partitions, and the file systems on them.

* Menu:

* About::
* Using fdisk::
* Bugs::
* See also::
* Copying this manual::


File: fdisk.info,  Node: About,  Next: Using fdisk,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 About
*******

* Menu:

* Name::


File: fdisk.info,  Node: Name,  Up: About

1.1 Name
========

GNU fdisk - menu driven partition table manipulator, similar to Linux
fdisk. It has two variants, lfdisk and gfdisk, lfdisk aims to be close
to Linux fdisk, while gfdisk supports the more advanced disk operations
like partition resizing. When fdisk is called, the default is to run
gfdisk.


File: fdisk.info,  Node: Using fdisk,  Next: Bugs,  Prev: About,  Up: Top

2 Using fdisk
*************

* Menu:

* Invoking fdisk::
* Overview::
* Options::
* Commands and usage::
* Units::


File: fdisk.info,  Node: Invoking fdisk,  Next: Overview,  Up: Using fdisk

2.1 Invoking fdisk
==================

fdisk [options] [device]


File: fdisk.info,  Node: Overview,  Next: Options,  Prev: Invoking fdisk,  Up: Using fdisk

2.2 Overview
============

Hard disks can be divided into logical disks called partitions (or disk
slices in the BSD world), which are described in a partition table,
which is also called a disklabel.

   For ordinary use, like file storage or operation system
installation, you will most likely need at least one partition,
although with most modern operating system, you might also want to
create several partitions, including one for swap space. For example,
you usually create a seperate partition for home directories. For more
information on what partitions you need for your operating system, look
at its installation manual.

   GNU fdisk is a menu driven program for creating and editing
partition tables.  It has support for DOS and MAC type partition
tables, BSD and SUN type disklabels and others.

   On most GNU/Linux distributions device is usually one of the
following:

          /dev/hda /dev/hdb /dev/sda /dev/sdb


   IDE disks are usually using /dev/hd[a-h] for device names, SCSI
disks - /dev/sd[a-p].  The partitions will take the device name
followed by the partition number, e.g.  /dev/hda1. If you are using a
GNU/Linux operating system, you can see
/usr/src/linux/Documentation/devices.txt for more infomation on device
naming.

   A DOS type partition table can have up to four `primary' partitions,
which get numbers 1-4. One of the primary partitions may be used as an
`extended' partition, which is used as a container for more partitions,
which are called `logical' and take numbers starting from 5.

   A BSD/SUN type disklabel can hold up to 8 partitions, and an
IRIX/SGI type disk label, called `dvh' in fdisk, can hold up to 16.


File: fdisk.info,  Node: Options,  Next: Commands and usage,  Prev: Overview,  Up: Using fdisk

2.3 Options
===========

`-h, --help'
     Displays a help message.

`-v, --version'
     Displays the program's version.

`-L, --linux-fdisk'
     Turns  on  Linux  fdisk  compatibility mode. This is the same as
     running lfdisk.  In this mode, only disk operations supported by
     Linux fdisk will be available.

`-G, --gnu-fdisk'
     Turns off Linux fdisk compatibility mode. You will be able to
     perform more operations on the disk - create on a partition,
     resize, move or copy a partition, with the filesystem on it, or
     automatically detect deleted partitions.

`-i, --interactive'
     Where necessary, prompts for user intervention. This is the
     default, when the program is started at a terminal.

`-p, --script'
     Never prompts for user intervention. This is the default, when the
     program is not started at a terminal, when it is called from
     another program. You can use this mode for scripting, fdisk tries
     to perform the select the most suitable choice in every case.

`-l, --list'
     Lists the partition table on the specified  device  and  exits.  If
     there  is  no  device  specified, lists the partition tables on all
     detected devices.

`-r, --raw-list'
     Displays a hex dump of the partition table of the disk, similar to
     the way Linux fdisk displays the raw data in the partition table,
     using the "print the raw data in the partition table" from the
     expert menu.

`-u, --unit-sector'
     Use sectors, instead of cylinders for a default unit.

`-s, --size=DEVICE'
     Displays the size of the partition on DEVICE is printed on the
     standard output.

`-t, --list-partition-types'
     Displays a list of supported partition types and features.


   The following options are available only in lfdisk, for Linux fdisk
compatibility.

`-b, --sector-size=SIZE'
     Specify the sector size of the disk. Valid values are 512, 1024 and
     2048. Should be used only on older kernels, which don't  guess  the
     correct sector size.

`-C, --cylinders=CYLINDERS'
     Specify  the  number of cylinders of the disk. Currently does
     nothing, it is left for Linux fdisk compatibility

`-H, --heads=HEADS'
     Specify the number of heads of the disk. Reasonable values are  255
     or 16.

`-S, --sectors=SECTORS'
     Specify  the number of sectors per track. A reasonable value is 63.



File: fdisk.info,  Node: Commands and usage,  Next: Units,  Prev: Options,  Up: Using fdisk

2.4 Commands and usage
======================

When GNU fdisk is started, a simple command line interface is displayed.
A list with the available commands and a short description can
displayed by entering m. More detailed information about every command
is given below. Most operations are not performed immediately, but only
after the user decides to write the partition table to the disk. Those
that need to write to the disk immediately, warn the user about it and
are only available when not running in Linux fdisk compatibility mode.
The default unit used is cylinder and can be changed to sector.
Partition sizes can be specified in any other available unit, though.
See the next section for more information.

`m'
     A command obsoleted by reading this manual.

`p'
     Displays the partition table on the disk. It shows information like
     the start and end of the partitions, and their partition number.
     This is needed for using most of the commands below, so it is a
     good idea to list the partition table before using them. The start
     and end of the partition are displayed in the unit that you have
     selected for fdisk, while the size is displayed in blocks.

`a'
     Toggles the bootable flag on a partition. On a DOS partition table
     type the partition with the bootable flag is the one that the
     system will boot from if there is no a boot manager in the master
     record. Make sure you have a bootable partition, and it is indeed
     bootable. You will be asked for a partition number.

`d'
     Delete the selected partition so you can use it to create another
     partition on the free space left by it.

`n'
     Creates a new partition on some free space in the partition table.
     You will be asked for the type of partition you want to create,
     and you can enter p for primary, e for extended or l for logical.
     Make sure that you select a type, that can be created in the
     position that you want to create it. You can create logical
     partition only inside the extended. You will be asked about the
     start and end of the partition. If you put a + before the end, it
     will be regarded as size. You can also specify the start and end
     or size in a different unit, please check the next section for
     more information. If you are using gfdisk, you will also be asked
     about the filesystem type and whether you want to create a
     filesystem on the partition. If you don't want to select a
     filesystem type, just select the default and you can later change
     the system type with the t command.

`o'
     Creates a new empty DOS partition table. Use this command if you
     want to start the partition table on the disk from scratch,
     deleting all the partitions that are currently residing on it.

`s'
     Creates a new empty SUN disklabel. If you are using a disk with a
     SUN disklabel, use this command if you want to start the partition
     table on the disk from scratch, deleting all the partitions that
     are currently residing on it.

`l'
     Lists the known filesystem types for the partition table or
     disklabel on the disk.  This is not about the supported filesystem
     types, but about the way the disklabel marks the filesystem that
     is supposed to be residing on the partition. It can differ from
     the real filesystem, although it is not recommended.

`t'
     Changes the filesystem type of a partition. This does not touch
     the actual filesystem on the partition, it just changes the field
     in the partition table that marks the filesystem that is supposed
     to be residing on the partition. If you are running gfdisk, when
     you select a filesystem during the creation of a new partition,
     the most appropriate value for this field is selected.

`w'
     Writes the partition table to the disk, notifies the operating
     system about the changes and quits the program. If fdisk wasn't
     able to notify the OS, you will have to restart the computer in
     order to use the new partition table.

`q'
     Quits the program without saving the changes.

`x'
     Displays a menu with extra operations, which are described below.

   There is a menu with extra functionality in GNU fdisk. In gfdisk, it
will include the specific to gfdisk commands. Everything is described
below.

   The extra commands in lfdisk include

`f'
     Fixes the order of the partitions in the partition table. This is
     useful, when for example on an DOS partition table, the partitions
     have a wrong order and you want to order them in order they are
     placed on the disk.

`b'
     Moves the beginning of the data in the partition. Asks for a new
     start of the partition and then changes the partition geometry.

`c'
     Changes the number of the cylinders of the disk.

`h'
     Changes the number of the heads of the disk.

`s'
     Changes the number of the sectors per track of the disk.

   The extra commands in gfdisk include
`h'
     Checks the consistency of the filesystem.  It is useful to see
     whether it is safe to perform operations like resize on the
     partitions. It performs a very basic check on the filesystem, so
     if you want to make a more thorough test or fix the errors on the
     filesystem, you should an external utility like e2fsck for ext2 or
     reiserfsck for reiserfs. Please note that the check is limited on
     some filesystem types (ext2, ext3 and reiserfs at the time of
     writing of the manual), but if the partition contains errors
     resize will gracefully fail without destroying the filesystem.

`v'
     Moves the partition to another location on the disk. It asks for
     the number of the partition you want to move. This command works
     in the same way as the new partition command and asks same
     questions, see above.  The new location can't overlap with the
     current location. If this is what you need, you should try using
     the resize function, instead. Moving the partition requires that
     all changes you made so far are written to the disk.

`c'
     Rescues a partition with a supported filesystem, that has been
     deleted.  You specify the start and end of the region where you
     want to look for the start of the partition.

`z'
     Resizes the partition and its filesystem, if supported. You will
     be asked for the number of the partition, and the new size and
     end. Some supported filesystem types require that the start of the
     partition stays fixed. This command requires that all changes you
     made so far are written to the disk.

`o'
     Copies another partition over an already created partition on the
     disk.  You can copy a partition from a different disk. You will be
     asked for the device of the disk that you want to copy from and the
     number of the partitions on both disks. This requires that all
     changes you made so far are written to the disk.

`k'
     Creates a new file system on the selected partition. You will be
     asked to choose the filesystem type. The filesystem field in the
     partition table or disklabel is updated automatically. Please note
     that this requires that all changes you made so far are commited
     to the disk. If there is already a filesystem on the partition, it
     will be destroyed.


File: fdisk.info,  Node: Units,  Prev: Commands and usage,  Up: Using fdisk

2.5 Units
=========

While you can select either cylinders or sectors as display units, you
can specify the positions and sizes in units of your choice, by
entering the size followed by the unit. This is a list of the units
that are available. Please note, that at the time of writing, using some
of the units, like percent, as a position or size is broken.

`compact'
     Display each size in the most suitable unit from B, kB, MB, GB and
     TB.

`B'
     One byte

`kB '
     One kilobyte (1,000 bytes)

`MB'
     One megabyte (1,000,000 bytes)

`GB'
     One gigabyte (1,000,000,000 bytes)

`TB'
     One terabyte (1,000,000,000,000 bytes)

`KiB'
     One kilo binary byte (1,024 bytes)

`MiB'
     One mega binary byte (1,048,576 bytes)

`GiB'
     One giga binary byte (1,073,741,824 bytes)

`TiB'
     One tera binary byte (1,099,511,627,776 bytes)

`s'
     One sector. It depends on the sector size of the disk. You can use
     it if you want to see or choose the exact size in sectors.

`%'
     One percent from the size of the disk

`cyl'
     One cylinder. It depends on the cylinder size.

`chs'
     Use CHS display units.



File: fdisk.info,  Node: Bugs,  Next: See also,  Prev: Using fdisk,  Up: Top

3 Bugs
******

Before editing a BSD disklabel, the partition with  the  disklabel
should already exist on the disk and be detected by the OS. If you have
created a BSD-type partition, you need to write the changes to the
disk. If fdisk fails to notify the OS about the changes in partition
table, you need to restart your computer.  As fdisk tries to guess the
device holding the BSD disklabel, it might fail to edit it at all, even
if the OS has detected it. In this case you are adviced to simply open
the device with fdisk directly. It is possible that it doesn't work on
some operating systems.

   Getting the size of a partition with -s might fail, if fdisk fails
to guess the disk device, for the same reasons as with the previous bug.


File: fdisk.info,  Node: See also,  Next: Copying this manual,  Prev: Bugs,  Up: Top

4 See also
**********

cfdisk(8), mkfs(8), parted(8)


File: fdisk.info,  Node: Copying this manual,  Prev: See also,  Up: Top

Appendix A Copying this manual
******************************

* Menu:

* GNU Free Documentation License::  License for copying this manual


File: fdisk.info,  Node: GNU Free Documentation License,  Up: Copying this manual

A.1 GNU Free Documentation License
==================================

                        Version 1.1, March 2000

     Copyright (C) 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

  0. PREAMBLE

     The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
     written document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone
     the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without
     modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.  Secondarily,
     this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get
     credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for
     modifications made by others.

     This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
     works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.
     It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
     license designed for free software.

     We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
     free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
     free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms
     that the software does.  But this License is not limited to
     software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless
     of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book.
     We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is
     instruction or reference.

  1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

     This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a
     notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed
     under the terms of this License.  The "Document", below, refers to
     any such manual or work.  Any member of the public is a licensee,
     and is addressed as "you".

     A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
     Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
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     A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter
     section of the Document that deals exclusively with the
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     Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains
     nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject.
     (For example, if the Document is in part a textbook of
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     The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with
     the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial,
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     The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose
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     can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML
     or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally
     available, and the machine-generated HTML produced by some word
     processors for output purposes only.

     The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
     plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the
     material this License requires to appear in the title page.  For
     works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title
     Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the
     work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

  2. VERBATIM COPYING

     You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
     commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
     copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License
     applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you
     add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You
     may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading
     or further copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However,
     you may accept compensation in exchange for copies.  If you
     distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow
     the conditions in section 3.

     You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above,
     and you may publicly display copies.

  3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

     If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than
     100, and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you
     must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly,
     all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and
     Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly
     and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies.  The
     front cover must present the full title with all words of the
     title equally prominent and visible.  You may add other material
     on the covers in addition.  Copying with changes limited to the
     covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and
     satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in
     other respects.

     If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
     legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
     reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto
     adjacent pages.

     If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document
     numbering more than 100, you must either include a
     machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or
     state in or with each Opaque copy a publicly-accessible
     computer-network location containing a complete Transparent copy
     of the Document, free of added material, which the general
     network-using public has access to download anonymously at no
     charge using public-standard network protocols.  If you use the
     latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you
     begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that
     this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
     location until at least one year after the last time you
     distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or
     retailers) of that edition to the public.

     It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of
     the Document well before redistributing any large number of
     copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated
     version of the Document.

  4. MODIFICATIONS

     You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document
     under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you
     release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with
     the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus
     licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to
     whoever possesses a copy of it.  In addition, you must do these
     things in the Modified Version:

       A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
          distinct from that of the Document, and from those of
          previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed
          in the History section of the Document).  You may use the
          same title as a previous version if the original publisher of
          that version gives permission.

       B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
          entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in
          the Modified Version, together with at least five of the
          principal authors of the Document (all of its principal
          authors, if it has less than five).

       C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
          Modified Version, as the publisher.

       D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

       E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
          adjacent to the other copyright notices.

       F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
          notice giving the public permission to use the Modified
          Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in
          the Addendum below.

       G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
          Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's
          license notice.

       H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

       I. Preserve the section entitled "History", and its title, and
          add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new
          authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on
          the Title Page.  If there is no section entitled "History" in
          the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors,
          and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page,
          then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in
          the previous sentence.

       J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document
          for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and
          likewise the network locations given in the Document for
          previous versions it was based on.  These may be placed in
          the "History" section.  You may omit a network location for a
          work that was published at least four years before the
          Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version
          it refers to gives permission.

       K. In any section entitled "Acknowledgments" or "Dedications",
          preserve the section's title, and preserve in the section all
          the substance and tone of each of the contributor
          acknowledgments and/or dedications given therein.

       L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
          unaltered in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers
          or the equivalent are not considered part of the section
          titles.

       M. Delete any section entitled "Endorsements".  Such a section
          may not be included in the Modified Version.

       N. Do not retitle any existing section as "Endorsements" or to
          conflict in title with any Invariant Section.

     If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
     appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no
     material copied from the Document, you may at your option
     designate some or all of these sections as invariant.  To do this,
     add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified
     Version's license notice.  These titles must be distinct from any
     other section titles.

     You may add a section entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
     nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
     parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text
     has been approved by an organization as the authoritative
     definition of a standard.

     You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text,
     and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end
     of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one
     passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be
     added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the
     Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
     previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity
     you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may
     replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous
     publisher that added the old one.

     The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this
     License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
     assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

  5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

     You may combine the Document with other documents released under
     this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for
     modified versions, provided that you include in the combination
     all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
     unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your
     combined work in its license notice.

     The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
     multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
     copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name
     but different contents, make the title of each such section unique
     by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the
     original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a
     unique number.  Make the same adjustment to the section titles in
     the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
     combined work.

     In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled
     "History" in the various original documents, forming one section
     entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections entitled
     "Acknowledgments", and any sections entitled "Dedications".  You
     must delete all sections entitled "Endorsements."

  6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

     You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
     documents released under this License, and replace the individual
     copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
     that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the
     rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the
     documents in all other respects.

     You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
     distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert
     a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow
     this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of
     that document.

  7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

     A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other
     separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of
     a storage or distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a
     Modified Version of the Document, provided no compilation
     copyright is claimed for the compilation.  Such a compilation is
     called an "aggregate", and this License does not apply to the
     other self-contained works thus compiled with the Document, on
     account of their being thus compiled, if they are not themselves
     derivative works of the Document.

     If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
     copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one
     quarter of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be
     placed on covers that surround only the Document within the
     aggregate.  Otherwise they must appear on covers around the whole
     aggregate.

  8. TRANSLATION

     Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
     distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section
     4.  Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
     permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
     translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
     original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
     translation of this License provided that you also include the
     original English version of this License.  In case of a
     disagreement between the translation and the original English
     version of this License, the original English version will prevail.

  9. TERMINATION

     You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
     except as expressly provided for under this License.  Any other
     attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is
     void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this
     License.  However, parties who have received copies, or rights,
     from you under this License will not have their licenses
     terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.

 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

     The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of
     the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
     versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
     differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See
     `http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/'.

     Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
     number.  If the Document specifies that a particular numbered
     version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you
     have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
     that specified version or of any later version that has been
     published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.  If
     the Document does not specify a version number of this License,
     you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the
     Free Software Foundation.

A.1.1 ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
----------------------------------------------------------

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
notices just after the title page:

       Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1
       or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
       with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
       Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
       A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
       Free Documentation License''.

   If you have no Invariant Sections, write "with no Invariant Sections"
instead of saying which ones are invariant.  If you have no Front-Cover
Texts, write "no Front-Cover Texts" instead of "Front-Cover Texts being
LIST"; likewise for Back-Cover Texts.

   If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to
permit their use in free software.



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Node: Units13494
Node: Bugs14716
Node: See also15540
Node: Copying this manual15682
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