Christoffer Niska avatar Christoffer Niska committed 13e7736

updated the less extension

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Files changed (61)

demo/protected/extensions/less/components/LessCompiler.php

  * @author Christoffer Niska <ChristofferNiska@gmail.com>
  * @copyright Copyright &copy; Christoffer Niska 2011-
  * @license http://www.opensource.org/licenses/bsd-license.php New BSD License
+ * @version 0.10.0
  */
 
-Yii::setPathOfAlias('Less', dirname(__FILE__).'/../lib/lessphp/lib/Less');
+require(dirname(__FILE__).'/../lib/lessphp/lessc.inc.php');
 
-/**
- * Less compiler application component.
- * Preload the component to enable auto compiling.
- */
 class LessCompiler extends CApplicationComponent
 {
 	/**
-	 * @var string the base path.
+	 * @var string base path.
 	 */
 	public $basePath;
 	/**
-	 * @var array the paths for the files to parse.
+	 * @var array paths to process.
 	 */
 	public $paths = array();
 	/**
-	 * @var boolean indicates whether to force compiling.
+	 * @var boolean indicates whether to always compile all files.
 	 */
 	public $forceCompile = false;
 	/**
-	 * @var boolean compiler debug mode.
+	 * @var lessc LESS compiler instance.
 	 */
-	public $debug = false;
-	/**
-	 * @var boolean whether to compress css or not.
-	 */
-	public $compress = false;
-
 	protected $_parser;
 
 	/**
 	 * Initializes the component.
+	 * @throws CException if the base path does not exist.
 	 */
 	public function init()
 	{
-		if ($this->basePath === null)
+		if (!isset($this->basePath))
 			$this->basePath = Yii::getPathOfAlias('webroot');
 
 		if (!file_exists($this->basePath))
-			throw new CException(__CLASS__.': Failed to initialize compiler. Base path does not exist.');
+			throw new CException(__CLASS__.': Failed to initialize compiler. Base path does not exist!');
 
-		$env = new \Less\Environment();
-		$env->setDebug($this->debug);
-		$env->setCompress($this->compress);
-		$this->_parser = new \Less\Parser($env);
+		if (!is_dir($this->basePath))
+			throw new CException(__CLASS__.': Failed to initialize compiler. Base path is not a directory!');
+
+		$this->_parser = new lessc();
 
 		if ($this->forceCompile || $this->hasChanges())
-			$this->compile();
+			$this->compileAll();
 	}
 
 	/**
-	 * Compiles the less files.
-	 * @throws CException if the source path does not exist
+	 * Compiles a LESS file to a CSS file.
+	 * @param string $from the path to the source LESS file.
+	 * @param string $to the path to the target CSS file.
+	 * @throws CException if the compilation fails or the source path does not exist.
 	 */
-	public function compile()
+	public function compile($from, $to)
+	{
+		if (file_exists($from))
+		{
+			try
+			{
+				$this->_parser->importDir = dirname($from); // Set the correct context.
+				file_put_contents($to, $this->_parser->parse(file_get_contents($from)));
+			}
+			catch (exception $e)
+			{
+				throw new CException(__CLASS__.': Failed to compile less file with message: '.$e->getMessage().'.');
+			}
+		}
+		else
+			throw new CException(__CLASS__.': Failed to compile less file. Source path does not exist!');
+	}
+
+	/**
+	 * Compiles all LESS files.
+	 */
+	protected function compileAll()
 	{
 		foreach ($this->paths as $lessPath => $cssPath)
 		{
-			$fromPath = $this->basePath.'/'.$lessPath;
-			$toPath = $this->basePath.'/'.$cssPath;
-
-			if (file_exists($fromPath))
-				file_put_contents($toPath, $this->parse($fromPath));
-			else
-				throw new CException(__CLASS__.': Failed to compile less file. Source path does not exist.');
-
-			$this->_parser->clearCss();
+			$from = $this->basePath.'/'.$lessPath;
+			$to = $this->basePath.'/'.$cssPath;
+			$this->compile($from, $to);
 		}
 	}
 
 	/**
-	 * Parses the less code to CSS.
-	 * @param string $filename the file path to the less file
-	 * @return string the CSS
-	 */
-	public function parse($filename)
-	{
-		try
-		{
-			$css = $this->_parser->parseFile($filename);
-		}
-		catch (\Less\Exception\ParserException $e)
-		{
-			throw new CException(__CLASS__.': Failed to parse less file. "'.$e->getMessage().'".');
-		}
-
-		return $css;
-	}
-
-	/**
 	 * Returns whether any of files configured to be compiled has changed.
-	 * @return boolean the result
+	 * @return boolean the result.
 	 */
 	protected function hasChanges()
 	{
 		$dirs = array();
 		foreach ($this->paths as $source => $destination)
 		{
-			$destination = realpath($destination);
 			$compiled = $this->getLastModified($destination);
-			if (!isset($lastCompiled) || $compiled < $lastCompiled )
+			if (!isset($lastCompiled) || $compiled < $lastCompiled)
 				$lastCompiled = $compiled;
 
-			$source = realpath($source);
-			if (!in_array($source, $dirs))
+			if (!in_array(dirname($source), $dirs))
 				$dirs[] = $source;
 		}
 
 
 	/**
 	 * Returns the last modified for a specific path.
-	 * @param string $path the path
-	 * @return integer the last modified (as a timestamp)
+	 * @param string $path the path.
+	 * @return integer the last modified (as a timestamp).
 	 */
 	protected function getLastModified($path)
 	{
 			{
 				$lastModified = null;
 
+				/** @var Directory $dir */
 				$dir = dir($path);
 				while ($entry = $dir->read())
 				{
 					if (strpos($entry, '.') === 0)
 						continue;
 
-					$entry = $path.'/'.$entry;
+					$path .= '/'.$entry;
 
-					if( is_dir($entry) )
-						$modified = $this->getLastModified($entry);
+					if (is_dir($path))
+						$modified = $this->getLastModified($path);
 					else
 					{
-						$stat = stat($entry);
+						$stat = stat($path);
 						$modified = $stat['mtime'];
 					}
 
-					if( isset($lastModified) || $modified > $lastModified )
+					if (isset($lastModified) || $modified > $lastModified)
 						$lastModified = $modified;
 				}
 

demo/protected/extensions/less/lib/lessphp/LICENSE

+For ease of distribution, lessphp 0.2.0 is under a dual license.
+You are free to pick which one suits your needs.
+
+
+
+
+MIT LICENSE
+
+
+
+
+Copyright (c) 2010 Leaf Corcoran, http://leafo.net/lessphp
+ 
+Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining
+a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
+"Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
+without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
+distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to
+permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
+the following conditions:
+ 
+The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be
+included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
+ 
+THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
+EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
+MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND
+NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE
+LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION
+OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION
+WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
+
+
+
+
+GPL VERSION 3
+
+
+
+
+					GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
+                       Version 3, 29 June 2007
+
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+
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+
+  Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the
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+material under section 10.
+
+  9. Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies.
+
+  You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or
+run a copy of the Program.  Ancillary propagation of a covered work
+occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission
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+  10. Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients.
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+any patent claim is infringed by making, using, selling, offering for
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+
+  11. Patents.
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+License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based.  The
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+
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+hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted
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+
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+
+  If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or
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+
+  A patent license is "discriminatory" if it does not include within
+the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is
+conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are
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+contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement,
+or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.
+
+  Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting
+any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may
+otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.
+
+  12. No Surrender of Others' Freedom.
+
+  If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
+otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
+excuse you from the conditions of this License.  If you cannot convey a
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+to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey
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+
+  13. Use with the GNU Affero General Public License.
+
+  Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have
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+combination as such.
+
+  14. Revised Versions of this License.
+
+  The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of
+the GNU General Public License from time to time.  Such new versions will
+be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
+address new problems or concerns.
+
+  Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the
+Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU General
+Public License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the
+option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered
+version or of any later version published by the Free Software
+Foundation.  If the Program does not specify a version number of the
+GNU General Public License, you may choose any version ever published
+by the Free Software Foundation.
+
+  If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future
+versions of the GNU General Public License can be used, that proxy's
+public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you
+to choose that version for the Program.
+
+  Later license versions may give you additional or different
+permissions.  However, no additional obligations are imposed on any
+author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a
+later version.
+
+  15. Disclaimer of Warranty.
+
+  THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY
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+  16. Limitation of Liability.
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+
+  17. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.
+
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+Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a
+copy of the Program in return for a fee.
+

demo/protected/extensions/less/lib/lessphp/README.md

-less.php
-========
+# lessphp v0.3.4-2
+### <http://leafo.net/lessphp>
 
-The **dynamic** stylesheet language.
+`lessphp` is a compiler for LESS written in PHP. The documentation is great,
+so check it out: <http://leafo.net/lessphp/docs/>.
 
-<http://lesscss.org>
+Here's a quick tutorial:
 
-about
------
+### How to use in your PHP project
 
-This is a PHP port of the official JavaScript version of LESS <http://lesscss.org>.
+Copy `lessc.inc.php` to your include directory and include it into your project.
 
-Most of the code structure remains the same, which should allow for fairly easy updates in the future. That does
-mean this library requires PHP5.3 as it makes heavy use of namespaces, anonymous functions and the shorthand ternary
-operator - `?:` (to replicate the way Javascript will return the value of the first valid operand when using  `||`).
+There are a few ways to interface with the compiler. The easiest is to have it
+compile a LESS file when the page is requested. The static function 
+`lessc::ccompile`, checked compile, will compile the input LESS file only when it
+is newer than the output file.
 
-A couple of things have been omitted from this initial version:
+	try {
+		lessc::ccompile('input.less', 'output.css');
+	} catch (exception $ex) {
+		exit($ex->getMessage());
+	}
 
-- Evaluation of JavaScript expressions within back-ticks (for obvious reasons).
-- Definition of custom functions - will be added to the `\Less\Environment` class.
-- A tidy up of the API is needed.
+`lessc::ccompile` is not aware of imported files that change. Read [about
+`lessc::cexecute`](http://leafo.net/lessphp/docs/#compiling_automatically).
 
-use
----
+Note that all failures with lessc are reported through exceptions.
+If you need more control you can make your own instance of lessc.
 
-### The parser
+	$input = 'mystyle.less';
 
-```php
-<?php
+	$lc = new lessc($input);
 
-$parser = new \Less\Parser();
-$parser->getEnvironment()->setCompress(true);
+	try {
+		file_put_contents('mystyle.css', $lc->parse());
+	} catch (exception $ex) { ... }
 
-// parse css from a less source file or directly from a string
-$css = $parser
-            ->parseFile($path)
-            ->parse("@color: #4D926F; #header { color: @color; } h2 { color: @color; }")
-            ->getCss();
-```
+In addition to loading from file, you can also parse from a string like so:
 
-### The command line tool
+	$lc = new lessc();
+	$lesscode = 'body { ... }';
+	$out = $lc->parse($lesscode);
 
-The `bin/lessc` command line tool will accept an input (and optionally an output) file name to process.
+### How to use from the command line
 
-```bash
-$ ./bin/lessc input.less output.css
-```
+An additional script has been included to use the compiler from the command
+line. In the simplest invocation, you specify an input file and the compiled
+css is written to standard out:
 
-### In your website
+	$ plessc input.less > output.css
 
-The `bin/less.php` file can be moved to the directory containing your less source files. Including a links as follows
-will compile and cache the css.
+Using the -r flag, you can specify LESS code directly as an argument or, if 
+the argument is left off, from standard in:
 
-```html
-<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="/static/less/css.php?bootstrap.less" />
-```
+	$ plessc -r "my less code here"
 
-NB: You'll need to update this file to point to the `lib` directory, and also make sure the `./cache` directory is
-writable by the web server.
+Finally, by using the -w flag you can watch a specified input file and have it 
+compile as needed to the output file
 
-license
--------
+	$ plessc -w input-file output-file
 
-See `LICENSE` file.
+Errors from watch mode are written to standard out.
+
+

demo/protected/extensions/less/lib/lessphp/docs/docs.md

+    title: v0.3.4 documentation
+    link_to_home: true
+--
+
+<h2 skip="true">Documentation v0.3.4</h2>
+
+<div style="margin-bottom: 1em;">$index</div>
+
+**lessphp** is a compiler that generates CSS from a superset language which
+adds a collection of convenient features often seen in other languages. All CSS
+is compatible with LESS, so you can start using new features with your existing CSS.
+
+It is designed to be compatible with [less.js](http://lesscss.org), and suitable
+as a drop in replacement for PHP projects.
+
+## Getting Started
+
+The homepage for **lessphp** can be found at [http://leafo.net/lessphp/][1].
+
+You can follow development at the project's [GitHub][2].
+
+Including **lessphp** in your project is as simple as dropping the single
+include file into your code base and running the appropriate compile method as
+described in the [PHP Interface](#php_interface).
+
+  [1]: http://leafo.net/lessphp "lessphp homepage"
+  [2]: https://github.com/leafo/lessphp "lessphp GitHub page"
+
+## Installation
+
+**lessphp** is distributed entirely in a single stand-alone file. Download the
+latest version from either [the homepage][1] or [GitHub][2].
+
+Development versions can also be downloading from GitHub.
+
+Place `lessphp.inc.php` in a location available to your PHP scripts, and
+include it. That's it! you're ready to begin.
+
+## The Language
+
+**lessphp** is very easy to learn because it generally functions how you would
+expect it to. If you feel something is challenging or missing, feel free to
+open an issue on the [bug tracker](https://github.com/leafo/lessphp/issues).
+
+It is also easy to learn because any standards-compliant CSS code is valid LESS
+code. You are free to gradually enhance your existing CSS code base with LESS
+features without having to worry about rewriting anything.
+
+The following is a description of the new languages features provided by LESS.
+
+### Line Comments
+
+Simple but very useful; line comments are started with `//`:
+
+    ```less
+    // this is a comment
+    body {
+      color: red; // as is this
+      /* block comments still work also */
+    }
+    ```
+
+### Variables
+Variables are identified with a name that starts with `@`. To declare a
+variable, you create an appropriately named CSS property and assign it a value:
+
+    ```less
+    @family: "verdana";
+    @color: red;
+    body {
+      @mycolor: red;
+      font-family: @family;
+      color: @color;
+      border-bottom: 1px solid @color;
+    }
+    ```
+
+Variable declarations will not appear in the output. Variables can be declared
+in the outer most scope of the file, or anywhere else a CSS property may
+appear. They can hold any CSS property value.
+
+Variables are only visible for use from their current scope, or any enclosed
+scopes.
+
+If you have a string or keyword in a variable, you can reference another
+variable by that name by repeating the `@`:
+
+    ```less
+    @value: 20px;
+    @value_name: "value";
+
+    width: @@value_name;
+    ```
+
+### Expressions
+
+Expressions let you combine values and variables in meaningful ways. For
+example you can add to a color to make it a different shade. Or divide up the
+width of your layout logically. You can even concatenate strings.
+
+Use the mathematical operators to evaluate an expression:
+
+    ```less
+    @width: 960px;
+    .nav {
+      width: @width / 3;
+      color: #001 + #abc;
+    }
+    .body {
+      width: 2 * @width / 3;
+      font-family: "hel" + "vetica";
+    }
+    ```
+
+Parentheses can be used to control the order of evaluation. They can also be
+used to force an evaluation for cases where CSS's syntax makes the expression
+ambiguous.
+
+The following property will produce two numbers, instead of doing the
+subtraction:
+
+    ```less
+    margin: 10px -5px;
+    ```
+
+To force the subtraction:
+
+    ```less
+    margin: (10px -5px);
+    ```
+
+It is also safe to surround mathematical operators by spaces to ensure that
+they are evaluated:
+
+    ```less
+    margin: 10px - 5px;
+    ```
+
+Division has a special quirk. There are certain CSS properties that use the `/`
+operator as part of their value's syntax. Namely, the [font][4] shorthand and
+[border-radius][3].
+
+  [3]: https://developer.mozilla.org/en/CSS/border-radius
+  [4]: https://developer.mozilla.org/en/CSS/font
+
+
+Thus, **lessphp** will ignore any division in these properties unless it is
+wrapped in parentheses. For example, no division will take place here:
+
+    ```less
+    .font {
+      font: 20px/80px "Times New Roman";
+    }
+    ```
+
+In order to force division we must wrap the expression in parentheses:
+
+    ```less
+    .font {
+      font: (20px/80px) "Times New Roman";
+    }
+    ```
+
+If you want to write a literal `/` expression without dividing in another
+property (or a variable), you can use [string unquoting](#string_unquoting):
+
+    ```less
+    .var {
+      @size: ~"20px/80px";
+      font: @size sans-serif;
+    }
+    ```
+
+### Nested Blocks
+
+By nesting blocks we can build up a chain of CSS selectors through scope
+instead of repeating them. In addition to reducing repetition, this also helps
+logically organize the structure of our CSS.
+
+    ```less
+    ol.list {
+      li.special {
+        border: 1px solid red;
+      }
+
+      li.plain {
+        font-weight: bold;
+      }
+    }
+    ```
+
+
+This will produce two blocks, a `ol.list li.special` and `ol.list li.plain`.
+
+Blocks can be nested as deep as required in order to build a hierarchy of
+relationships.
+
+The `&` operator can be used in a selector to represent its parent's selector.
+If the `&` operator is used, then the default action of appending the parent to
+the front of the child selector separated by space is not performed.
+
+    ```less
+    b {
+      a & {
+        color: red;
+      }
+
+      // the following have the same effect
+
+      & i {
+        color: blue;
+      }
+
+      i {
+        color: blue;
+      }
+    }
+    ```
+
+
+Because the `&` operator respects the whitespace around it, we can use it to
+control how the child blocks are joined. Consider the differences between the
+following:
+
+    ```less
+    div {
+      .child-class { color: purple; }
+
+      &.isa-class { color: green; }
+
+      #child-id { height: 200px; }
+
+      &#div-id { height: 400px; }
+
+      &:hover { color: red; }
+
+      :link { color: blue; }
+    }
+    ```
+
+The `&` operator also works with [mixins](#mixins), which produces interesting results:
+
+    ```less
+    .within_box_style() {
+      .box & {
+        color: blue;
+      }
+    }
+
+    #menu {
+      .within_box_style;
+    }
+    ```
+
+### Mixins
+
+Any block can be mixed in just by naming it:
+
+    ```less
+    .mymixin {
+      color: blue;
+      border: 1px solid red;
+
+      .special {
+        font-weight: bold;
+      }
+    }
+
+
+    h1 {
+      font-size: 200px;
+      .mixin;
+    }
+    ```
+
+All properties and child blocks are mixed in.
+
+Mixins can be made parametric, meaning they can take arguments, in order to
+enhance their utility. A parametric mixin all by itself is not outputted when
+compiled. Its properties will only appear when mixed into another block.
+
+The canonical example is to create a rounded corners mixin that works across
+browsers:
+
+    ```less
+    .rounded-corners(@radius: 5px) {
+      border-radius: @radius;
+      -webkit-border-radius: @radius;
+      -moz-border-radius: @radius;
+    }
+
+    .header {
+      .rounded-corners();
+    }
+
+    .info {
+      background: red;
+      .rounded-corners(14px);
+    }
+    ```
+
+If you have a mixin that doesn't have any arguments, but you don't want it to
+show up in the output, give it a blank argument list:
+
+    ```less
+    .secret() {
+      font-size: 6000px;
+    }
+
+    .div {
+      .secret;
+    }
+    ```
+
+If the mixin doesn't need any arguments, you can leave off the parentheses when
+mixing it in, as seen above.
+
+You can also mixin a block that is nested inside other blocks. You can think of
+the outer block as a way of making a scope for your mixins. You just list the
+names of the mixins separated by spaces, which describes the path to the mixin
+you want to include. Optionally you can separate them by `>`.
+
+    ```less
+    .my_scope  {
+      .some_color {
+        color: red;
+        .inner_block {
+          text-decoration: underline;
+        }
+      }
+      .bold {
+        font-weight: bold;
+        color: blue;
+      }
+    }
+
+    .a_block {
+      .my_scope .some_color;
+      .my_scope .some_color .inner_block;
+    }
+
+    .another_block {
+      // the alternative syntax
+      .my_scope > .bold;
+    }
+    ```
+
+#### `@arguments` Variable
+
+Within an mixin there is a special variable named `@arguments` that contains
+all the arguments passed to the mixin along with any remaining arguments that
+have default values. The value of the variable has all the values separated by
+spaces.
+
+This useful for quickly assigning all the arguments:
+
+    ```less
+    .box-shadow(@x, @y, @blur, @color) {
+      box-shadow: @arguments;
+      -webkit-box-shadow: @arguments;
+      -moz-box-shadow: @arguments;
+    }
+    .menu {
+      .box-shadow(1px, 1px, 5px, #aaa);
+    }
+    ```
+
+In addition to the arguments passed to the mixin, `@arguments` will also include
+remaining default values assigned by the mixin:
+
+
+    ```less
+    .border-mixin(@width, @style: solid, @color: black) {
+      border: @arguments;
+    }
+
+    pre {
+      .border-mixin(4px, dotted);
+    }
+
+    ```
+
+
+#### Pattern Matching
+
+When you *mix in* a mixin, all the available mixins of that name in the current
+scope are checked to see if they match based on what was passed to the mixin
+and how it was declared.
+
+The simplest case is matching by number of arguments. Only the mixins that
+match the number of arguments passed in are used.
+
+    ```less
+    .simple() { // matches no arguments
+      height: 10px;
+    }
+
+    .simple(@a, @b) { // matches two arguments
+      color: red;
+    }
+
+    .simple(@a) { // matches one argument
+      color: blue;
+    }
+
+    div {
+      .simple(10);
+    }
+
+    span {
+      .simple(10, 20);
+    }
+    ```
+
+Whether an argument has default values is also taken into account when matching
+based on number of arguments:
+
+    ```less
+    // matches one or two arguments
+    .hello(@a, @b: blue) {
+      height: @a;
+      color: @b;
+    }
+
+    .hello(@a, @b) { // matches only two
+      width: @a;
+      border-color: @b;
+    }
+
+    .hello(@a) { // matches only one
+      padding: 1em;
+    }
+
+    div {
+      .hello(10px);
+    }
+
+    pre {
+      .hello(10px, yellow);
+    }
+    ```
+
+Additionally, a *vararg* value can be used to further control how things are
+matched.  A mixin's argument list can optionally end in the special argument
+named `...`.  The `...` may match any number of arguments, including 0.
+
+    ```less
+    // this will match any number of arguments
+    .first(...) {
+      color: blue;
+    }
+
+    // matches at least 1 argument
+    .second(@arg, ...) {
+      height: 200px + @arg;
+    }
+
+    div { .first("some", "args"); }
+    pre { .second(10px); }
+    ```
+
+If you want to capture the values that get captured by the *vararg* you can
+give it a variable name by putting it directly before the `...`. This variable
+must be the last argument defined. It's value is just like the special
+[`@arguments` variable](#arguments_variable), a space separated list.
+
+
+    ```less
+    .hello(@first, @rest...) {
+      color: @first;
+      text-shadow: @rest;
+    }
+
+    span {
+      .hello(red, 1px, 1px, 0px, white);
+    }
+
+    ```
+
+Another way of controlling whether a mixin matches is by specifying a value in
+place of an argument name when declaring the mixin:
+
+    ```less
+    .style(old, @size) {
+      font: @size serif;
+    }
+
+    .style(new, @size) {
+      font: @size sans-serif;
+    }
+
+    .style(@_, @size) {
+      letter-spacing: floor(@size / 6px);
+    }
+
+    em {
+      @switch: old;
+      .style(@switch, 15px);
+    }
+    ```
+
+Notice that two of the three mixins were matched. The mixin with a matching
+first argument, and the generic mixin that matches two arguments. It's common
+to use `@_` as the name of a variable we intend to not use. It has no special
+meaning to LESS, just to the reader of the code.
+
+#### Guards
+
+Another way of restricting when a mixin is mixed in is by using guards. A guard
+is a special expression that is associated with a mixin declaration that is
+evaluated during the mixin process. It must evaluate to true before the mixin
+can be used.
+
+We use the `when` keyword to begin describing a list of guard expressions.
+
+Here's a simple example:
+
+    ```less
+    .guarded(@arg) when (@arg = hello) {
+      color: blue;
+    }
+
+    div {
+      .guarded(hello); // match
+    }
+
+    span {
+      .guarded(world); // no match
+    }
+    ```
+Only the `div`'s mixin will match in this case, because the guard expression
+requires that `@arg` is equal to `hello`.
+
+We can include many different guard expressions by separating them by commas.
+Only one of them needs to match to trigger the mixin:
+
+    ```less
+    .x(@a, @b) when (@a = hello), (@b = world) {
+      width: 960px;
+    }
+
+    div {
+      .x(hello, bar); // match
+    }
+
+    span {
+      .x(foo, world); // match
+    }
+
+    pre {
+      .x(foo, bar); // no match
+    }
+    ```
+
+Instead of a comma, we can use `and` keyword to make it so all of the guards
+must match in order to trigger the mixin. `and` has higher precedence than the
+comma.
+
+    ```less
+    .y(@a, @b) when (@a = hello) and (@b = world) {
+      height: 600px;
+    }
+
+    div {
+      .y(hello, world); // match
+    }
+
+    span {
+      .y(hello, bar); // no match
+    }
+    ```
+
+Commas and `and`s can be mixed and matched.
+
+You can also negate a guard expression by using `not` in from of the parentheses:
+
+    ```less
+    .x(@a) when not (@a = hello) {
+      color: blue;
+    }
+
+    div {
+      .x(hello); // no match
+    }
+    ```
+
+The `=` operator is used to check equality between any two values. For numbers
+the following comparison operators are also defined:
+
+`<`, `>`, `=<`, `>=`
+
+There is also a collection of predicate functions that can be used to test the
+type of a value.
+
+These are `isnumber`, `iscolor`, `iskeyword`, `isstring`, `ispixel`,
+`ispercentage` and `isem`.
+
+    ```less
+    .mix(@a) when (ispercentage(@a)) {
+      height: 500px * @a;
+    }
+    .mix(@a) when (ispixel(@a)) {
+      height: @a;
+    }
+
+    div.a {
+      .mix(50%);
+    }
+
+    div.a {
+      .mix(350px);
+    }
+    ```
+
+### Selector Expressions
+
+Sometimes we want to dynamically generate the selector of a block based on some
+variable or expression. We can do this by using *selector expressions*. Selector
+expressions are CSS selectors that are evaluated in the current scope before
+being written out.
+
+A simple example is a mixin that dynamically creates a selector named after the
+mixin's argument:
+
+    ```less
+    .create-selector(@name) {
+      (e(@name)) {
+        color: red;
+      }
+    }
+
+    .create-selector("hello");
+    .create-selector("world");
+    ```
+
+Any selector that is enclosed in `()` will have it's contents evaluated and
+directly written to output. The value is not changed any way before being
+outputted, thats why we use the `e` function. If you're not familiar, the `e`
+function strips quotes off a string value. If we didn't have it, then the
+selector would have quotes around it, and that's not valid CSS!
+
+Any value can be used in a selector expression, but it works best when using
+strings and things like [String Interpolation](#string_interpolation).
+
+Here's an interesting example adapted from Twitter Bootstrap. A couple advanced
+things are going on. We are using [Guards](#guards) along with a recursive
+mixin to work like a loop to generate a series of CSS blocks.
+
+
+    ```less
+    // create our recursive mixin:
+    .spanX (@index) when (@index > 0) {
+      (~".span@{index}") {
+        width: @index * 100px;
+      }
+      .spanX(@index - 1);
+    }
+    .spanX (0) {}
+
+    // mix it into the global scopee:
+    .spanX(4);
+    ```
+
+### Import
+
+Multiple LESS files can be compiled into a single CSS file by using the
+`@import` statement. Be careful, the LESS import statement shares syntax with
+the CSS import statement. If the file being imported ends in a `.less`
+extension, or no extension, then it is treated as a LESS import. Otherwise it
+is left alone and outputted directly:
+
+    ```less
+    // my_file.less
+    .some-mixin(@height) {
+      height: @height;
+    }
+
+    // main.less
+    @import "main.less" // will import the file if it can be found
+    @import "main.css" // will be left alone
+
+    body {
+      .some-mixin(400px);
+    }
+    ```
+
+All of the following lines are valid ways to import the same file:
+
+    ```less
+    @import "file";
+    @import 'file.less';
+    @import url("file");
+    @import url('file');
+    @import url(file);
+    ```
+
+When importing, the `importDir` is searched for files. This can be configured,
+see [PHP Interface](#php_interface).
+
+### String Interpolation
+
+String interpolation is a convenient way to insert the value of a variable
+right into a string literal. Given some variable named `@var_name`, you just
+need to write it as `@{var_name}` from within the string to have its value
+inserted:
+
+    ```less
+    @symbol: ">";
+    h1:before {
+      content: "@{symbol}: ";
+    }
+
+    h2:before {
+      content: "@{symbol}@{symbol}: ";
+    }
+    ```
+
+There are two kinds of strings, implicit and explicit strings. Explicit strings
+are wrapped by double quotes, `"hello I am a string"`, or single quotes `'I am
+another string'`. Implicit strings only appear when using `url()`. The text
+between the parentheses is considered a string and thus string interpolation is
+possible:
+
+    ```less
+    @path: "files/";
+    body {
+      background: url(@{path}my_background.png);
+    }
+    ```
+
+### String Format Function
+
+The `%` function can be used to insert values into strings using a *format
+string*. It works similar to `printf` seen in other languages. It has the
+same purpose as string interpolation above, but gives explicit control over
+the output format.
+
+    ```less
+    @symbol: ">";
+    h1:before {
+      content: %("%s: ", @symbol);
+    }
+    ```
+
+The `%` function takes as its first argument the format string, following any
+number of addition arguments that are inserted in place of the format
+directives.
+
+A format directive starts with a `%` and is followed by a single character that
+is either `a`, `d`, or `s`:
+
+    ```less
+    strings: %("%a %d %s %a", hi, 1, 'ok', 'cool');
+    ```
+
+`%a` and `%d` format the value the same way: they compile the argument to its
+CSS value and insert it directly. When used with a string, the quotes are
+included in the output. This typically isn't what we want, so we have the `%s`
+format directive which strips quotes from strings before inserting them.
+
+The `%d` directive functions the same as `%a`, but is typically used for numbers
+assuming the output format of numbers might change in the future.
+
+### String Unquoting
+
+Sometimes you will need to write proprietary CSS syntax that is unable to be
+parsed. As a workaround you can place the code into a string and unquote it.
+Unquoting is the process of outputting a string without its surrounding quotes.
+There are two ways to unquote a string.
+
+The `~` operator in front of a string will unquote that string:
+
+    ```less
+    .class {
+      // a made up, but problematic vendor specific CSS
+      filter: ~"Microsoft.AlphaImage(src='image.png')";
+    }
+    ```
+
+If you are working with other types, such as variables, there is a built in
+function that let's you unquote any value. It is called `e`.
+
+    ```less
+    @color: "red";
+    .class {
+      color: e(@color);
+    }
+    ```
+
+### Built In Functions
+
+**lessphp** has a collection of built in functions:
+
+* `e(str)` -- returns a string without the surrounding quotes.
+  See [String Unquoting](#string_unquoting)
+
+* `floor(number)` -- returns the floor of a numerical input
+* `round(number)` -- returns the rounded value of numerical input
+
+* `lighten(color, percent)` -- lightens `color` by `percent` and returns it
+* `darken(color, percent)` -- darkens `color` by `percent` and returns it
+
+* `saturate(color, percent)` -- saturates `color` by `percent` and returns it
+* `desaturate(color, percent)` -- desaturates `color` by `percent` and returns it
+
+* `fadein(color, percent)` -- makes `color` less transparent by `percent` and returns it
+* `fadeout(color, percent)` -- makes `color` more transparent by `percent` and returns it
+
+* `spin(color, amount)` -- returns a color with `amount` degrees added to hue
+
+* `fade(color, amount)` -- returns a color with the alpha set to `amount`
+
+* `hue(color)` -- returns the hue of `color`
+
+* `saturation(color)` -- returns the saturation of `color`
+
+* `lightness(color)` -- returns the lightness of `color`
+
+* `alpha(color)` -- returns the alpha value of `color` or 1.0 if it doesn't have an alpha
+
+* `percentage(number)` -- converts a floating point number to a percentage, e.g. `0.65` -> `65%`
+
+* `mix(color1, color1, percent)` -- mixes two colors by percentage where 100%
+  keeps all of `color1`, and 0% keeps all of `color2`. Will take into account
+  the alpha of the colors if it exists. See
+  <http://sass-lang.com/docs/yardoc/Sass/Script/Functions.html#mix-instance_method>.
+
+* `rgbahex(color)` -- returns a string containing 4 part hex color.
+
+   This is used to convert a CSS color into the hex format that IE's filter
+   method expects when working with an alpha component.
+
+       ```less
+       .class {
+          @start: rgbahex(rgba(25, 34, 23, .5));
+          @end: rgbahex(rgba(85, 74, 103, .6));
+          // abridged example
+          -ms-filter:
+            e("gradient(start=@{start},end=@{end})");
+       }
+       ```
+
+## PHP Interface
+
+The PHP interface lets you control the compiler from your PHP scripts. There is
+only one file to include to get access to everything:
+
+    ```php
+    <?php
+    include "lessc.inc.php";
+    ```
+
+To compile a file to a string (of CSS code):
+
+    ```php
+    $less = new lessc("myfile.less");
+    $css = $less->parse();
+    ```
+
+To compile a string to a string:
+
+    ```php
+    $less = new lessc(); // a blank lessc
+    $css = $less->parse("body { a { color: red } }");
+    ```
+
+### Compiling Automatically
+
+Often, you want to write the compiled CSS to a file, and only recompile when
+the original LESS file has changed. The following function will check if the
+modification date of the LESS file is more recent than the CSS file.  The LESS
+file will be compiled if it is. If the CSS file doesn't exist yet, then it will
+also compile the LESS file.
+
+    ```php
+    lessc::ccompile('myfile.less', 'mystyle.css');
+    ```
+
+`ccompile` is very basic, it only checks if the input file's modification time.
+It is not of any files that are brought in using `@import`.
+
+For this reason we also have `lessc::cexecute`. It functions slightly
+differently, but gives us the ability to check changes to all files used during
+the compile. It takes one argument, either the name of the file we want to
+compile, or an existing *cache object*. Its return value is an updated cache
+object.
+
+If we don't have a cache object, then we call the function with the name of the
+file to get the initial cache object. If we do have a cache object, then we
+call the function with it. In both cases, an updated cache object is returned.
+
+The cache object keeps track of all the files that must be checked in order to
+determine if a rebuild is required.
+
+The cache object is a plain PHP `array`. It stores the last time it compiled in
+`$cache['updated']` and output of the compile in `$cache['compiled']`.
+
+Here we demonstrate creating an new cache object, then using it to see if we
+have a recompiled version available to be written:
+
+
+    ```php
+    $less_file = 'myfile.less';
+    $css_file = 'myfile.css';
+
+    // create a new cache object, and compile
+    $cache = lessc::cexecute('myfile.less');
+    file_put_contents($css_file, $cache['compiled']);
+
+    // the next time we run, write only if it has updated
+    $last_updated = $cache['updated'];
+    $cache = lessc::cexecute($cache);
+    if ($cache['updated'] > $last_updated) {
+        file_put_contents($css_file, $cache['compiled']);
+    }
+
+    ```
+
+In order for the system to fully work, we must save cache object between
+requests. Because it's a plain PHP `array`, it's sufficient to
+[`serialize`](http://php.net/serialize) it and save it the string somewhere
+like a file or in persistent memory.
+
+An example with saving cache object to a file:
+