1. Luke Plant
  2. django

Commits

mtre...@bcc190cf-cafb-0310-a4f2-bffc1f526a37  committed 41bb847

Tweaked the admin validation code to make things a bit easier to read. Tracing
through all the underscore-prefixed and wrapped functions was a bit trying and
some of the names were misleading. No functional changes. Primarily, this is
just bringing the style into line with the rest of the codebase.

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Files changed (2)

File django/contrib/admin/validation.py

View file
  • Ignore whitespace
 from django.contrib.admin.options import flatten_fieldsets, BaseModelAdmin
 from django.contrib.admin.options import HORIZONTAL, VERTICAL
 
+__all__ = ['validate']
+
 def validate(cls, model):
     """
     Does basic ModelAdmin option validation. Calls custom validation
     custom validation classmethod should be: def validate(cls, model).
     """
     opts = model._meta
-    _validate_base(cls, model)
-
-    # currying is expensive, use wrappers instead
-    def _check_istuplew(label, obj):
-        _check_istuple(cls, label, obj)
-
-    def _check_isdictw(label, obj):
-        _check_isdict(cls, label, obj)
-
-    def _check_field_existsw(label, field):
-        return _check_field_exists(cls, model, opts, label, field)
-
-    def _check_attr_existsw(label, field):
-        return _check_attr_exists(cls, model, opts, label, field)
+    validate_base(cls, model)
 
     # list_display
     if hasattr(cls, 'list_display'):
-        _check_istuplew('list_display', cls.list_display)
+        check_isseq(cls, 'list_display', cls.list_display)
         for idx, field in enumerate(cls.list_display):
             if not callable(field):
                 if not hasattr(cls, field):
                         try:
                             opts.get_field(field)
                         except models.FieldDoesNotExist:
-                            raise ImproperlyConfigured("%s.list_display[%d], %r is "
-                                "not a callable or an attribute of %r or found in the model %r."
+                            raise ImproperlyConfigured("%s.list_display[%d], %r is not a callable or an attribute of %r or found in the model %r."
                                 % (cls.__name__, idx, field, cls.__name__, model._meta.object_name))
-                        f = _check_attr_existsw("list_display[%d]" % idx, field)
+                        f = fetch_attr(cls, model, opts, "list_display[%d]" % idx, field)
                         if isinstance(f, models.ManyToManyField):
-                            raise ImproperlyConfigured("`%s.list_display[%d]`, `%s` is a "
-                                "ManyToManyField which is not supported."
+                            raise ImproperlyConfigured("'%s.list_display[%d]', '%s' is a ManyToManyField which is not supported."
                                 % (cls.__name__, idx, field))
 
     # list_display_links
     if hasattr(cls, 'list_display_links'):
-        _check_istuplew('list_display_links', cls.list_display_links)
+        check_isseq(cls, 'list_display_links', cls.list_display_links)
         for idx, field in enumerate(cls.list_display_links):
-            _check_attr_existsw('list_display_links[%d]' % idx, field)
+            fetch_attr(cls, model, opts, 'list_display_links[%d]' % idx, field)
             if field not in cls.list_display:
-                raise ImproperlyConfigured("`%s.list_display_links[%d]`"
-                        "refers to `%s` which is not defined in `list_display`."
+                raise ImproperlyConfigured("'%s.list_display_links[%d]'"
+                        "refers to '%s' which is not defined in 'list_display'."
                         % (cls.__name__, idx, field))
 
     # list_filter
     if hasattr(cls, 'list_filter'):
-        _check_istuplew('list_filter', cls.list_filter)
+        check_isseq(cls, 'list_filter', cls.list_filter)
         for idx, field in enumerate(cls.list_filter):
-            _check_field_existsw('list_filter[%d]' % idx, field)
+            get_field(cls, model, opts, 'list_filter[%d]' % idx, field)
 
     # list_per_page = 100
     if hasattr(cls, 'list_per_page') and not isinstance(cls.list_per_page, int):
-        raise ImproperlyConfigured("`%s.list_per_page` should be a integer."
+        raise ImproperlyConfigured("'%s.list_per_page' should be a integer."
                 % cls.__name__)
 
     # search_fields = ()
     if hasattr(cls, 'search_fields'):
-        _check_istuplew('search_fields', cls.search_fields)
-        
+        check_isseq(cls, 'search_fields', cls.search_fields)
+
     # date_hierarchy = None
     if cls.date_hierarchy:
-        f = _check_field_existsw('date_hierarchy', cls.date_hierarchy)
+        f = get_field(cls, model, opts, 'date_hierarchy', cls.date_hierarchy)
         if not isinstance(f, (models.DateField, models.DateTimeField)):
-            raise ImproperlyConfigured("`%s.date_hierarchy is "
+            raise ImproperlyConfigured("'%s.date_hierarchy is "
                     "neither an instance of DateField nor DateTimeField."
                     % cls.__name__)
 
     # ordering = None
     if cls.ordering:
-        _check_istuplew('ordering', cls.ordering)
+        check_isseq(cls, 'ordering', cls.ordering)
         for idx, field in enumerate(cls.ordering):
             if field == '?' and len(cls.ordering) != 1:
-                raise ImproperlyConfigured("`%s.ordering` has the random "
-                        "ordering marker `?`, but contains other fields as "
-                        "well. Please either remove `?` or the other fields."
+                raise ImproperlyConfigured("'%s.ordering' has the random "
+                        "ordering marker '?', but contains other fields as "
+                        "well. Please either remove '?' or the other fields."
                         % cls.__name__)
             if field == '?':
                 continue
             # this format would be nice, but it's a little fiddly).
             if '__' in field:
                 continue
-            _check_field_existsw('ordering[%d]' % idx, field)
+            get_field(cls, model, opts, 'ordering[%d]' % idx, field)
 
     # list_select_related = False
     # save_as = False
     # save_on_top = False
     for attr in ('list_select_related', 'save_as', 'save_on_top'):
         if not isinstance(getattr(cls, attr), bool):
-            raise ImproperlyConfigured("`%s.%s` should be a boolean."
+            raise ImproperlyConfigured("'%s.%s' should be a boolean."
                     % (cls.__name__, attr))
 
     # inlines = []
     if hasattr(cls, 'inlines'):
-        _check_istuplew('inlines', cls.inlines)
+        check_isseq(cls, 'inlines', cls.inlines)
         for idx, inline in enumerate(cls.inlines):
             if not issubclass(inline, BaseModelAdmin):
-                raise ImproperlyConfigured("`%s.inlines[%d]` does not inherit "
+                raise ImproperlyConfigured("'%s.inlines[%d]' does not inherit "
                         "from BaseModelAdmin." % (cls.__name__, idx))
             if not inline.model:
-                raise ImproperlyConfigured("`model` is a required attribute "
-                        "of `%s.inlines[%d]`." % (cls.__name__, idx))
+                raise ImproperlyConfigured("'model' is a required attribute "
+                        "of '%s.inlines[%d]'." % (cls.__name__, idx))
             if not issubclass(inline.model, models.Model):
-                raise ImproperlyConfigured("`%s.inlines[%d].model` does not "
+                raise ImproperlyConfigured("'%s.inlines[%d].model' does not "
                         "inherit from models.Model." % (cls.__name__, idx))
-            _validate_base(inline, inline.model)
-            _validate_inline(inline)
-            
-def _validate_inline(cls):
+            validate_base(inline, inline.model)
+            validate_inline(inline)
+
+def validate_inline(cls):
     # model is already verified to exist and be a Model
     if cls.fk_name: # default value is None
-        f = _check_field_exists(cls, cls.model, cls.model._meta,
+        f = get_field(cls, cls.model, cls.model._meta,
                 'fk_name', cls.fk_name)
         if not isinstance(f, models.ForeignKey):
-            raise ImproperlyConfigured("`%s.fk_name is not an instance of "
+            raise ImproperlyConfigured("'%s.fk_name is not an instance of "
                     "models.ForeignKey." % cls.__name__)
     # extra = 3
     # max_num = 0
     for attr in ('extra', 'max_num'):
         if not isinstance(getattr(cls, attr), int):
-            raise ImproperlyConfigured("`%s.%s` should be a integer."
+            raise ImproperlyConfigured("'%s.%s' should be a integer."
                     % (cls.__name__, attr))
 
     # formset
     if hasattr(cls, 'formset') and not issubclass(cls.formset, BaseModelFormSet):
-        raise ImproperlyConfigured("`%s.formset` does not inherit from "
+        raise ImproperlyConfigured("'%s.formset' does not inherit from "
                 "BaseModelFormSet." % cls.__name__)
 
-def _validate_base(cls, model):
+def validate_base(cls, model):
     opts = model._meta
-    # currying is expensive, use wrappers instead
-    def _check_istuplew(label, obj):
-        _check_istuple(cls, label, obj)
-
-    def _check_isdictw(label, obj):
-        _check_isdict(cls, label, obj)
-
-    def _check_field_existsw(label, field):
-        return _check_field_exists(cls, model, opts, label, field)
-    
-    def _check_form_field_existsw(label, field):
-        return _check_form_field_exists(cls, model, opts, label, field)
 
     # raw_id_fields
     if hasattr(cls, 'raw_id_fields'):
-        _check_istuplew('raw_id_fields', cls.raw_id_fields)
+        check_isseq(cls, 'raw_id_fields', cls.raw_id_fields)
         for idx, field in enumerate(cls.raw_id_fields):
-            f = _check_field_existsw('raw_id_fields', field)
+            f = get_field(cls, model, opts, 'raw_id_fields', field)
             if not isinstance(f, (models.ForeignKey, models.ManyToManyField)):
-                raise ImproperlyConfigured("`%s.raw_id_fields[%d]`, `%s` must "
+                raise ImproperlyConfigured("'%s.raw_id_fields[%d]', '%s' must "
                         "be either a ForeignKey or ManyToManyField."
                         % (cls.__name__, idx, field))
 
     # fields
     if cls.fields: # default value is None
-        _check_istuplew('fields', cls.fields)
+        check_isseq(cls, 'fields', cls.fields)
         for field in cls.fields:
-            _check_form_field_existsw('fields', field)
+            check_formfield(cls, model, opts, 'fields', field)
         if cls.fieldsets:
             raise ImproperlyConfigured('Both fieldsets and fields are specified in %s.' % cls.__name__)
         if len(cls.fields) > len(set(cls.fields)):
 
     # fieldsets
     if cls.fieldsets: # default value is None
-        _check_istuplew('fieldsets', cls.fieldsets)
+        check_isseq(cls, 'fieldsets', cls.fieldsets)
         for idx, fieldset in enumerate(cls.fieldsets):
-            _check_istuplew('fieldsets[%d]' % idx, fieldset)
+            check_isseq(cls, 'fieldsets[%d]' % idx, fieldset)
             if len(fieldset) != 2:
-                raise ImproperlyConfigured("`%s.fieldsets[%d]` does not "
+                raise ImproperlyConfigured("'%s.fieldsets[%d]' does not "
                         "have exactly two elements." % (cls.__name__, idx))
-            _check_isdictw('fieldsets[%d][1]' % idx, fieldset[1])
+            check_isdict(cls, 'fieldsets[%d][1]' % idx, fieldset[1])
             if 'fields' not in fieldset[1]:
-                raise ImproperlyConfigured("`fields` key is required in "
+                raise ImproperlyConfigured("'fields' key is required in "
                         "%s.fieldsets[%d][1] field options dict."
                         % (cls.__name__, idx))
         flattened_fieldsets = flatten_fieldsets(cls.fieldsets)
         if len(flattened_fieldsets) > len(set(flattened_fieldsets)):
             raise ImproperlyConfigured('There are duplicate field(s) in %s.fieldsets' % cls.__name__)
         for field in flattened_fieldsets:
-            _check_form_field_existsw("fieldsets[%d][1]['fields']" % idx, field)
+            check_formfield(cls, model, opts, "fieldsets[%d][1]['fields']" % idx, field)
 
     # form
     if hasattr(cls, 'form') and not issubclass(cls.form, BaseModelForm):
 
     # filter_vertical
     if hasattr(cls, 'filter_vertical'):
-        _check_istuplew('filter_vertical', cls.filter_vertical)
+        check_isseq(cls, 'filter_vertical', cls.filter_vertical)
         for idx, field in enumerate(cls.filter_vertical):
-            f = _check_field_existsw('filter_vertical', field)
+            f = get_field(cls, model, opts, 'filter_vertical', field)
             if not isinstance(f, models.ManyToManyField):
-                raise ImproperlyConfigured("`%s.filter_vertical[%d]` must be "
+                raise ImproperlyConfigured("'%s.filter_vertical[%d]' must be "
                     "a ManyToManyField." % (cls.__name__, idx))
 
     # filter_horizontal
     if hasattr(cls, 'filter_horizontal'):
-        _check_istuplew('filter_horizontal', cls.filter_horizontal)
+        check_isseq(cls, 'filter_horizontal', cls.filter_horizontal)
         for idx, field in enumerate(cls.filter_horizontal):
-            f = _check_field_existsw('filter_horizontal', field)
+            f = get_field(cls, model, opts, 'filter_horizontal', field)
             if not isinstance(f, models.ManyToManyField):
-                raise ImproperlyConfigured("`%s.filter_horizontal[%d]` must be "
+                raise ImproperlyConfigured("'%s.filter_horizontal[%d]' must be "
                     "a ManyToManyField." % (cls.__name__, idx))
 
     # radio_fields
     if hasattr(cls, 'radio_fields'):
-        _check_isdictw('radio_fields', cls.radio_fields)
+        check_isdict(cls, 'radio_fields', cls.radio_fields)
         for field, val in cls.radio_fields.items():
-            f = _check_field_existsw('radio_fields', field)
+            f = get_field(cls, model, opts, 'radio_fields', field)
             if not (isinstance(f, models.ForeignKey) or f.choices):
-                raise ImproperlyConfigured("`%s.radio_fields['%s']` "
+                raise ImproperlyConfigured("'%s.radio_fields['%s']' "
                         "is neither an instance of ForeignKey nor does "
                         "have choices set." % (cls.__name__, field))
             if not val in (HORIZONTAL, VERTICAL):
-                raise ImproperlyConfigured("`%s.radio_fields['%s']` "
+                raise ImproperlyConfigured("'%s.radio_fields['%s']' "
                         "is neither admin.HORIZONTAL nor admin.VERTICAL."
                         % (cls.__name__, field))
 
     # prepopulated_fields
     if hasattr(cls, 'prepopulated_fields'):
-        _check_isdictw('prepopulated_fields', cls.prepopulated_fields)
+        check_isdict(cls, 'prepopulated_fields', cls.prepopulated_fields)
         for field, val in cls.prepopulated_fields.items():
-            f = _check_field_existsw('prepopulated_fields', field)
+            f = get_field(cls, model, opts, 'prepopulated_fields', field)
             if isinstance(f, (models.DateTimeField, models.ForeignKey,
                 models.ManyToManyField)):
-                raise ImproperlyConfigured("`%s.prepopulated_fields['%s']` "
+                raise ImproperlyConfigured("'%s.prepopulated_fields['%s']' "
                         "is either a DateTimeField, ForeignKey or "
                         "ManyToManyField. This isn't allowed."
                         % (cls.__name__, field))
-            _check_istuplew("prepopulated_fields['%s']" % field, val)
+            check_isseq(cls, "prepopulated_fields['%s']" % field, val)
             for idx, f in enumerate(val):
-                _check_field_existsw("prepopulated_fields['%s'][%d]"
+                get_field(cls, model,
+                        opts, "prepopulated_fields['%s'][%d]"
                         % (f, idx), f)
 
-def _check_istuple(cls, label, obj):
+def check_isseq(cls, label, obj):
     if not isinstance(obj, (list, tuple)):
-        raise ImproperlyConfigured("`%s.%s` must be a "
-                "list or tuple." % (cls.__name__, label))
-
-def _check_isdict(cls, label, obj):
-    if not isinstance(obj, dict):
-        raise ImproperlyConfigured("`%s.%s` must be a dictionary."
+        raise ImproperlyConfigured("'%s.%s' must be a list or tuple."
                 % (cls.__name__, label))
 
-def _check_field_exists(cls, model, opts, label, field):
+def check_isdict(cls, label, obj):
+    if not isinstance(obj, dict):
+        raise ImproperlyConfigured("'%s.%s' must be a dictionary."
+                % (cls.__name__, label))
+
+def get_field(cls, model, opts, label, field):
     try:
         return opts.get_field(field)
     except models.FieldDoesNotExist:
-        raise ImproperlyConfigured("`%s.%s` refers to "
-                "field `%s` that is missing from model `%s`."
+        raise ImproperlyConfigured("'%s.%s' refers to field '%s' that is missing from model '%s'."
                 % (cls.__name__, label, field, model.__name__))
 
-def _check_form_field_exists(cls, model, opts, label, field):
+def check_formfield(cls, model, opts, label, field):
     if hasattr(cls.form, 'base_fields'):
         try:
             cls.form.base_fields[field]
         except KeyError:
-            raise ImproperlyConfigured("`%s.%s` refers to field `%s` that "
+            raise ImproperlyConfigured("'%s.%s' refers to field '%s' that "
                 "is missing from the form." % (cls.__name__, label, field))
     else:
         fields = fields_for_model(model)
         try:
             fields[field]
         except KeyError:
-            raise ImproperlyConfigured("`%s.%s` refers to field `%s` that "
+            raise ImproperlyConfigured("'%s.%s' refers to field '%s' that "
                 "is missing from the form." % (cls.__name__, label, field))
 
-def _check_attr_exists(cls, model, opts, label, field):
+def fetch_attr(cls, model, opts, label, field):
     try:
         return opts.get_field(field)
     except models.FieldDoesNotExist:
-        if not hasattr(model, field):
-            raise ImproperlyConfigured("`%s.%s` refers to "
-                    "`%s` that is neither a field, method or property "
-                    "of model `%s`."
-                    % (cls.__name__, label, field, model.__name__))
+        pass
+    try:
         return getattr(model, field)
+    except AttributeError:
+        raise ImproperlyConfigured("'%s.%s' refers to '%s' that is neither a field, method or property of model '%s'."
+            % (cls.__name__, label, field, model.__name__))

File tests/regressiontests/modeladmin/models.py

View file
  • Ignore whitespace
 >>> site.register(ValidationTestModel, ValidationTestModelAdmin)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.raw_id_fields` must be a list or tuple.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.raw_id_fields' must be a list or tuple.
 
 >>> settings.DEBUG = False
 
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.raw_id_fields` must be a list or tuple.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.raw_id_fields' must be a list or tuple.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     raw_id_fields = ('non_existent_field',)
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.raw_id_fields` refers to field `non_existent_field` that is missing from model `ValidationTestModel`.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.raw_id_fields' refers to field 'non_existent_field' that is missing from model 'ValidationTestModel'.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     raw_id_fields = ('name',)
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.raw_id_fields[0]`, `name` must be either a ForeignKey or ManyToManyField.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.raw_id_fields[0]', 'name' must be either a ForeignKey or ManyToManyField.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     raw_id_fields = ('users',)
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.fieldsets` must be a list or tuple.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.fieldsets' must be a list or tuple.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     fieldsets = ({},)
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.fieldsets[0]` must be a list or tuple.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.fieldsets[0]' must be a list or tuple.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     fieldsets = ((),)
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.fieldsets[0]` does not have exactly two elements.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.fieldsets[0]' does not have exactly two elements.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     fieldsets = (("General", ()),)
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.fieldsets[0][1]` must be a dictionary.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.fieldsets[0][1]' must be a dictionary.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     fieldsets = (("General", {}),)
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `fields` key is required in ValidationTestModelAdmin.fieldsets[0][1] field options dict.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'fields' key is required in ValidationTestModelAdmin.fieldsets[0][1] field options dict.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     fieldsets = (("General", {"fields": ("non_existent_field",)}),)
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.fieldsets[0][1]['fields']` refers to field `non_existent_field` that is missing from the form.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.fieldsets[0][1]['fields']' refers to field 'non_existent_field' that is missing from the form.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     fieldsets = (("General", {"fields": ("name",)}),)
 >>> validate(BandAdmin, Band)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `BandAdmin.fieldsets[0][1]['fields']` refers to field `non_existent_field` that is missing from the form.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'BandAdmin.fieldsets[0][1]['fields']' refers to field 'non_existent_field' that is missing from the form.
 
 >>> class BandAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     fieldsets = (
 >>> validate(BandAdmin, Band)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `BandAdmin.fieldsets[0][1]['fields']` refers to field `non_existent_field` that is missing from the form.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'BandAdmin.fieldsets[0][1]['fields']' refers to field 'non_existent_field' that is missing from the form.
 
 >>> class AdminBandForm(forms.ModelForm):
 ...     delete = forms.BooleanField()
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.filter_vertical` must be a list or tuple.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.filter_vertical' must be a list or tuple.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     filter_vertical = ("non_existent_field",)
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.filter_vertical` refers to field `non_existent_field` that is missing from model `ValidationTestModel`.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.filter_vertical' refers to field 'non_existent_field' that is missing from model 'ValidationTestModel'.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     filter_vertical = ("name",)
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.filter_vertical[0]` must be a ManyToManyField.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.filter_vertical[0]' must be a ManyToManyField.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     filter_vertical = ("users",)
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.filter_horizontal` must be a list or tuple.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.filter_horizontal' must be a list or tuple.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     filter_horizontal = ("non_existent_field",)
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.filter_horizontal` refers to field `non_existent_field` that is missing from model `ValidationTestModel`.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.filter_horizontal' refers to field 'non_existent_field' that is missing from model 'ValidationTestModel'.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     filter_horizontal = ("name",)
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.filter_horizontal[0]` must be a ManyToManyField.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.filter_horizontal[0]' must be a ManyToManyField.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     filter_horizontal = ("users",)
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.radio_fields` must be a dictionary.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.radio_fields' must be a dictionary.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     radio_fields = {"non_existent_field": None}
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.radio_fields` refers to field `non_existent_field` that is missing from model `ValidationTestModel`.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.radio_fields' refers to field 'non_existent_field' that is missing from model 'ValidationTestModel'.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     radio_fields = {"name": None}
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.radio_fields['name']` is neither an instance of ForeignKey nor does have choices set.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.radio_fields['name']' is neither an instance of ForeignKey nor does have choices set.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     radio_fields = {"state": None}
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.radio_fields['state']` is neither admin.HORIZONTAL nor admin.VERTICAL.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.radio_fields['state']' is neither admin.HORIZONTAL nor admin.VERTICAL.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     radio_fields = {"state": VERTICAL}
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.prepopulated_fields` must be a dictionary.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.prepopulated_fields' must be a dictionary.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     prepopulated_fields = {"non_existent_field": None}
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.prepopulated_fields` refers to field `non_existent_field` that is missing from model `ValidationTestModel`.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.prepopulated_fields' refers to field 'non_existent_field' that is missing from model 'ValidationTestModel'.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     prepopulated_fields = {"slug": ("non_existent_field",)}
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.prepopulated_fields['non_existent_field'][0]` refers to field `non_existent_field` that is missing from model `ValidationTestModel`.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.prepopulated_fields['non_existent_field'][0]' refers to field 'non_existent_field' that is missing from model 'ValidationTestModel'.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     prepopulated_fields = {"users": ("name",)}
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.prepopulated_fields['users']` is either a DateTimeField, ForeignKey or ManyToManyField. This isn't allowed.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.prepopulated_fields['users']' is either a DateTimeField, ForeignKey or ManyToManyField. This isn't allowed.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     prepopulated_fields = {"slug": ("name",)}
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.list_display` must be a list or tuple.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.list_display' must be a list or tuple.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     list_display = ('non_existent_field',)
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.list_display[0]`, `users` is a ManyToManyField which is not supported.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.list_display[0]', 'users' is a ManyToManyField which is not supported.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     list_display = ('name',)
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.list_display_links` must be a list or tuple.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.list_display_links' must be a list or tuple.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     list_display_links = ('non_existent_field',)
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.list_display_links[0]` refers to `non_existent_field` that is neither a field, method or property of model `ValidationTestModel`.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.list_display_links[0]' refers to 'non_existent_field' that is neither a field, method or property of model 'ValidationTestModel'.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     list_display_links = ('name',)
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.list_display_links[0]`refers to `name` which is not defined in `list_display`.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.list_display_links[0]'refers to 'name' which is not defined in 'list_display'.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     list_display = ('name',)
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.list_filter` must be a list or tuple.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.list_filter' must be a list or tuple.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     list_filter = ('non_existent_field',)
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.list_filter[0]` refers to field `non_existent_field` that is missing from model `ValidationTestModel`.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.list_filter[0]' refers to field 'non_existent_field' that is missing from model 'ValidationTestModel'.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     list_filter = ('is_active',)
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.list_per_page` should be a integer.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.list_per_page' should be a integer.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     list_per_page = 100
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.search_fields` must be a list or tuple.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.search_fields' must be a list or tuple.
 
 # date_hierarchy
 
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.date_hierarchy` refers to field `non_existent_field` that is missing from model `ValidationTestModel`.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.date_hierarchy' refers to field 'non_existent_field' that is missing from model 'ValidationTestModel'.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     date_hierarchy = 'name'
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.date_hierarchy is neither an instance of DateField nor DateTimeField.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.date_hierarchy is neither an instance of DateField nor DateTimeField.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     date_hierarchy = 'pub_date'
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.ordering` must be a list or tuple.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.ordering' must be a list or tuple.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     ordering = ('non_existent_field',)
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.ordering[0]` refers to field `non_existent_field` that is missing from model `ValidationTestModel`.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.ordering[0]' refers to field 'non_existent_field' that is missing from model 'ValidationTestModel'.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     ordering = ('?', 'name')
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.ordering` has the random ordering marker `?`, but contains other fields as well. Please either remove `?` or the other fields.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.ordering' has the random ordering marker '?', but contains other fields as well. Please either remove '?' or the other fields.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     ordering = ('?',)
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.list_select_related` should be a boolean.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.list_select_related' should be a boolean.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     list_select_related = False
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.save_as` should be a boolean.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.save_as' should be a boolean.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     save_as = True
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.save_on_top` should be a boolean.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.save_on_top' should be a boolean.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestModelAdmin(ModelAdmin):
 ...     save_on_top = True
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.inlines` must be a list or tuple.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.inlines' must be a list or tuple.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestInline(object):
 ...     pass
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.inlines[0]` does not inherit from BaseModelAdmin.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.inlines[0]' does not inherit from BaseModelAdmin.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestInline(TabularInline):
 ...     pass
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `model` is a required attribute of `ValidationTestModelAdmin.inlines[0]`.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'model' is a required attribute of 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.inlines[0]'.
 
 >>> class SomethingBad(object):
 ...     pass
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestModelAdmin.inlines[0].model` does not inherit from models.Model.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestModelAdmin.inlines[0].model' does not inherit from models.Model.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestInline(TabularInline):
 ...     model = ValidationTestInlineModel
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestInline.fields` must be a list or tuple.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestInline.fields' must be a list or tuple.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestInline(TabularInline):
 ...     model = ValidationTestInlineModel
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestInline.fields` refers to field `non_existent_field` that is missing from the form.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestInline.fields' refers to field 'non_existent_field' that is missing from the form.
 
 # fk_name
 
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestInline.fk_name` refers to field `non_existent_field` that is missing from model `ValidationTestInlineModel`.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestInline.fk_name' refers to field 'non_existent_field' that is missing from model 'ValidationTestInlineModel'.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestInline(TabularInline):
 ...     model = ValidationTestInlineModel
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestInline.extra` should be a integer.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestInline.extra' should be a integer.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestInline(TabularInline):
 ...     model = ValidationTestInlineModel
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestInline.max_num` should be a integer.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestInline.max_num' should be a integer.
 
 >>> class ValidationTestInline(TabularInline):
 ...     model = ValidationTestInlineModel
 >>> validate(ValidationTestModelAdmin, ValidationTestModel)
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 ...
-ImproperlyConfigured: `ValidationTestInline.formset` does not inherit from BaseModelFormSet.
+ImproperlyConfigured: 'ValidationTestInline.formset' does not inherit from BaseModelFormSet.
 
 >>> class RealModelFormSet(BaseModelFormSet):
 ...     pass