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Anonymous committed 48643b4

[per-object-permissions] Merged to trunk [3731]

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Files changed (51)

     mattycakes@gmail.com
     Jason McBrayer <http://www.carcosa.net/jason/>
     michael.mcewan@gmail.com
-    mir@noris.de
     mmarshall
     Eric Moritz <http://eric.themoritzfamily.com/>
     Robin Munn <http://www.geekforgod.com/>
     plisk
     Daniel Poelzleithner <http://poelzi.org/>
     J. Rademaker
+    Michael Radziej <mir@noris.de>
     Brian Ray <http://brianray.chipy.org/>
     rhettg@gmail.com
     Oliver Rutherfurd <http://rutherfurd.net/>
     Ivan Sagalaev (Maniac) <http://www.softwaremaniacs.org/>
     David Schein
+    Pete Shinners <pete@shinners.org>
+    SmileyChris <smileychris@gmail.com>
     sopel
     Thomas Steinacher <tom@eggdrop.ch>
     Radek Švarz <http://www.svarz.cz/translate/>
     Amit Upadhyay
     Geert Vanderkelen
     Milton Waddams
+    Dan Watson <http://theidioteque.net/>
     Rachel Willmer <http://www.willmer.com/kb/>
     wojtek
     ye7cakf02@sneakemail.com

django/bin/compile-messages.py

                 # See http://cyberelk.net/tim/articles/cmdline/ar01s02.html
                 os.environ['djangocompilemo'] = pf + '.mo'
                 os.environ['djangocompilepo'] = pf + '.po'
-                cmd = 'msgfmt -o "$djangocompilemo" "$djangocompilepo"'
+                if sys.platform == 'win32': # Different shell-variable syntax
+                    cmd = 'msgfmt -o "%djangocompilemo%" "%djangocompilepo%"'
+                else:
+                    cmd = 'msgfmt -o "$djangocompilemo" "$djangocompilepo"'
                 os.system(cmd)
 
 if __name__ == "__main__":

django/conf/global_settings.py

 # TESTING #
 ###########
 
-TEST_RUNNER='django.test.simple.run_tests'
+# The name of the method to use to invoke the test suite
+TEST_RUNNER = 'django.test.simple.run_tests'
+
+# The name of the database to use for testing purposes.
+# If None, a name of 'test_' + DATABASE_NAME will be assumed
+TEST_DATABASE_NAME = None

django/contrib/admin/templates/admin/change_form.html

 
 
 </div>
+
+
 {% endblock %}

django/contrib/admin/templatetags/admin_modify.py

         super(StackedBoundRelatedObject, self).__init__(related_object, field_mapping, original)
         fields = self.relation.editable_fields()
         self.field_mappings.fill()
+
         self.form_field_collection_wrappers = [FormFieldCollectionWrapper(field_mapping ,fields, i)
                                                for (i,field_mapping) in self.field_mappings.items()]
         self.show_url = original and hasattr(self.relation.opts, 'get_absolute_url')

django/contrib/admin/views/doc.py

     """
     views = []
     for p in urlpatterns:
-        if hasattr(p, 'get_callback'):
+        if hasattr(p, '_get_callback'):
             try:
-                views.append((p.get_callback(), base + p.regex.pattern))
+                views.append((p._get_callback(), base + p.regex.pattern))
             except ViewDoesNotExist:
                 continue
         elif hasattr(p, '_get_url_patterns'):
-            views.extend(extract_views_from_urlpatterns(p.url_patterns, base + p.regex.pattern))
+            try:
+                patterns = p.url_patterns
+            except ImportError:
+                continue
+            views.extend(extract_views_from_urlpatterns(patterns, base + p.regex.pattern))
         else:
             raise TypeError, _("%s does not appear to be a urlpattern object") % p
     return views

django/contrib/auth/models.py

 
     Permissions are set globally per type of object, not per specific object instance. It is possible to say "Mary may change news stories," but it's not currently possible to say "Mary may change news stories, but only the ones she created herself" or "Mary may only change news stories that have a certain status or publication date."
 
-    Three basic permissions -- add, create and delete -- are automatically created for each Django model.
+    Three basic permissions -- add, change and delete -- are automatically created for each Django model.
     """
     name = models.CharField(_('name'), maxlength=50)
     content_type = models.ForeignKey(ContentType)

django/contrib/sitemaps/__init__.py

+from django.core import urlresolvers
+import urllib
+
+PING_URL = "http://www.google.com/webmasters/sitemaps/ping"
+
+class SitemapNotFound(Exception):
+    pass
+
+def ping_google(sitemap_url=None, ping_url=PING_URL):
+    """
+    Alerts Google that the sitemap for the current site has been updated.
+    If sitemap_url is provided, it should be an absolute path to the sitemap
+    for this site -- e.g., '/sitemap.xml'. If sitemap_url is not provided, this
+    function will attempt to deduce it by using urlresolvers.reverse().
+    """
+    if sitemap_url is None:
+        try:
+            # First, try to get the "index" sitemap URL.
+            sitemap_url = urlresolvers.reverse('django.contrib.sitemaps.views.index')
+        except urlresolvers.NoReverseMatch:
+            try:
+                # Next, try for the "global" sitemap URL.
+                sitemap_url = urlresolvers.reverse('django.contrib.sitemaps.views.sitemap')
+            except urlresolvers.NoReverseMatch:
+                pass
+
+    if sitemap_url is None:
+        raise SitemapNotFound("You didn't provide a sitemap_url, and the sitemap URL couldn't be auto-detected.")
+
+    from django.contrib.sites.models import Site
+    current_site = Site.objects.get_current()
+    url = "%s%s" % (current_site.domain, sitemap)
+    params = urllib.urlencode({'sitemap':url})
+    urllib.urlopen("%s?%s" % (ping_url, params))
+
+class Sitemap:
+    def __get(self, name, obj, default=None):
+        try:
+            attr = getattr(self, name)
+        except AttributeError:
+            return default
+        if callable(attr):
+            return attr(obj)
+        return attr
+
+    def items(self):
+        return []
+
+    def location(self, obj):
+        return obj.get_absolute_url()
+
+    def get_urls(self):
+        from django.contrib.sites.models import Site
+        current_site = Site.objects.get_current()
+        urls = []
+        for item in self.items():
+            loc = "http://%s%s" % (current_site.domain, self.__get('location', item))
+            url_info = {
+                'location':   loc,
+                'lastmod':    self.__get('lastmod', item, None),
+                'changefreq': self.__get('changefreq', item, None),
+                'priority':   self.__get('priority', item, None)
+            }
+            urls.append(url_info)
+        return urls
+
+class FlatPageSitemap(Sitemap):
+    def items(self):
+        from django.contrib.sites.models import Site
+        current_site = Site.objects.get_current()
+        return current_site.flatpage_set.all()
+
+class GenericSitemap(Sitemap):
+    priority = None
+    changefreq = None
+
+    def __init__(self, info_dict, priority=None, changefreq=None):
+        self.queryset = info_dict['queryset']
+        self.date_field = info_dict.get('date_field', None)
+        self.priority = priority
+        self.changefreq = changefreq
+
+    def items(self):
+        # Make sure to return a clone; we don't want premature evaluation.
+        return self.queryset.filter()
+
+    def lastmod(self, item):
+        if self.date_field is not None:
+            return getattr(item, self.date_field)
+        return None

django/contrib/sitemaps/templates/sitemap.xml

+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<urlset xmlns="http://www.google.com/schemas/sitemap/0.84">
+{% for url in urlset %}
+  <url>
+    <loc>{{ url.location|escape }}</loc>
+    {% if url.lastmod %}<lastmod>{{ url.lastmod|date:"Y-m-d" }}</lastmod>{% endif %}
+    {% if url.changefreq %}<changefreq>{{ url.changefreq }}</changefreq>{% endif %}
+    {% if url.priority %}<priority>{{ url.priority }}</priority>{% endif %}
+   </url>
+{% endfor %}
+</urlset>

django/contrib/sitemaps/templates/sitemap_index.xml

+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
+<sitemapindex xmlns="http://www.google.com/schemas/sitemap/0.84">
+{% for location in sitemaps %}
+	<sitemap>
+		<loc>{{ location|escape }}</loc>
+	</sitemap>
+{% endfor %}
+</sitemapindex>

django/contrib/sitemaps/views.py

+from django.http import HttpResponse, Http404
+from django.template import loader
+from django.contrib.sites.models import Site
+from django.core import urlresolvers
+
+def index(request, sitemaps):
+    current_site = Site.objects.get_current()
+    sites = []
+    protocol = request.is_secure() and 'https' or 'http'
+    for section in sitemaps.keys():
+        sitemap_url = urlresolvers.reverse('django.contrib.sitemaps.views.sitemap', kwargs={'section': section})
+        sites.append('%s://%s%s' % (protocol, current_site.domain, sitemap_url))
+    xml = loader.render_to_string('sitemap_index.xml', {'sitemaps': sites})
+    return HttpResponse(xml, mimetype='application/xml')
+
+def sitemap(request, sitemaps, section=None):
+    maps, urls = [], []
+    if section is not None:
+        if not sitemaps.has_key(section):
+            raise Http404("No sitemap available for section: %r" % section)
+        maps.append(sitemaps[section])
+    else:
+        maps = sitemaps.values()
+    for site in maps:
+        if callable(site):
+            urls.extend(site().get_urls())
+        else:
+            urls.extend(site.get_urls())
+    xml = loader.render_to_string('sitemap.xml', {'urlset': urls})
+    return HttpResponse(xml, mimetype='application/xml')

django/core/management.py

             if model in created_models:
                 initial_sql = get_sql_initial_data_for_model(model)
                 if initial_sql:
-                    print "Installing initial data for %s model" % model._meta.object_name
+                    if verbosity >= 2:
+                        print "Installing initial data for %s model" % model._meta.object_name
                     try:
                         for sql in initial_sql:
                             cursor.execute(sql)

django/core/serializers/base.py

 class SerializationError(Exception):
     """Something bad happened during serialization."""
     pass
-    
+
 class DeserializationError(Exception):
     """Something bad happened during deserialization."""
     pass
     """
     Abstract serializer base class.
     """
-    
+
     def serialize(self, queryset, **options):
         """
         Serialize a queryset.
         """
         self.options = options
-        
+
         self.stream = options.get("stream", StringIO())
-        
+
         self.start_serialization()
         for obj in queryset:
             self.start_object(obj)
             self.end_object(obj)
         self.end_serialization()
         return self.getvalue()
-    
+
     def get_string_value(self, obj, field):
         """
         Convert a field's value to a string.
         """
         if isinstance(field, models.DateTimeField):
-            value = getattr(obj, field.name).strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S")
+            value = getattr(obj, field.name)
+            if value is None:
+                value = ''
+            else:
+                value = value.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S")
         elif isinstance(field, models.FileField):
             value = getattr(obj, "get_%s_url" % field.name, lambda: None)()
         else:
             value = field.flatten_data(follow=None, obj=obj).get(field.name, "")
         return str(value)
-    
+
     def start_serialization(self):
         """
         Called when serializing of the queryset starts.
         """
         raise NotImplementedError
-    
+
     def end_serialization(self):
         """
         Called when serializing of the queryset ends.
         """
         pass
-    
+
     def start_object(self, obj):
         """
         Called when serializing of an object starts.
         """
         raise NotImplementedError
-    
+
     def end_object(self, obj):
         """
         Called when serializing of an object ends.
         """
         pass
-    
+
     def handle_field(self, obj, field):
         """
         Called to handle each individual (non-relational) field on an object.
         """
         raise NotImplementedError
-    
+
     def handle_fk_field(self, obj, field):
         """
         Called to handle a ForeignKey field.
         """
         raise NotImplementedError
-    
+
     def handle_m2m_field(self, obj, field):
         """
         Called to handle a ManyToManyField.
         """
         raise NotImplementedError
-    
+
     def getvalue(self):
         """
         Return the fully serialized queryset.
     """
     Abstract base deserializer class.
     """
-    
+
     def __init__(self, stream_or_string, **options):
         """
         Init this serializer given a stream or a string
         # deserialization starts (otherwise subclass calls to get_model()
         # and friends might fail...)
         models.get_apps()
-    
+
     def __iter__(self):
         return self
-    
+
     def next(self):
         """Iteration iterface -- return the next item in the stream"""
         raise NotImplementedError
-        
+
 class DeserializedObject(object):
     """
     A deserialzed model.
-    
+
     Basically a container for holding the pre-saved deserialized data along
     with the many-to-many data saved with the object.
-    
+
     Call ``save()`` to save the object (with the many-to-many data) to the
     database; call ``save(save_m2m=False)`` to save just the object fields
     (and not touch the many-to-many stuff.)
     """
-    
+
     def __init__(self, obj, m2m_data=None):
         self.object = obj
         self.m2m_data = m2m_data
-        
+
     def __repr__(self):
         return "<DeserializedObject: %s>" % str(self.object)
-        
+
     def save(self, save_m2m=True):
         self.object.save()
         if self.m2m_data and save_m2m:
             for accessor_name, object_list in self.m2m_data.items():
                 setattr(self.object, accessor_name, object_list)
-        
-        # prevent a second (possibly accidental) call to save() from saving 
+
+        # prevent a second (possibly accidental) call to save() from saving
         # the m2m data twice.
         self.m2m_data = None

django/core/serializers/json.py

         elif isinstance(o, datetime.time):
             return o.strftime(self.TIME_FORMAT)
         else:
-            return super(self, DateTimeAwareJSONEncoder).default(o)
+            return super(DateTimeAwareJSONEncoder, self).default(o)

django/db/backends/postgresql_psycopg2/base.py

     from django.core.exceptions import ImproperlyConfigured
     raise ImproperlyConfigured, "Error loading psycopg2 module: %s" % e
 
-# Register Unicode conversions
-import psycopg2.extensions
-psycopg2.extensions.register_type(psycopg2.extensions.UNICODE)
-
 DatabaseError = Database.DatabaseError
 
 try:
             self.connection = Database.connect(conn_string)
             self.connection.set_isolation_level(1) # make transactions transparent to all cursors
         cursor = self.connection.cursor()
+        cursor.tzinfo_factory = None
         cursor.execute("SET TIME ZONE %s", [settings.TIME_ZONE])
         if settings.DEBUG:
             return util.CursorDebugWrapper(cursor, self)
         return name # Quoting once is enough.
     return '"%s"' % name
 
-def dictfetchone(cursor):
-    "Returns a row from the cursor as a dict"
-    # TODO: cursor.dictfetchone() doesn't exist in psycopg2,
-    # but no Django code uses this. Safe to remove?
-    return cursor.dictfetchone()
-
-def dictfetchmany(cursor, number):
-    "Returns a certain number of rows from a cursor as a dict"
-    # TODO: cursor.dictfetchmany() doesn't exist in psycopg2,
-    # but no Django code uses this. Safe to remove?
-    return cursor.dictfetchmany(number)
-
-def dictfetchall(cursor):
-    "Returns all rows from a cursor as a dict"
-    # TODO: cursor.dictfetchall() doesn't exist in psycopg2,
-    # but no Django code uses this. Safe to remove?
-    return cursor.dictfetchall()
+dictfetchone = util.dictfetchone
+dictfetchmany = util.dictfetchmany
+dictfetchall = util.dictfetchall
 
 def get_last_insert_id(cursor, table_name, pk_name):
     cursor.execute("SELECT CURRVAL('\"%s_%s_seq\"')" % (table_name, pk_name))

django/db/backends/sqlite3/base.py

             self.connection.rollback()
 
     def close(self):
-        if self.connection is not None:
+        from django.conf import settings
+        # If database is in memory, closing the connection destroys the database.
+        # To prevent accidental data loss, ignore close requests on an in-memory db.
+        if self.connection is not None and settings.DATABASE_NAME != ":memory:":
             self.connection.close()
             self.connection = None
 

django/db/backends/util.py

 
 def _dict_helper(desc, row):
     "Returns a dictionary for the given cursor.description and result row."
-    return dict([(desc[col[0]][0], col[1]) for col in enumerate(row)])
+    return dict(zip([col[0] for col in desc], row))
 
 def dictfetchone(cursor):
     "Returns a row from the cursor as a dict"

django/template/__init__.py

         return self.source
 
 class Template(object):
-    def __init__(self, template_string, origin=None):
+    def __init__(self, template_string, origin=None, name='<Unknown Template>'):
         "Compilation stage"
         if settings.TEMPLATE_DEBUG and origin == None:
             origin = StringOrigin(template_string)
             # Could do some crazy stack-frame stuff to record where this string
             # came from...
         self.nodelist = compile_string(template_string, origin)
+        self.name = name
 
     def __iter__(self):
         for node in self.nodelist:
             while i < len(subject) and subject[i] != subject[p]:
                 i += 1
             if i >= len(subject):
-                raise TemplateSyntaxError, "Searching for value. Unexpected end of string in column %d: %s" % subject
+                raise TemplateSyntaxError, "Searching for value. Unexpected end of string in column %d: %s" % (i, subject)
             i += 1
             res = subject[p:i]
             while i < len(subject) and subject[i] in (' ', '\t'):
             obj = resolve_variable(self.var, context)
         except VariableDoesNotExist:
             if ignore_failures:
-                return None
+                obj = None
             else:
-                return settings.TEMPLATE_STRING_IF_INVALID
+                if settings.TEMPLATE_STRING_IF_INVALID:
+                    return settings.TEMPLATE_STRING_IF_INVALID
+                else:
+                    obj = settings.TEMPLATE_STRING_IF_INVALID
         for func, args in self.filters:
             arg_vals = []
             for lookup, arg in args:
 
     (The example assumes VARIABLE_ATTRIBUTE_SEPARATOR is '.')
     """
-    if path == 'False':
-        current = False
-    elif path == 'True':
-        current = True
-    elif path[0].isdigit():
+    if path[0].isdigit():
         number_type = '.' in path and float or int
         try:
             current = number_type(path)

django/template/defaulttags.py

             parentloop = {}
         context.push()
         try:
-            values = self.sequence.resolve(context)
+            values = self.sequence.resolve(context, True)
         except VariableDoesNotExist:
             values = []
         if values is None:
         self.var_name = var_name
 
     def render(self, context):
-        obj_list = self.target.resolve(context)
-        if obj_list == '': # target_var wasn't found in context; fail silently
+        obj_list = self.target.resolve(context, True)
+        if obj_list == None: # target_var wasn't found in context; fail silently
             context[self.var_name] = []
             return ''
         output = [] # list of dictionaries in the format {'grouper': 'key', 'list': [list of contents]}
         for obj in obj_list:
-            grouper = self.expression.resolve(Context({'var': obj}))
+            grouper = self.expression.resolve(Context({'var': obj}), True)
             # TODO: Is this a sensible way to determine equality?
             if output and repr(output[-1]['grouper']) == repr(grouper):
                 output[-1]['list'].append(obj)
             output = ''
         if self.parsed:
             try:
-                t = Template(output)
+                t = Template(output, name=self.filepath)
                 return t.render(context)
             except TemplateSyntaxError, e:
                 if settings.DEBUG:

django/template/loader.py

     Returns a compiled Template object for the given template name,
     handling template inheritance recursively.
     """
-    return get_template_from_string(*find_template_source(template_name))
+    source, origin = find_template_source(template_name)
+    template = get_template_from_string(source, origin, template_name)
+    return template
 
-def get_template_from_string(source, origin=None):
+def get_template_from_string(source, origin=None, name=None):
     """
     Returns a compiled Template object for the given template code,
     handling template inheritance recursively.
     """
-    return Template(source, origin)
+    return Template(source, origin, name)
 
 def render_to_string(template_name, dictionary=None, context_instance=None):
     """

django/template/loader_tags.py

                 error_msg += " Got this from the %r variable." % self.parent_name_expr #TODO nice repr.
             raise TemplateSyntaxError, error_msg
         if hasattr(parent, 'render'):
-            return parent
+            return parent # parent is a Template object
         try:
             source, origin = find_template_source(parent, self.template_dirs)
         except TemplateDoesNotExist:
             raise TemplateSyntaxError, "Template %r cannot be extended, because it doesn't exist" % parent
         else:
-            return get_template_from_string(source, origin)
+            return get_template_from_string(source, origin, parent)
 
     def render(self, context):
         compiled_parent = self.get_parent(context)

django/test/client.py

 from cStringIO import StringIO
-from django.contrib.admin.views.decorators import LOGIN_FORM_KEY, _encode_post_data
 from django.core.handlers.base import BaseHandler
 from django.core.handlers.wsgi import WSGIRequest
 from django.dispatch import dispatcher
 from django.http import urlencode, SimpleCookie
-from django.template import signals
+from django.test import signals
 from django.utils.functional import curry
 
 class ClientHandler(BaseHandler):
     HTML rendered to the end-user.
     """
     def __init__(self, **defaults):
-        self.handler = TestHandler()
+        self.handler = ClientHandler()
         self.defaults = defaults
         self.cookie = SimpleCookie()
         
         data = {}
         on_template_render = curry(store_rendered_templates, data)
         dispatcher.connect(on_template_render, signal=signals.template_rendered)
-
+        
         response = self.handler(environ)
         
         # Add any rendered template detail to the response
     def login(self, path, username, password, **extra):
         """
         A specialized sequence of GET and POST to log into a view that
-        is protected by @login_required or a similar access decorator.
+        is protected by a @login_required access decorator.
         
-        path should be the URL of the login page, or of any page that
-        is login protected.
+        path should be the URL of the page that is login protected.
         
-        Returns True if login was successful; False if otherwise.        
+        Returns the response from GETting the requested URL after 
+        login is complete. Returns False if login process failed.
         """
-        # First, GET the login page. 
-        # This is required to establish the session.
+        # First, GET the page that is login protected. 
+        # This page will redirect to the login page.
         response = self.get(path)
+        if response.status_code != 302:
+            return False
+            
+        login_path, data = response['Location'].split('?')
+        next = data.split('=')[1]
+
+        # Second, GET the login page; required to set up cookies
+        response = self.get(login_path, **extra)
         if response.status_code != 200:
             return False
-
-        # Set up the block of form data required by the login page.
+            
+        # Last, POST the login data.
         form_data = {
             'username': username,
             'password': password,
-            'this_is_the_login_form': 1,
-            'post_data': _encode_post_data({LOGIN_FORM_KEY: 1})
+            'next' : next,
         }
-        response = self.post(path, data=form_data, **extra)
-        
-        # login page should give response 200 (if you requested the login
-        # page specifically), or 302 (if you requested a login
-        # protected page, to which the login can redirect).
-        return response.status_code in (200,302)
+        response = self.post(login_path, data=form_data, **extra)
+
+        # Login page should 302 redirect to the originally requested page
+        if response.status_code != 302 or response['Location'] != path:
+            return False
+
+        # Since we are logged in, request the actual page again
+        return self.get(path)

django/test/signals.py

+template_rendered = object()

django/test/simple.py

 import unittest, doctest
 from django.conf import settings
 from django.core import management
+from django.test.utils import setup_test_environment, teardown_test_environment
 from django.test.utils import create_test_db, destroy_test_db
 from django.test.testcases import OutputChecker, DocTestRunner
 
     the module. A list of 'extra' tests may also be provided; these tests
     will be added to the test suite.
     """
+    setup_test_environment()
     
     settings.DEBUG = False    
     suite = unittest.TestSuite()
     for test in extra_tests:
         suite.addTest(test)
 
-    old_name = create_test_db(verbosity)
+    old_name = settings.DATABASE_NAME
+    create_test_db(verbosity)
     management.syncdb(verbosity, interactive=False)
     unittest.TextTestRunner(verbosity=verbosity).run(suite)
     destroy_test_db(old_name, verbosity)
+    
+    teardown_test_environment()

django/test/utils.py

 import sys, time
 from django.conf import settings
-from django.db import connection, transaction
+from django.db import connection, transaction, backend
+from django.dispatch import dispatcher
+from django.test import signals
+from django.template import Template
 
 # The prefix to put on the default database name when creating
 # the test database.
 TEST_DATABASE_PREFIX = 'test_'
 
+def instrumented_test_render(self, context):
+    """An instrumented Template render method, providing a signal 
+    that can be intercepted by the test system Client
+    
+    """
+    dispatcher.send(signal=signals.template_rendered, sender=self, template=self, context=context)
+    return self.nodelist.render(context)
+    
+def setup_test_environment():
+    """Perform any global pre-test setup. This involves:
+        
+        - Installing the instrumented test renderer
+        
+    """
+    Template.original_render = Template.render
+    Template.render = instrumented_test_render
+    
+def teardown_test_environment():
+    """Perform any global post-test teardown. This involves:
+
+        - Restoring the original test renderer
+        
+    """
+    Template.render = Template.original_render
+    del Template.original_render
+    
 def _set_autocommit(connection):
     "Make sure a connection is in autocommit mode."
     if hasattr(connection.connection, "autocommit"):
     if settings.DATABASE_ENGINE == "sqlite3":
         TEST_DATABASE_NAME = ":memory:"
     else:
-        TEST_DATABASE_NAME = TEST_DATABASE_PREFIX + settings.DATABASE_NAME
+        if settings.TEST_DATABASE_NAME:
+            TEST_DATABASE_NAME = settings.TEST_DATABASE_NAME
+        else:
+            TEST_DATABASE_NAME = TEST_DATABASE_PREFIX + settings.DATABASE_NAME
         
         # Create the test database and connect to it. We need to autocommit
         # if the database supports it because PostgreSQL doesn't allow 
         cursor = connection.cursor()
         _set_autocommit(connection)
         try:
-            cursor.execute("CREATE DATABASE %s" % TEST_DATABASE_NAME)
+            cursor.execute("CREATE DATABASE %s" % backend.quote_name(TEST_DATABASE_NAME))
         except Exception, e:            
             sys.stderr.write("Got an error creating the test database: %s\n" % e)
             if not autoclobber:
                 try:
                     if verbosity >= 1:
                         print "Destroying old test database..."                
-                    cursor.execute("DROP DATABASE %s" % TEST_DATABASE_NAME)
+                    cursor.execute("DROP DATABASE %s" % backend.quote_name(TEST_DATABASE_NAME))
                     if verbosity >= 1:
                         print "Creating test database..."
-                    cursor.execute("CREATE DATABASE %s" % TEST_DATABASE_NAME)
+                    cursor.execute("CREATE DATABASE %s" % backend.quote_name(TEST_DATABASE_NAME))
                 except Exception, e:
                     sys.stderr.write("Got an error recreating the test database: %s\n" % e)
                     sys.exit(2)
                 sys.exit(1)
                
     connection.close()
-    old_database_name = settings.DATABASE_NAME
     settings.DATABASE_NAME = TEST_DATABASE_NAME
 
     # Get a cursor (even though we don't need one yet). This has
     # the side effect of initializing the test database.
     cursor = connection.cursor()
-            
-    return old_database_name
 
 def destroy_test_db(old_database_name, verbosity=1):
     # Unless we're using SQLite, remove the test database to clean up after
     # connected to it.
     if verbosity >= 1:
         print "Destroying test database..."
+    connection.close()
+    TEST_DATABASE_NAME = settings.DATABASE_NAME
+    settings.DATABASE_NAME = old_database_name
+
     if settings.DATABASE_ENGINE != "sqlite3":
-        connection.close()
-        TEST_DATABASE_NAME = settings.DATABASE_NAME
-        settings.DATABASE_NAME = old_database_name
         cursor = connection.cursor()
         _set_autocommit(connection)
         time.sleep(1) # To avoid "database is being accessed by other users" errors.
-        cursor.execute("DROP DATABASE %s" % TEST_DATABASE_NAME)
+        cursor.execute("DROP DATABASE %s" % backend.quote_name(TEST_DATABASE_NAME))
         connection.close()
-

django/utils/datastructures.py

         "Returns a copy of this object."
         return self.__deepcopy__()
 
-    def update(self, other_dict):
-        "update() extends rather than replaces existing key lists."
-        if isinstance(other_dict, MultiValueDict):
-            for key, value_list in other_dict.lists():
-                self.setlistdefault(key, []).extend(value_list)
-        else:
-            try:
-                for key, value in other_dict.items():
-                    self.setlistdefault(key, []).append(value)
-            except TypeError:
-                raise ValueError, "MultiValueDict.update() takes either a MultiValueDict or dictionary"
+    def update(self, *args, **kwargs):
+        "update() extends rather than replaces existing key lists. Also accepts keyword args."
+        if len(args) > 1:
+            raise TypeError, "update expected at most 1 arguments, got %d", len(args)
+        if args:
+            other_dict = args[0]
+            if isinstance(other_dict, MultiValueDict):
+                for key, value_list in other_dict.lists():
+                    self.setlistdefault(key, []).extend(value_list)
+            else:
+                try:
+                    for key, value in other_dict.items():
+                        self.setlistdefault(key, []).append(value)
+                except TypeError:
+                    raise ValueError, "MultiValueDict.update() takes either a MultiValueDict or dictionary"
+        for key, value in kwargs.iteritems():
+            self.setlistdefault(key, []).append(value)
 
 class DotExpandedDict(dict):
     """

django/views/debug.py

             'function': '?',
             'lineno': '?',
         }]
-    t = Template(TECHNICAL_500_TEMPLATE)
+    t = Template(TECHNICAL_500_TEMPLATE, name='Technical 500 template')
     c = Context({
         'exception_type': exc_type.__name__,
         'exception_value': exc_value,
             # tried exists but is an empty list. The URLconf must've been empty.
             return empty_urlconf(request)
 
-    t = Template(TECHNICAL_404_TEMPLATE)
+    t = Template(TECHNICAL_404_TEMPLATE, name='Technical 404 template')
     c = Context({
         'root_urlconf': settings.ROOT_URLCONF,
         'urlpatterns': tried,
 
 def empty_urlconf(request):
     "Create an empty URLconf 404 error response."
-    t = Template(EMPTY_URLCONF_TEMPLATE)
+    t = Template(EMPTY_URLCONF_TEMPLATE, name='Empty URLConf template')
     c = Context({
         'project_name': settings.SETTINGS_MODULE.split('.')[0]
     })
 <head>
   <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
   <meta name="robots" content="NONE,NOARCHIVE" />
-  <title>{{ exception_type }} at {{ request.path }}</title>
+  <title>{{ exception_type }} at {{ request.path|escape }}</title>
   <style type="text/css">
     html * { padding:0; margin:0; }
     body * { padding:10px 20px; }
 <body>
 
 <div id="summary">
-  <h1>{{ exception_type }} at {{ request.path }}</h1>
+  <h1>{{ exception_type }} at {{ request.path|escape }}</h1>
   <h2>{{ exception_value|escape }}</h2>
   <table class="meta">
     <tr>
     </tr>
     <tr>
       <th>Request URL:</th>
-      <td>{{ request_protocol }}://{{ request.META.HTTP_HOST }}{{ request.path }}</td>
+      <td>{{ request_protocol }}://{{ request.META.HTTP_HOST }}{{ request.path|escape }}</td>
     </tr>
     <tr>
       <th>Exception Type:</th>
     </tr>
     <tr>
       <th>Exception Value:</th>
-      <td>{{ exception_value }}</td>
+      <td>{{ exception_value|escape }}</td>
     </tr>
     <tr>
       <th>Exception Location:</th>
     &nbsp;&nbsp;{{ frame.lineno }}. {{ frame.context_line|escape }}<br/>
   {% endif %}
 {% endfor %}<br/>
-&nbsp;&nbsp;{{ exception_type }} at {{ request.path }}<br/>
+&nbsp;&nbsp;{{ exception_type }} at {{ request.path|escape }}<br/>
 &nbsp;&nbsp;{{ exception_value|escape }}</code>
           </td>
         </tr>
 <html lang="en">
 <head>
   <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
-  <title>Page not found at {{ request.path }}</title>
+  <title>Page not found at {{ request.path|escape }}</title>
   <meta name="robots" content="NONE,NOARCHIVE" />
   <style type="text/css">
     html * { padding:0; margin:0; }
       </tr>
       <tr>
         <th>Request URL:</th>
-      <td>{{ request_protocol }}://{{ request.META.HTTP_HOST }}{{ request.path }}</td>
+      <td>{{ request_protocol }}://{{ request.META.HTTP_HOST }}{{ request.path|escape }}</td>
       </tr>
     </table>
   </div>
           <li>{{ pattern|escape }}</li>
         {% endfor %}
       </ol>
-      <p>The current URL, <code>{{ request.path }}</code>, didn't match any of these.</p>
+      <p>The current URL, <code>{{ request.path|escape }}</code>, didn't match any of these.</p>
     {% else %}
       <p>{{ reason|escape }}</p>
     {% endif %}

django/views/static.py

     try:
         t = loader.get_template('static/directory_index')
     except TemplateDoesNotExist:
-        t = Template(DEFAULT_DIRECTORY_INDEX_TEMPLATE)
+        t = Template(DEFAULT_DIRECTORY_INDEX_TEMPLATE, name='Default directory index template')
     files = []
     for f in os.listdir(fullpath):
         if not f.startswith('.'):
 
 .. _sites documentation: http://www.djangoproject.com/documentation/sites/
 
+sitemaps
+========
+
+A framework for generating Google sitemap XML files.
+
+See the `sitemaps documentation`_.
+
+.. _sitemaps documentation: http://www.djangoproject.com/documentation/sitemaps/
+
 syndication
 ===========
 

docs/contributing.txt

 
           {{foo}}
 
+    * In Django views, the first parameter in a view function should be called
+      ``request``.
+
+      Do this::
+
+          def my_view(request, foo):
+              # ...
+
+      Don't do this::
+
+          def my_view(req, foo):
+              # ...
+
     * Please don't put your name in the code. While we appreciate all
       contributions to Django, our policy is not to publish individual
       developer names in code -- for instance, at the top of Python modules.

docs/django-admin.txt

 If you're installing the ``django.contrib.auth`` application, ``syncdb`` will
 give you the option of creating a superuser immediately.
 
+test
+----
+
+Discover and run tests for all installed models.  See `Testing Django applications`_ for more information.
+
+.. _testing django applications: ../testing/
+
 validate
 --------
 
 Displays a help message that includes a terse list of all available actions and
 options.
 
+--noinput
+---------
+
+Inform django-admin that the user should NOT be prompted for any input. Useful if
+the django-admin script will be executed as an unattended, automated script.
+
+--noreload
+----------
+
+Disable the use of the auto-reloader when running the development server.
+
 --version
 ---------
 
     0.9.1
     0.9.1 (SVN)
 
+--verbosity
+-----------
+
+Example usage::
+
+    django-admin.py syncdb --verbosity=2
+
+Verbosity determines the amount of notification and debug information that 
+will be printed to the console. '0' is no output, '1' is normal output,
+and `2` is verbose output.
+
 Extra niceties
 ==============
 
     On IRC, Simon goes by ``SimonW``.
 
 `Wilson Miner`_
-    Wilson's design-fu makes us all look like rock stars. By day, he's an 
+    Wilson's design-fu makes us all look like rock stars. By day, he's an
     interactive designer for `Apple`. Don't ask him what he's working on, or
     he'll have to kill you. He lives in San Francisco.
-    
+
     On IRC, Wilson goes by ``wilsonian``.
 
 .. _`World Online`: http://code.djangoproject.com/wiki/WorldOnline
 Thanks for asking! We've written an entire document devoted to this question.
 It's titled `Contributing to Django`_.
 
-.. _Contributing do Django: http://www.djangoproject.com/documentation/contributing/
+.. _Contributing to Django: http://www.djangoproject.com/documentation/contributing/
 
 I submitted a bug fix in the ticket system several weeks ago. Why are you ignoring my patch?
 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

docs/settings.txt

 
 .. _How invalid variables are handled: http://www.djangoproject.com/documentation/templates_python/#how-invalid-variables-are-handled
 
+TEST_RUNNER
+-----------
+
+**New in Django development version**
+
+Default: ``'django.test.simple.run_tests'``
+
+The name of the method to use for starting the test suite. See 
+`Testing Django Applications`_.
+
+.. _Testing Django Applications: ../testing/
+
+TEST_DATABASE_NAME
+------------------
+
+**New in Django development version**
+
+Default: ``None``
+
+The name of database to use when running the test suite. If a value of 
+``None`` is specified, the test database will use the name ``'test_' + settings.DATABASE_NAME``. See `Testing Django Applications`_.
+
+.. _Testing Django Applications: ../testing/
+
 TIME_FORMAT
 -----------
 

docs/sitemaps.txt

+=====================
+The sitemap framework
+=====================
+
+**New in Django development version**.
+
+Django comes with a high-level sitemap-generating framework that makes
+creating `Google Sitemap`_ XML files easy.
+
+.. _Google Sitemap: http://www.google.com/webmasters/sitemaps/docs/en/protocol.html
+
+Overview
+========
+
+A sitemap is an XML file on your Web site that tells search-engine indexers how
+frequently your pages change and how "important" certain pages are in relation
+to other pages on your site. This information helps search engines index your
+site.
+
+The Django sitemap framework automates the creation of this XML file by letting
+you express this information in Python code.
+
+It works much like Django's `syndication framework`_. To create a sitemap, just
+write a ``Sitemap`` class and point to it in your URLconf_.
+
+.. _syndication framework: http://www.djangoproject.com/documentation/syndication/
+.. _URLconf: http://www.djangoproject.com/documentation/url_dispatch/
+
+Installation
+============
+
+To install the sitemap app, follow these steps:
+
+    1. Add ``'django.contrib.sitemaps'`` to your INSTALLED_APPS_ setting.
+    2. Make sure ``'django.template.loaders.app_directories.load_template_source'``
+       is in your TEMPLATE_LOADERS_ setting. It's in there by default, so
+       you'll only need to change this if you've changed that setting.
+    3. Make sure you've installed the `sites framework`_.
+
+(Note: The sitemap application doesn't install any database tables. The only
+reason it needs to go into ``INSTALLED_APPS`` is so that the
+``load_template_source`` template loader can find the default templates.)
+
+.. _INSTALLED_APPS: http://www.djangoproject.com/documentation/settings/#installed-apps
+.. _TEMPLATE_LOADERS: http://www.djangoproject.com/documentation/settings/#template-loaders
+.. _sites framework: http://www.djangoproject.com/documentation/sites/
+
+Initialization
+==============
+
+To activate sitemap generation on your Django site, add this line to your
+URLconf_:
+
+    (r'^sitemap.xml$', 'django.contrib.sitemaps.views.sitemap', {'sitemaps': sitemaps})
+
+This tells Django to build a sitemap when a client accesses ``/sitemap.xml``.
+
+The name of the sitemap file is not important, but the location is. Google will
+only index links in your sitemap for the current URL level and below. For
+instance, if ``sitemap.xml`` lives in your root directory, it may reference any
+URL in your site. However, if your sitemap lives at ``/content/sitemap.xml``,
+it may only reference URLs that begin with ``/content/``.
+
+The sitemap view takes an extra, required argument: ``{'sitemaps': sitemaps}``.
+``sitemaps`` should be a dictionary that maps a short section label (e.g.,
+``blog`` or ``news``) to its ``Sitemap`` class (e.g., ``BlogSitemap`` or
+``NewsSitemap``). It may also map to an *instance* of a ``Sitemap`` class
+(e.g., ``BlogSitemap(some_var)``).
+
+.. _URLconf: http://www.djangoproject.com/documentation/url_dispatch/
+
+Sitemap classes
+===============
+
+A ``Sitemap`` class is a simple Python class that represents a "section" of
+entries in your sitemap. For example, one ``Sitemap`` class could represent all
+the entries of your weblog, while another could represent all of the events in
+your events calendar.
+
+In the simplest case, all these sections get lumped together into one
+``sitemap.xml``, but it's also possible to use the framework to generate a
+sitemap index that references individual sitemap files, one per section. (See
+`Creating a sitemap index`_ below.)
+
+``Sitemap`` classes must subclass ``django.contrib.sitemaps.Sitemap``. They can
+live anywhere in your codebase.
+
+A simple example
+================
+
+Let's assume you have a blog system, with an ``Entry`` model, and you want your
+sitemap to include all the links to your individual blog entries. Here's how
+your sitemap class might look::
+
+    from django.contrib.sitemaps import Sitemap
+    from mysite.blog.models import Entry
+
+    class BlogSitemap(Sitemap):
+        changefreq = "never"
+        priority = 0.5
+
+        def items(self):
+            return Entry.objects.filter(is_draft=False)
+
+        def lastmod(self, obj):
+            return obj.pub_date
+
+Note:
+
+    * ``changefreq`` and ``priority`` are class attributes corresponding to
+      ``<changefreq>`` and ``<priority>`` elements, respectively. They can be
+      made callable as functions, as ``lastmod`` was in the example.
+    * ``items()`` is simply a method that returns a list of objects. The objects
+      returned will get passed to any callable methods corresponding to a
+      sitemap property (``location``, ``lastmod``, ``changefreq``, and
+      ``priority``).
+    * ``lastmod`` should return a Python ``datetime`` object.
+    * There is no ``location`` method in this example, but you can provide it
+      in order to specify the URL for your object. By default, ``location()``
+      calls ``get_absolute_url()`` on each object and returns the result.
+
+Sitemap class reference
+=======================
+
+A ``Sitemap`` class can define the following methods/attributes:
+
+``items``
+---------
+
+**Required.** A method that returns a list of objects. The framework doesn't
+care what *type* of objects they are; all that matters is that these objects
+get passed to the ``location()``, ``lastmod()``, ``changefreq()`` and
+``priority()`` methods.
+
+``location``
+------------
+
+**Optional.** Either a method or attribute.
+
+If it's a method, it should return the absolute URL for a given object as
+returned by ``items()``.
+
+If it's an attribute, its value should be a string representing an absolute URL
+to use for *every* object returned by ``items()``.
+
+In both cases, "absolute URL" means a URL that doesn't include the protocol or
+domain. Examples:
+
+    * Good: ``'/foo/bar/'``
+    * Bad: ``'example.com/foo/bar/'``
+    * Bad: ``'http://example.com/foo/bar/'``
+
+If ``location`` isn't provided, the framework will call the
+``get_absolute_url()`` method on each object as returned by ``items()``.
+
+``lastmod``
+-----------
+
+**Optional.** Either a method or attribute.
+
+If it's a method, it should take one argument -- an object as returned by
+``items()`` -- and return that object's last-modified date/time, as a Python
+``datetime.datetime`` object.
+
+If it's an attribute, its value should be a Python ``datetime.datetime`` object
+representing the last-modified date/time for *every* object returned by
+``items()``.
+
+``changefreq``
+--------------
+
+**Optional.** Either a method or attribute.
+
+If it's a method, it should take one argument -- an object as returned by
+``items()`` -- and return that object's change frequency, as a Python string.
+
+If it's an attribute, its value should be a string representing the change
+frequency of *every* object returned by ``items()``.
+
+Possible values for ``changefreq``, whether you use a method or attribute, are:
+
+    * ``'always'``
+    * ``'hourly'``
+    * ``'daily'``
+    * ``'weekly'``
+    * ``'monthly'``
+    * ``'yearly'``
+    * ``'never'``
+
+``priority``
+------------
+
+**Optional.** Either a method or attribute.
+
+If it's a method, it should take one argument -- an object as returned by
+``items()`` -- and return that object's priority, as either a string or float.
+
+If it's an attribute, its value should be either a string or float representing
+the priority of *every* object returned by ``items()``.
+
+Example values for ``priority``: ``0.4``, ``1.0``. The default priority of a
+page is ``0.5``. See Google's documentation for more documentation.
+
+.. _Google's documentation: http://www.google.com/webmasters/sitemaps/docs/en/protocol.html
+
+Shortcuts
+=========
+
+The sitemap framework provides a couple convenience classes for common cases:
+
+``FlatPageSitemap``
+-------------------
+
+The ``django.contrib.sitemaps.FlatPageSitemap`` class looks at all flatpages_
+defined for the current ``SITE_ID`` (see the `sites documentation`_) and
+creates an entry in the sitemap. These entries include only the ``location``
+attribute -- not ``lastmod``, ``changefreq`` or ``priority``.
+
+.. _flatpages: http://www.djangoproject.com/documentation/flatpages/
+.. _sites documentation: http://www.djangoproject.com/documentation/sites/
+
+``GenericSitemap``
+------------------
+
+The ``GenericSitemap`` class works with any `generic views`_ you already have.
+To use it, create an instance, passing in the same ``info_dict`` you pass to
+the generic views. The only requirement is that the dictionary have a
+``queryset`` entry. It may also have a ``date_field`` entry that specifies a
+date field for objects retrieved from the ``queryset``. This will be used for
+the ``lastmod`` attribute in the generated sitemap. You may also pass
+``priority`` and ``changefreq`` keyword arguments to the ``GenericSitemap``
+constructor to specify these attributes for all URLs.
+
+.. _generic views: http://www.djangoproject.com/documentation/generic_views/
+
+Example
+-------
+
+Here's an example of a URLconf_ using both::
+
+    from django.conf.urls.defaults import *
+    from django.contrib.sitemaps import FlatPageSitemap, GenericSitemap
+    from mysite.blog.models import Entry
+
+    info_dict = {
+        'queryset': Entry.objects.all(),
+        'date_field': 'pub_date',
+    }
+
+    sitemaps = {
+        'flatpages': FlatPageSitemap,
+        'blog': GenericSitemap(info_dict, priority=0.6),
+    }
+
+    urlpatterns = patterns('',
+        # some generic view using info_dict
+        # ...
+
+        # the sitemap
+        (r'^sitemap.xml$', 'django.contrib.sitemaps.views.sitemap', {'sitemaps': sitemaps})
+    )
+
+.. _URLconf: http://www.djangoproject.com/documentation/url_dispatch/
+
+Creating a sitemap index
+========================
+
+The sitemap framework also has the ability to create a sitemap index that
+references individual sitemap files, one per each section defined in your
+``sitemaps`` dictionary. The only differences in usage are:
+
+    * You use two views in your URLconf: ``django.contrib.sitemaps.views.index``
+      and ``django.contrib.sitemaps.views.sitemap``.
+    * The ``django.contrib.sitemaps.views.sitemap`` view should take a
+      ``section`` keyword argument.
+
+Here is what the relevant URLconf lines would look like for the example above::
+
+    (r'^sitemap.xml$', 'django.contrib.sitemaps.views.index', {'sitemaps': sitemaps})
+    (r'^sitemap-(?P<section>.+).xml$', 'django.contrib.sitemaps.views.sitemap', {'sitemaps': sitemaps})
+
+This will automatically generate a ``sitemap.xml`` file that references
+both ``sitemap-flatpages.xml`` and ``sitemap-blog.xml``. The ``Sitemap``
+classes and the ``sitemaps`` dict don't change at all.
+
+Pinging Google
+==============
+
+You may want to "ping" Google when your sitemap changes, to let it know to
+reindex your site. The framework provides a function to do just that:
+``django.contrib.sitemaps.ping_google()``.
+
+``ping_google()`` takes an optional argument, ``sitemap_url``, which should be
+the absolute URL of your site's sitemap (e.g., ``'/sitemap.xml'``). If this
+argument isn't provided, ``ping_google()`` will attempt to figure out your
+sitemap by performing a reverse looking in your URLconf.
+
+``ping_google()`` raises the exception
+``django.contrib.sitemaps.SitemapNotFound`` if it cannot determine your sitemap
+URL.
+
+One useful way to call ``ping_google()`` is from a model's ``save()`` method::
+
+    from django.contrib.sitemaps import ping_google
+
+    class Entry(models.Model):
+        # ...
+        def save(self):
+            super(Entry, self).save()
+            try:
+                ping_google()
+            except Exception:
+                # Bare 'except' because we could get a variety
+                # of HTTP-related exceptions.
+                pass
+
+A more efficient solution, however, would be to call ``ping_google()`` from a
+cron script, or some other scheduled task. The function makes an HTTP request
+to Google's servers, so you may not want to introduce that network overhead
+each time you call ``save()``.
 If you attempt to use ``CurrentSiteManager`` and pass a field name that doesn't
 exist, Django will raise a ``ValueError``.
 
+Finally, note that you'll probably want to keep a normal (non-site-specific)
+``Manager`` on your model, even if you use ``CurrentSiteManager``. As explained
+in the `manager documentation`_, if you define a manager manually, then Django
+won't create the automatic ``objects = models.Manager()`` manager for you.
+Also, note that certain parts of Django -- namely, the Django admin site and
+generic views -- use whichever manager is defined *first* in the model, so if
+you want your admin site to have access to all objects (not just site-specific
+ones), put ``objects = models.Manager()`` in your model, before you define
+``CurrentSiteManager``.
+
 .. _manager: http://www.djangoproject.com/documentation/model_api/#managers
+.. _manager documentation: http://www.djangoproject.com/documentation/model_api/#managers
 
 How Django uses the sites framework
 ===================================

docs/syndication_feeds.txt

     ...     title=u"My Weblog",
     ...     link=u"http://www.example.com/",
     ...     description=u"In which I write about what I ate today.",
-    ...     language=u"en"),
+    ...     language=u"en")
     >>> f.add_item(title=u"Hot dog today",
     ...     link=u"http://www.example.com/entries/1/",
     ...     description=u"<p>Today I had a Vienna Beef hot dog. It was pink, plump and perfect.</p>")

docs/templates_python.txt

 How invalid variables are handled
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
-If a variable doesn't exist, the template system inserts the value of the
-``TEMPLATE_STRING_IF_INVALID`` setting, which is set to ``''`` (the empty
-string) by default.
+Generally, if a variable doesn't exist, the template system inserts the
+value of the ``TEMPLATE_STRING_IF_INVALID`` setting, which is set to ``''``
+(the empty string) by default.
+
+Filters that are applied to an invalid variable will only be applied if
+``TEMPLATE_STRING_IF_INVALID`` is set to ``''`` (the empty string). If
+``TEMPLATE_STRING_IF_INVALID`` is set to any other value, variable
+filters will be ignored.
+
+This behavior is slightly different for the ``if``, ``for`` and ``regroup``
+template tags. If an invalid variable is provided to one of these template
+tags, the variable will be interpreted as ``None``. Filters are always
+applied to invalid variables within these template tags.
 
 Playing with Context objects
 ----------------------------
     * ``user`` -- An ``auth.User`` instance representing the currently
       logged-in user (or an ``AnonymousUser`` instance, if the client isn't
       logged in). See the `user authentication docs`.
-    * ``messages`` -- A list of ``auth.Message`` objects for the currently
-      logged-in user.
-    * ``perms`` -- An instance of ``django.core.context_processors.PermWrapper``,
-      representing the permissions that the currently logged-in user has. See
-      the `permissions docs`_.
+
+    * ``messages`` -- A list of messages (as strings) for the currently
+      logged-in user. Behind the scenes, this calls
+      ``request.user.get_and_delete_messages()`` for every request. That method
+      collects the user's messages and deletes them from the database.
+
+      Note that messages are set with ``user.add_message()``. See the
+      `message docs`_ for more.
+
+    * ``perms`` -- An instance of
+      ``django.core.context_processors.PermWrapper``, representing the
+      permissions that the currently logged-in user has. See the `permissions
+      docs`_.
 
 .. _user authentication docs: http://www.djangoproject.com/documentation/authentication/#users
+.. _message docs: http://www.djangoproject.com/documentation/authentication/#messages
 .. _permissions docs: http://www.djangoproject.com/documentation/authentication/#permissions
 
 django.core.context_processors.debug
+===========================
+Testing Django applications
+===========================
+
+**New in Django development version**.
+
+Automated testing is an extremely useful weapon in the bug-killing arsenal
+of the modern developer. When initially writing code, a test suite can be
+used to validate that code behaves as expected. When refactoring or
+modifying code, tests serve as a guide to ensure that behavior hasn't
+changed unexpectedly as a result of the refactor.
+
+Testing an web application is a complex task, as there are many
+components of a web application that must be validated and tested. To
+help you test your application, Django provides a test execution
+framework, and range of utilities that can be used to stimulate and
+inspect various facets of a web application.
+
+    This testing framework is currently under development, and may change
+    slightly before the next official Django release.
+
+    (That's *no* excuse not to write tests, though!)
+
+Writing tests
+=============
+
+Tests in Django come in two forms: doctests and unit tests.
+
+Writing doctests
+----------------
+
+Doctests use Python's standard doctest_ module, which searches for tests in
+your docstrings. Django's test runner looks for doctests in your ``models.py``
+file, and executes any that it finds. Django will also search for a file
+called ``tests.py`` in the application directory (i.e., the directory that
+holds ``models.py``). If a ``tests.py`` is found, it will also be searched
+for doctests.
+
+.. admonition:: What's a **docstring**?
+
+    A good explanation of docstrings (and some guidlines for using them
+    effectively) can be found in :PEP:`257`:
+
+        A docstring is a string literal that occurs as the first statement in
+        a module, function, class, or method definition.  Such a docstring
+        becomes the ``__doc__`` special attribute of that object.
+
+    Since tests often make great documentation, doctest lets you put your
+    tests directly in your docstrings.
+
+You can put doctest strings on any object in your ``models.py``, but it's
+common practice to put application-level doctests in the module docstring, and
+model-level doctests in the docstring for each model.
+
+For example::
+
+    from django.db import model
+
+    class Animal(models.Model):
+        """
+        An animal that knows how to make noise
+
+        # Create some animals
+        >>> lion = Animal.objects.create(name="lion", sound="roar")
+        >>> cat = Animal.objects.create(name="cat", sound="meow")
+
+        # Make 'em speak
+        >>> lion.speak()
+        'The lion says "roar"'
+        >>> cat.speak()
+        'The cat says "meow"'
+        """
+
+        name = models.CharField(maxlength=20)
+        sound = models.CharField(maxlength=20)
+
+        def speak(self):
+            return 'The %s says "%s"' % (self.name, self.sound)
+
+When you `run your tests`_, the test utility will find this docstring, notice
+that portions of it look like an interactive Python session, and execute those
+lines while checking that the results match.
+
+For more details about how doctest works, see the `standard library
+documentation for doctest`_
+
+.. _doctest: http://docs.python.org/lib/module-doctest.html
+.. _standard library documentation for doctest: doctest_
+
+Writing unittests
+-----------------
+
+Like doctests, Django's unit tests use a standard library module: unittest_.
+As with doctests, Django's test runner looks for any unit test cases defined
+in ``models.py``, or in a ``tests.py`` file in your application directory.
+
+An equivalent unittest test case for the above example would look like::
+
+    import unittest
+    from myapp.models import Animal
+
+    class AnimalTestCase(unittest.TestCase):
+
+        def setUp(self):
+            self.lion = Animal.objects.create(name="lion", sound="roar")
+            self.cat = Animal.objects.create(name="cat", sound="meow")
+
+        def testSpeaking(self):
+            self.assertEquals(self.lion.speak(), 'The lion says "roar"')
+            self.assertEquals(self.cat.speak(), 'The cat says "meow"')
+
+When you `run your tests`_, the test utility will find all the test cases
+(that is, subclasses of ``unittest.TestCase``) in ``tests.py``, automatically
+build a test suite out of those test cases, and run that suite.
+
+For more details about ``unittest``, see the `standard library unittest
+documentation`_.
+
+.. _unittest: http://docs.python.org/lib/module-unittest.html
+.. _standard library unittest documentation: unittest_
+.. _run your tests: `Running tests`_
+
+Which should I use?
+-------------------
+
+Choosing a test framework is often contentious, so Django simply supports
+both of the standard Python test frameworks. Choosing one is up to each
+developer's personal tastes; each is supported equally. Since each test
+system has different benefits, the best approach is probably to use both
+together, picking the test system to match the type of tests you need to
+write.
+
+For developers new to testing, however, this choice can seem
+confusing, so here are a few key differences to help you decide weather
+doctests or unit tests are right for you.
+
+If you've been using Python for a while, ``doctest`` will probably feel more
+"pythonic". It's designed to make writing tests as easy as possible, so
+there's no overhead of writing classes or methods; you simply put tests in
+docstrings. This gives the added advantage of given your modules automatic
+documentation -- well-written doctests can kill both the documentation and the
+testing bird with a single stone.
+
+For developers just getting started with testing, using doctests will probably
+get you started faster.
+
+The ``unittest`` framework will probably feel very familiar to developers
+coming from Java.  Since ``unittest`` is inspired by Java's JUnit, if
+you've used testing frameworks in other languages that similarly were
+inspired by JUnit, ``unittest`` should also feel pretty familiar.
+
+Since ``unittest`` is organized around classes and methods, if you need
+to write a bunch of tests that all share similar code, you can easily use
+subclass to abstract common tasks; this makes test code shorter and cleaner.
+There's also support for explicit setup and/or cleanup routines, which give
+you a high level of control over the environment your test cases run in.
+
+Again, remember that you can use both systems side-by-side (even in the same
+app). In the end, most projects will eventually end up using both; each shines
+in different circumstances.
+
+Testing Tools
+=============
+
+To assist in testing various features of your application, Django provides 
+tools that can be used to establish tests and test conditions.
+
+* `Test Client`_
+* Fixtures_
+  
+Test Client
+-----------
+
+The Test Client is a simple dummy browser. It allows you to simulate
+GET and POST requests on a URL, and observe the response that is received.
+This allows you to test that the correct view is executed for a given URL,
+and that the view constructs the correct response.
+
+As the response is generated, the Test Client gathers details on the 
+Template and Context objects that were used to generate the response. These
+Templates and Contexts are then provided as part of the response, and can be
+used as test conditions.
+
+.. admonition:: Test Client vs Browser Automation?
+
+    The Test Client is not intended as a replacement for Twill_, Selenium_, 
+    or other browser automation frameworks - it is intended to allow 
+    testing of the contexts and templates produced by a view, 
+    rather than the HTML rendered to the end-user.
+    
+    A comprehensive test suite should use a combination of both: Test Client
+    tests to establish that the correct view is being called and that 
+    the view is collecting the correct context data, and Browser Automation
+    tests to check that user interface behaves as expected.
+    
+.. _Twill: http://twill.idyll.org/
+.. _Selenium: http://www.openqa.org/selenium/
+
+The Test Client is stateful; if a cookie is returned as part of a response,
+that cookie is provided as part of the next request. Expiry policies for these
+cookies are not followed; if you want a cookie to expire, either delete it 
+manually from ``client.cookies``, or create a new Client instance (which will
+effectively delete all cookies).
+
+Making requests
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Creating an instance of ``Client`` (``django.test.client.Client``) requires 
+no arguments at time of construction. Once constructed, the following methods
+can be invoked on the ``Client`` instance.
+
+``get(path, data={})``
+
+    Make a GET request on the provided ``path``. The key-value pairs in the
+    data dictionary will be used to create a GET data payload. For example::
+
+        c = Client()
+        c.get('/customers/details/', {'name':'fred', 'age':7})
+
+    will result in the evaluation of a GET request equivalent to::
+
+        http://yoursite.com/customers/details/?name='fred'&age=7
+
+``post(path, data={})``
+
+    Make a POST request on the provided ``path``. The key-value pairs in the
+    data dictionary will be used to create the POST data payload. This payload
+    will be transmitted with the mimetype ``multipart/form-data``. 
+
+    However submitting files is a special case. To POST a file, you need only
+    provide the file field name as a key, and a file handle to the file you wish to 
+    upload as a value. The Test Client will populate the two POST fields (i.e., 
+    ``field`` and ``field_file``) required by FileField. For example::
+
+        c = Client()
+        f = open('wishlist.doc')
+        c.post('/customers/wishes/', {'name':'fred', 'attachment':f})
+        f.close()
+
+    will result in the evaluation of a POST request on ``/customers/wishes/``, 
+    with a POST dictionary that contains `name`, `attachment` (containing the 
+    file name), and `attachment_file` (containing the file data). Note that you
+    need to manually close the file after it has been provided to the POST.
+
+``login(path, username, password)``
+
+    In a production site, it is likely that some views will be protected with
+    the @login_required URL provided by ``django.contrib.auth``. Interacting
+    with a URL that has been login protected is a slightly complex operation,
+    so the Test Client provides a simple URL to automate the login process. A
+    call to ``login()`` stimulates the series of GET and POST calls required
+    to log a user into a @login_required protected URL.
+
+    If login is possible, the final return value of ``login()`` is the response 
+    that is generated by issuing a GET request on the protected URL. If login
+    is not possible, ``login()`` returns False.
+
+    Note that since the test suite will be executed using the test database, 
+    which contains no users by default. As a result, logins for your production
+    site will not work. You will need to create users as part of the test suite 
+    to be able to test logins to your application. 
+
+Testing Responses
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The ``get()``, ``post()`` and ``login()`` methods all return a Response 
+object. This Response object has the following properties that can be used 
+for testing purposes:
+
+    ===============  ==========================================================
+    Property         Description
+    ===============  ==========================================================
+    ``status_code``  The HTTP status of the response. See RFC2616_ for a 
+                     full list of HTTP status codes.
+
+    ``content``      The body of the response. The is the final page 
+                     content as rendered by the view, or any error message 
+                     (such as the URL for a 302 redirect).
+
+    ``template``     The Template instance that was used to render the final 
+                     content. Testing ``template.name`` can be particularly 
+                     useful; if the template was loaded from a file, 
+                     ``template.name`` will be the file name that was loaded. 
+
+                     If multiple templates were rendered, (e.g., if one 
+                     template includes another template),``template`` will 
+                     be a list of Template objects, in the order in which 
+                     they were rendered.
+
+    ``context``      The Context that was used to render the template that 
+                     produced the response content.
+
+                     As with ``template``, if multiple templates were rendered 
+                     ``context`` will be a list of Context objects, stored in 
+                     the order in which they were rendered. 
+    ===============  ==========================================================
+
+.. _RFC2616: http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616-sec10.html
+
+The following is a simple unit test using the Test Client::
+    
+    import unittest
+    from django.test.client import Client
+    
+    class SimpleTest(unittest.TestCase):
+        def setUp(self):
+            # Every test needs a client
+            self.client = Client()
+        def test_details(self):        
+            response = self.client.get('/customer/details/')
+    
+            self.failUnlessEqual(response.status_code, 200)
+            self.failUnlessEqual(len(response.context['customers']), 5)
+
+Fixtures
+--------
+
+Feature still to come...
+
+Running tests
+=============
+
+Run your tests using your project's ``manage.py`` utility::
+
+    $ ./manage.py test
+
+If you only want to run tests for a particular application, add the
+application name to the command line. For example, if your
+``INSTALLED_APPS`` contains ``myproject.polls`` and ``myproject.animals``,
+but you only want to run the animals unit tests, run::
+
+    $ ./manage.py test animals
+
+When you run your tests, you'll see a bunch of text flow by as the test
+database is created and models are initialized. This test database is
+created from scratch every time you run your tests. 
+
+By default, the test database gets its name by prepending ``test_`` to 
+the database name specified by the ``DATABASE_NAME`` setting; all other 
+database settings will the same as they would be for the project normally.
+If you wish to use a name other than the default for the test database, 
+you can use the ``TEST_DATABASE_NAME`` setting to provide a name. 
+
+Once the test database has been established, Django will run your tests.
+If everything goes well, at the end you'll see::
+
+    ----------------------------------------------------------------------
+    Ran 22 tests in 0.221s
+
+    OK
+
+If there are test failures, however, you'll see full details about what tests
+failed::
+
+    ======================================================================
+    FAIL: Doctest: ellington.core.throttle.models
+    ----------------------------------------------------------------------
+    Traceback (most recent call last):
+      File "/dev/django/test/doctest.py", line 2153, in runTest
+        raise self.failureException(self.format_failure(new.getvalue()))
+    AssertionError: Failed doctest test for myapp.models
+      File "/dev/myapp/models.py", line 0, in models
+
+    ----------------------------------------------------------------------
+    File "/dev/myapp/models.py", line 14, in myapp.models
+    Failed example:
+        throttle.check("actor A", "action one", limit=2, hours=1)
+    Expected:
+        True
+    Got:
+        False
+
+    ----------------------------------------------------------------------
+    Ran 2 tests in 0.048s
+
+    FAILED (failures=1)
+
+When the tests have all been executed, the test database is destroyed.
+
+Using a different testing framework
+===================================
+
+Doctest and Unittest are not the only Python testing frameworks. While
+Django doesn't provide explicit support these alternative frameworks,
+it does provide a mechanism to allow you to invoke tests constructed for
+an alternative framework as if they were normal Django tests.
+
+When you run ``./manage.py test``, Django looks at the ``TEST_RUNNER``
+setting to determine what to do. By default, ``TEST_RUNNER`` points to ``django.test.simple.run_tests``. This method defines the default Django
+testing behaviour. This behaviour involves:
+
+#. Performing global pre-test setup
+#. Creating the test database
+#. Running ``syncdb`` to install models and initial data into the test database
+#. Looking for Unit Tests and Doctests in ``models.py`` and ``tests.py`` file for each installed application
+#. Running the Unit Tests and Doctests that are found
+#. Destroying the test database.
+#. Performing global post-test teardown
+
+If you define your own test runner method and point ``TEST_RUNNER``
+at that method, Django will execute your test runner whenever you run
+``./manage.py test``. In this way, it is possible to use any test
+framework that can be executed from Python code.
+
+Defining a test runner
+----------------------
+By convention, a test runner should be called ``run_tests``; however, you
+can call it anything you want. The only requirement is that it accept two
+arguments:
+
+``run_tests(module_list, verbosity=1)``
+    The module list is the list of Python modules that contain the models to be
+    tested. This is the same format returned by ``django.db.models.get_apps()``
+
+    Verbosity determines the amount of notification and debug information that 
+    will be printed to the console; '0' is no output, '1' is normal output,
+    and `2` is verbose output.
+
+Testing utilities
+-----------------
+
+To assist in the creation of your own test runner, Django provides
+a number of utility methods in the ``django.test.utils`` module.
+
+``setup_test_environment()``
+    Performs any global pre-test setup, such as the installing the 
+    instrumentation of the template rendering system. 
+
+``teardown_test_environment()``
+    Performs any global post-test teardown, such as removing the instrumentation 
+    of the template rendering system. 
+
+``create_test_db(verbosity=1, autoclobber=False)``
+    Creates a new test database, and run ``syncdb`` against it.
+
+    ``verbosity`` has the same behaviour as in the test runner.
+
+    ``Autoclobber`` describes the behavior that will occur if a database with
+    the same name as the test database is discovered. If ``autoclobber`` is False,
+    the user will be asked to approve destroying the existing database. ``sys.exit``
+    is called if the user does not approve. If autoclobber is ``True``, the database
+    will be destroyed without consulting the user.
+
+    ``create_test_db()`` has the side effect of modifying
+    ``settings.DATABASE_NAME`` to match the name of the test database.
+
+``destroy_test_db(old_database_name, verbosity=1)``
+    Destroys the database with the name ``settings.DATABASE_NAME`` matching,
+    and restores the value of ``settings.DATABASE_NAME`` to the provided name.
+