django / docs / django-admin.txt

=============================
django-admin.py and manage.py
=============================

``django-admin.py`` is Django's command-line utility for administrative tasks.
This document outlines all it can do.

In addition, ``manage.py`` is automatically created in each Django project.
``manage.py`` is a thin wrapper around ``django-admin.py`` that takes care of
two things for you before delegating to ``django-admin.py``:

    * It puts your project's package on ``sys.path``.

    * It sets the ``DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE`` environment variable so that it
      points to your project's ``settings.py`` file.

The ``django-admin.py`` script should be on your system path if you installed
Django via its ``setup.py`` utility. If it's not on your path, you can find it in
``site-packages/django/bin`` within your Python installation. Consider
symlinking to it from some place on your path, such as ``/usr/local/bin``.

Generally, when working on a single Django project, it's easier to use
``manage.py``. Use ``django-admin.py`` with ``DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE``, or the
``--settings`` command line option, if you need to switch between multiple
Django settings files.

Usage
=====

``django-admin.py action [options]``

``manage.py action [options]``

``action`` should be one of the actions listed in this document. ``options``,
which is optional, should be zero or more of the options listed in this
document.

Run ``django-admin.py --help`` to display a help message that includes a terse
list of all available actions and options.

Most actions take a list of ``appname``s. An ``appname`` is the basename of the
package containing your models. For example, if your ``INSTALLED_APPS``
contains the string ``'mysite.blog'``, the ``appname`` is ``blog``.

Available actions
=================

adminindex [appname appname ...]
--------------------------------

Prints the admin-index template snippet for the given appnames.

Use admin-index template snippets if you want to customize the look and feel of
your admin's index page. See `Tutorial 2`_ for more information.

.. _Tutorial 2: http://www.djangoproject.com/documentation/tutorial2/

createcachetable [tablename]
----------------------------

Creates a cache table named ``tablename`` for use with the database cache
backend.  See the `cache documentation`_ for more information.

.. _cache documentation: http://www.djangoproject.com/documentation/cache/

dbshell
-------

Runs the command-line client for the database engine specified in your
``DATABASE_ENGINE`` setting, with the connection parameters specified in your
``DATABASE_USER``, ``DATABASE_PASSWORD``, etc., settings.

    * For PostgreSQL, this runs the ``psql`` command-line client.
    * For MySQL, this runs the ``mysql`` command-line client.
    * For SQLite, this runs the ``sqlite3`` command-line client.

This command assumes the programs are on your ``PATH`` so that a simple call to
the program name (``psql``, ``mysql``, ``sqlite3``) will find the program in
the right place. There's no way to specify the location of the program
manually.

diffsettings
------------

Displays differences between the current settings file and Django's default
settings.

Settings that don't appear in the defaults are followed by ``"###"``. For
example, the default settings don't define ``ROOT_URLCONF``, so
``ROOT_URLCONF`` is followed by ``"###"`` in the output of ``diffsettings``.

Note that Django's default settings live in ``django/conf/global_settings.py``,
if you're ever curious to see the full list of defaults.

inspectdb
---------

Introspects the database tables in the database pointed-to by the
``DATABASE_NAME`` setting and outputs a Django model module (a ``models.py``
file) to standard output.

Use this if you have a legacy database with which you'd like to use Django.
The script will inspect the database and create a model for each table within
it.

As you might expect, the created models will have an attribute for every field
in the table. Note that ``inspectdb`` has a few special cases in its field-name
output:

    * If ``inspectdb`` cannot map a column's type to a model field type, it'll
      use ``TextField`` and will insert the Python comment
      ``'This field type is a guess.'`` next to the field in the generated
      model.

    * If the database column name is a Python reserved word (such as
      ``'pass'``, ``'class'`` or ``'for'``), ``inspectdb`` will append
      ``'_field'`` to the attribute name. For example, if a table has a column
      ``'for'``, the generated model will have a field ``'for_field'``, with
      the ``db_column`` attribute set to ``'for'``. ``inspectdb`` will insert
      the Python comment
      ``'Field renamed because it was a Python reserved word.'`` next to the
      field.

This feature is meant as a shortcut, not as definitive model generation. After
you run it, you'll want to look over the generated models yourself to make
customizations. In particular, you'll need to rearrange models' order, so that
models that refer to other models are ordered properly.

Primary keys are automatically introspected for PostgreSQL, MySQL and
SQLite, in which case Django puts in the ``primary_key=True`` where
needed.

``inspectdb`` works with PostgreSQL, MySQL and SQLite. Foreign-key detection
only works in PostgreSQL and with certain types of MySQL tables.

install [appname appname ...]
-----------------------------

Executes the equivalent of ``sqlall`` for the given appnames.

runserver [optional port number, or ipaddr:port]
------------------------------------------------

Starts a lightweight development Web server on the local machine. By default,
the server runs on port 8000 on the IP address 127.0.0.1. You can pass in an
IP address and port number explicitly.

If you run this script as a user with normal privileges (recommended), you
might not have access to start a port on a low port number. Low port numbers
are reserved for the superuser (root).

DO NOT USE THIS SERVER IN A PRODUCTION SETTING. It has not gone through
security audits or performance tests. (And that's how it's gonna stay. We're in
the business of making Web frameworks, not Web servers, so improving this
server to be able to handle a production environment is outside the scope of
Django.)

The development server automatically reloads Python code for each request, as
needed. You don't need to restart the server for code changes to take effect.

When you start the server, and each time you change Python code while the
server is running, the server will validate all of your installed models. (See
the ``validate`` command below.) If the validator finds errors, it will print
them to standard output, but it won't stop the server.

You can run as many servers as you want, as long as they're on separate ports.
Just execute ``django-admin.py runserver`` more than once.

Note that the default IP address, 127.0.0.1, is not accessible from other
machines on your network. To make your development server viewable to other
machines on the network, use its own IP address (e.g. ``192.168.2.1``) or
``0.0.0.0``.

Examples:
~~~~~~~~~

Port 7000 on IP address 127.0.0.1::

    django-admin.py runserver 7000

Port 7000 on IP address 1.2.3.4::

    django-admin.py runserver 1.2.3.4:7000

Serving static files with the development server
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

By default, the development server doesn't serve any static files for your site
(such as CSS files, images, things under ``MEDIA_ROOT_URL`` and so forth). If
you want to configure Django to serve static media, read the `serving static files`_
documentation.

.. _serving static files: http://www.djangoproject.com/documentation/static_files/

Turning off auto-reload
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

To disable auto-reloading of code while the development server is running, use the
``--noreload`` option, like so::

    django-admin.py runserver --noreload

shell
-----

Starts the Python interactive interpreter.

Django will use IPython_, if it's installed. If you have IPython installed and
want to force use of the "plain" Python interpreter, use the ``--plain``
option, like so::

    django-admin.py shell --plain

.. _IPython: http://ipython.scipy.org/

sql [appname appname ...]
-------------------------

Prints the CREATE TABLE SQL statements for the given appnames.

sqlall [appname appname ...]
----------------------------

Prints the CREATE TABLE and initial-data SQL statements for the given appnames.

Refer to the description of ``sqlinitialdata`` for an explanation of how to
specify initial data.

sqlclear [appname appname ...]
--------------------------------------

Prints the DROP TABLE SQL statements for the given appnames.

sqlindexes [appname appname ...]
----------------------------------------

Prints the CREATE INDEX SQL statements for the given appnames.

sqlinitialdata [appname appname ...]
--------------------------------------------

Prints the initial INSERT SQL statements for the given appnames.

For each model in each specified app, this command looks for the file
``<appname>/sql/<modelname>.sql``, where ``<appname>`` is the given appname and
``<modelname>`` is the model's name in lowercase. For example, if you have an
app ``news`` that includes a ``Story`` model, ``sqlinitialdata`` will attempt
to read a file ``news/sql/story.sql`` and append it to the output of this
command.

Each of the SQL files, if given, is expected to contain valid SQL. The SQL
files are piped directly into the database after all of the models'
table-creation statements have been executed. Use this SQL hook to populate
tables with any necessary initial records, SQL functions or test data.

sqlreset [appname appname ...]
--------------------------------------

Prints the DROP TABLE SQL, then the CREATE TABLE SQL, for the given appnames.

sqlsequencereset [appname appname ...]
----------------------------------------------

Prints the SQL statements for resetting PostgreSQL sequences for the given
appnames.

See http://simon.incutio.com/archive/2004/04/21/postgres for more information.

startapp [appname]
------------------

Creates a Django app directory structure for the given app name in the current
directory.

startproject [projectname]
--------------------------

Creates a Django project directory structure for the given project name in the
current directory.

syncdb
------

Creates the database tables for all apps in ``INSTALLED_APPS`` whose tables
have not already been created.

Use this command when you've added new applications to your project and want to
install them in the database. This includes any apps shipped with Django that
might be in ``INSTALLED_APPS`` by default. When you start a new project, run
this command to install the default apps.

If you're installing the ``django.contrib.auth`` application, ``syncdb`` will
give you the option of creating a superuser immediately.

validate
--------

Validates all installed models (according to the ``INSTALLED_APPS`` setting)
and prints validation errors to standard output.

Available options
=================

--settings
----------

Example usage::

    django-admin.py syncdb --settings=mysite.settings

Explicitly specifies the settings module to use. The settings module should be
in Python package syntax, e.g. ``mysite.settings``. If this isn't provided,
``django-admin.py`` will use the ``DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE`` environment
variable.

Note that this option is unnecessary in ``manage.py``, because it takes care of
setting ``DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE`` for you.

--pythonpath
------------

Example usage::

    django-admin.py syncdb --pythonpath='/home/djangoprojects/myproject'

Adds the given filesystem path to the Python `import search path`_. If this
isn't provided, ``django-admin.py`` will use the ``PYTHONPATH`` environment
variable.

Note that this option is unnecessary in ``manage.py``, because it takes care of
setting the Python path for you.

.. _import search path: http://diveintopython.org/getting_to_know_python/everything_is_an_object.html

--help
------

Displays a help message that includes a terse list of all available actions and
options.

--version
---------

Displays the current Django version.

Example output::

    0.9.1
    0.9.1 (SVN)

Extra niceties
==============

Syntax coloring
---------------

The ``django-admin.py`` / ``manage.py`` commands that output SQL to standard
output will use pretty color-coded output if your terminal supports
ANSI-colored output. It won't use the color codes if you're piping the
command's output to another program.

Bash completion
---------------

If you use the Bash shell, consider installing the Django bash completion
script, which lives in ``extras/django_bash_completion`` in the Django
distribution. It enables tab-completion of ``django-admin.py`` and
``manage.py`` commands, so you can, for instance...

    * Type ``django-admin.py``.
    * Press [TAB] to see all available options.
    * Type ``sql``, then [TAB], to see all available options whose names start
      with ``sql``.
Tip: Filter by directory path e.g. /media app.js to search for public/media/app.js.
Tip: Use camelCasing e.g. ProjME to search for ProjectModifiedEvent.java.
Tip: Filter by extension type e.g. /repo .js to search for all .js files in the /repo directory.
Tip: Separate your search with spaces e.g. /ssh pom.xml to search for src/ssh/pom.xml.
Tip: Use ↑ and ↓ arrow keys to navigate and return to view the file.
Tip: You can also navigate files with Ctrl+j (next) and Ctrl+k (previous) and view the file with Ctrl+o.
Tip: You can also navigate files with Alt+j (next) and Alt+k (previous) and view the file with Alt+o.