Source

django / django / db / backends / oracle / base.py

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"""
Oracle database backend for Django.

Requires cx_Oracle: http://cx-oracle.sourceforge.net/
"""

import os
import datetime
import time
try:
    from decimal import Decimal
except ImportError:
    from django.utils._decimal import Decimal

# Oracle takes client-side character set encoding from the environment.
os.environ['NLS_LANG'] = '.UTF8'
# This prevents unicode from getting mangled by getting encoded into the
# potentially non-unicode database character set.
os.environ['ORA_NCHAR_LITERAL_REPLACE'] = 'TRUE'

try:
    import cx_Oracle as Database
except ImportError, e:
    from django.core.exceptions import ImproperlyConfigured
    raise ImproperlyConfigured("Error loading cx_Oracle module: %s" % e)

from django.db.backends import *
from django.db.backends.signals import connection_created
from django.db.backends.oracle import query
from django.db.backends.oracle.client import DatabaseClient
from django.db.backends.oracle.creation import DatabaseCreation
from django.db.backends.oracle.introspection import DatabaseIntrospection
from django.utils.encoding import smart_str, force_unicode

DatabaseError = Database.DatabaseError
IntegrityError = Database.IntegrityError


# Check whether cx_Oracle was compiled with the WITH_UNICODE option.  This will
# also be True in Python 3.0.
if int(Database.version.split('.', 1)[0]) >= 5 and not hasattr(Database, 'UNICODE'):
    convert_unicode = force_unicode
else:
    convert_unicode = smart_str


class DatabaseFeatures(BaseDatabaseFeatures):
    empty_fetchmany_value = ()
    needs_datetime_string_cast = False
    uses_custom_query_class = True
    interprets_empty_strings_as_nulls = True
    uses_savepoints = True
    can_return_id_from_insert = True


class DatabaseOperations(BaseDatabaseOperations):

    def autoinc_sql(self, table, column):
        # To simulate auto-incrementing primary keys in Oracle, we have to
        # create a sequence and a trigger.
        sq_name = get_sequence_name(table)
        tr_name = get_trigger_name(table)
        tbl_name = self.quote_name(table)
        col_name = self.quote_name(column)
        sequence_sql = """
DECLARE
    i INTEGER;
BEGIN
    SELECT COUNT(*) INTO i FROM USER_CATALOG
        WHERE TABLE_NAME = '%(sq_name)s' AND TABLE_TYPE = 'SEQUENCE';
    IF i = 0 THEN
        EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'CREATE SEQUENCE "%(sq_name)s"';
    END IF;
END;
/""" % locals()
        trigger_sql = """
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER "%(tr_name)s"
BEFORE INSERT ON %(tbl_name)s
FOR EACH ROW
WHEN (new.%(col_name)s IS NULL)
    BEGIN
        SELECT "%(sq_name)s".nextval
        INTO :new.%(col_name)s FROM dual;
    END;
/""" % locals()
        return sequence_sql, trigger_sql

    def date_extract_sql(self, lookup_type, field_name):
        # http://download-east.oracle.com/docs/cd/B10501_01/server.920/a96540/functions42a.htm#1017163
        if lookup_type == 'week_day':
            # TO_CHAR(field, 'D') returns an integer from 1-7, where 1=Sunday.
            return "TO_CHAR(%s, 'D')" % field_name
        else:
            return "EXTRACT(%s FROM %s)" % (lookup_type, field_name)

    def date_trunc_sql(self, lookup_type, field_name):
        # Oracle uses TRUNC() for both dates and numbers.
        # http://download-east.oracle.com/docs/cd/B10501_01/server.920/a96540/functions155a.htm#SQLRF06151
        if lookup_type == 'day':
            sql = 'TRUNC(%s)' % field_name
        else:
            sql = "TRUNC(%s, '%s')" % (field_name, lookup_type)
        return sql

    def datetime_cast_sql(self):
        return "TO_TIMESTAMP(%s, 'YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS.FF')"

    def deferrable_sql(self):
        return " DEFERRABLE INITIALLY DEFERRED"

    def drop_sequence_sql(self, table):
        return "DROP SEQUENCE %s;" % self.quote_name(get_sequence_name(table))

    def fetch_returned_insert_id(self, cursor):
        return long(cursor._insert_id_var.getvalue())

    def field_cast_sql(self, db_type):
        if db_type and db_type.endswith('LOB'):
            return "DBMS_LOB.SUBSTR(%s)"
        else:
            return "%s"

    def last_insert_id(self, cursor, table_name, pk_name):
        sq_name = get_sequence_name(table_name)
        cursor.execute('SELECT "%s".currval FROM dual' % sq_name)
        return cursor.fetchone()[0]

    def lookup_cast(self, lookup_type):
        if lookup_type in ('iexact', 'icontains', 'istartswith', 'iendswith'):
            return "UPPER(%s)"
        return "%s"

    def max_name_length(self):
        return 30

    def prep_for_iexact_query(self, x):
        return x

    def process_clob(self, value):
        if value is None:
            return u''
        return force_unicode(value.read())

    def query_class(self, DefaultQueryClass):
        return query.query_class(DefaultQueryClass, Database)

    def quote_name(self, name):
        # SQL92 requires delimited (quoted) names to be case-sensitive.  When
        # not quoted, Oracle has case-insensitive behavior for identifiers, but
        # always defaults to uppercase.
        # We simplify things by making Oracle identifiers always uppercase.
        if not name.startswith('"') and not name.endswith('"'):
            name = '"%s"' % util.truncate_name(name.upper(),
                                               self.max_name_length())
        return name.upper()

    def random_function_sql(self):
        return "DBMS_RANDOM.RANDOM"

    def regex_lookup_9(self, lookup_type):
        raise NotImplementedError("Regexes are not supported in Oracle before version 10g.")

    def regex_lookup_10(self, lookup_type):
        if lookup_type == 'regex':
            match_option = "'c'"
        else:
            match_option = "'i'"
        return 'REGEXP_LIKE(%%s, %%s, %s)' % match_option

    def regex_lookup(self, lookup_type):
        # If regex_lookup is called before it's been initialized, then create
        # a cursor to initialize it and recur.
        from django.db import connection
        connection.cursor()
        return connection.ops.regex_lookup(lookup_type)

    def return_insert_id(self):
        return "RETURNING %s INTO %%s", (InsertIdVar(),)

    def savepoint_create_sql(self, sid):
        return convert_unicode("SAVEPOINT " + self.quote_name(sid))

    def savepoint_rollback_sql(self, sid):
        return convert_unicode("ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT " + self.quote_name(sid))

    def sql_flush(self, style, tables, sequences):
        # Return a list of 'TRUNCATE x;', 'TRUNCATE y;',
        # 'TRUNCATE z;'... style SQL statements
        if tables:
            # Oracle does support TRUNCATE, but it seems to get us into
            # FK referential trouble, whereas DELETE FROM table works.
            sql = ['%s %s %s;' % \
                    (style.SQL_KEYWORD('DELETE'),
                     style.SQL_KEYWORD('FROM'),
                     style.SQL_FIELD(self.quote_name(table)))
                    for table in tables]
            # Since we've just deleted all the rows, running our sequence
            # ALTER code will reset the sequence to 0.
            for sequence_info in sequences:
                sequence_name = get_sequence_name(sequence_info['table'])
                table_name = self.quote_name(sequence_info['table'])
                column_name = self.quote_name(sequence_info['column'] or 'id')
                query = _get_sequence_reset_sql() % {'sequence': sequence_name,
                                                     'table': table_name,
                                                     'column': column_name}
                sql.append(query)
            return sql
        else:
            return []

    def sequence_reset_sql(self, style, model_list):
        from django.db import models
        output = []
        query = _get_sequence_reset_sql()
        for model in model_list:
            for f in model._meta.local_fields:
                if isinstance(f, models.AutoField):
                    table_name = self.quote_name(model._meta.db_table)
                    sequence_name = get_sequence_name(model._meta.db_table)
                    column_name = self.quote_name(f.column)
                    output.append(query % {'sequence': sequence_name,
                                           'table': table_name,
                                           'column': column_name})
                    # Only one AutoField is allowed per model, so don't
                    # continue to loop
                    break
            for f in model._meta.many_to_many:
                if not f.rel.through:
                    table_name = self.quote_name(f.m2m_db_table())
                    sequence_name = get_sequence_name(f.m2m_db_table())
                    column_name = self.quote_name('id')
                    output.append(query % {'sequence': sequence_name,
                                           'table': table_name,
                                           'column': column_name})
        return output

    def start_transaction_sql(self):
        return ''

    def tablespace_sql(self, tablespace, inline=False):
        return "%sTABLESPACE %s" % ((inline and "USING INDEX " or ""),
            self.quote_name(tablespace))

    def value_to_db_time(self, value):
        if value is None:
            return None
        if isinstance(value, basestring):
            return datetime.datetime(*(time.strptime(value, '%H:%M:%S')[:6]))
        return datetime.datetime(1900, 1, 1, value.hour, value.minute,
                                 value.second, value.microsecond)

    def year_lookup_bounds_for_date_field(self, value):
        first = '%s-01-01'
        second = '%s-12-31'
        return [first % value, second % value]

    def combine_expression(self, connector, sub_expressions):
        "Oracle requires special cases for %% and & operators in query expressions"
        if connector == '%%':
            return 'MOD(%s)' % ','.join(sub_expressions)
        elif connector == '&':
            return 'BITAND(%s)' % ','.join(sub_expressions)
        elif connector == '|':
            raise NotImplementedError("Bit-wise or is not supported in Oracle.")
        return super(DatabaseOperations, self).combine_expression(connector, sub_expressions)


class DatabaseWrapper(BaseDatabaseWrapper):

    operators = {
        'exact': '= %s',
        'iexact': '= UPPER(%s)',
        'contains': "LIKEC %s ESCAPE '\\'",
        'icontains': "LIKEC UPPER(%s) ESCAPE '\\'",
        'gt': '> %s',
        'gte': '>= %s',
        'lt': '< %s',
        'lte': '<= %s',
        'startswith': "LIKEC %s ESCAPE '\\'",
        'endswith': "LIKEC %s ESCAPE '\\'",
        'istartswith': "LIKEC UPPER(%s) ESCAPE '\\'",
        'iendswith': "LIKEC UPPER(%s) ESCAPE '\\'",
    }
    oracle_version = None

    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        super(DatabaseWrapper, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)

        self.features = DatabaseFeatures()
        self.ops = DatabaseOperations()
        self.client = DatabaseClient(self)
        self.creation = DatabaseCreation(self)
        self.introspection = DatabaseIntrospection(self)
        self.validation = BaseDatabaseValidation()

    def _valid_connection(self):
        return self.connection is not None

    def _connect_string(self):
        settings_dict = self.settings_dict
        if len(settings_dict['DATABASE_HOST'].strip()) == 0:
            settings_dict['DATABASE_HOST'] = 'localhost'
        if len(settings_dict['DATABASE_PORT'].strip()) != 0:
            dsn = Database.makedsn(settings_dict['DATABASE_HOST'],
                                   int(settings_dict['DATABASE_PORT']),
                                   settings_dict['DATABASE_NAME'])
        else:
            dsn = settings_dict['DATABASE_NAME']
        return "%s/%s@%s" % (settings_dict['DATABASE_USER'],
                             settings_dict['DATABASE_PASSWORD'], dsn)

    def _cursor(self):
        cursor = None
        if not self._valid_connection():
            conn_string = convert_unicode(self._connect_string())
            self.connection = Database.connect(conn_string, **self.settings_dict['DATABASE_OPTIONS'])
            cursor = FormatStylePlaceholderCursor(self.connection)
            # Set oracle date to ansi date format.  This only needs to execute
            # once when we create a new connection. We also set the Territory
            # to 'AMERICA' which forces Sunday to evaluate to a '1' in TO_CHAR().
            cursor.execute("ALTER SESSION SET NLS_DATE_FORMAT = 'YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS' "
                           "NLS_TIMESTAMP_FORMAT = 'YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS.FF' "
                           "NLS_TERRITORY = 'AMERICA'")
            try:
                self.oracle_version = int(self.connection.version.split('.')[0])
                # There's no way for the DatabaseOperations class to know the
                # currently active Oracle version, so we do some setups here.
                # TODO: Multi-db support will need a better solution (a way to
                # communicate the current version).
                if self.oracle_version <= 9:
                    self.ops.regex_lookup = self.ops.regex_lookup_9
                else:
                    self.ops.regex_lookup = self.ops.regex_lookup_10
            except ValueError:
                pass
            try:
                self.connection.stmtcachesize = 20
            except:
                # Django docs specify cx_Oracle version 4.3.1 or higher, but
                # stmtcachesize is available only in 4.3.2 and up.
                pass
            connection_created.send(sender=self.__class__)
        if not cursor:
            cursor = FormatStylePlaceholderCursor(self.connection)
        return cursor

    # Oracle doesn't support savepoint commits.  Ignore them.
    def _savepoint_commit(self, sid):
        pass


class OracleParam(object):
    """
    Wrapper object for formatting parameters for Oracle. If the string
    representation of the value is large enough (greater than 4000 characters)
    the input size needs to be set as CLOB. Alternatively, if the parameter
    has an `input_size` attribute, then the value of the `input_size` attribute
    will be used instead. Otherwise, no input size will be set for the
    parameter when executing the query.
    """

    def __init__(self, param, cursor, strings_only=False):
        if hasattr(param, 'bind_parameter'):
            self.smart_str = param.bind_parameter(cursor)
        else:
            self.smart_str = convert_unicode(param, cursor.charset,
                                             strings_only)
        if hasattr(param, 'input_size'):
            # If parameter has `input_size` attribute, use that.
            self.input_size = param.input_size
        elif isinstance(param, basestring) and len(param) > 4000:
            # Mark any string param greater than 4000 characters as a CLOB.
            self.input_size = Database.CLOB
        else:
            self.input_size = None


class InsertIdVar(object):
    """
    A late-binding cursor variable that can be passed to Cursor.execute
    as a parameter, in order to receive the id of the row created by an
    insert statement.
    """

    def bind_parameter(self, cursor):
        param = cursor.var(Database.NUMBER)
        cursor._insert_id_var = param
        return param


class FormatStylePlaceholderCursor(object):
    """
    Django uses "format" (e.g. '%s') style placeholders, but Oracle uses ":var"
    style. This fixes it -- but note that if you want to use a literal "%s" in
    a query, you'll need to use "%%s".

    We also do automatic conversion between Unicode on the Python side and
    UTF-8 -- for talking to Oracle -- in here.
    """
    charset = 'utf-8'

    def __init__(self, connection):
        self.cursor = connection.cursor()
        # Necessary to retrieve decimal values without rounding error.
        self.cursor.numbersAsStrings = True
        # Default arraysize of 1 is highly sub-optimal.
        self.cursor.arraysize = 100

    def _format_params(self, params):
        return tuple([OracleParam(p, self, True) for p in params])

    def _guess_input_sizes(self, params_list):
        sizes = [None] * len(params_list[0])
        for params in params_list:
            for i, value in enumerate(params):
                if value.input_size:
                    sizes[i] = value.input_size
        self.setinputsizes(*sizes)

    def _param_generator(self, params):
        return [p.smart_str for p in params]

    def execute(self, query, params=None):
        if params is None:
            params = []
        else:
            params = self._format_params(params)
        args = [(':arg%d' % i) for i in range(len(params))]
        # cx_Oracle wants no trailing ';' for SQL statements.  For PL/SQL, it
        # it does want a trailing ';' but not a trailing '/'.  However, these
        # characters must be included in the original query in case the query
        # is being passed to SQL*Plus.
        if query.endswith(';') or query.endswith('/'):
            query = query[:-1]
        query = convert_unicode(query % tuple(args), self.charset)
        self._guess_input_sizes([params])
        try:
            return self.cursor.execute(query, self._param_generator(params))
        except DatabaseError, e:
            # cx_Oracle <= 4.4.0 wrongly raises a DatabaseError for ORA-01400.
            if e.args[0].code == 1400 and not isinstance(e, IntegrityError):
                e = IntegrityError(e.args[0])
            raise e

    def executemany(self, query, params=None):
        try:
            args = [(':arg%d' % i) for i in range(len(params[0]))]
        except (IndexError, TypeError):
            # No params given, nothing to do
            return None
        # cx_Oracle wants no trailing ';' for SQL statements.  For PL/SQL, it
        # it does want a trailing ';' but not a trailing '/'.  However, these
        # characters must be included in the original query in case the query
        # is being passed to SQL*Plus.
        if query.endswith(';') or query.endswith('/'):
            query = query[:-1]
        query = convert_unicode(query % tuple(args), self.charset)
        formatted = [self._format_params(i) for i in params]
        self._guess_input_sizes(formatted)
        try:
            return self.cursor.executemany(query,
                                [self._param_generator(p) for p in formatted])
        except DatabaseError, e:
            # cx_Oracle <= 4.4.0 wrongly raises a DatabaseError for ORA-01400.
            if e.args[0].code == 1400 and not isinstance(e, IntegrityError):
                e = IntegrityError(e.args[0])
            raise e

    def fetchone(self):
        row = self.cursor.fetchone()
        if row is None:
            return row
        return self._rowfactory(row)

    def fetchmany(self, size=None):
        if size is None:
            size = self.arraysize
        return tuple([self._rowfactory(r)
                      for r in self.cursor.fetchmany(size)])

    def fetchall(self):
        return tuple([self._rowfactory(r)
                      for r in self.cursor.fetchall()])

    def _rowfactory(self, row):
        # Cast numeric values as the appropriate Python type based upon the
        # cursor description, and convert strings to unicode.
        casted = []
        for value, desc in zip(row, self.cursor.description):
            if value is not None and desc[1] is Database.NUMBER:
                precision, scale = desc[4:6]
                if scale == -127:
                    if precision == 0:
                        # NUMBER column: decimal-precision floating point
                        # This will normally be an integer from a sequence,
                        # but it could be a decimal value.
                        if '.' in value:
                            value = Decimal(value)
                        else:
                            value = int(value)
                    else:
                        # FLOAT column: binary-precision floating point.
                        # This comes from FloatField columns.
                        value = float(value)
                elif precision > 0:
                    # NUMBER(p,s) column: decimal-precision fixed point.
                    # This comes from IntField and DecimalField columns.
                    if scale == 0:
                        value = int(value)
                    else:
                        value = Decimal(value)
                elif '.' in value:
                    # No type information. This normally comes from a
                    # mathematical expression in the SELECT list. Guess int
                    # or Decimal based on whether it has a decimal point.
                    value = Decimal(value)
                else:
                    value = int(value)
            elif desc[1] in (Database.STRING, Database.FIXED_CHAR,
                             Database.LONG_STRING):
                value = to_unicode(value)
            casted.append(value)
        return tuple(casted)

    def __getattr__(self, attr):
        if attr in self.__dict__:
            return self.__dict__[attr]
        else:
            return getattr(self.cursor, attr)

    def __iter__(self):
        return iter(self.cursor)


def to_unicode(s):
    """
    Convert strings to Unicode objects (and return all other data types
    unchanged).
    """
    if isinstance(s, basestring):
        return force_unicode(s)
    return s


def _get_sequence_reset_sql():
    # TODO: colorize this SQL code with style.SQL_KEYWORD(), etc.
    return """
DECLARE
    startvalue integer;
    cval integer;
BEGIN
    LOCK TABLE %(table)s IN SHARE MODE;
    SELECT NVL(MAX(%(column)s), 0) INTO startvalue FROM %(table)s;
    SELECT "%(sequence)s".nextval INTO cval FROM dual;
    cval := startvalue - cval;
    IF cval != 0 THEN
        EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'ALTER SEQUENCE "%(sequence)s" MINVALUE 0 INCREMENT BY '||cval;
        SELECT "%(sequence)s".nextval INTO cval FROM dual;
        EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'ALTER SEQUENCE "%(sequence)s" INCREMENT BY 1';
    END IF;
    COMMIT;
END;
/"""


def get_sequence_name(table):
    name_length = DatabaseOperations().max_name_length() - 3
    return '%s_SQ' % util.truncate_name(table, name_length).upper()


def get_trigger_name(table):
    name_length = DatabaseOperations().max_name_length() - 3
    return '%s_TR' % util.truncate_name(table, name_length).upper()