Commits

Junio C Hamano  committed 1ed9193 Merge

GIT 0.99.9n aka 1.0rc6

Oh, I hate to do this but I ended up merging big usage string
cleanups from Fredrik, git-am enhancements that made a lot of
sense for non mbox users from HPA, and rebase changes (done
independently by me and Lukas) among other things, so git is
still in perpetual state of 1.0rc. 1.0 will probably be next
Wednesday, but who knows.

Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>

  • Participants
  • Parent commits a957207, 294c695
  • Tags v0.99.9n, v1.0rc6

Comments (0)

Files changed (55)

File Documentation/everyday.txt

 
   * gitlink:git-repack[1] to pack loose objects for efficiency.
 
+Examples
+~~~~~~~~
+
+Check health and remove cruft.::
++
+------------
+$ git fsck-objects <1>
+$ git prune
+$ git count-objects <2>
+$ git repack <3>
+$ git prune <4>
+
+<1> running without "--full" is usually cheap and assures the
+repository health reasonably well.
+<2> check how many loose objects there are and how much
+diskspace is wasted by not repacking.
+<3> without "-a" repacks incrementally.  repacking every 4-5MB
+of loose objects accumulation may be a good rule of thumb.
+<4> after repack, prune removes the duplicate loose objects.
+------------
+
+Repack a small project into single pack.::
++
+------------
+$ git repack -a -d <1>
+$ git prune
+
+<1> pack all the objects reachable from the refs into one pack
+and remove unneeded other packs
+------------
+
+
 Individual Developer (Standalone)[[Individual Developer (Standalone)]]
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
   * gitlink:git-show-branch[1] to see where you are.
 
-  * gitlink:git-diff[1] and gitlink:git-status[1] to see what
-    you are in the middle of doing.
-
   * gitlink:git-log[1] to see what happened.
 
   * gitlink:git-whatchanged[1] to find out where things have
   * gitlink:git-checkout[1] and gitlink:git-branch[1] to switch
     branches.
 
-  * gitlink:git-update-index[1] to manage the index file.
+  * gitlink:git-add[1] and gitlink:git-update-index[1] to manage
+    the index file.
+
+  * gitlink:git-diff[1] and gitlink:git-status[1] to see what
+    you are in the middle of doing.
 
   * gitlink:git-commit[1] to advance the current branch.
 
 
   * gitlink:git-rebase[1] to maintain topic branches.
 
+  * gitlink:git-tag[1] to mark known point.
+
+Examples
+~~~~~~~~
+
+Extract a tarball and create a working tree and a new repository to keep track of it.::
++
+------------
+$ tar zxf frotz.tar.gz
+$ cd frotz
+$ git-init-db
+$ git add . <1>
+$ git commit -m 'import of frotz source tree.'
+$ git tag v2.43 <2>
+
+<1> add everything under the current directory.
+<2> make a lightweight, unannotated tag.
+------------
+
+Create a topic branch and develop.::
++
+------------
+$ git checkout -b alsa-audio <1>
+$ edit/compile/test
+$ git checkout -- curses/ux_audio_oss.c <2>
+$ git add curses/ux_audio_alsa.c <3>
+$ edit/compile/test
+$ git diff <4>
+$ git commit -a -s <5>
+$ edit/compile/test
+$ git reset --soft HEAD^ <6>
+$ edit/compile/test
+$ git diff ORIG_HEAD <7>
+$ git commit -a -c ORIG_HEAD <8>
+$ git checkout master <9>
+$ git pull . alsa-audio <10>
+$ git log --since='3 days ago' <11>
+$ git log v2.43.. curses/ <12>
+
+<1> create a new topic branch.
+<2> revert your botched changes in "curses/ux_audio_oss.c".
+<3> you need to tell git if you added a new file; removal and
+modification will be caught if you do "commit -a" later.
+<4> to see what changes you are committing.
+<5> commit everything as you have tested, with your sign-off.
+<6> take the last commit back, keeping what is in the working tree.
+<7> look at the changes since the premature commit we took back.
+<8> redo the commit undone in the previous step, using the message
+you originally wrote.
+<9> switch to the master branch.
+<10> merge a topic branch into your master branch
+<11> review commit logs; other forms to limit output can be
+combined and include --max-count=10 (show 10 commits), --until='2005-12-10'.
+<12> view only the changes that touch what's in curses/
+directory, since v2.43 tag.
+------------
+
 
 Individual Developer (Participant)[[Individual Developer (Participant)]]
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
 learn how to communicate with others, and uses these commands in
 addition to the ones needed by a standalone developer.
 
-  * gitlink:git-pull[1] from "origin" to keep up-to-date with
-    the upstream.
+  * gitlink:git-clone[1] from the upstream to prime your local
+    repository.
+
+  * gitlink:git-pull[1] and gitlink:git-fetch[1] from "origin"
+    to keep up-to-date with the upstream.
 
-  * gitlink:git-push[1] to shared repository if you adopt CVS
+  * gitlink:git-push[1] to shared repository, if you adopt CVS
     style shared repository workflow.
 
   * gitlink:git-format-patch[1] to prepare e-mail submission, if
     you adopt Linux kernel-style public forum workflow.
 
+Examples
+~~~~~~~~
+
+Clone the upstream and work on it.  Feed changes to upstream.::
++
+------------
+$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../torvalds/linux-2.6 my2.6
+$ cd my2.6
+$ edit/compile/test; git commit -a -s <1>
+$ git format-patch origin <2>
+$ git pull <3>
+$ git whatchanged -p ORIG_HEAD.. arch/i386 include/asm-i386 <4>
+$ git pull git://git.kernel.org/pub/.../jgarzik/libata-dev.git ALL <5>
+$ git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD <6>
+$ git prune <7>
+$ git fetch --tags <8>
+
+<1> repeat as needed.
+<2> extract patches from your branch for e-mail submission.
+<3> "pull" fetches from "origin" by default and merges.
+<4> look at the changes since last time we checked, only in the
+area we are interested in.
+<5> fetch from a specific branch from a specific repository and and merge.
+<6> revert the pull.
+<7> garbage collect leftover objects from reverted pull.
+<8> from time to time, obtain official tags from the "origin"
+and store them under .git/refs/tags/.
+------------
+
+
+Push into another repository.::
++
+------------
+satellite$ git clone mothership:frotz/.git frotz <1>
+satellite$ cd frotz
+satellite$ cat .git/remotes/origin <2>
+URL: mothership:frotz/.git
+Pull: master:origin
+satellite$ echo 'Push: master:satellite' >>.git/remotes/origin <3>
+satellite$ edit/compile/test/commit
+satellite$ git push origin <4>
+
+mothership$ cd frotz
+mothership$ git checkout master
+mothership$ git pull . satellite <5>
+
+<1> mothership machine has a frotz repository under your home
+directory; clone from it to start a repository on the satellite
+machine.
+<2> clone creates this file by default.  It arranges "git pull"
+to fetch and store the master branch head of mothership machine
+to local "origin" branch.
+<3> arrange "git push" to push local "master" branch to
+"satellite" branch of the mothership machine.
+<4> push will stash our work away on "satellite" branch on the
+mothership machine.  You could use this as a back-up method.
+<5> on mothership machine, merge the work done on the satellite
+machine into the master branch.
+------------
+
+Branch off of a specific tag.::
++
+------------
+$ git checkout -b private2.6.14 v2.6.14 <1>
+$ edit/compile/test; git commit -a
+$ git checkout master
+$ git format-patch -k -m --stdout v2.6.14..private2.6.14 |
+  git am -3 -k <2>
+
+<1> create a private branch based on a well known (but somewhat behind)
+tag.
+<2> forward port all changes in private2.6.14 branch to master branch
+without a formal "merging".
+------------
+
 
 Integrator[[Integrator]]
 ------------------------
   * gitlink:git-push[1] to publish the bleeding edge.
 
 
+Examples
+~~~~~~~~
+
+My typical GIT day.::
++
+------------
+$ git status <1>
+$ git show-branch <2>
+$ mailx <3>
+& s 2 3 4 5 ./+to-apply
+& s 7 8 ./+hold-linus
+& q
+$ git checkout master
+$ git am -3 -i -s -u ./+to-apply <4>
+$ compile/test
+$ git checkout -b hold/linus && git am -3 -i -s -u ./+hold-linus <5>
+$ git checkout topic/one && git rebase master <6>
+$ git checkout pu && git reset --hard master <7>
+$ git pull . topic/one topic/two && git pull . hold/linus <8>
+$ git checkout maint
+$ git cherry-pick master~4 <9>
+$ compile/test
+$ git tag -s -m 'GIT 0.99.9x' v0.99.9x <10>
+$ git fetch ko && git show-branch master maint 'tags/ko-*' <11>
+$ git push ko <12>
+$ git push ko v0.99.9x <13>
+
+<1> see what I was in the middle of doing, if any.
+<2> see what topic branches I have and think about how ready
+they are.
+<3> read mails, save ones that are applicable, and save others
+that are not quite ready.
+<4> apply them, interactively, with my sign-offs.
+<5> create topic branch as needed and apply, again with my
+sign-offs. 
+<6> rebase internal topic branch that has not been merged to the
+master, nor exposed as a part of a stable branch.
+<7> restart "pu" every time from the master.
+<8> and bundle topic branches still cooking.
+<9> backport a critical fix.
+<10> create a signed tag.
+<11> make sure I did not accidentally rewound master beyond what I
+already pushed out.  "ko" shorthand points at the repository I have
+at kernel.org, and looks like this:
+$ cat .git/remotes/ko
+URL: kernel.org:/pub/scm/git/git.git
+Pull: master:refs/tags/ko-master
+Pull: maint:refs/tags/ko-maint
+Push: master
+Push: +pu
+Push: maint
+<12> push out the bleeding edge.
+<13> push the tag out, too.
+------------
+
+
 Repository Administration[[Repository Administration]]
 ------------------------------------------------------
 
   * link:howto/update-hook-example.txt[update hook howto] has a
     good example of managing a shared central repository.
 
+
+Examples
+~~~~~~~~
+
+Run git-daemon to serve /pub/scm from inetd.::
++
+------------
+$ grep git /etc/inet.conf
+git	stream	tcp	nowait	nobody \
+  /usr/bin/git-daemon git-daemon --inetd --syslog --export-all /pub/scm
+------------
++
+The actual configuration line should be on one line.
+
+Give push/pull only access to developers.::
++
+------------
+$ grep git /etc/passwd <1>
+alice:x:1000:1000::/home/alice:/usr/bin/git-shell
+bob:x:1001:1001::/home/bob:/usr/bin/git-shell
+cindy:x:1002:1002::/home/cindy:/usr/bin/git-shell
+david:x:1003:1003::/home/david:/usr/bin/git-shell
+$ grep git /etc/shells <2>
+/usr/bin/git-shell
+
+<1> log-in shell is set to /usr/bin/git-shell, which does not
+allow anything but "git push" and "git pull".  The users should
+get an ssh access to the machine.
+<2> in many distributions /etc/shells needs to list what is used
+as the login shell.
+------------
+
+CVS-style shared repository.::
++
+------------
+$ grep git /etc/group <1>
+git:x:9418:alice,bob,cindy,david
+$ cd /home/devo.git
+$ ls -l <2>
+  lrwxrwxrwx   1 david git    17 Dec  4 22:40 HEAD -> refs/heads/master
+  drwxrwsr-x   2 david git  4096 Dec  4 22:40 branches
+  -rw-rw-r--   1 david git    84 Dec  4 22:40 config
+  -rw-rw-r--   1 david git    58 Dec  4 22:40 description
+  drwxrwsr-x   2 david git  4096 Dec  4 22:40 hooks
+  -rw-rw-r--   1 david git 37504 Dec  4 22:40 index
+  drwxrwsr-x   2 david git  4096 Dec  4 22:40 info
+  drwxrwsr-x   4 david git  4096 Dec  4 22:40 objects
+  drwxrwsr-x   4 david git  4096 Nov  7 14:58 refs
+  drwxrwsr-x   2 david git  4096 Dec  4 22:40 remotes
+$ ls -l hooks/update <3>
+  -r-xr-xr-x   1 david git  3536 Dec  4 22:40 update
+$ cat info/allowed-users <4>
+refs/heads/master	alice\|cindy
+refs/heads/doc-update	bob
+refs/tags/v[0-9]*	david
+
+<1> place the developers into the same git group.
+<2> and make the shared repository writable by the group.
+<3> use update-hook example by Carl from Documentation/howto/
+for branch policy control.
+<4> alice and cindy can push into master, only bob can push into doc-update.
+david is the release manager and is the only person who can
+create and push version tags.
+------------

File Documentation/git-am.txt

 
 . hand resolve the conflict in the working directory, and update
   the index file to bring it in a state that the patch should
-  have produced.  Then run the command with '--resume' option.
+  have produced.  Then run the command with '--resolved' option.
 
 The command refuses to process new mailboxes while `.dotest`
 directory exists, so if you decide to start over from scratch,

File Documentation/git-branch.txt

 	Where to create the branch; defaults to HEAD. This
 	option has no meaning with -d and -D.
 
+
+Examples
+~~~~~~~~
+
+Start development off of a know tag::
++
+------------
+$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../linux-2.6 my2.6
+$ cd my2.6
+$ git branch my2.6.14 v2.6.14 <1>
+$ git checkout my2.6.14
+
+<1> These two steps are the same as "checkout -b my2.6.14 v2.6.14".
+------------
+
+Delete unneeded branch::
++
+------------
+$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/.../git.git my.git
+$ cd my.git
+$ git branch -D todo <1>
+
+<1> delete todo branch even if the "master" branch does not have all
+commits from todo branch.
+------------
+
 Author
 ------
 Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org> and Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>

File Documentation/git-checkout.txt

 mistake, and gets it back from the index.
 
 ------------
-$ git checkout master
-$ git checkout master~2 Makefile
+$ git checkout master <1>
+$ git checkout master~2 Makefile <2>
 $ rm -f hello.c
-$ git checkout hello.c
+$ git checkout hello.c <3>
+
+<1> switch branch
+<2> take out a file out of other commit
+<3> or "git checkout -- hello.c", as in the next example.
 ------------
 
 If you have an unfortunate branch that is named `hello.c`, the

File Documentation/git-clone.txt

 	for "host.xz:foo/.git").  Cloning into an existing directory
 	is not allowed.
 
+Examples
+~~~~~~~~
+
+Clone from upstream::
++
+------------
+$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../linux-2.6 my2.6
+$ cd my2.6
+$ make
+------------
+
+
+Make a local clone that borrows from the current directory, without checking things out::
++
+------------
+$ git clone -l -s -n . ../copy
+$ cd copy
+$ git show-branch
+------------
+
 Author
 ------
 Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
 
+
 Documentation
 --------------
 Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.

File Documentation/git-cvsexportcommit.txt

 
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
-git-cvsapplycommmit.perl 
+git-cvsexportcommmit.perl 
                         [ -h ] [ -v ] [ -c ] [ -p ] [PARENTCOMMIT] COMMITID 
 
 

File Documentation/git-diff.txt

 	commands.
 
 
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+
+Various ways to check your working tree::
++
+------------
+$ git diff <1>
+$ git diff --cached <2>
+$ git diff HEAD <3>
+
+<1> changes in the working tree since your last git-update-index.
+<2> changes between the index and your last commit; what you
+would be committing if you run "git commit" without "-a" option.
+<3> changes in the working tree since your last commit; what you
+would be committing if you run "git commit -a"
+------------
+
+Comparing with arbitrary commits::
++
+------------
+$ git diff test <1>
+$ git diff HEAD -- ./test <2>
+$ git diff HEAD^ HEAD <3>
+
+<1> instead of using the tip of the current branch, compare with the
+tip of "test" branch.
+<2> instead of comparing with the tip of "test" branch, compare with
+the tip of the curren branch, but limit the comparison to the
+file "test".
+<3> compare the version before the last commit and the last commit.
+------------
+
+
+Limiting the diff output::
++
+------------
+$ git diff --diff-filter=MRC <1>
+$ git diff --name-status -r <2>
+$ git diff arch/i386 include/asm-i386 <3>
+
+<1> show only modification, rename and copy, but not addition
+nor deletion.
+<2> show only names and the nature of change, but not actual
+diff output.  --name-status disables usual patch generation
+which in turn also disables recursive behaviour, so without -r
+you would only see the directory name if there is a change in a
+file in a subdirectory.
+<3> limit diff output to named subtrees.
+------------
+
+Munging the diff output::
++
+------------
+$ git diff --find-copies-harder -B -C <1>
+$ git diff -R <2>
+
+<1> spend extra cycles to find renames, copies and complete
+rewrites (very expensive).
+<2> output diff in reverse.
+------------
+
+
 Author
 ------
 Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>

File Documentation/git-format-patch.txt

 	pulled from origin the last time in a patch form for
 	e-mail submission.
 
+git-format-patch -M -B origin::
+	The same as the previous one, except detect and handle
+	renames and complete rewrites intelligently to produce
+	renaming patch.  A renaming patch reduces the amount of
+	text output, and generally makes it easier to review
+	it.  Note that the "patch" program does not understand
+	renaming patch well, so use it only when you know the
+	recipient uses git to apply your patch.
+
 
 See Also
 --------

File Documentation/git-init-db.txt

 +
 ----------------
 $ cd /path/to/my/codebase
-$ git-init-db
-----------------
+$ git-init-db <1>
+$ git-add . <2>
 
+<1> prepare /path/to/my/codebase/.git directory
+<2> add all existing file to the index
+----------------
 
 
 Author

File Documentation/git-mailsplit.txt

 
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
-'git-mailsplit' [-d<prec>] [<mbox>] <directory>
+'git-mailsplit' [-b] [-f<nn>] [-d<prec>] -o<directory> [--] [<mbox>...]
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
 <directory>::
 	Directory in which to place the individual messages.
 
+-b::
+	If any file doesn't begin with a From line, assume it is a
+	single mail message instead of signalling error.
+
 -d<prec>::
 	Instead of the default 4 digits with leading zeros,
 	different precision can be specified for the generated
 	filenames.
 
+-f<nn>::
+	Skip the first <nn> numbers, for example if -f3 is specified,
+	start the numbering with 0004.
 
 Author
 ------

File Documentation/git-reset.txt

 <commit-ish>::
 	Commit to make the current HEAD.
 
+Examples
+~~~~~~~~
+
+Undo a commit and redo::
++
+------------
+$ git commit ...
+$ git reset --soft HEAD^ <1>
+$ edit <2>
+$ git commit -a -c ORIG_HEAD <3>
+
+<1> This is most often done when you remembered what you
+just committed is incomplete, or you misspelled your commit
+message, or both.  Leaves working tree as it was before "reset".
+<2> make corrections to working tree files.
+<3> "reset" copies the old head to .git/ORIG_HEAD; redo the
+commit by starting with its log message.  If you do not need to
+edit the message further, you can give -C option instead.
+------------
+
+Undo commits permanently::
++
+------------
+$ git commit ...
+$ git reset --hard HEAD~3 <1>
+
+<1> The last three commits (HEAD, HEAD^, and HEAD~2) were bad
+and you do not want to ever see them again.  Do *not* do this if
+you have already given these commits to somebody else.
+------------
+
+Undo a commit, making it a topic branch::
++
+------------
+$ git branch topic/wip <1>
+$ git reset --hard HEAD~3 <2>
+$ git checkout topic/wip <3>
+
+<1> You have made some commits, but realize they were premature
+to be in the "master" branch.  You want to continue polishing
+them in a topic branch, so create "topic/wip" branch off of the
+current HEAD.
+<2> Rewind the master branch to get rid of those three commits.
+<3> Switch to "topic/wip" branch and keep working.
+------------
+
+Undo update-index::
++
+------------
+$ edit <1>
+$ git-update-index frotz.c filfre.c
+$ mailx <2>
+$ git reset <3>
+$ git pull git://info.example.com/ nitfol <4>
+
+<1> you are happily working on something, and find the changes
+in these files are in good order.  You do not want to see them
+when you run "git diff", because you plan to work on other files
+and changes with these files are distracting.
+<2> somebody asks you to pull, and the changes sounds worthy of merging.
+<3> however, you already dirtied the index (i.e. your index does
+not match the HEAD commit).  But you know the pull you are going
+to make does not affect frotz.c nor filfre.c, so you revert the
+index changes for these two files.  Your changes in working tree
+remain there.
+<4> then you can pull and merge, leaving frotz.c and filfre.c
+changes still in the working tree.
+------------
+
+
 Author
 ------
 Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net> and Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>

File Documentation/git.txt

 	environment variable. If no path is given 'git' will print
 	the current setting and then exit.
 
-CORE GIT COMMANDS
------------------
-Before reading this cover to cover, you may want to take a look
-at the link:tutorial.html[tutorial] document.  If you are
-migrating from CVS, link:cvs-migration.html[cvs migration]
-document may be helpful after you finish the tutorial.
-
-The <<Discussion>> section below contains much useful definition
-and clarification info - read that first.  After that, if you
-are interested in using git to manage (version control)
+
+NOT LEARNING CORE GIT COMMANDS
+------------------------------
+
+This manual is intended to give complete background information
+and internal workings of git, which may be too much for most
+people.  The <<Discussion>> section below contains much useful
+definition and clarification - read that first.
+
+If you are interested in using git to manage (version control)
 projects, use link:everyday.html[Everyday GIT] as a guide to the
 minimum set of commands you need to know for day-to-day work.
+Most likely, that will get you started, and you can go a long
+way without knowing the low level details too much.
+
+The link:tutorial.html[tutorial] document covers how things
+internally work.
+
+If you are migrating from CVS, link:cvs-migration.html[cvs
+migration] document may be helpful after you finish the
+tutorial.
 
 After you get the general feel from the tutorial and this
 overview page, you may want to take a look at the
 link:howto-index.html[howto] documents.
 
+
+CORE GIT COMMANDS
+-----------------
+
 If you are writing your own Porcelain, you need to be familiar
 with most of the low level commands --- I suggest starting from
 gitlink:git-update-index[1] and gitlink:git-read-tree[1].
 
 
-David Greaves <david@dgreaves.com>
-08/05/05
-
-Updated by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net> on 2005-05-05 and
-further on 2005-12-07 to reflect recent changes.
-
 Commands Overview
 -----------------
 The git commands can helpfully be split into those that manipulate
 gitlink:git-name-rev[1]::
 	Find symbolic names for given revs.
 
+gitlink:git-pack-redundant[1]::
+	Find redundant pack files.
+
 gitlink:git-rev-list[1]::
 	Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order.
 
 gitlink:git-send-pack[1]::
 	Pushes to a remote repository, intelligently.
 
+gitlink:git-http-push[1]::
+	Push missing objects using HTTP/DAV.
+
 gitlink:git-shell[1]::
 	Restricted shell for GIT-only SSH access.
 
 gitlink:git-cvsimport[1]::
 	Salvage your data out of another SCM people love to hate.
 
+gitlink:git-cvsexportcommit[1]::
+	Export a single commit to a CVS checkout.
+
 gitlink:git-lost-found[1]::
 	Recover lost refs that luckily have not yet been pruned.
 
 
 Authors
 -------
-	git's founding father is Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>.
-	The current git nurse is Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>.
-	The git potty was written by Andres Ericsson <ae@op5.se>.
-	General upbringing is handled by the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+* git's founding father is Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>.
+* The current git nurse is Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>.
+* The git potty was written by Andres Ericsson <ae@op5.se>.
+* General upbringing is handled by the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
 
 Documentation
 --------------
-Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+The documentation for git suite was started by David Greaves
+<david@dgreaves.com>, and later enhanced greatly by the
+contributors on the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
 
 GIT
 ---

File Documentation/howto/using-topic-branches.txt

 patches blocked in the test tree waiting for complex changes to accumulate
 enough test time to graduate.
 
-Back in the BitKeeper days I achieved this my creating small forests of
+Back in the BitKeeper days I achieved this by creating small forests of
 temporary trees, one tree for each logical grouping of patches, and then
 pulling changes from these trees first to the test tree, and then to the
 release tree.  At first I replicated this in GIT, but then I realised
 
 First create your work tree by cloning Linus's public tree:
 
- $ git clone rsync://rsync.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux-2.6.git work
+ $ git clone \
+ master.kernel.org:/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux-2.6.git work
 
 Change directory into the cloned tree you just created
 
 branch into a local branch named "linus":
 
  $ cat > .git/remotes/linus
- URL: rsync://rsync.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux-2.6.git
+ URL: master.kernel.org:/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux-2.6.git
  Pull: master:linus
  ^D
 

File Documentation/pack-protocol.txt

-There are two Pack push-pull protocols.
-
-upload-pack (S) | fetch/clone-pack (C) protocol:
-
-	# Tell the puller what commits we have and what their names are
-	S: SHA1 name
-	S: ...
-	S: SHA1 name
-	S: # flush -- it's your turn
-	# Tell the pusher what commits we want, and what we have
-	C: want name
-	C: ..
-	C: want name
-	C: have SHA1
-	C: have SHA1
-	C: ...
-	C: # flush -- occasionally ask "had enough?"
-	S: NAK
-	C: have SHA1
-	C: ...
-	C: have SHA1
-	S: ACK
-	C: done
-	S: XXXXXXX -- packfile contents.
-
-send-pack | receive-pack protocol.
-
-	# Tell the pusher what commits we have and what their names are
-	C: SHA1 name
-	C: ...
-	C: SHA1 name
-	C: # flush -- it's your turn
-	# Tell the puller what the pusher has
-	S: old-SHA1 new-SHA1 name
-	S: old-SHA1 new-SHA1 name
-	S: ...
-	S: # flush -- done with the list
-	S: XXXXXXX --- packfile contents.

File Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt

+Pack transfer protocols
+=======================
+
+There are two Pack push-pull protocols.
+
+upload-pack (S) | fetch/clone-pack (C) protocol:
+
+	# Tell the puller what commits we have and what their names are
+	S: SHA1 name
+	S: ...
+	S: SHA1 name
+	S: # flush -- it's your turn
+	# Tell the pusher what commits we want, and what we have
+	C: want name
+	C: ..
+	C: want name
+	C: have SHA1
+	C: have SHA1
+	C: ...
+	C: # flush -- occasionally ask "had enough?"
+	S: NAK
+	C: have SHA1
+	C: ...
+	C: have SHA1
+	S: ACK
+	C: done
+	S: XXXXXXX -- packfile contents.
+
+send-pack | receive-pack protocol.
+
+	# Tell the pusher what commits we have and what their names are
+	C: SHA1 name
+	C: ...
+	C: SHA1 name
+	C: # flush -- it's your turn
+	# Tell the puller what the pusher has
+	S: old-SHA1 new-SHA1 name
+	S: old-SHA1 new-SHA1 name
+	S: ...
+	S: # flush -- done with the list
+	S: XXXXXXX --- packfile contents.

File Documentation/tutorial.txt

 The core git is often called "plumbing", with the prettier user
 interfaces on top of it called "porcelain". You may not want to use the
 plumbing directly very often, but it can be good to know what the
-plumbing does for when the porcelain isn't flushing... 
+plumbing does for when the porcelain isn't flushing.
+
+The material presented here often goes deep describing how things
+work internally.  If you are mostly interested in using git as a
+SCM, you can skip them during your first pass.
+
+[NOTE]
+And those "too deep" descriptions are often marked as Note.
 
 
 Creating a git repository
 A common shorthand for `git-diff-files -p` is to just write `git
 diff`, which will do the same thing.
 
+------------
+$ git diff
+diff --git a/hello b/hello
+index 557db03..263414f 100644
+--- a/hello
++++ b/hello
+@@ -1 +1,2 @@
+ Hello World
++It's a new day for git
+------------
+
 
 Committing git state
 --------------------
 # Define USE_STDEV below if you want git to care about the underlying device
 # change being considered an inode change from the update-cache perspective.
 
-GIT_VERSION = 0.99.9m
+GIT_VERSION = 0.99.9n
 
 # CFLAGS and LDFLAGS are for the users to override from the command line.
 
 	$(CC) $(ALL_CFLAGS) -o $@ $(ALL_LDFLAGS) $^
 
 check:
-	for i in *.c; do sparse $(ALL_CFLAGS) $(SPARSE_FLAGS) $$i; done
+	for i in *.c; do sparse $(ALL_CFLAGS) $(SPARSE_FLAGS) $$i || exit; done
 
 
 

File checkout-index.c

 
 	while (pos < active_nr) {
 		struct cache_entry *ce = active_cache[pos];
-		if (ce_namelen(ce) != namelen &&
+		if (ce_namelen(ce) != namelen ||
 		    memcmp(ce->name, name, namelen))
 			break;
 		has_same_name = 1;

File debian/changelog

+git-core (0.99.9n-0) unstable; urgency=low
+
+  * GIT 0.99.9n aka 1.0rc6
+
+ -- Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>  Wed, 14 Dec 2005 17:27:08 -0800
+
 git-core (0.99.9m-0) unstable; urgency=low
 
   * GIT 0.99.9m aka 1.0rc5

File diffcore-break.c

 		return 0; /* error but caught downstream */
 
 	base_size = ((src->size < dst->size) ? src->size : dst->size);
+	if (base_size < MINIMUM_BREAK_SIZE)
+		return 0; /* we do not break too small filepair */
 
 	delta = diff_delta(src->data, src->size,
 			   dst->data, dst->size,
 			   &delta_size, 0);
+	if (!delta)
+		return 0; /* error but caught downstream */
 
 	/* Estimate the edit size by interpreting delta. */
 	if (count_delta(delta, delta_size,
 		    !S_ISDIR(p->one->mode) && !S_ISDIR(p->two->mode) &&
 		    !strcmp(p->one->path, p->two->path)) {
 			if (should_break(p->one, p->two,
-					 break_score, &score) &&
-			    MINIMUM_BREAK_SIZE <= p->one->size) {
+					 break_score, &score)) {
 				/* Split this into delete and create */
 				struct diff_filespec *null_one, *null_two;
 				struct diff_filepair *dp;
 #!/bin/sh
 
-die () {
-    echo >&2 "$*"
-    exit 1
-}
-
-usage() {
-    die "usage: git add [-n] [-v] <file>..."
-}
+USAGE='[-n] [-v] <file>...'
+SUBDIRECTORY_OK='Yes'
+. git-sh-setup
 
 show_only=
 verbose=
   shift
 done
 
-GIT_DIR=$(git-rev-parse --git-dir) || exit
-
 if test -f "$GIT_DIR/info/exclude"
 then
 	git-ls-files -z \
 #!/bin/sh
 #
 #
-. git-sh-setup
 
-usage () {
-    echo >&2 "usage: $0 [--signoff] [--dotest=<dir>] [--utf8] [--binary] [--3way] <mbox>"
-    echo >&2 "	or, when resuming"
-    echo >&2 "	$0 [--skip | --resolved]"
-    exit 1;
-}
+USAGE='[--signoff] [--dotest=<dir>] [--utf8] [--binary] [--3way] <mbox>
+  or, when resuming [--skip | --resolved]'
+. git-sh-setup
 
 stop_here () {
     echo "$1" >"$dotest/next"
 	# Start afresh.
 	mkdir -p "$dotest" || exit
 
-	# cat does the right thing for us, including '-' to mean
-	# standard input.
-	cat "$@" |
-	git-mailsplit -d$prec "$dotest/" >"$dotest/last" || {
+	git-mailsplit -d"$prec" -o"$dotest" -b -- "$@" > "$dotest/last" ||  {
 		rm -fr "$dotest"
 		exit 1
 	}
 	GIT_AUTHOR_NAME="$(sed -n '/^Author/ s/Author: //p' "$dotest/info")"
 	GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL="$(sed -n '/^Email/ s/Email: //p' "$dotest/info")"
 	GIT_AUTHOR_DATE="$(sed -n '/^Date/ s/Date: //p' "$dotest/info")"
+
+	if test -z "$GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL"
+	then
+		echo "Patch does not have a valid e-mail address."
+		stop_here $this
+	fi
+
 	export GIT_AUTHOR_NAME GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL GIT_AUTHOR_DATE
 
 	SUBJECT="$(sed -n '/^Subject/ s/Subject: //p' "$dotest/info")"

File git-applymbox.sh

 ##
 ## git-am is supposed to be the newer and better tool for this job.
 
+USAGE='[-u] [-k] [-q] [-m] (-c .dotest/<num> | mbox) [signoff]'
 . git-sh-setup
 
-usage () {
-    echo >&2 "applymbox [-u] [-k] [-q] [-m] (-c .dotest/<num> | mbox) [signoff]"
-    exit 1
-}
-
 keep_subject= query_apply= continue= utf8= resume=t
 while case "$#" in 0) break ;; esac
 do

File git-applypatch.sh

 ##	$3 - "info" file with Author, email and subject
 ##	$4 - optional file containing signoff to add
 ##
+
+USAGE='<msg> <patch> <info> [<signoff>]'
 . git-sh-setup
 
+case "$#" in 3|4) usage ;; esac
+
 final=.dotest/final-commit
 ##
 ## If this file exists, we ask before applying

File git-bisect.sh

 #!/bin/sh
+
+USAGE='[start|bad|good|next|reset|visualize]'
+LONG_USAGE='git bisect start [<pathspec>]	reset bisect state and start bisection.
+git bisect bad [<rev>]		mark <rev> a known-bad revision.
+git bisect good [<rev>...]	mark <rev>... known-good revisions.
+git bisect next			find next bisection to test and check it out.
+git bisect reset [<branch>]	finish bisection search and go back to branch.
+git bisect visualize            show bisect status in gitk.
+git bisect replay <logfile>	replay bisection log
+git bisect log			show bisect log.'
+
 . git-sh-setup
 
 sq() {
 	' "$@"
 }
 
-usage() {
-    echo >&2 'usage: git bisect [start|bad|good|next|reset|visualize]
-git bisect start [<pathspec>]	reset bisect state and start bisection.
-git bisect bad [<rev>]		mark <rev> a known-bad revision.
-git bisect good [<rev>...]	mark <rev>... known-good revisions.
-git bisect next			find next bisection to test and check it out.
-git bisect reset [<branch>]	finish bisection search and go back to branch.
-git bisect visualize            show bisect status in gitk.
-git bisect replay <logfile>	replay bisection log
-git bisect log			show bisect log.'
-    exit 1
-}
-
 bisect_autostart() {
 	test -d "$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect" || {
 		echo >&2 'You need to start by "git bisect start"'

File git-branch.sh

 #!/bin/sh
 
-GIT_DIR=`git-rev-parse --git-dir` || exit $?
-
-die () {
-    echo >&2 "$*"
-    exit 1
-}
-
-usage () {
-    echo >&2 "usage: $(basename $0)"' [-d <branch>] | [[-f] <branch> [start-point]]
-
-If no arguments, show available branches and mark current branch with a star.
+USAGE='[-d <branch>] | [[-f] <branch> [start-point]]'
+LONG_USAGE='If no arguments, show available branches and mark current branch with a star.
 If one argument, create a new branch <branchname> based off of current HEAD.
-If two arguments, create a new branch <branchname> based off of <start-point>.
-'
-    exit 1
-}
+If two arguments, create a new branch <branchname> based off of <start-point>.'
+
+SUBDIRECTORY_OK='Yes'
+. git-sh-setup
 
 headref=$(git-symbolic-ref HEAD | sed -e 's|^refs/heads/||')
 

File git-checkout.sh

 #!/bin/sh
-. git-sh-setup
 
-usage () {
-    die "usage: git checkout [-f] [-b <new_branch>] [<branch>] [<paths>...]"
-}
+USAGE='[-f] [-b <new_branch>] [<branch>] [<paths>...]'
+. git-sh-setup
 
 old=$(git-rev-parse HEAD)
 new=

File git-cherry.sh

 # Copyright (c) 2005 Junio C Hamano.
 #
 
-. git-sh-setup
-
-usage="usage: $0 "'[-v] <upstream> [<head>]
-
-             __*__*__*__*__> <upstream>
+USAGE='[-v] <upstream> [<head>]'
+LONG_USAGE='             __*__*__*__*__> <upstream>
             /
   fork-point
             \__+__+__+__+__+__+__+__> <head>
 compared against the change each commit between the fork-point and
 <upstream> introduces.  If the change seems to be in the upstream,
 it is shown on the standard output with prefix "+".  Otherwise
-it is shown with prefix "-".
-'
+it is shown with prefix "-".'
+. git-sh-setup
 
 case "$1" in -v) verbose=t; shift ;; esac 
 
 2) upstream=`git-rev-parse --verify "$1"` &&
    ours=`git-rev-parse --verify "$2"` || exit
    ;;
-*) echo >&2 "$usage"; exit 1 ;;
+*) usage ;;
 esac
 
 # Note that these list commits in reverse order;

File git-clone.sh

 unset CDPATH
 
 usage() {
-	echo >&2 "* git clone [-l [-s]] [-q] [-u <upload-pack>] [-n] <repo> [<dir>]"
+	echo >&2 "Usage: $0 [-l [-s]] [-q] [-u <upload-pack>] [-n] <repo> [<dir>]"
 	exit 1
 }
 
 		cd "$D" && case "$upload_pack" in
 		'') git-clone-pack $quiet "$repo" ;;
 		*) git-clone-pack $quiet "$upload_pack" "$repo" ;;
-		esac
+		esac || {
+			echo >&2 "clone-pack from '$repo' failed."
+			exit 1
+		}
 		;;
 	esac
 	;;

File git-commit.sh

 # Copyright (c) 2005 Linus Torvalds
 #
 
+USAGE='[-a] [-s] [-v | --no-verify]  [-m <message> | -F <logfile> | (-C|-c) <commit>] [-e] [<path>...]'
 . git-sh-setup
 
-usage () {
-	die 'git commit [-a] [-s] [-v | --no-verify]  [-m <message> | -F <logfile> | (-C|-c) <commit>] [-e] [<path>...]'
-}
-
 all= logfile= use_commit= no_edit= log_given= log_message= verify=t signoff=
 while case "$#" in 0) break;; esac
 do

File git-compat-util.h

 	return x;
 }
 
+#ifndef MAXPATHLEN
+#define MAXPATHLEN 256
+#endif
 #endif

File git-fetch.sh

 #!/bin/sh
 #
+
+USAGE='<fetch-options> <repository> <refspec>...'
 . git-sh-setup
 . git-parse-remote
 _x40='[0-9a-f][0-9a-f][0-9a-f][0-9a-f][0-9a-f]'
 	-v|--verbose)
 		verbose=Yes
 		;;
+	-*)
+		usage
+		;;
 	*)
 		break
 		;;

File git-format-patch.sh

 # Copyright (c) 2005 Junio C Hamano
 #
 
-. git-sh-setup
-
-# Force diff to run in C locale.
-LANG=C LC_ALL=C
-export LANG LC_ALL
-
-usage () {
-    echo >&2 "usage: $0"' [-n] [-o dir | --stdout] [--keep-subject] [--mbox]
-    [--check] [--signoff] [-<diff options>...]
-    [--help]
-    ( from..to ... | upstream [ our-head ] )
-
-Prepare each commit with its patch since our-head forked from upstream,
+USAGE='[-n | -k] [-o <dir> | --stdout] [--signoff] [--check] [--mbox] [--diff-options] <upstream> [<our-head>]'
+LONG_USAGE='Prepare each commit with its patch since our-head forked from upstream,
 one file per patch, for e-mail submission.  Each output file is
 numbered sequentially from 1, and uses the first line of the commit
 message (massaged for pathname safety) as the filename.
 
 When --mbox is specified, the output is formatted to resemble
 UNIX mailbox format, and can be concatenated together for processing
-with applymbox.
-'
-    exit 1
-}
+with applymbox.'
+. git-sh-setup
+
+# Force diff to run in C locale.
+LANG=C LC_ALL=C
+export LANG LC_ALL
 
 diff_opts=
 LF='
 # Copyright (c) Linus Torvalds, 2005
 #
 
+USAGE='<option>... <pattern> <path>...'
+SUBDIRECTORY_OK='Yes'
+. git-sh-setup
+
 pattern=
 flags=()
 git_flags=()
 	shift
 done
 [ "$pattern" ] || {
-	echo >&2 "usage: 'git grep <pattern> [pathspec*]'"
-	exit 1
+	usage
 }
 git-ls-files -z "${git_flags[@]}" "$@" |
 	xargs -0 grep "${flags[@]}" -e "$pattern"

File git-lost-found.sh

 #!/bin/sh
 
-GIT_DIR=`git-rev-parse --git-dir` || exit $?
+USAGE=''
+SUBDIRECTORY_OK='Yes'
+. git-sh-setup
+
+if [ "$#" != "0" ]
+then
+    usage
+fi
+
 laf="$GIT_DIR/lost-found"
 rm -fr "$laf" && mkdir -p "$laf/commit" "$laf/other" || exit
 

File git-merge.sh

 # Copyright (c) 2005 Junio C Hamano
 #
 
+
+USAGE='[-n] [--no-commit] [-s <strategy>]... <merge-message> <head> <remote>+'
 . git-sh-setup
 
 LF='
 '
 
-usage () {
-    die "git-merge [-n] [--no-commit] [-s <strategy>]... <merge-message> <head> <remote>+"
-}
-
 all_strategies='recursive octopus resolve stupid ours'
 default_strategies='recursive'
 use_strategies=
 shift
 
 # All the rest are remote heads
+remoteheads=
 for remote
 do
-	git-rev-parse --verify "$remote"^0 >/dev/null ||
+	remotehead=$(git-rev-parse --verify "$remote"^0) ||
 	    die "$remote - not something we can merge"
+	remoteheads="${remoteheads}$remotehead "
 done
+set x $remoteheads ; shift
 
 case "$#" in
 1)

File git-prune.sh

 #!/bin/sh
 
+USAGE='[-n] [--] [<head>...]'
 . git-sh-setup
 
 dryrun=
     case "$1" in
     -n) dryrun=-n echo=echo ;;
     --) break ;;
-    -*) echo >&2 "usage: git-prune [ -n ] [ heads... ]"; exit 1 ;;
+    -*) usage ;;
     *)  break ;;
     esac
     shift;
 #
 # Fetch one or more remote refs and merge it/them into the current HEAD.
 
+USAGE='[-n | --no-summary] [--no-commit] [-s strategy]... [<fetch-options>] <repo> <head>...'
+LONG_USAGE='Fetch one or more remote refs and merge it/them into the current HEAD.'
 . git-sh-setup
 
-usage () {
-    echo >&2 "usage: $0"' [-n] [--no-commit] [--no-summary] [--help]
-    [-s strategy]...
-    [<fetch-options>]
-    <repo> <head>...
-
-Fetch one or more remote refs and merge it/them into the current HEAD.
-'
-    exit 1
-}
-
 strategy_args= no_summary= no_commit=
 while case "$#,$1" in 0) break ;; *,-*) ;; *) break ;; esac
 do
 #!/bin/sh
-. git-sh-setup
-
-usage () {
-    die "Usage: git push [--all] [--force] <repository> [<refspec>]"
-}
 
+USAGE='[--all] [--force] <repository> [<refspec>...]'
+. git-sh-setup
 
 # Parse out parameters and then stop at remote, so that we can
 # translate it using .git/branches information

File git-rebase.sh

 # Copyright (c) 2005 Junio C Hamano.
 #
 
+USAGE='<upstream> [<head>]'
 . git-sh-setup
 
+case $# in 1|2) ;; *) usage ;; esac
+
 # Make sure we do not have .dotest
 if mkdir .dotest
 then
 	exit 1
 fi
 
-# The other head is given.  Make sure it is valid.
-other=$(git-rev-parse --verify "$1^0") || exit
-
-# Make sure we have HEAD that is valid.
-head=$(git-rev-parse --verify "HEAD^0") || exit
-
 # The tree must be really really clean.
 git-update-index --refresh || exit
 diff=$(git-diff-index --cached --name-status -r HEAD)
-case "$different" in
+case "$diff" in
 ?*)	echo "$diff"
 	exit 1
 	;;
 esac
 
+# The other head is given.  Make sure it is valid.
+other=$(git-rev-parse --verify "$1^0") || usage
+
+# Make sure the branch to rebase is valid.
+head=$(git-rev-parse --verify "${2-HEAD}^0") || exit
+
 # If the branch to rebase is given, first switch to it.
 case "$#" in
 2)
-	git-checkout "$2" || exit
+	git-checkout "$2" || usage
 esac
 
-# If the HEAD is a proper descendant of $other, we do not even need
-# to rebase.  Make sure we do not do needless rebase.  In such a
-# case, merge-base should be the same as "$other".
 mb=$(git-merge-base "$other" "$head")
+
+# Check if we are already based on $other.
 if test "$mb" = "$other"
 then
 	echo >&2 "Current branch `git-symbolic-ref HEAD` is up to date."
 
 # Rewind the head to "$other"
 git-reset --hard "$other"
+
+# If the $other is a proper descendant of the tip of the branch, then
+# we just fast forwarded.
+if test "$mb" = "$head"
+then
+	echo >&2 "Fast-forwarded $head to $other."
+	exit 0
+fi
+
 git-format-patch -k --stdout --full-index "$other" ORIG_HEAD |
 git am --binary -3 -k

File git-repack.sh

 # Copyright (c) 2005 Linus Torvalds
 #
 
+USAGE='[-a] [-d] [-l] [-n]'
 . git-sh-setup
 	
 no_update_info= all_into_one= remove_redundant= local=
 	-a)	all_into_one=t ;;
 	-d)	remove_redundant=t ;;
 	-l)	local=t ;;
-	*)	break ;;
+	*)	usage ;;
 	esac
 	shift
 done

File git-request-pull.sh

 # This file is licensed under the GPL v2, or a later version
 # at the discretion of Linus Torvalds.
 
-usage()
-{
-	echo "$0 <commit> <url> [ <head> ]"
-	echo "  Summarizes the changes since <commit> to the standard output,"
-	echo "  and includes <url> in the message generated."
-	exit 1
-}
+USAGE='<commit> <url> [<head>]'
+LONG_USAGE='Summarizes the changes since <commit> to the standard output,
+and includes <url> in the message generated.'
+SUBDIRECTORY_OK='Yes'
+. git-sh-setup
 
 revision=$1
 url=$2

File git-reset.sh

 #!/bin/sh
-. git-sh-setup
 
-usage () {
-	die 'Usage: git reset [--mixed | --soft | --hard]  [<commit-ish>]'
-}
+USAGE='[--mixed | --soft | --hard]  [<commit-ish>]'
+. git-sh-setup
 
 tmp=/var/tmp/reset.$$
 trap 'rm -f $tmp-*' 0 1 2 3 15

File git-resolve.sh

 #
 # Resolve two trees.
 #
-. git-sh-setup
 
-usage () {
-	die "git-resolve <head> <remote> <merge-message>"
-}
+USAGE='<head> <remote> <merge-message>'
+. git-sh-setup
 
 dropheads() {
 	rm -f -- "$GIT_DIR/MERGE_HEAD" \

File git-revert.sh

 # Copyright (c) 2005 Linus Torvalds
 # Copyright (c) 2005 Junio C Hamano
 #
-. git-sh-setup
 
 case "$0" in
 *-revert* )
 	test -t 0 && edit=-e
-	me=revert ;;
+	me=revert
+	USAGE='[--edit | --no-edit] [-n] <commit-ish>' ;;
 *-cherry-pick* )
 	edit=
-	me=cherry-pick ;;
+	me=cherry-pick
+	USAGE='[--edit] [-n] [-r] <commit-ish>'  ;;
 * )
 	die "What are you talking about?" ;;
 esac
-
-usage () {
-	case "$me" in
-	cherry-pick)
-		die "usage git $me [--edit] [-n] [-r] <commit-ish>"
-		;;
-	revert)
-		die "usage git $me [--edit | --no-edit] [-n] <commit-ish>"
-		;;
-	esac
-}
+. git-sh-setup
 
 no_commit= replay=
 while case "$#" in 0) break ;; esac

File git-sh-setup.sh

 # exporting it.
 unset CDPATH
 
-: ${GIT_DIR=.git}
-: ${GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY="$GIT_DIR/objects"}
-
 die() {
 	echo >&2 "$@"
 	exit 1
 }
 
-# Make sure we are in a valid repository of a vintage we understand.
-GIT_DIR="$GIT_DIR" git-var GIT_AUTHOR_IDENT >/dev/null || exit
+usage() {
+	die "Usage: $0 $USAGE"
+}
+
+if [ -z "$LONG_USAGE" ]
+then
+	LONG_USAGE="Usage: $0 $USAGE"
+else
+	LONG_USAGE="Usage: $0 $USAGE
+
+$LONG_USAGE"
+fi
+
+case "$1" in
+	--h|--he|--hel|--help)
+	echo "$LONG_USAGE"
+	exit
+esac
+
+if [ -z "$SUBDIRECTORY_OK" ]
+then
+	: ${GIT_DIR=.git}
+	: ${GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY="$GIT_DIR/objects"}
+
+	# Make sure we are in a valid repository of a vintage we understand.
+	GIT_DIR="$GIT_DIR" git-var GIT_AUTHOR_IDENT >/dev/null || exit
+else
+	GIT_DIR=$(git-rev-parse --git-dir) || exit
+fi

File git-status.sh

 #
 # Copyright (c) 2005 Linus Torvalds
 #
-GIT_DIR=$(git-rev-parse --git-dir) || exit
+
+USAGE=''
+SUBDIRECTORY_OK='Yes'
+
+. git-sh-setup
+
+if [ "$#" != "0" ]
+then
+  usage
+fi
 
 report () {
   header="#
 #!/bin/sh
 # Copyright (c) 2005 Linus Torvalds
 
-GIT_DIR=`git-rev-parse --git-dir` || exit $?
-
-usage () {
-    echo >&2 "Usage: git-tag [-a | -s | -u <key-id>] [-f | -d] [-m <msg>] <tagname> [<head>]"
-    exit 1
-}
-
-die () {
-    echo >&2 "$*"
-    exit 1
-}
+USAGE='[-a | -s | -u <key-id>] [-f | -d] [-m <msg>] <tagname> [<head>]'
+SUBDIRECTORY_OK='Yes'
+. git-sh-setup
 
 annotate=
 signed=

File git-verify-tag.sh

 #!/bin/sh
 
-GIT_DIR=`git-rev-parse --git-dir` || exit $?
+USAGE='<tag>'
+SUBDIRECTORY_OK='Yes'
+. git-sh-setup
 
-die () {
-    echo >&2 "$*"
-    exit 1
-}
+if [ "$#" != "1" ]
+then
+  usage
+fi
 
 type="$(git-cat-file -t "$1" 2>/dev/null)" ||
 	die "$1: no such object."
 	return name;
 }
 
+static int bogus_from(char *line)
+{
+	/* John Doe <johndoe> */
+	char *bra, *ket, *dst, *cp;
+
+	/* This is fallback, so do not bother if we already have an
+	 * e-mail address.
+	 */ 
+	if (*email)
+		return 0;
+
+	bra = strchr(line, '<');
+	if (!bra)
+		return 0;
+	ket = strchr(bra, '>');
+	if (!ket)
+		return 0;
+
+	for (dst = email, cp = bra+1; cp < ket; )
+		*dst++ = *cp++;
+	*dst = 0;
+	for (cp = line; isspace(*cp); cp++)
+		;
+	for (bra--; isspace(*bra); bra--)
+		*bra = 0;
+	cp = sanity_check(cp, email);
+	strcpy(name, cp);
+	return 1;
+}
+
 static int handle_from(char *line)
 {
 	char *at = strchr(line, '@');
 	char *dst;
 
 	if (!at)
-		return 0;
+		return bogus_from(line);
 
 	/*
 	 * If we already have one email, don't take any confusing lines
 #include "cache.h"
 
 static const char git_mailsplit_usage[] =
-"git-mailsplit [-d<prec>] [<mbox>] <directory>";
+"git-mailsplit [-d<prec>] [-f<n>] [-b] -o<directory> <mbox>...";
 
 static int is_from_line(const char *line, int len)
 {
  * the Unix "From " line.  Write it into the specified
  * file.
  */
-static int split_one(FILE *mbox, const char *name)
+static int split_one(FILE *mbox, const char *name, int allow_bare)
 {
 	FILE *output = NULL;
 	int len = strlen(buf);
 	int fd;
 	int status = 0;
+	int is_bare = !is_from_line(buf, len);
 
-	if (!is_from_line(buf, len))
+	if (is_bare && !allow_bare)
 		goto corrupt;
 
 	fd = open(name, O_WRONLY | O_CREAT | O_EXCL, 0666);
 			die("cannot read mbox");
 		}
 		len = strlen(buf);
-		if (!is_partial && is_from_line(buf, len))
+		if (!is_partial && !is_bare && is_from_line(buf, len))
 			break; /* done with one message */
 	}
 	fclose(output);
 
 int main(int argc, const char **argv)
 {
-	int i, nr, nr_prec = 4;
-	FILE *mbox = NULL;
+	int nr = 0, nr_prec = 4;
+	int allow_bare = 0;
+	const char *dir = NULL;
+	const char **argp;
+	static const char *stdin_only[] = { "-", NULL };
+	char *name;
 
-	for (i = 1; i < argc; i++) {
-		const char *arg = argv[i];
+	for (argp = argv+1; *argp; argp++) {
+		const char *arg = *argp;
 
 		if (arg[0] != '-')
 			break;
 		/* do flags here */
-		if (!strncmp(arg, "-d", 2)) {
-			nr_prec = strtol(arg + 2, NULL, 10);
+		if ( arg[1] == 'd' ) {
+			nr_prec = strtol(arg+2, NULL, 10);
 			if (nr_prec < 3 || 10 <= nr_prec)
 				usage(git_mailsplit_usage);
 			continue;
+		} else if ( arg[1] == 'f' ) {
+			nr = strtol(arg+2, NULL, 10);
+		} else if ( arg[1] == 'b' && !arg[2] ) {
+			allow_bare = 1;
+		} else if ( arg[1] == 'o' && arg[2] ) {
+			dir = arg+2;
+		} else if ( arg[1] == '-' && !arg[2] ) {
+			argp++;	/* -- marks end of options */
+			break;
+		} else {
+			die("unknown option: %s", arg);
 		}
 	}
 
-	/* Either one remaining arg (dir), or two (mbox and dir) */
-	switch (argc - i) {
-	case 1:
-		mbox = stdin;
-		break;
-	case 2:
-		if ((mbox = fopen(argv[i], "r")) == NULL)
-			die("cannot open mbox %s for reading", argv[i]);
-		break;
-	default:
-		usage(git_mailsplit_usage);
+	if ( !dir ) {
+		/* Backwards compatibility: if no -o specified, accept
+		   <mbox> <dir> or just <dir> */
+		switch (argc - (argp-argv)) {
+		case 1:
+			dir = argp[0];
+			argp = stdin_only;
+			break;
+		case 2:
+			stdin_only[0] = argp[0];
+			dir = argp[1];
+			argp = stdin_only;
+			break;
+		default:
+			usage(git_mailsplit_usage);
+		}
+	} else {
+		/* New usage: if no more argument, parse stdin */
+		if ( !*argp )
+			argp = stdin_only;
 	}
-	if (chdir(argv[argc - 1]) < 0)
-		usage(git_mailsplit_usage);
 
-	nr = 0;
-	if (fgets(buf, sizeof(buf), mbox) == NULL)
-		die("cannot read mbox");
+	name = xmalloc(strlen(dir) + 2 + 3 * sizeof(nr));
 
-	for (;;) {
-		char name[10];
+	while (*argp) {
+		const char *file = *argp++;
+		FILE *f = !strcmp(file, "-") ? stdin : fopen(file, "rt");
+		int file_done = 0;
 
-		sprintf(name, "%0*d", nr_prec, ++nr);
-		switch (split_one(mbox, name)) {
-		case 0:
-			break;
-		case 1:
-			printf("%d\n", nr);
-			return 0;
-		default:
-			exit(1);
+		if ( !f )
+			die ("cannot open mbox %s", file);
+
+		if (fgets(buf, sizeof(buf), f) == NULL)
+			die("cannot read mbox %s", file);
+
+		while (!file_done) {
+			sprintf(name, "%s/%0*d", dir, nr_prec, ++nr);
+			file_done = split_one(f, name, allow_bare);
 		}
+
+		if (f != stdin)
+			fclose(f);
 	}
+
+	printf("%d\n", nr);
+	return 0;
 }
 {
 	struct ref *ref;
 	int new_refs;
+	int ret = 0;
 
 	/* No funny business with the matcher */
 	remote_tail = get_remote_heads(in, &remote_refs, 0, NULL, 1);
 				error("remote '%s' object %s does not "
 				      "exist on local",
 				      ref->name, sha1_to_hex(ref->old_sha1));
+				ret = -2;
 				continue;
 			}
 
 				error("remote ref '%s' is not a strict "
 				      "subset of local ref '%s'.", ref->name,
 				      ref->peer_ref->name);
+				ret = -2;
 				continue;
 			}
 		}
 		memcpy(ref->new_sha1, ref->peer_ref->new_sha1, 20);
 		if (is_zero_sha1(ref->new_sha1)) {
 			error("cannot happen anymore");
+			ret = -3;
 			continue;
 		}
 		new_refs++;
 	if (new_refs)
 		pack_objects(out, remote_refs);
 	close(out);
-	return 0;
+	return ret;
 }
 
 

File t/t3200-branch.sh

      git-update-index --add A &&