-$ git reset --soft HEAD^ <1>
-$ git commit -a -c ORIG_HEAD <3>
+$ git reset --soft HEAD^ <1>
+$ git commit -a -c ORIG_HEAD <3>
<1> This is most often done when you remembered what you
just committed is incomplete, or you misspelled your commit
message, or both. Leaves working tree as it was before "reset".
<3> "reset" copies the old head to .git/ORIG_HEAD; redo the
commit by starting with its log message. If you do not need to
edit the message further, you can give -C option instead.
Undo commits permanently::
-$ git reset --hard HEAD~3 <1>
+$ git reset --hard HEAD~3 <1>
<1> The last three commits (HEAD, HEAD^, and HEAD~2) were bad
and you do not want to ever see them again. Do *not* do this if
you have already given these commits to somebody else.
Undo a commit, making it a topic branch::
-$ git branch topic/wip <1>
-$ git reset --hard HEAD~3 <2>
-$ git checkout topic/wip <3>
+$ git branch topic/wip <1>
+$ git reset --hard HEAD~3 <2>
+$ git checkout topic/wip <3>
<1> You have made some commits, but realize they were premature
to be in the "master" branch. You want to continue polishing
them in a topic branch, so create "topic/wip" branch off of the
<2> Rewind the master branch to get rid of those three commits.
<3> Switch to "topic/wip" branch and keep working.
$ git-update-index frotz.c filfre.c
-$ git pull git://info.example.com/ nitfol <4>
+$ git pull git://info.example.com/ nitfol <4>
<1> you are happily working on something, and find the changes
in these files are in good order. You do not want to see them
when you run "git diff", because you plan to work on other files
<4> then you can pull and merge, leaving frotz.c and filfre.c
changes still in the working tree.
Trying really trivial in-index merge...
fatal: Merge requires file-level merging
CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in nitfol
Automatic merge failed/prevented; fix up by hand
+$ git pull . topic/branch <3>
+Updating from 41223... to 13134...
+$ git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD <4>
<1> try to update from the upstream resulted in a lot of
conflicts; you were not ready to spend a lot of time merging
right now, so you decide to do that later.
<2> "pull" has not made merge commit, so "git reset --hard"
which is a synonym for "git reset --hard HEAD" clears the mess
from the index file and the working tree.
-$ git pull . topic/branch <3>
-Updating from 41223... to 13134...
-$ git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD <4>
<3> merge a topic branch into the current branch, which resulted
<4> but you decided that the topic branch is not ready for public
tip of the current branch in ORIG_HEAD, so resetting hard to it
brings your index file and the working tree back to that state,
and resets the tip of the branch to that commit.
$ git checkout feature ;# you were working in "feature" branch and
$ work work work ;# got interrupted
-$ git commit -a -m 'snapshot WIP' <1>
+$ git commit -a -m 'snapshot WIP' <1>
$ git commit ;# commit with real log
-$ git reset --soft HEAD^ ;# go back to WIP state <2>
+$ git reset --soft HEAD^ ;# go back to WIP state <2>
<1> This commit will get blown away so a throw-away log message is OK.
<2> This removes the 'WIP' commit from the commit history, and sets
your working tree to the state just before you made that snapshot.
-<3> After <2>, the index file still has all the WIP changes you
- committed in <1>. This sets it to the last commit you were
- basing the WIP changes on.
+<3> At this point the index file still has all the WIP changes you
+ committed as 'snapshot WIP'. This updates the index to show your
+ WIP files as uncommitted.