`http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ent_(Middle-earth)` for an in-depth
+ A fast-forward is a special type of merge where you have
+ a revision and you are "merging" another branch's changes
+ that happen to be a descendant of what you have.
+ In such these cases, you do not make a new merge commit but
+ instead just update to his revision. This will happen
+ frequently on a tracking branch of a remote repository.
Fetching a branch means to get the branch's head ref from a
remote repository, to find out which objects are missing from
A commit object contains a (possibly empty) list of the logical
predecessor(s) in the line of development, i.e. its parents.
+pickaxe:: The term pickaxe refers to an option to the diffcore routines
+ that help select changes that add or delete a given text string.
+ With the --pickaxe-all option, it can be used to view the
+ full changeset that introduced or removed, say, a particular
+ line of text. See gitlink:git-diff.
A 40-byte hex representation of a SHA1 pointing to a particular
object. These may be stored in `$GIT_DIR/refs/`.
+ A refspec is used by fetch and push to describe the mapping
+ between remote ref and local ref. They are combined with
+ a colon in the format <src>:<dst>, preceded by an optional
+ plus sign, +. For example:
+ `git fetch $URL refs/heads/master:refs/heads/origin`
+ means "grab the master branch head from the $URL and store
+ it as my origin branch head".
+ And `git push $URL refs/heads/master:refs/heads/to-upstream`
+ means "publish my master branch head as to-upstream master head
+ at $URL". See also gitlink:git-push
A collection of refs together with an object database containing
all objects, which are reachable from the refs, possibly accompanied
+ A regular git branch that is used to follow changes from
+ another repository. A tracking branch should not contain
+ direct modifications or made commits made locally.
+ A tracking branch can usually be identified as the
+ right-hand-side ref in a Pull: refspec.
An object containing a list of file names and modes along with refs
to the associated blob and/or tree objects. A tree is equivalent