J. Bruce Fields  committed e34caac

user-manual: add section ID's

Any section lacking an id gets an annoying warning when you build
the manual. More seriously, the table of contents then generates
volatile id's which change with every build, with the effect that
we get URL's that change all the time.

The ID's are manually generated and sometimes inconsistent, but
that's OK.

XXX: what to do about the preface?

Signed-off-by: "J. Bruce Fields" <>

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File Documentation/user-manual.txt

 $ man git-clone
 Git Quick Start
 This is a quick summary of the major commands; the following chapters
 will explain how these work in more detail.
 Creating a new repository
 $ cd project
 Managing branches
 Exploring history
 				# repeat until done.
 Making changes
 $ git commit -a	   # use latest content of all tracked files
 $ git pull . test  # equivalent to git merge test
 Sharing your changes
 $ git push example test
 Repository maintenance
 $ git gc
 Repositories and Branches
 How to get a git repository
 In most of the following, examples will be taken from one of the two
 repositories above.
 How to check out a different version of a project
 with no way to find the history it used to point to; so use this command
 Understanding History: Commits
 history, including file data and directory contents, is stored in an object
 with a name that is a hash of its contents.
 Understanding history: commits, parents, and reachability
 that Y is a descendent of X, or that there is a chain of parents
 leading from commit Y to commit X.
 Understanding history: History diagrams
 If we need to talk about a particular commit, the character "o" may
 be replaced with another letter or number.
 Understanding history: What is a branch?
 However, when no confusion will result, we often just use the term
 "branch" both for branches and for branch heads.
 Manipulating branches
 make up a name for the new branch.   You can still create a new branch
 (or tag) for this version later if you decide to.
 Examining branches from a remote repository
 repository.  It will not touch any of your own branches--not even the
 "master" branch that was created for you on clone.
 Fetching branches from other repositories
 text editor.  (See the "CONFIGURATION FILE" section of
 gitlink:git-config[1] for details.)
 Exploring git history
 We start with one specialized tool that is useful for finding the
 commit that introduced a bug into a project.
 How to use bisect to find a regression
 then test, run "bisect good" or "bisect bad" as appropriate, and
 Naming commits
 Creating tags
 should create a tag object instead; see the gitlink:git-tag[1] man
 page for details.
 Browsing revisions
 multiple independent lines of development, the particular order that
 commits are listed in may be somewhat arbitrary.
 Generating diffs
 not reachable from test, then the combined result of these patches
 will not be the same as the diff produced by the git-diff example.
 Viewing old file versions
 Before the colon may be anything that names a commit, and after it
 may be any path to a file tracked by git.
 Check whether two branches point at the same history
 will return no commits when the two branches are equal.
 Find first tagged version including a given fix
 from v1.5.0-rc2, but not from v1.5.0-rc0.
 Developing with git
 Telling git your name
 details on the configuration file.)
 Creating a new repository
 $ git status	    # a brief per-file summary of the above.
 Creating good commit messages
 the first line on the Subject line and the rest of the commit in the
 How to merge
 The above is all you need to know to resolve a simple merge.  But git
 also provides more information to help resolve conflicts:
 Getting conflict-resolution help during a merge
 itself have been merged into another branch, as doing so may confuse
 further merges.
 Fast-forward merges
 moved forward to point at the head of the merged-in branch, without
 any new commits being created.
 Fixing mistakes
 	change, and cannot correctly perform repeated merges from
 	a branch that has had its history changed.
 Fixing a mistake with a new commit
 this is an advanced topic to be left for
 <<cleaning-up-history,another chapter>>.
 Checking out an old version of a file
 which will display the given version of the file.
 Ensuring good performance
 to recompress the archive.  This can be very time-consuming, so
 you may prefer to run git-gc when you are not doing other work.
 Ensuring reliability
 Checking the repository for corruption
 For more about dangling objects, see <<dangling-objects>>.
 Recovering lost changes
 same project, the reflog history is not shared: it tells you only about
 how the branches in your local repository have changed over time.
 Examining dangling objects
 Sharing development with others
 are roughly equivalent.  The former is actually very commonly used.
 Submitting patches to a project
 Consult the mailing list for your project first to determine how they
 prefer such patches be handled.
 Importing patches to a project
 and remote.<name>.push options in gitlink:git-config[1] for
 Setting up a shared repository
 link:cvs-migration.txt[git for CVS users] for instructions on how to
 set this up.
 Allow web browsing of a repository
 project's files and history without having to install git; see the file
 gitweb/INSTALL in the git source tree for instructions on setting it up.
 However, there is a situation in which it can be useful to violate this
 Creating the perfect patch series
 use them, and then explain some of the problems that can arise because
 you are rewriting history.
 Keeping a patch series up to date using git-rebase
 $ git rebase --abort
 Modifying a single commit
 "modified" existing commits; instead, you have replaced the old commits with
 new commits having new object names.
 Reordering or selecting from a patch series
 Then modify, reorder, or eliminate patches as preferred before applying
 them again with gitlink:git-am[1].
 Other tools
 purpose of maintaining a patch series.  These are outside of the scope of
 this manual.
 Problems with rewriting history
 For true distributed development that supports proper merging,
 published branches should never be rewritten.
 Advanced branch management
 Fetching individual branches
 "fast-forward" to the commit given by's master branch.  So
 next we explain what a fast-forward is:
 Understanding git history: fast-forwards
 unless you've already created a reference of your own pointing to
 Forcing git fetch to do non-fast-forward updates
 old version of example/master pointed at may be lost, as we saw in
 the previous section.
 Configuring remote branches
 Git depends on two fundamental abstractions: the "object database", and
 the "current directory cache" aka "index".
 The Object Database
 The object types in some more detail:
 Blob Object
 A blob is typically created when gitlink:git-update-index[1]
 is run, and its data can be accessed by gitlink:git-cat-file[1].
 Tree Object
 its data can be accessed by gitlink:git-ls-tree[1].
 Two trees can be compared with gitlink:git-diff-tree[1].
 Commit Object
 A commit is created with gitlink:git-commit-tree[1] and
 its data can be accessed by gitlink:git-cat-file[1].
 To assist in this, git also provides the tag object...
 Tag Object
 The "index" aka "Current Directory Cache"
 The Workflow
 from the database or from the working directory. Thus there are four
 main combinations: 
 working directory -> index
 it will only update the fields that are used to quickly test whether
 an object still matches its old backing store object.
 index -> object database
 use that tree to re-generate the index at any time by going in the
 other direction:
 object database -> index
 earlier. However, that is only your 'index' file: your working
 directory contents have not been modified.
 index -> working directory
 Finally, there are a few odds and ends which are not purely moving
 from one representation to the other:
 Tying it all together
 Examining the data
 to see what the top commit was.
 Merging multiple trees
 Merging multiple trees, continued
 and that is what higher level `git merge -s resolve` is implemented with.
 How git stores objects efficiently: pack files
 The gitlink:git-gc[1] command performs packing, pruning, and more for
 you, so is normally the only high-level command you need.
 Dangling objects
 contrast, running "git prune" while somebody is actively changing the 
 repository is a *BAD* idea).
 Notes and todo list for this manual