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======================================= Installing and Using Python Keyring Lib ======================================= .. contents:: **Table of Contents** --------------------------- What is Python keyring lib? --------------------------- The Python keyring lib provides a easy way to access the system keyring service from python. It can be used in any application that needs safe password storage. The keyring services supported by the Python keyring lib: * **OSXKeychain**: supports the Keychain service in Mac OS X. * **KDEKWallet**: supports the KDE's Kwallet service. * **GnomeKeyring**: for Gnome 2 environment. * **SecretServiceKeyring**: for newer GNOME and KDE environments. Besides these native password storing services provided by operating systems. Python keyring lib also provides following build-in keyrings. * **Win32CryptoKeyring**: for Windows 2k+. * **CryptedFileKeyring**: a command line interface keyring base on PyCrypto. * **UncryptedFileKeyring**: a keyring which leaves passwords directly in file. ------------------------- Installation Instructions ------------------------- easy_install or pip =================== Run easy_install or pip:: $ easy_install keyring $ pip install keyring Source installation =================== Download the source tarball, and uncompress it, then run the install command:: $ wget http://pypi.python.org/packages/source/k/keyring/keyring-0.3.tar.gz $ tar -xzvf keyring-0.3.tar.gz $ cd keyring-0.3 $ python setup.py install -------------------------- Configure your keyring lib -------------------------- The python keyring lib contains implementations for several backends, including **OSX Keychain**, **Gnome Keyring**, **KDE Kwallet** and etc. The lib will automatically choose the keyring that is most suitable for your current environment. You can also specify the keyring you like to be used in the config file or by calling the ``set_keyring()`` function. Customize your keyring by config file ===================================== This section is about how to change your option in the config file. Config file path ---------------- The configuration of the lib is stored in a file named "keyringrc.cfg". The file can be stored in either of following two paths. 1. The working directory of the python 2. The home directory for current user The lib will first look for the config file in the working directory. If no config file exists **or** the config file cannot be written properly, keyring will reference the config in the home directory. Beginning with keyring 0.8, the config root is platform specific. To determine where in the home directory the config file (and other data files) are stored, run the following:: python -c "import keyring.util.platform; print(keyring.util.platform.data_root())" Config file content ------------------- To specify a keyring backend, you need tell the lib the module name of the backend, such as ``keyring.backends.OS_X.Keyring``. If the backend is not shipped with the lib, in another word, is made by you own, you need also tell the lib the path of your own backend module. The module name should be written after the **default-keyring** option, while the module path belongs the **keyring-path** option. Here's a sample config file(The full demo can be accessed in the ``demo/keyring.py``): :: [backend] default-keyring=simplekeyring.SimpleKeyring keyring-path=/home/kang/pyworkspace/python-keyring-lib/demo/ Write your own keyring backend ============================== The interface for the backend is defined by ``keyring.backend.KeyringBackend``. By extending this base class and implementing the three functions ``supported()``, ``get_password()`` and ``set_password()``, you can easily create your own backend for keyring lib. The usage of the three functions: * ``supported(self)`` : Return if this backend is supported in current environment. The returned value can be **0**, **1** , or **-1**. **0** means suitable; **1** means recommended and **-1** means this backend is not available for current environment. * ``get_password(self, service, username)`` : Return the stored password for the ``username`` of the ``service``. * ``set_password(self, service, username, password)`` : Store the ``password`` for ``username`` of the ``service`` in the backend. * ``delete_password(self, service, username)`` : Delete the stored password for the ``username`` of the ``service``. For an instance, there's the source code of the demo mentioned above. It's a simple keyring which stores the password directly in memory. :: """ simplekeyring.py A simple keyring class for the keyring_demo.py Created by Kang Zhang on 2009-07-12 """ from keyring.backend import KeyringBackend class SimpleKeyring(KeyringBackend): """Simple Keyring is a keyring which can store only one password in memory. """ def __init__(self): self.password = '' def supported(self): return 0 def get_password(self, service, username): return self.password def set_password(self, service, username, password): self.password = password return 0 def delete_password(self, service, username): self.password = None Set the keyring in runtime ========================== Besides setting the backend through the config file, you can also set the backend to use by calling the api ``set_keyring()``. The backend you passed in will be used to store the password in your application. Here's a code snippet from the ``keyringdemo.py``. It shows the usage of ``set_keyring()`` :: # define a new keyring class which extends the KeyringBackend import keyring.backend class TestKeyring(keyring.backend.KeyringBackend): """A test keyring which always outputs same password """ def supported(self): return 0 def set_password(self, servicename, username, password): return 0 def get_password(self, servicename, username): return "password from TestKeyring" def delete_password(self, servicename, username, password): return 0 # set the keyring for keyring lib import keyring keyring.set_keyring(TestKeyring()) # invoke the keyring lib try: keyring.set_password("demo-service", "tarek", "passexample") print "password stored sucessfully" except keyring.backend.PasswordSetError: print "failed to store password" print "password", keyring.get_password("demo-service", "tarek") ----------------------------------------------- Integrate the keyring lib with your application ----------------------------------------------- API interface ============= The keyring lib has a few functions: * ``get_keyring()`` : Return the currently-loaded keyring implementation. * ``get_password(service, username)`` : Returns the password stored in keyring. If the password does not exist, it will return None. * ``set_password(service, username, password)`` : Store the password in the keyring. * ``delete_password(service, username)`` : Delete the password stored in keyring. If the password does not exist, it will raise an exception. Example ======= Here's an example of using keyring for application authorization. It can be found in the demo folder of the repository. Note that the faked auth function only returns true when the password equals to the username. :: """ auth_demo.py Created by Kang Zhang 2009-08-14 """ import keyring import getpass import ConfigParser def auth(username, password): """A faked authorization function. """ return username == password def main(): """This scrip demos how to use keyring facilite the authorization. The username is stored in a config named 'auth_demo.cfg' """ # config file init config_file = 'auth_demo.cfg' config = ConfigParser.SafeConfigParser({ 'username':'', }) config.read(config_file) if not config.has_section('auth_demo_login'): config.add_section('auth_demo_login') username = config.get('auth_demo_login','username') password = None if username != '': password = keyring.get_password('auth_demo_login', username) if password == None or not auth(username, password): while 1: username = raw_input("Username:\n") password = getpass.getpass("Password:\n") if auth(username, password): break else: print "Authorization failed." # store the username config.set('auth_demo_login', 'username', username) config.write(open(config_file, 'w')) # store the password keyring.set_password('auth_demo_login', username, password) # the stuff that needs authorization here print "Authorization successful." if __name__ == "__main__": main() ------------ Get involved ------------ Python keyring lib is an open community project and highly welcomes new contributors. * Repository: http://bitbucket.org/kang/python-keyring-lib/ * Bug Tracker: http://bitbucket.org/kang/python-keyring-lib/issues/ * Mailing list: http://groups.google.com/group/python-keyring Running Tests ============= Tests are `continuously run <https://travis-ci.org/#!/jaraco/keyring>`_ using Travis-CI. |BuildStatus|_ .. |BuildStatus| image:: https://secure.travis-ci.org/jaraco/keyring.png .. _BuildStatus: http://travis-ci.org/jaraco/keyring To run the tests yourself, you'll want keyring installed to some environment in which it can be tested. Three recommended techniques are described below. Using pytest runner ------------------- Keyring is instrumented with `pytest runner <https://bitbucket.org/jaraco/pytest-runner>`_. Thus, you may invoke the tests from any supported Python (with distribute installed) using this command:: python setup.py ptr pytest runner will download any unmet dependencies and run the tests using `pytest <https://bitbucket.org/hpk42/pytest>`_. This technique is the one used by the Travis-CI script. If you want to run the tests under Python 3, you must be sure that you are testing the library after `2to3` got executed. The easiest way to do it would be to use:: python3 setup.py build ptr --addopts "build/lib" Using virtualenv and pytest/nose/unittest2 ------------------------------------------ Pytest and Nose are two popular test runners that will discover tests and run them. Unittest2 (also known as simply unittest in Python 3) also has a mode to discover tests. First, however, these test runners typically need a test environment in which to run. It is recommended that you install keyring to a virtual environment to avoid interfering with your system environment. For more information, see the `virtualenv homepage <http://www.virtualenv.org>`_. After you've created (or designated) your environment, install keyring into the environment by running:: python setup.py develop Then, invoke your favorite test runner, e.g.:: py.test or:: nosetests Using buildout -------------- Keyring supplies a buildout.cfg for use with buildout. If you have buildout installed, tests can be invoked as so:: 1. bin/buildout # prepare the buildout. 2. bin/test # execute the test runner. For more information about the options that the script provides do execute:: python bin/test --help ------- Credits ------- The project was based on Tarek Ziade's idea in `this post`_. Kang Zhang initially carried it out as a `Google Summer of Code`_ project, and Tarek mentored Kang on this project. .. _this post: http://tarekziade.wordpress.com/2009/03/27/pycon-hallway-session-1-a-keyring-library-for-python/ .. _Google Summer of Code: http://socghop.appspot.com/ See CONTRIBUTORS.txt for a complete list of contributors.