Source

computable-reals / reals.lisp

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;;;; Computable real numbers

;;;; Michael Stoll
;;;; 1989-06-11, 1989-06-12, 1989-06-13, 1989-06-14, 1989-06-17, 1989-06-30

;;;; Modified by Robert Smith
;;;; 2011-12-07

;;;;   I N T E R N A L   S T R U C T U R E S   A N D   I N T E R F A C E
;;;;   -----------------------------------------------------------------

(in-package #:computable-reals)

;;; Computable reel numbers are rational numbers or structures:

(defstruct (c-real (:copier nil)
                   (:print-function print-c-real))
  (value     0      :type integer)
  (precision -1     :type (integer -1 *))
  (compute   nil    :type (function ((integer 0 *)) integer)
                    :read-only t))

(deftype CREAL ()
  "type of the computable real numbers"
  '(or rational c-real))

(defun CREAL-P (x) (or (rationalp x) (c-real-p x)))

;; If r is a c-real with (c-real-value r) = a and (c-real-precision r) = k,
;; then a*2^(-k) is an approximation of the value of the number represented
;; by r that deviates from the actual value by at most 2^(-k).
;; (c-real-compute r) is a function taking an argument k, that returns an
;; approximation of precision 2^(-k) and returns the corresponding value a.

;;; make-real creates a c-real from a computation function.

(defun MAKE-REAL (comp)
  "Create a c-real from a computation function COMP."
  (declare (type (function ((integer 0 *)) integer) comp))
  (make-c-real :compute comp))

;;; The following function takes an object of type creal and a number k,
;;; and returns an integer a with |a*2^(-k) - x| <= 2^(-k), where x denotes
;;; the corresponding real number.

(defun APPROX-R (x k)
  "Computes approximations for CREALs"
  (assert (creal-p x))
  (assert (and (and integerp k)
               (not (minusp k))))
  (get-approx x k))

(defun get-approx (x k)
  (declare (type creal x)
           (type (integer 0 *) k))
  (cond ((integerp x) (ash x k))
        ((rationalp x) (round (ash (numerator x) k) (denominator x)))
        ((c-real-p x)
         (if (>= (c-real-precision x) k)
           (ash (c-real-value x) (- k (c-real-precision x)))
           (let ((a (funcall (c-real-compute x) k)))
             (setf (c-real-value x) a (c-real-precision x) k)
             a)))
        (t (cr-error 'get-approx x))))

;;; A few shortcuts for signalling type errors.

;;; TODO: these can be removed if conditions and asserts are used.

(defun cr-error (fun x)
  (error "~S: ~S is not a computable real number" fun x))

(defun int-error (fun x)
  (error "~S: ~S is not an integer" fun x))

(defun nat-error (fun x)
  (error "~S: ~S is not a nonnegative integer" fun x))

;;;; ==========================================================================

;;;;                           V A R I A B L E S
;;;;                           -----------------

;;; *print-prec* specifies how many digits after the decimal point are output
;;; (by print etc.)

(defparameter *PRINT-PREC* 20
  "number of decimal digits after the decimal point during output of CREALs")

;;; *creal-tolerance* specifies the precision of comparison operations

(defparameter *CREAL-TOLERANCE* 100
  "precision threshold for the comparison of CREALs,
denoting the number of binary digits after the decimal point")

;;;;                  A U X I L I A R Y   F U N C T I O N S
;;;;                  -------------------------------------

;;; The following functions perform rounding, when less precision is needed.

(defun round-cr (a k)
  (declare (type integer a) (type (integer 0 *) k))
  (if (eql k 0)
    a
    (if (logbitp (1- k) a) (1+ (ash a (- k))) (ash a (- k)))))

;;; Auxiliary function for approximating.

(defun raw-approx-cr (x)
  (declare (type creal x))
  (do* ((k 0 (+ k 4))
        (a (get-approx x 0) (get-approx x k))
        (crt (+ 2 *creal-tolerance*)))
       ((> (abs a) 4) (values (abs a) k (signum a)))
    (when (> k crt) (return (values 0 (- k 3) 0)))))

(defun RAW-APPROX-R (x)
  "Returns an approximation for CREALs"
  (unless (creal-p x) (cr-error 'raw-approx-r x))
  (raw-approx-cr x))

;;;;                        P R I N T   F U N C T I O N
;;;;                        ---------------------------

;;; Small auxiliary function for avoiding repeated computation:

(let* ((pp *print-prec*) (tenpowerpp (expt 10 pp)))
  (declare (type (integer 0 *) pp tenpowerpp))
  (defun tenpower (k)
    (declare (type (integer 0 *) k))
    (if (eql k pp)
      tenpowerpp
      (let ((zhk (expt 10 k)))
        (when (eql k *print-prec*) (setq pp k tenpowerpp zhk))
        zhk))))

;;; The next function performs output to k digits after the decimal point,
;;; ensuring an error of at most one unit on the last digit.

(defun PRINT-R (x k &optional (flag t) (stream *standard-output*))
  "output function for CREALs"
  ;; flag /= NIL: the value is printed in a new line
  ;; flag = NIL: no linefeed
  
  (assert (creal-p x))
  (assert (and (integerp k) (not (minusp k))))
  (assert (streamp stream))
  (creal-print x k flag stream))

(defun creal-print (x k flag stream)
  (declare (type creal x) (type (integer 0 *) k) (type stream stream))
  (let* ((k1 (tenpower k))
         (n (1+ (integer-length k1)))
         (x1 (get-approx x n))
         (sign (signum x1))
         (x2 (round-cr (* (abs x1) k1) n))
         (*print-base* 10.))
    (multiple-value-bind (vor nach) (floor x2 k1)
      (when flag (terpri stream))
      (write-char (if (minusp sign) #\- #\+) stream)
      (prin1 vor stream)
      (write-char #\. stream)
      (let ((s (prin1-to-string nach)))
        (write-string (make-string (- k (length s)) :initial-element #\0)
                      stream)
        (write-string s stream)
        (write-string "..." stream)
        (values)))))

(defun print-c-real (x stream d)
  (declare (ignore d))
  (creal-print x *print-prec* nil stream))

;;;;                           A R I T H M E T I C
;;;;                           -------------------

;;; Now comes the addition.

(defun +R (&rest args &aux (sn 0) (rl nil))
  "addition of CREALs"
  (declare (type rational sn) (type list #|(list creal)|# rl))
  (dolist (x args)
    (cond ((rationalp x) (setq sn (+ x sn)))
          ((c-real-p x) (setq rl (cons x rl)))
          (t (cr-error '+ x))) )
  ;; sn = exact partial sum
  ;; rl = list of the "real" real arguments
  (let* ((n (length rl)) ; n = how many of them
         (k1 (integer-length (if (integerp sn) n (1+ n))))
           ; k1 = number of additional binary digits for the summands
        )
    (if (eql n 0)
      sn        ; sum is exact
      (make-real
        #'(lambda (k &aux (k2 (+ k k1)))
            (do ((sum (get-approx sn k2) (+ sum (get-approx (first l) k2)))
                 (l rl (rest l)))
                ((null l) (round-cr sum k1))))))))

;;; Negation:

(defun minus-r (x)
  (cond ((rationalp x) (- x))
        ((c-real-p x) (make-real #'(lambda (k) (- (get-approx x k)))))
        (t (cr-error '- x))))

;;; Subtraction:

(defun -R (x1 &rest args)
  "subtraction and negation of CREALs"
  (if (null args)
    (minus-r x1)
    (+r x1 (minus-r (apply #'+r args)))))

;;; Now comes the multiplication.

(defun *R (&rest args &aux (pn 1) (rl nil))
  "Multiplication for CREALs"
  (declare (type rational pn) (type list #|(list creal)|# rl))
  (dolist (x args)
    (cond ((rationalp x) (setq pn (* x pn)))
          ((c-real-p x) (setq rl (cons x rl)))
          (t (cr-error '* x))))
  ;; pn = product of the rational factors
  ;; rl = list of the c-real factors
  (when (or (eql pn 0) (null rl)) (return-from *r pn))
  ;; If pn is a true fraction, handle it like a c-real.
  (unless (integerp pn) (setq rl (cons pn rl) pn 1))
  (let ((y (* (length rl) (abs pn))) (al nil) (nl nil) (ns 1) ll)
    (dolist (x rl)
      (multiple-value-bind (a0 n0) (raw-approx-cr x)
        (setq al (cons (1+ a0) al)
              nl (cons n0 nl)
              y (* y (1+ a0))
              ns (- ns n0))))
    (setq ll (mapcar #'(lambda (z m)
                         (+ m ns (integer-length (1- (ceiling y z)))))
                     al nl)
          rl (nreverse rl))
    ;; rl = list of the factors (not including the integer pn)
    ;; ll = list of the corresponding precision differences
    ;; nl = list of the correspodning minimum precisions
    (make-real
      #'(lambda (k)
          (let ((erg pn) (s (- k)) (rl rl) (ll ll) (nl nl) k1)
            (loop (setq k1 (max (first nl) (+ k (first ll)))
                        s (+ s k1)
                        erg (* erg (get-approx (first rl) k1))
                        rl (rest rl)
                        ll (rest ll)
                        nl (rest nl))
                  (when (null rl) 
                    (return (if (minusp s)
                              0
                              (round-cr erg s))))))))))

;;; Reciprocal:

(defun invert-r (x)
  (cond ((rationalp x) (/ x))
        ((c-real-p x)
         (multiple-value-bind (a0 n0) (raw-approx-cr x)
           (when (eql a0 0) (error "division by 0"))
           (let ((k1 (+ 4 (* 2 (- n0 (integer-length (1- a0))))))
                 (k2 (1+ n0)))
             (make-real #'(lambda (k &aux (k0 (max k2 (+ k k1))))
                            (round (ash 1 (+ k k0)) (get-approx x k0)))))))
        (t (cr-error '/ x))))

;;; Division:

(defun /R (x1 &rest args)
  "division for CREALs"
  (if (null args)
    (invert-r x1)
    (*r x1 (invert-r (apply #'*r args)))))

;;; Square root:

(defun SQRT-R (x &aux s)
  "square root for CREALs"
  (assert (creal-p x))
  (if (and (rationalp x) (>= x 0) (rationalp (setq s (sqrt x))))
    s
    (multiple-value-bind (a0 n0 s) (raw-approx-cr x)
      (unless (plusp s)
        (error "~S: attempting to compute the square root of a negative number"
               'sqrt-r))
      (let ((k1 (1+ (ceiling (- n0 (integer-length (1- a0))) 2)))
            (n1 (ceiling n0 2)))
        (make-real
          #'(lambda (k &aux (k2 (max n1 (ceiling (+ k k1) 2)))
                            (k3 (max 0 (- k -2 k1))))
              (round-cr (isqrt (ash (get-approx x (* 2 k2)) (* 2 k3)))
                        (+ k3 k2 (- k)))))))))

;;; Now comes a round function.
;;; (round-r x y l) (x, y creal, l int>=0) returns two values q and r,
;;; where q is an integer and r a creal, so that x = q*y + r and
;;; |r| <= (1/2+2^(-l))*|y|. The default value of l is such that |r| exceeds
;;; |y|/2 by at most 2^(- *CREAL-TOLERANCE*).
;;; The third argument is specified only for internal purposes.

(defun ROUND-R (x &optional (y 1) (l nil))
  "round for CREALs"
  (divide-r 'round #'round x y l))

(defun FLOOR-R (x &optional (y 1) (l nil))
  "floor for CREALs"
  (divide-r 'floor #'floor x y l))

(defun CEILING-R (x &optional (y 1) (l nil))
  "ceiling for CREALs"
  (divide-r 'ceiling #'ceiling x y l))

(defun TRUNCATE-R (x &optional (y 1) (l nil))
  "truncate for CREALs"
  (divide-r 'truncate #'truncate x y l))

(defun divide-r (name what x y l)
  ; name = name of the calling function
  ; what = #'round, #'floor, #'ceiling or #'truncate
  (assert (creal-p x))
  (assert (creal-p y))
  (if (and (rationalp x) (rationalp y))
    (funcall what x y)    ; for rational numbers use the common function
    (multiple-value-bind (a0 n0) (raw-approx-cr y)
      (when (eql a0 0) (error "~S: division by 0" name))
      (when (null l)
        (setq l (+ (integer-length a0) *creal-tolerance* (- n0))))
      (let* ((x1 (abs (get-approx x n0)))
             (m (max n0 (+ l 2 n0 (integer-length (+ x1 a0 -1))
                           (* -2 (integer-length (1- a0))))))
             (q (funcall what (get-approx x m) (get-approx y m))))
        (values q (rest-help-r x y (- q)))))))

;; (rest-help-r x y q), with x,y creal, q integer, computes x + q*y.

(defun rest-help-r (x y q)
  (declare (type creal x y) (type integer q))
  (if (eql q 0)
    x
    (let ((k1 (1+ (integer-length (1- (abs q))))))
      (make-real
        #'(lambda (k)
            (round-cr (+ (ash (get-approx x (+ k 2)) (- k1 2))
                         (* q (get-approx y (+ k k1))))
                      k1))))))

;;; Now comes the arithmetic shift function for infinite binary fractions:

(defun ASH-R (x n)
  "shift function for CREALs"
  (assert (creal-p x))
  (assert (integerp n))
  (cond ((eql n 0) x)
        ((integerp x)
         (if (plusp n) (ash x n) (/ x (ash 1 (- n)))))
        ((rationalp x)
         (if (plusp n)
           (/ (ash (numerator x) n) (denominator x))
           (/ (numerator x) (ash (denominator x) (- n)))))
        ((plusp n) (make-real #'(lambda (k) (get-approx x (+ k n)))))
        (t (make-real #'(lambda (k)
                          (if (minusp (+ k n))
                            (round-cr (get-approx x 0) (- (+ k n)))
                            (get-approx x (+ k n))))))))

;;; Now we look at the most important transcendental functions.

;;; (log-r2 x) takes a creal x |x|<=1/2 and returns log((1+x)/(1-x)) as creal.
;;;   log((1+x)/(1-x)) = 2*(x + x^3/3 + x^5/5 + ... )

(defun log-r2 (x)
  (declare (type creal x))
  (if (eql x 0)
    0
    (make-real
      #'(lambda (k)
          (let* ((k0 (integer-length (1- (integer-length k))))
                     ; k0 = extra precision needed for partial sums
                 (k1 (+ k k0 1)) ; k1 = total precision needed
                                 ; (+1 because of factor 2)
                 (ax (get-approx x (1+ k1)))
                 (fx (round ax 2)) ; fx = k1-approximation of x
                 (fx2 (round-cr (* ax ax) (+ k1 2))) ; fx2 = dito of x^2
                )
            (do ((n 1 (+ n 2))
                 (y fx (round-cr (* y fx2) k1))
                 (erg 0 (+ erg (round y n))))
                ((< (abs y) n) (round-cr erg k0))))))))

;;; (log-r1 x) takes a creal x from [1,2] and returns log(x) as creal

(defun log-r1 (x)
  (declare (type creal x))
  (log-r2 (transf x)))

;;; (transf x) takes a creal x from [1,2] and returns (x-1)/(x+1) as creal

(defun transf (x)
  (declare (type creal x))
  (if (rationalp x)
    (/ (1- x) (1+ x))
    (make-real #'(lambda (k)
                   (let ((a (get-approx x k)) (e (ash 1 k)))
                     (round (ash (- a e) k) (+ a e)))))))

;;; Now the logarithm.

(defun LOG-R (x &optional (b nil))
  "logarithm for CREALs"
  (assert (creal-p x))
  (assert (or (null b) (creal-p b)))
  (if b
      (/r (log-r x) (log-r b))
      ;; remember log(2^n * a) = n*log(2) + log(a)
      (multiple-value-bind (a0 n0 s) (raw-approx-cr x)
        (unless (plusp s)
          (error "~S: attempt to compute the logarithm of a nonpositive number"
                 'log-r))
        (let ((shift (- (integer-length a0) 1 n0)))
          (rest-help-r (log-r1 (ash-r x (- shift))) log2-r shift)))))

;;; Now the exponential function.

;;; (exp-r1 x) takes a creal x with |x| <= 1/2*log(2)
;;; and returns exp(x) as creal

(defun exp-r1 (x)
  (declare (type creal x))
  (make-real
    #'(lambda (k)
        (let ((m 3) (k2 (+ k 3)))
          (loop (when (<= k2 (ash (- m 2) m)) (return))
                (incf m))
          (setq m (+ m 3) k2 (+ k m))
          (do ((x1 (get-approx x k2))
               (n 1 (1+ n))
               (y (ash 1 k2) (round-cr (round (* y x1) n) k2))
               (erg 0 (+ erg y)))
              ((eql y 0) (round-cr erg m)))))))

(defun EXP-R (x) "exponential function for CREALs"
  (unless (creal-p x) (cr-error 'exp x))
  ;; remember exp(a*log2 + b) = exp(b) * 2^a
  (if (eql x 0)
    1
    (multiple-value-bind (q r) (round-r x log2-r 10)
      (ash-r (exp-r1 r) q))))

;;; (expt-r x y) takes creals x,y and computes x^y

(defun EXPT-R (x y &aux s)
  "exponentiation function for CREALs"
  (assert (creal-p x))
  (assert (creal-p y))
  (cond ((eql y 0) 1)
        ((integerp y)
         (if (rationalp x) (expt x y) (expt-r1 x y)))
        ((and (rationalp y)
              (eql 2 (denominator y))
              (rationalp x)
              (rationalp (setq s (sqrt x))))
         (expt s (* 2 y)))
        (t (exp-r (*r y (log-r x))))))

(defun expt-r1 (x y)
  (declare (type creal x) (integer y))
  (cond ((minusp y) (expt-r1 (invert-r x) (- y)))
        ((eql y 1) x)
        ((evenp y) (expt-r1 (*r x x) (floor y 2)))
        (t (*r x (expt-r1 (*r x x) (floor y 2))))))

;;; Now the trigonometric functions.

;;; (atan-r1 x) takes a creal x with |x| <= 1/2 and returns atan(x) as creal

(defun atan-r1 (x)
  (declare (type creal x))
  (if (eql x 0)
    0
    (make-real
      #'(lambda (k)
          (let* ((k0 (integer-length (1- (integer-length k))))
                     ; k0 = extra precision needed for partial sums
                 (k1 (+ k k0)) ; k1 = total precision needed
                 (ax (get-approx x (1+ k1)))
                 (fx (round ax 2)) ; fx = k1-approximation of x
                 (fx2 (- (round-cr (* ax ax) (+ k1 2)))) ; fx2 = dito of -x^2
                )
            (do ((n 1 (+ n 2))
                 (y fx (round-cr (* y fx2) k1))
                 (erg 0 (+ erg (round y n))))
                ((< (abs y) n) (round-cr erg k0))))))))

;;; (atan-r0 x) takes a creal x and returns atan(x) as creal.

(defun atan-r0 (x)
  (declare (type creal x))
  (let ((a (get-approx x 3)))
    (cond ((<= -3 a 3) (atan-r1 x))
          ((< a -3) (minus-r (atan-r0 (minus-r x)))) ; atan(x) = -atan(-x)
          ((< 3 a 17) (+r +pi/4-r+ (atan-r1 (transf x))))
                    ; atan(x) = pi/4 + atan((x-1)/(x+1))
          (t (-r +pi/2-r+ (atan-r1 (invert-r x))))))) ; atan(x) = pi/2 - atan(1/x)

;;; (atan-r x [y]) computes the arctangent of the creals x (and y if given)

(defun ATAN-R (x &optional (y nil))
  "arctangent for CREALs"
  (assert (creal-p x))
  (assert (or (null y) (creal-p y)))
  (if (null y)
    (atan-r0 x)
    (multiple-value-bind (ax nx sx) (raw-approx-cr x)
      (multiple-value-bind (ay ny sy) (raw-approx-cr y)
        (when (and (eql 0 sx) (eql 0 sy))
          (error "~S: both arguments should not be zero"
                 'atan))
        (let ((mx-my (+ (integer-length ax) ny 
                        (- (integer-length ay)) (- nx))))
          (cond ((and (plusp sx) (>= mx-my 0)) (atan-r0 (/r y x)))
                ((and (plusp sy) (<= mx-my 0))
                 (-r +pi/2-r+ (atan-r0 (/r x y))))
                ((and (minusp sy) (<= mx-my 0))
                 (minus-r (+r (atan-r0 (/r x y)) +pi/2-r+)))
                ((and (minusp sx) (minusp sy) (>= mx-my 0))
                 (-r (atan-r0 (/r y x)) +pi-r+))
                (t (+r (atan-r0 (/r y x)) +pi-r+))))))))

;;; (sin-r1 x) takes a creal x with |x|<4 and returns sin(x) as creal.

(defun sin-r1 (x)
  (declare (type creal x))
  (make-real
    #'(lambda (k)
        (let ((m 3) (k2 (+ k 3)))
          (loop (when (<= k2 (ash (- m 2) m)) (return))
                (incf m))
          (setq m (+ m 4) k2 (+ k m))
          (let ((x0 (get-approx x k2)))
            (do ((x1 (- (round-cr (* x0 x0) k2)))
                 (n 2 (+ n 2))
                 (y x0 (round-cr (round (* y x1) (* n (1+ n))) k2))
                 (erg 0 (+ erg y)))
                ((eql y 0) (round-cr erg m))))))))

(defun SIN-R (x)
  "sine for CREALs"
  (assert (creal-p x))
  ;; remember sin(k*2pi + y) = sin(y)
  (if (eql x 0)
    0
    (multiple-value-bind (q r) (round-r x +2pi-r+ 10)
      (declare (ignore q))
      (sin-r1 r))))

;;; (cos-r1 x) takes a creal x with |x|<4 and returns cos(x) as creal.

(defun cos-r1 (x)
  (declare (type creal x))
  (make-real
    #'(lambda (k)
        (let ((m 3) (k2 (+ k 3)))
          (loop (when (<= k2 (ash (- m 2) m)) (return))
                (incf m))
          (setq m (+ m 4) k2 (+ k m))
          (let ((x0 (get-approx x k2)))
            (do ((x1 (- (round-cr (* x0 x0) k2)))
                 (n 1 (+ n 2))
                 (y (ash 1 k2) (round-cr (round (* y x1) (* n (1+ n))) k2))
                 (erg 0 (+ erg y)))
                ((eql y 0) (round-cr erg m))))))))

(defun COS-R (x)
  "cosine for CREALs"
  (assert (creal-p x))
  ;; remember cos(k*2pi + y) = cos(y)
  (if (eql x 0)
    1
    (multiple-value-bind (q r) (round-r x +2pi-r+ 10)
      (declare (ignore q))
      (cos-r1 r))))

(defun TAN-R (x)
  "tangent for CREALs"
  (assert (creal-p x))
  (/r (sin-r x) (cos-r x)))
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