pypi / openid.py

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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
# OpenID relying party library
# Copyright Martin v. Löwis, 2009
# Licensed under the Academic Free License, version 3

# This library implements OpenID Authentication 2.0,
# in the role of a relying party
# It has the following assumptions and limitations:
# - service discovery requires YADIS (HTML discovery not implemented)
# - only provider-directed mode (identifier_select) is supported
# - direct requests require https
# - as a signature algorithm, HMAC-SHA1 is requested

import urlparse, urllib, httplib, BeautifulSoup, time
import cStringIO, base64, hmac, sha, datetime, re, binascii, struct
import itertools

try:
    from xml.etree import ElementTree
except ImportError:
    from elementtree import ElementTree

# Importing M2Crypto patches urllib; don't let them do that
orig = urllib.URLopener.open_https.im_func
from M2Crypto import DH
urllib.URLopener.open_https = orig

# Don't use urllib2, since it breaks in 2.5
# for https://login.launchpad.net//+xrds

# Don't use urllib, since it sometimes selects HTTP/1.1 (e.g. in PyPI)
# and then fails to parse chunked responses.

def normalize_uri(uri):
    """Normalize an uri according to OpenID section 7.2. Return a pair
    type,value, where type can be either 'xri' or 'uri'."""
    
    # 7.2 Normalization
    if uri.startswith('xri://'):
        uri = uri[6:]
    if uri[0] in ("=", "@", "+", "$", "!", ")"):
        return 'xri', uri
    if not uri.startswith('http'):
        uri = 'http://' + uri
    # RFC 3986, section 6

    # 6.2.2.1 case normalization
    parts = urlparse.urlparse(uri) # already lower-cases scheme
    if '@' in parts[1]: #netloc
        userinfo,hostname = parts[1].rsplit('@', 1)
    else:
        userinfo,hostname = None,parts[1]
    if ':' in hostname:
        host,port = hostname.rsplit(':', 1)
        if ']' in port:
            # IPv6
            host,port = hostname,None
    else:
        host,port = hostname,None
    netloc = hostname = host.lower()
    if port:
        netloc = hostname = host+':'+port
    if userinfo:
        netloc = userinfo + '@' + hostname
    parts = list(parts)
    parts[1] = netloc
    uri = urlparse.urlunparse(parts)

    # 6.2.2.2. normalize case in % escapes
    # XXX should restrict search to parts that can be pct-encoded
    for match in re.findall('%[0-9a-fA-F][0-9a-fA-F]', uri):
        m2 = match.upper()
        if m2 != match:
            uri = uri.replace(match, m2)

    # 6.2.2.3 remove dot segments
    parts = urlparse.urlparse(uri)
    path = parts[2] #path
    newpath = ''
    while path:
        if path.startswith('../'):
            path = path[3:]
        elif path.startswith('./'):
            path = path[2:]
        elif path.startswith('/./'):
            newpath += '/'; path = path[3:]
        elif path == '/.':
            newpath += '/'; path = ''
        elif path.startswith('/../'):
            newpath = newpath.rsplit('/', 1)[0]
            path = path[3:] # leave /
        elif path == '/..':
            newpath = newpath.rsplit('/', 1)[0]
            path = '/'
        elif path == '.' or path=='..':
            path = ''
        else:
            pos = path.find('/', 1)
            if pos == -1:
                pos = len(path)
            newpath += path[:pos]
            path = path[pos:]
    parts = list(parts)
    parts[2] = newpath
    uri = urlparse.urlunparse(parts)

    # 6.2.3 scheme based normalization

    parts = urlparse.urlparse(uri)    
    netloc = parts[1]
    if netloc.endswith(':'):
        netloc = netloc[:-1]
    elif parts[0] == 'http' and netloc.endswith(':80'):
        netloc = netloc[:-3]
    elif parts[0] == 'https' and netloc.endswith(':443'):
        netloc = netloc[:-4]
    # other default ports not considered here

    path = parts[2]
    if parts[0] in ('http', 'https') and parts[2]=='':
        path = '/'

    # 6.2.5 protocol-based normalization not done, as it
    # is not appropriate to resolve the URL just for normalization
    # it seems like a bug in the OpenID spec that it doesn't specify
    # which normalizations exactly should be performed

    parts = list(parts)
    parts[1] = netloc
    parts[2] = path
    return 'uri', urlparse.urlunparse(parts)


def parse_response(s):
    '''Parse a key-value form (OpenID section 4.1.1) into a dictionary'''
    res = {}
    for line in s.splitlines():
        k,v = line.split(':', 1)
        res[k] = v
    return res

def discover(url):
    '''Perform service discovery on the OP URL.
    Return list of service types, and the auth/2.0 URL,
    or None if discovery fails.'''
    scheme, netloc, path, query, fragment = urlparse.urlsplit(url)
    assert not fragment
    if scheme == 'https':
        conn = httplib.HTTPSConnection(netloc)
    elif scheme == 'http':
        conn = httplib.HTTPConnection(netloc)
    else:
        raise ValueError, "Unsupported scheme "+scheme
    # conn.set_debuglevel(1)
    if query:
        path += '?'+query
    try:
        conn.connect()
    except:
        # DNS or TCP error
        return None
    # httplib in 2.5 incorrectly sends https port in Host
    # header even if it is 443
    conn.putrequest("GET", path, skip_host=1)
    conn.putheader('Host', netloc)
    conn.putheader('Accept', "text/html; q=0.3, "+
                   "application/xhtml+xml; q=0.5, "+
                   "application/xrds+xml")
    conn.endheaders()

    res = conn.getresponse()
    data = res.read()
    conn.close()

    if res.status in (301, 302, 303, 307):
        return discover(res.msg.get('location'))

    content_type = res.msg.gettype()

    # Yadis 6.2.5 option 2 and 3: header includes x-xrds-location
    xrds_loc = res.msg.get('x-xrds-location')
    if xrds_loc and content_type != 'application/xrds+xml':
        return discover(xrds_loc)

    if content_type == 'text/html':
        soup = BeautifulSoup.BeautifulSoup(data)
        # Yadis 6.2.5 option 1: meta tag
        meta = soup.find('meta', {'http-equiv':lambda v:v and v.lower()=='x-xrds-location'})
        if meta:
            xrds_loc = meta['content']
            return discover(xrds_loc)
        # OpenID 7.3.3: attempt html based discovery
        op_endpoint = soup.find('link', {'rel':lambda v:v and 'openid2.provider' in v.lower()})
        if op_endpoint:
            op_endpoint = op_endpoint['href']
            op_local = soup.find('link', {'rel':lambda v:v and 'openid2.local_id' in v.lower()})
            if op_local:
                op_local = op_local['href']
            else:
                op_local = None
            return ['http://specs.openid.net/auth/2.0/signon'], op_endpoint, op_local
        # 14.2.1: 1.1 compatibility
        op_endpoint = soup.find('link', {'rel':lambda v:v and 'openid.server' in v.lower()})
        if op_endpoint:
            op_endpoint = op_endpoint['href']
            op_local = soup.find('link', {'rel':lambda v:v and 'openid.delegate' in v.lower()})
            if op_local:
                op_local = op_local['href']
            else:
                op_local = None
            return ['http://openid.net/signon/1.1'], op_endpoint, op_local
        # Discovery failed
        return None

    if content_type == 'application/xrds+xml':
        # Yadis 6.2.5 option 4
        doc = ElementTree.fromstring(data)
        for svc in doc.findall(".//{xri://$xrd*($v*2.0)}Service"):
            services = [x.text for x in svc.findall("{xri://$xrd*($v*2.0)}Type")]
            if 'http://specs.openid.net/auth/2.0/server' in services:
                # 7.3.2.1.1 OP Identifier Element
                uri = svc.find("{xri://$xrd*($v*2.0)}URI")
                if uri is not None:
                    op_local = None
                    op_endpoint = uri.text
                    break
            elif 'http://specs.openid.net/auth/2.0/signon' in services:
                # 7.3.2.1.2.  Claimed Identifier Element
                op_local = svc.find("{xri://$xrd*($v*2.0)}LocalID")
                if op_local is not None:
                    op_local = op_local.text
                uri = svc.find("{xri://$xrd*($v*2.0)}URI")
                if uri is not None:
                    op_endpoint = uri.text
                    break
            elif 'http://openid.net/server/1.0' in services or \
                 'http://openid.net/server/1.1' in services or \
                 'http://openid.net/signon/1.0' in services or \
                 'http://openid.net/signon/1.1' in services:
                # 14.2.1 says we also need to check for the 1.x types;
                # XXX should check 1.x only if no 2.0 service is found
                op_local = svc.find("{http://openid.net/xmlns/1.0}Delegate")
                if op_local is not None:
                    op_local = op_local.text
                uri = svc.find("{xri://$xrd*($v*2.0)}URI")
                if uri is not None:
                    op_endpoint = uri.text
                    break
        else:
            return None # No OpenID 2.0 service found
    return services, op_endpoint, op_local

def is_compat_1x(services):
    for uri in ('http://specs.openid.net/auth/2.0/signon',
                'http://specs.openid.net/auth/2.0/server'):
        if uri in services:
            return False
    for uri in ('http://openid.net/signon/1.0',
                'http://openid.net/signon/1.1',
                'http://openid.net/server/1.0',
                'http://openid.net/server/1.1'):
        if uri in services:
            return True
    raise ValueError, "Neither 1.x nor 2.0 service found"

def is_op_endpoint(services):
    for uri in ('http://specs.openid.net/auth/2.0/server',
                'http://openid.net/server/1.0',
                'http://openid.net/server/1.1'):
        if uri in services:
            return True
    return False

# OpenSSL MPI integer representation
def bin2mpi(bin):
    if ord(bin[0]) >= 128:
        # avoid interpretation as a negative number
        bin = "\x00" + bin
    return struct.pack(">i", len(bin))+bin
def mpi2bin(mpi):
    assert len(mpi)-4 == struct.unpack(">i", mpi[:4])[0]
    return mpi[4:]

# Appendix B; DH default prime
dh_prime = """
DCF93A0B883972EC0E19989AC5A2CE310E1D37717E8D9571BB7623731866E61E
F75A2E27898B057F9891C2E27A639C3F29B60814581CD3B2CA3986D268370557
7D45C2E7E52DC81C7A171876E5CEA74B1448BFDFAF18828EFD2519F14E45E382
6634AF1949E5B535CC829A483B8A76223E5D490A257F05BDFF16F2FB22C583AB
"""
dh_prime = binascii.unhexlify("".join(dh_prime.split()))
# OpenSSL MPI representation: dh_prime, 2
dh = DH.set_params(bin2mpi(dh_prime), '\x00\x00\x00\x01\x02')
dh.gen_key()
dh_public_base64 = base64.b64encode(mpi2bin(dh.pub))

def string_xor(s1, s2):
    res = []
    for c1, c2 in itertools.izip(s1, s2):
        res.append(chr(ord(c1) ^ ord(c2)))
    return ''.join(res)

def associate(services, url):
    '''Create an association (OpenID section 8) between RP and OP.
    Return response as a dictionary.'''
    data = {
        'openid.ns':"http://specs.openid.net/auth/2.0",
        'openid.mode':"associate",
        'openid.assoc_type':"HMAC-SHA1",
        'openid.session_type':"no-encryption",
        }
    if url.startswith('http:'):
        # Use DH exchange
        data['openid.session_type'] = "DH-SHA1"
        # No need to send key and generator
        data['openid.dh_consumer_public'] = dh_public_base64
    if is_compat_1x(services):
        # 14.2.1: clear session_type in 1.1 compatibility mode
        if data['openid.session_type'] == "no-encryption":
            data['openid.session_type'] = ''
        del data['openid.ns']
    res = urllib.urlopen(url, urllib.urlencode(data))
    data = parse_response(res.read())
    if 'error' in data:
        raise ValueError, "associate failed: "+data['error']
    if url.startswith('http:'):
        enc_mac_key = base64.b64decode(data['enc_mac_key'])
        dh_server_public = base64.b64decode(data['dh_server_public'])
        # compute_key does not return an MPI
        shared_secret = dh.compute_key(bin2mpi(dh_server_public))
        if ord(shared_secret[0]) >= 128:
            # btwoc: add leading zero if number would otherwise be negative
            shared_secret = '\x00' + shared_secret
        shared_secret = sha.new(shared_secret).digest()
        if len(shared_secret) != len(enc_mac_key):
            raise ValueError, "incorrect DH key size"
        # Fake mac_key result
        data['mac_key'] = base64.b64encode(string_xor(enc_mac_key, shared_secret))
    return data

def request_authentication(services, url, assoc_handle, return_to,
                           claimed=None, op_local=None, realm=None):
    '''Request authentication (OpenID section 9).
    services is the list of discovered service types,
    url the OP service URL, assoc_handle the established session
    dictionary, and return_to the return URL.

    The return_to URL will also be passed as realm, and the
    OP may perform RP discovery on it; always request these
    data through SREG 1.0 as well.

    If AX or SREG 1.1 are supported, request email address,
    first/last name, or nickname.

    Return the URL that the browser should be redirected to.'''

    if is_op_endpoint(services):
        # claimed is an OP identifier
        claimed = op_local = None

    if claimed is None:
        claimed = "http://specs.openid.net/auth/2.0/identifier_select"
    if op_local is None:
        op_local = "http://specs.openid.net/auth/2.0/identifier_select"
    if realm is None:
        realm = return_to
    data = {
        'openid.ns':"http://specs.openid.net/auth/2.0",
        'openid.mode':"checkid_setup",
        'openid.assoc_handle':assoc_handle,
        'openid.return_to':return_to,
        'openid.claimed_id':claimed,
        'openid.identity':op_local,
        'openid.realm':realm,
        'openid.ns.sreg':"http://openid.net/sreg/1.0",
        'openid.sreg.required':'nickname,email',
        }
    if is_compat_1x(services):
        del data['openid.ns']
        del data['openid.claimed_id']
        del data['openid.realm']
        data['openid.trust_root'] = return_to
    if "http://openid.net/srv/ax/1.0" in services:
        data.update({
            'openid.ns.ax':"http://openid.net/srv/ax/1.0",
            'openid.ax.mode':'fetch_request',
            'openid.ax.required':'email,first,last',
            'openid.ax.type.email':'http://axschema.org/contact/email',
            'openid.ax.type.first':"http://axschema.org/namePerson/first",
            'openid.ax.type.last':"http://axschema.org/namePerson/last",
            })
    if "http://openid.net/extensions/sreg/1.1" in services:
        data.update({
            'openid.ns.sreg11':"http://openid.net/extensions/sreg/1.1",
            'openid.sreg11.required':'nickname,email'
            })
    if '?' in url:
        return url+'&'+urllib.urlencode(data)
    else:
        return url+"?"+urllib.urlencode(data)

class NotAuthenticated(Exception):
    pass

def authenticate(session, response):
    '''Process an authentication response.
    session must be the established session (minimally including
    assoc_handle and mac_key), response is the query string as parsed
    by cgi.parse_qs.
    If authentication succeeds, return the list of signed fields.
    If the user was not authenticated, NotAuthenticated is raised.
    If the HTTP request is invalid (missing parameters, failure to
    validate signature), different exceptions will be raised, typically
    ValueError.

    Callers must check openid.response_nonce for replay attacks.
    '''

    # 1.1 compat: openid.ns may not be sent
    # if response['openid.ns'][0] != 'http://specs.openid.net/auth/2.0':
    #    raise ValueError('missing openid.ns')
    if session['assoc_handle'] != response['openid.assoc_handle'][0]:
        raise ValueError('incorrect session')
    if response['openid.mode'][0] == 'cancel':
        raise NotAuthenticated('provider did not authenticate user (cancelled)')
    if response['openid.mode'][0] != 'id_res':
        raise ValueError('invalid openid.mode')
    if  'openid.identity' not in response:
        raise ValueError('missing openid.identity')

    # Won't check nonce value - caller must verify this is not a replay

    signed = response['openid.signed'][0].split(',')
    query = []
    for name in signed:
        if isinstance(name, unicode):
            name = name.encode('ascii')
        value = response['openid.'+name][0]
        if isinstance(value, unicode):
            value = value.encode('utf-8')
        query.append('%s:%s\n' % (name, value))
    query = ''.join(query)

    mac_key = base64.decodestring(session['mac_key'])
    transmitted_sig = base64.decodestring(response['openid.sig'][0])
    computed_sig = hmac.new(mac_key, query, sha).digest()

    if transmitted_sig != computed_sig:
        raise ValueError('Invalid signature')

    # Check that all critical fields are signed. OpenID 2.0 says
    # that in a positive assertion, op_endpoint, return_to,
    # response_nonce and assoc_handle must be signed, and claimed_id
    # and identity if present in the response. 1.1 compatibility
    # says that response_nonce and op_endpoint may be missing.
    # In addition, OpenID 1.1 providers apparently fail to sign
    # assoc_handle often.
    if response['openid.mode'][0] == 'id_res':
        if 'return_to' not in signed or \
           ('openid.identity' in response and 'identity' not in signed) or \
           ('openid.claimed_id' in response and 'claimed_id' not in signed):
            raise ValueError, "Critical field missing in signature"

    return signed

def parse_nonce(nonce):
    '''Split a nonce into a (timestamp, ID) pair'''
    stamp = nonce.split('Z', 1)[0]
    stamp = time.strptime(stamp, "%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S")[:6]
    stamp = datetime.datetime(*stamp)
    return stamp

def get_namespaces(resp):
    res = {}
    for k, v in resp.items():
        if k.startswith('openid.ns.'):
            k = k.rsplit('.', 1)[1]
            res[v[0]] = k
    return res

def get_ax(resp, ns, validated):
    if "http://openid.net/srv/ax/1.0" not in ns:
        return {}
    ax = ns["http://openid.net/srv/ax/1.0"]+"."
    oax = "openid."+ax
    res = {}
    for k, v in resp.items():
        if k.startswith(oax+"type."):
            k = k.rsplit('.',1)[1]
            value_name = oax+"value."+k
            if ax+"value."+k not in validated:
                continue
            res[v[0]] = resp[value_name][0]
    return res
    

def get_email(resp):
    "Return the email address embedded response, or None."

    validated = resp['openid.signed'][0]

    # SREG 1.0; doesn't require namespace, as the protocol doesn't
    # specify one
    if 'openid.sreg.email' in resp and \
       'sreg.email' in validated:
        return resp['openid.sreg.email'][0]

    ns = get_namespaces(resp)

    ax = get_ax(resp, ns, validated)
    if "http://axschema.org/contact/email" in ax:
        return ax["http://axschema.org/contact/email"]

    # TODO: SREG 1.1
    return None

def get_username(resp):
    "Return either nickname or (first, last) or None."

    validated = resp['openid.signed'][0]
    if 'openid.sreg.nickname' in resp and \
       'sreg.nickname' in validated:
        return resp['openid.sreg.nickname'][0]

    ns = get_namespaces(resp)

    ax = get_ax(resp, ns, validated)
    if "http://axschema.org/namePerson/first" in ax and \
       "http://axschema.org/namePerson/last" in ax:
        return (ax["http://axschema.org/namePerson/first"],
                ax["http://axschema.org/namePerson/last"])

    # TODO: SREG 1.1
    return


################ Test Server #################################

import BaseHTTPServer, cgi

# supported providers
providers = (
    ('Google', 'http://www.google.com/favicon.ico', 'https://www.google.com/accounts/o8/id'),
    ('Yahoo', 'http://www.yahoo.com/favicon.ico', 'http://yahoo.com/'),
    # Verisigns service URL is not https
    #('Verisign', 'https://pip.verisignlabs.com/favicon.ico', 'https://pip.verisignlabs.com')
    ('myOpenID', 'https://www.myopenid.com/favicon.ico', 'https://www.myopenid.com/'),
    ('Launchpad', 'https://login.launchpad.net/favicon.ico', 'https://login.launchpad.net/')
    )
             
sessions = []
class Handler(BaseHTTPServer.BaseHTTPRequestHandler):

    def write(self, payload, type):
        self.send_response(200)
        self.send_header("Content-type", type)
        self.send_header("Content-length", str(len(payload)))
        self.end_headers()
        self.wfile.write(payload)

    def do_GET(self):
        if self.path == '/':
            return self.root()
        path = self.path
        i = path.rfind('?')
        if i >= 0:
            query = cgi.parse_qs(path[i+1:])
            path = path[:i]
        else:
            query = {}
        if path == '/':
            if 'provider' in query:
                prov = [p for p in providers if p[0]  == query['provider'][0]]
                if len(prov) != 1:
                    return self.not_found()
                prov = prov[0]
                services, url, op_local = discover(prov[2])
                session = associate(services, url)
                sessions.append(session)
                self.send_response(307) # temporary redirect - do not cache
                self.send_header("Location", request_authentication
                                 (services, url, session['assoc_handle'],
                                  self.base_url+"?returned=1"))
                self.end_headers()
                return
            if 'claimed' in query:
                kind, claimed = normalize_uri(query['claimed'][0])
                if kind == 'xri':
                    return self.error('XRI resolution not supported')
                res = discover(claimed)
                if res is None:
                    return self.error('Discovery failed')
                services, url, op_local = res
                session = associate(services, url)
                sessions.append(session)
                self.send_response(307)
                self.send_header("Location", request_authentication
                                 (services, url, session['assoc_handle'],
                                  self.base_url+"?returned=1",
                                  claimed, op_local))
                self.end_headers()
                return                
            if 'returned' in query:
                if 'openid.identity' not in query:
                    return self.rp_discovery()
                handle = query['openid.assoc_handle'][0]
                for session in sessions:
                    if session['assoc_handle'] == handle:
                        break
                else:
                    session = None
                if not session:
                    return self.error('Not authenticated (no session)')
                try:
                    signed = authenticate(session, query)
                except Exception, e:
                    self.error("Authentication failed: "+repr(e))
                    return
                if 'openid.claimed_id' in query:
                    if 'claimed_id' not in signed:
                        return self.error('Incomplete signature')
                    claimed = query['openid.claimed_id'][0]
                else:
                    # OpenID 1, claimed ID not reported - should set cookie
                    if 'identity' not in signed:
                        return self.error('Incomplete signature')
                    claimed = query['openid.identity'][0]
                payload = "Hello "+claimed+"\n"
                email = get_email(query)
                if email:
                    payload += 'Your email is '+email+"\n"
                else:
                    payload += 'No email address is known\n'
                username = get_username(query)
                if isinstance(username, tuple):
                    username = " ".join(username)
                if username:
                    payload += 'Your nickname is '+username+'\n'
                else:
                    payload += 'No nickname is known\n'
                return self.write(payload, "text/plain")
                
        return self.not_found()

    

    def debug(self, value):
        payload = repr(value)
        self.write(payload, "text/plain")

    def error(self, text):
        self.write(text, "text/plain")

    def root(self):
        payload = "<html><head><title>OpenID login</title></head><body>\n"
        
        for name, icon, provider in providers:
            payload += "<p><a href='%s?provider=%s'><img src='%s' alt='%s'></a></p>\n" % (
                self.base_url, name, icon, name)
        payload += "<form>Type your OpenID:<input name='claimed'/><input type='submit'/></form>\n"
        payload += "</body></html>"
        self.write(payload, "text/html")

    def rp_discovery(self):
        payload = '''<xrds:XRDS  
                xmlns:xrds="xri://$xrds"  
                xmlns="xri://$xrd*($v*2.0)">  
                <XRD>  
                     <Service priority="1">  
                              <Type>http://specs.openid.net/auth/2.0/return_to</Type>  
                              <URI>%s</URI>  
                     </Service>  
                </XRD>  
                </xrds:XRDS>
        ''' % (self.base_url+"/?returned=1")
        self.write(payload, 'application/xrds+xml')

    def not_found(self):
        self.send_response(404)
        self.end_headers()
        
# OpenID providers often attempt relying-party discovery
# This requires the test server to use a globally valid URL
# If Python cannot correctly determine the base URL, you
# can pass it as command line argument
def test_server():
    import socket, sys
    if len(sys.argv) > 1:
        base_url = sys.argv[1]
    else:
        base_url = "http://" + socket.getfqdn() + ":8000/"
    Handler.base_url = base_url
    BaseHTTPServer.HTTPServer.address_family = socket.AF_INET6
    httpd = BaseHTTPServer.HTTPServer(('', 8000), Handler)
    httpd.serve_forever()

if __name__ == '__main__':
    test_server()
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