Source

quake3 / lcc / lburg / lburg.1

.TH LBURG 1 "local \- 11/30/94"
.\" $Id: lburg.1 145 2001-10-17 21:53:10Z timo $
.SH NAME
lburg \- lcc's code-generator generator
.SH SYNOPSIS
.B lburg
[
.I option
]...
[ [
.I input
]
.I output
]
.br
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
.I lburg
reads an lcc-style BURG specification from
.I input
and writes a pattern-matching code generator to
.IR output .
If
.I input
is `\-' or is omitted,
.I lburg
reads the standard input;
If
.I output
is `\-' or is omitted,
.I lburg
writes to the standard output.
.PP
.I lburg
accepts specifications that conform to the following EBNF grammar.
Terminals are enclosed in single quotes or are
given in uppercase, all other symbols are nonterminals or English phrases,
{X} denotes zero or more instances of X, and [X] denotes an optional X.
.PP
.nf
.RS
.ft CW
spec:     `%{' configuration `%}' { dcl } `%%' { rule }
               [ `%%' C code ]

dcl:      `%start' nonterm
          `%term' { ID `=' INT }

rule:     nonterm `:' tree template [ C expression ]

tree:     term `(' tree `,' tree `)'
          term `(' tree `)'
          term
          nonterm

nonterm:  ID

template: `"' { any character except double quote } `"'
.RE
.fi
.PP
Specifications are structurally similar to
.IR yacc 's.
Text between
`\f(CW%{\fP'
and
`\f(CW%}\fP'
is called the configuration section; there may be several such segments.
All are concatenated and copied verbatim into the head of the output.
Text after the second
`\f(CW%%\fP',
if any, is also copied verbatim into the output, at the end.
.PP
Specifications consist of declarations, a
`\f(CW%%\fP'
separator, and rules.
Input is line-oriented; each declaration and rule must appear on a separate line,
and declarations must begin in column 1.
Declarations declare terminals \(em the operators in subject
trees \(em and associate a unique, positive external symbol
number with each one.
Nonterminals are declared by their presence
on the left side of rules.  The
\f(CW%start\fP
declaration optionally declares a nonterminal as the start symbol.
In the grammar above,
\f(CWterm\fP
and
\f(CWnonterm\fP
denote identifiers that are terminals and nonterminals.
.PP
Rules define tree patterns in a fully parenthesized prefix
form. Every nonterminal denotes a tree.
Each operator has a fixed
arity, which is inferred from the rules in which it is used.
A chain rule is a rule whose pattern is another nonterminal.
If no start symbol is declared, the nonterminal defined by the first rule is used.
.PP
Each rule ends with an expression that computes the cost of matching
that rule; omitted costs
default to zero. Costs of chain rules must be constants.
.PP
The configuration section configures the output
for the trees being parsed and the client's environment.
As shown, this section must define
\f(CWNODEPTR_TYPE\fP
to be a visible typedef symbol for a pointer to a
node in the subject tree.
The labeller invokes
\f(CWOP_LABEL(p)\fP,
\f(CWLEFT\_CHILD(p)\fP, and
\f(CWRIGHT\_CHILD(p)\fP
to read the operator and children from the node pointed to by \f(CWp\fP.
If the configuration section defines these operations as macros, they are implemented in-line;
otherwise, they must be implemented as functions.
.PP
The matcher
computes and stores a single integral state in each node of the subject tree.
The configuration section must define a macro
\f(CWSTATE_LABEL(p)\fP
to access the state field of the node pointed to
by \f(CWp\fP. It must be large enough to hold a pointer, and
a macro is required because it is used as an lvalue.
.PP
.SH OPTIONS
.TP
.BI \-p \ prefix
.br
.ns
.TP
.BI \-p prefix
Use
.I prefix
as the disambiquating prefix for visible names and fields.
The default is `\f(CW_\fP'.
.TP
.B \-T
Arrange for
.sp
.nf
.ft CW
    void _trace(NODEPTR_TYPE p, int eruleno,
                    int cost, int bestcost);
.sp
.fi
.ft R
to be called at each successful match.
\f(CWp\fP
identifies the node and
\f(CWeruleno\fP
identifies the matching rule; the rules are numbered
beginning at 1 in the order they appear in the input.
\f(CWcost\fP
is the cost of the match and
\f(CWbestcost\fP
is the cost of the best previous match. The current match
wins only if
\f(CWcost\fP
is less than \f(CWbestcost\fP.
32767 represents the infinite cost of no previous match.
\f(CW_trace\fP must be declared in the configuration section.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
.IR lcc (1)
.PP
C. W. Fraser and D. R. Hanson,
.IR A Retargetable C Compiler: Design and Implementation ,
Benjamin/Cummings, Redwood City, CA, 1995,
ISBN 0-8053-1670-1. Chapter 14.
.PP
C. W. Fraser, D. R. Hanson and T. A. Proebsting,
`Engineering a simple, efficient code generator generator,'
.I
ACM Letters on Programming Languages and Systems
.BR 1 ,
3 (Sep. 1992), 213-226.
.br
.SH BUGS
Mail bug reports along with the shortest input
that exposes them to drh@cs.princeton.edu.
Tip: Filter by directory path e.g. /media app.js to search for public/media/app.js.
Tip: Use camelCasing e.g. ProjME to search for ProjectModifiedEvent.java.
Tip: Filter by extension type e.g. /repo .js to search for all .js files in the /repo directory.
Tip: Separate your search with spaces e.g. /ssh pom.xml to search for src/ssh/pom.xml.
Tip: Use ↑ and ↓ arrow keys to navigate and return to view the file.
Tip: You can also navigate files with Ctrl+j (next) and Ctrl+k (previous) and view the file with Ctrl+o.
Tip: You can also navigate files with Alt+j (next) and Alt+k (previous) and view the file with Alt+o.