1. Timo Sulg
  2. udacity373_code

Source

udacity373_code / unit6 / u6-21_slam.py

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# ------------
# User Instructions
# 
# In this problem you will implement SLAM in a 2 dimensional
# world. Please define a function, slam, which takes five
# parameters as input and returns the vector mu. This vector
# should have x, y coordinates interlaced, so for example, 
# if there were 2 poses and 2 landmarks, mu would look like:
#
#  mu =  matrix([[Px0],
#                [Py0],
#                [Px1],
#                [Py1],
#                [Lx0],
#                [Ly0],
#                [Lx1],
#                [Ly1]])
#
# data - This is the data that is generated with the included
#        make_data function. You can also use test_data to
#        make sure your function gives the correct result.
#
# N -    The number of time steps.
#
# num_landmarks - The number of landmarks.
#
# motion_noise - The noise associated with motion. The update
#                strength for motion should be 1.0 / motion_noise.
#
# measurement_noise - The noise associated with measurement.
#                     The update strength for measurement should be
#                     1.0 / measurement_noise.
#
#
# Enter your code at line 509

# --------------
# Testing
#
# Uncomment the test cases at the bottom of this document.
# Your output should be identical to the given results.

 
from math import *
import random


#===============================================================
#
# SLAM in a rectolinear world (we avoid non-linearities)
#      
# 
#===============================================================


# ------------------------------------------------
# 
# this is the matrix class
# we use it because it makes it easier to collect constraints in GraphSLAM
# and to calculate solutions (albeit inefficiently)
# 

class matrix:
    
    # implements basic operations of a matrix class

    # ------------
    #
    # initialization - can be called with an initial matrix
    #

    def __init__(self, value = [[]]):
        self.value = value
        self.dimx  = len(value)
        self.dimy  = len(value[0])
        if value == [[]]:
            self.dimx = 0

    # ------------
    #
    # makes matrix of a certain size and sets each element to zero
    #

    def zero(self, dimx, dimy):
        if dimy == 0:
            dimy = dimx
        # check if valid dimensions
        if dimx < 1 or dimy < 1:
            raise ValueError, "Invalid size of matrix"
        else:
            self.dimx  = dimx
            self.dimy  = dimy
            self.value = [[0.0 for row in range(dimy)] for col in range(dimx)]

    # ------------
    #
    # makes matrix of a certain (square) size and turns matrix into identity matrix
    #

    def identity(self, dim):
        # check if valid dimension
        if dim < 1:
            raise ValueError, "Invalid size of matrix"
        else:
            self.dimx  = dim
            self.dimy  = dim
            self.value = [[0.0 for row in range(dim)] for col in range(dim)]
            for i in range(dim):
                self.value[i][i] = 1.0
    # ------------
    #
    # prints out values of matrix
    #

    def show(self, txt = ''):
        for i in range(len(self.value)):
            print txt + '['+ ', '.join('%.3f'%x for x in self.value[i]) + ']' 
        print ' '

    # ------------
    #
    # defines elmement-wise matrix addition. Both matrices must be of equal dimensions
    #

    def __add__(self, other):
        # check if correct dimensions
        if self.dimx != other.dimx or self.dimx != other.dimx:
            raise ValueError, "Matrices must be of equal dimension to add"
        else:
            # add if correct dimensions
            res = matrix()
            res.zero(self.dimx, self.dimy)
            for i in range(self.dimx):
                for j in range(self.dimy):
                    res.value[i][j] = self.value[i][j] + other.value[i][j]
            return res

    # ------------
    #
    # defines elmement-wise matrix subtraction. Both matrices must be of equal dimensions
    #

    def __sub__(self, other):
        # check if correct dimensions
        if self.dimx != other.dimx or self.dimx != other.dimx:
            raise ValueError, "Matrices must be of equal dimension to subtract"
        else:
            # subtract if correct dimensions
            res = matrix()
            res.zero(self.dimx, self.dimy)
            for i in range(self.dimx):
                for j in range(self.dimy):
                    res.value[i][j] = self.value[i][j] - other.value[i][j]
            return res

    # ------------
    #
    # defines multiplication. Both matrices must be of fitting dimensions
    #

    def __mul__(self, other):
        # check if correct dimensions
        if self.dimy != other.dimx:
            raise ValueError, "Matrices must be m*n and n*p to multiply"
        else:
            # multiply if correct dimensions
            res = matrix()
            res.zero(self.dimx, other.dimy)
            for i in range(self.dimx):
                for j in range(other.dimy):
                    for k in range(self.dimy):
                        res.value[i][j] += self.value[i][k] * other.value[k][j]
        return res


    # ------------
    #
    # returns a matrix transpose
    #

    def transpose(self):
        # compute transpose
        res = matrix()
        res.zero(self.dimy, self.dimx)
        for i in range(self.dimx):
            for j in range(self.dimy):
                res.value[j][i] = self.value[i][j]
        return res

    # ------------
    #
    # creates a new matrix from the existing matrix elements.
    #
    # Example:
    #       l = matrix([[ 1,  2,  3,  4,  5], 
    #                   [ 6,  7,  8,  9, 10], 
    #                   [11, 12, 13, 14, 15]])
    #
    #       l.take([0, 2], [0, 2, 3])
    #
    # results in:
    #       
    #       [[1, 3, 4], 
    #        [11, 13, 14]]
    #       
    # 
    # take is used to remove rows and columns from existing matrices
    # list1/list2 define a sequence of rows/columns that shall be taken
    # is no list2 is provided, then list2 is set to list1 (good for 
    # symmetric matrices)
    #

    def take(self, list1, list2 = []):
        if list2 == []:
            list2 = list1
        if len(list1) > self.dimx or len(list2) > self.dimy:
            raise ValueError, "list invalid in take()"

        res = matrix()
        res.zero(len(list1), len(list2))
        for i in range(len(list1)):
            for j in range(len(list2)):
                res.value[i][j] = self.value[list1[i]][list2[j]]
        return res

    # ------------
    #
    # creates a new matrix from the existing matrix elements.
    #
    # Example:
    #       l = matrix([[1, 2, 3],
    #                  [4, 5, 6]])
    #
    #       l.expand(3, 5, [0, 2], [0, 2, 3])
    #
    # results in:
    #
    #       [[1, 0, 2, 3, 0], 
    #        [0, 0, 0, 0, 0], 
    #        [4, 0, 5, 6, 0]]
    # 
    # expand is used to introduce new rows and columns into an existing matrix
    # list1/list2 are the new indexes of row/columns in which the matrix
    # elements are being mapped. Elements for rows and columns 
    # that are not listed in list1/list2 
    # will be initialized by 0.0.
    #
    
    def expand(self, dimx, dimy, list1, list2 = []):
        if list2 == []:
            list2 = list1
        if len(list1) > self.dimx or len(list2) > self.dimy:
            raise ValueError, "list invalid in expand()"

        res = matrix()
        res.zero(dimx, dimy)
        for i in range(len(list1)):
            for j in range(len(list2)):
                res.value[list1[i]][list2[j]] = self.value[i][j]
        return res

    # ------------
    #
    # Computes the upper triangular Cholesky factorization of  
    # a positive definite matrix.
    # This code is based on http://adorio-research.org/wordpress/?p=4560
    #
    
    def Cholesky(self, ztol= 1.0e-5):

        res = matrix()
        res.zero(self.dimx, self.dimx)

        for i in range(self.dimx):
            S = sum([(res.value[k][i])**2 for k in range(i)])
            d = self.value[i][i] - S
            if abs(d) < ztol:
                res.value[i][i] = 0.0
            else: 
                if d < 0.0:
                    raise ValueError, "Matrix not positive-definite"
                res.value[i][i] = sqrt(d)
            for j in range(i+1, self.dimx):
                S = sum([res.value[k][i] * res.value[k][j] for k in range(i)])
                if abs(S) < ztol:
                    S = 0.0
                res.value[i][j] = (self.value[i][j] - S)/res.value[i][i]
        return res 
 
    # ------------
    #
    # Computes inverse of matrix given its Cholesky upper Triangular
    # decomposition of matrix.
    # This code is based on http://adorio-research.org/wordpress/?p=4560
    #
    
    def CholeskyInverse(self):

        res = matrix()
        res.zero(self.dimx, self.dimx)

        # Backward step for inverse.
        for j in reversed(range(self.dimx)):
            tjj = self.value[j][j]
            S = sum([self.value[j][k]*res.value[j][k] for k in range(j+1, self.dimx)])
            res.value[j][j] = 1.0/ tjj**2 - S/ tjj
            for i in reversed(range(j)):
                res.value[j][i] = res.value[i][j] = \
                    -sum([self.value[i][k]*res.value[k][j] for k in \
                              range(i+1,self.dimx)])/self.value[i][i]
        return res
    
    # ------------
    #
    # comutes and returns the inverse of a square matrix
    #
    def inverse(self):
        aux = self.Cholesky()
        res = aux.CholeskyInverse()
        return res

    # ------------
    #
    # prints matrix (needs work!)
    #
    def __repr__(self):
        return repr(self.value)

# ------------------------------------------------
# 
# this is the robot class
# 
# our robot lives in x-y space, and its motion is
# pointed in a random direction. It moves on a straight line
# until is comes close to a wall at which point it turns
# away from the wall and continues to move.
#
# For measurements, it simply senses the x- and y-distance
# to landmarks. This is different from range and bearing as 
# commonly studied in the literature, but this makes it much
# easier to implement the essentials of SLAM without
# cluttered math
#

class robot:

    # --------
    # init: 
    #   creates robot and initializes location to 0, 0
    #

    def __init__(self, world_size = 100.0, measurement_range = 30.0,
                 motion_noise = 1.0, measurement_noise = 1.0):
        self.measurement_noise = 0.0
        self.world_size = world_size
        self.measurement_range = measurement_range
        self.x = world_size / 2.0
        self.y = world_size / 2.0
        self.motion_noise = motion_noise
        self.measurement_noise = measurement_noise
        self.landmarks = []
        self.num_landmarks = 0


    def rand(self):
        return random.random() * 2.0 - 1.0

    # --------
    #
    # make random landmarks located in the world
    #

    def make_landmarks(self, num_landmarks):
        self.landmarks = []
        for i in range(num_landmarks):
            self.landmarks.append([round(random.random() * self.world_size),
                                   round(random.random() * self.world_size)])
        self.num_landmarks = num_landmarks


    # --------
    #
    # move: attempts to move robot by dx, dy. If outside world
    #       boundary, then the move does nothing and instead returns failure
    #

    def move(self, dx, dy):

        x = self.x + dx + self.rand() * self.motion_noise
        y = self.y + dy + self.rand() * self.motion_noise

        if x < 0.0 or x > self.world_size or y < 0.0 or y > self.world_size:
            return False
        else:
            self.x = x
            self.y = y
            return True
    

    # --------
    #
    # sense: returns x- and y- distances to landmarks within visibility range
    #        because not all landmarks may be in this range, the list of measurements
    #        is of variable length. Set measurement_range to -1 if you want all
    #        landmarks to be visible at all times
    #

    def sense(self):
        Z = []
        for i in range(self.num_landmarks):
            dx = self.landmarks[i][0] - self.x + self.rand() * self.measurement_noise
            dy = self.landmarks[i][1] - self.y + self.rand() * self.measurement_noise    
            if self.measurement_range < 0.0 or abs(dx) + abs(dy) <= self.measurement_range:
                Z.append([i, dx, dy])
        return Z

    # --------
    #
    # print robot location
    #

    def __repr__(self):
        return 'Robot: [x=%.5f y=%.5f]'  % (self.x, self.y)

######################################################

# --------
# this routine makes the robot data
#

def make_data(N, num_landmarks, world_size, measurement_range, motion_noise, 
              measurement_noise, distance):


    complete = False

    while not complete:

        data = []

        # make robot and landmarks
        r = robot(world_size, measurement_range, motion_noise, measurement_noise)
        r.make_landmarks(num_landmarks)
        seen = [False for row in range(num_landmarks)]
    
        # guess an initial motion
        orientation = random.random() * 2.0 * pi
        dx = cos(orientation) * distance
        dy = sin(orientation) * distance
    
        for k in range(N-1):
    
            # sense
            Z = r.sense()

            # check off all landmarks that were observed 
            for i in range(len(Z)):
                seen[Z[i][0]] = True
    
            # move
            while not r.move(dx, dy):
                # if we'd be leaving the robot world, pick instead a new direction
                orientation = random.random() * 2.0 * pi
                dx = cos(orientation) * distance
                dy = sin(orientation) * distance

            # memorize data
            data.append([Z, [dx, dy]])

        # we are done when all landmarks were observed; otherwise re-run
        complete = (sum(seen) == num_landmarks)

    print ' '
    print 'Landmarks: ', r.landmarks
    print r


    return data
    
####################################################

# --------------------------------
#
# print the result of SLAM, the robot pose(s) and the landmarks
#

def print_result(N, num_landmarks, result):
    print
    print 'Estimated Pose(s):'
    for i in range(N):
        print '    ['+ ', '.join('%.3f'%x for x in result.value[2*i]) + ', ' \
            + ', '.join('%.3f'%x for x in result.value[2*i+1]) +']'
    print
    print 'Estimated Landmarks:'
    for i in range(num_landmarks):
        print '    ['+ ', '.join('%.3f'%x for x in result.value[2*(N+i)]) + ', ' \
            + ', '.join('%.3f'%x for x in result.value[2*(N+i)+1]) +']'

# --------------------------------
#
# slam - retains entire path and all landmarks
#

############## ENTER YOUR CODE BELOW HERE ###################

def slam(data, N, num_landmarks, motion_noise, measurement_noise):
    #
    #
    # Add your code here!
    #
    #
    return mu # Make sure you return mu for grading!
        
############### ENTER YOUR CODE ABOVE HERE ###################

# ------------------------------------------------------------------------
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
# Main routines
#


num_landmarks      = 5        # number of landmarks
N                  = 20       # time steps
world_size         = 100.0    # size of world
measurement_range  = 50.0     # range at which we can sense landmarks
motion_noise       = 2.0      # noise in robot motion
measurement_noise  = 2.0      # noise in the measurements
distance           = 20.0     # distance by which robot (intends to) move each iteratation 

data = make_data(N, num_landmarks, world_size, measurement_range, motion_noise, measurement_noise, distance)
result = slam(data, N, num_landmarks, motion_noise, measurement_noise)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
print_result(N, num_landmarks, result)

# -------------
# Testing
#
# Uncomment one of the test cases below to compare your results to
# the results shown for Test Case 1 and Test Case 2.

test_data1 = [[[[1, 19.457599255548065, 23.8387362100849], [2, -13.195807561967236, 11.708840328458608], [3, -30.0954905279171, 15.387879242505843]], [-12.2607279422326, -15.801093326936487]], [[[2, -0.4659930049620491, 28.088559771215664], [4, -17.866382374890936, -16.384904503932]], [-12.2607279422326, -15.801093326936487]], [[[4, -6.202512900833806, -1.823403210274639]], [-12.2607279422326, -15.801093326936487]], [[[4, 7.412136480918645, 15.388585962142429]], [14.008259661173426, 14.274756084260822]], [[[4, -7.526138813444998, -0.4563942429717849]], [14.008259661173426, 14.274756084260822]], [[[2, -6.299793150150058, 29.047830407717623], [4, -21.93551130411791, -13.21956810989039]], [14.008259661173426, 14.274756084260822]], [[[1, 15.796300959032276, 30.65769689694247], [2, -18.64370821983482, 17.380022987031367]], [14.008259661173426, 14.274756084260822]], [[[1, 0.40311325410337906, 14.169429532679855], [2, -35.069349468466235, 2.4945558982439957]], [14.008259661173426, 14.274756084260822]], [[[1, -16.71340983241936, -2.777000269543834]], [-11.006096015782283, 16.699276945166858]], [[[1, -3.611096830835776, -17.954019226763958]], [-19.693482634035977, 3.488085684573048]], [[[1, 18.398273354362416, -22.705102332550947]], [-19.693482634035977, 3.488085684573048]], [[[2, 2.789312482883833, -39.73720193121324]], [12.849049222879723, -15.326510824972983]], [[[1, 21.26897046581808, -10.121029799040915], [2, -11.917698965880655, -23.17711662602097], [3, -31.81167947898398, -16.7985673023331]], [12.849049222879723, -15.326510824972983]], [[[1, 10.48157743234859, 5.692957082575485], [2, -22.31488473554935, -5.389184118551409], [3, -40.81803984305378, -2.4703329790238118]], [12.849049222879723, -15.326510824972983]], [[[0, 10.591050242096598, -39.2051798967113], [1, -3.5675572049297553, 22.849456408289125], [2, -38.39251065320351, 7.288990306029511]], [12.849049222879723, -15.326510824972983]], [[[0, -3.6225556479370766, -25.58006865235512]], [-7.8874682868419965, -18.379005523261092]], [[[0, 1.9784503557879374, -6.5025974151499]], [-7.8874682868419965, -18.379005523261092]], [[[0, 10.050665232782423, 11.026385307998742]], [-17.82919359778298, 9.062000642947142]], [[[0, 26.526838150174818, -0.22563393232425621], [4, -33.70303936886652, 2.880339841013677]], [-17.82919359778298, 9.062000642947142]]]
test_data2 = [[[[0, 26.543274387283322, -6.262538160312672], [3, 9.937396825799755, -9.128540360867689]], [18.92765331253674, -6.460955043986683]], [[[0, 7.706544739722961, -3.758467215445748], [1, 17.03954411948937, 31.705489938553438], [3, -11.61731288777497, -6.64964096716416]], [18.92765331253674, -6.460955043986683]], [[[0, -12.35130507136378, 2.585119104239249], [1, -2.563534536165313, 38.22159657838369], [3, -26.961236804740935, -0.4802312626141525]], [-11.167066095509824, 16.592065417497455]], [[[0, 1.4138633151721272, -13.912454837810632], [1, 8.087721200818589, 20.51845934354381], [3, -17.091723454402302, -16.521500551709707], [4, -7.414211721400232, 38.09191602674439]], [-11.167066095509824, 16.592065417497455]], [[[0, 12.886743222179561, -28.703968411636318], [1, 21.660953298391387, 3.4912891084614914], [3, -6.401401414569506, -32.321583037341625], [4, 5.034079343639034, 23.102207946092893]], [-11.167066095509824, 16.592065417497455]], [[[1, 31.126317672358578, -10.036784369535214], [2, -38.70878528420893, 7.4987265861424595], [4, 17.977218575473767, 6.150889254289742]], [-6.595520680493778, -18.88118393939265]], [[[1, 41.82460922922086, 7.847527392202475], [3, 15.711709540417502, -30.34633659912818]], [-6.595520680493778, -18.88118393939265]], [[[0, 40.18454208294434, -6.710999804403755], [3, 23.019508919299156, -10.12110867290604]], [-6.595520680493778, -18.88118393939265]], [[[3, 27.18579315312821, 8.067219022708391]], [-6.595520680493778, -18.88118393939265]], [[], [11.492663265706092, 16.36822198838621]], [[[3, 24.57154567653098, 13.461499960708197]], [11.492663265706092, 16.36822198838621]], [[[0, 31.61945290413707, 0.4272295085799329], [3, 16.97392299158991, -5.274596836133088]], [11.492663265706092, 16.36822198838621]], [[[0, 22.407381798735177, -18.03500068379259], [1, 29.642444125196995, 17.3794951934614], [3, 4.7969752441371645, -21.07505361639969], [4, 14.726069092569372, 32.75999422300078]], [11.492663265706092, 16.36822198838621]], [[[0, 10.705527984670137, -34.589764174299596], [1, 18.58772336795603, -0.20109708164787765], [3, -4.839806195049413, -39.92208742305105], [4, 4.18824810165454, 14.146847823548889]], [11.492663265706092, 16.36822198838621]], [[[1, 5.878492140223764, -19.955352450942357], [4, -7.059505455306587, -0.9740849280550585]], [19.628527845173146, 3.83678180657467]], [[[1, -11.150789592446378, -22.736641053247872], [4, -28.832815721158255, -3.9462962046291388]], [-19.841703647091965, 2.5113335861604362]], [[[1, 8.64427397916182, -20.286336970889053], [4, -5.036917727942285, -6.311739993868336]], [-5.946642674882207, -19.09548221169787]], [[[0, 7.151866679283043, -39.56103232616369], [1, 16.01535401373368, -3.780995345194027], [4, -3.04801331832137, 13.697362774960865]], [-5.946642674882207, -19.09548221169787]], [[[0, 12.872879480504395, -19.707592098123207], [1, 22.236710716903136, 16.331770792606406], [3, -4.841206109583004, -21.24604435851242], [4, 4.27111163223552, 32.25309748614184]], [-5.946642674882207, -19.09548221169787]]] 

##  Test Case 1
##
##  Estimated Pose(s):
##      [49.999, 49.999]
##      [37.971, 33.650]
##      [26.183, 18.153]
##      [13.743, 2.114]
##      [28.095, 16.781]
##      [42.383, 30.900]
##      [55.829, 44.494]
##      [70.855, 59.697]
##      [85.695, 75.540]
##      [74.010, 92.431]
##      [53.543, 96.451]
##      [34.523, 100.078]
##      [48.621, 83.951]
##      [60.195, 68.105]
##      [73.776, 52.932]
##      [87.130, 38.536]
##      [80.301, 20.506]
##      [72.797, 2.943]
##      [55.244, 13.253]
##      [37.414, 22.315]
##  
##  Estimated Landmarks:
##      [82.954, 13.537]
##      [70.493, 74.139]
##      [36.738, 61.279]
##      [18.696, 66.057]
##      [20.633, 16.873]


##  Test Case 2
##
##  Estimated Pose(s):
##      [49.999, 49.999]
##      [69.180, 45.664]
##      [87.742, 39.702]
##      [76.269, 56.309]
##      [64.316, 72.174]
##      [52.256, 88.151]
##      [44.058, 69.399]
##      [37.001, 49.916]
##      [30.923, 30.953]
##      [23.507, 11.417]
##      [34.179, 27.131]
##      [44.154, 43.844]
##      [54.805, 60.919]
##      [65.697, 78.544]
##      [77.467, 95.624]
##      [96.801, 98.819]
##      [75.956, 99.969]
##      [70.199, 81.179]
##      [64.053, 61.721]
##      [58.106, 42.626]
##  
##  Estimated Landmarks:
##      [76.778, 42.885]
##      [85.064, 77.436]
##      [13.546, 95.649]
##      [59.448, 39.593]
##      [69.262, 94.238]



### Uncomment the following three lines for test case 1 ###

#result = slam(test_data1, 20, 5, 2.0, 2.0)
#print_result(20, 5, result)
#print result


### Uncomment the following three lines for test case 2 ###

#result = slam(test_data2, 20, 5, 2.0, 2.0)
#print_result(20, 5, result)
#print result