udacity373_code / unit6 / u6_hw3_online_slam.py

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#u6_hw3_online_slam.py
# ------------
# User Instructions
#
# In this problem you will implement a more manageable
# version of graph SLAM in 2 dimensions. 
#
# Define a function, online_slam, that takes 5 inputs:
# data, N, num_landmarks, motion_noise, and
# measurement_noise--just as was done in the last 
# programming assignment of unit 6. This function
# must return TWO matrices, mu and the final Omega.
#
# Just as with the quiz, your matrices should have x
# and y interlaced, so if there were two poses and 2
# landmarks, mu would look like:
#
# mu = matrix([[Px0],
#              [Py0],
#              [Px1],
#              [Py1],
#              [Lx0],
#              [Ly0],
#              [Lx1],
#              [Ly1]])
#
# Enter your code at line 566.

# -----------
# Testing
#
# You have two methods for testing your code.
#
# 1) You can make your own data with the make_data
#    function. Then you can run it through the
#    provided slam routine and check to see that your
#    online_slam function gives the same estimated
#    final robot pose and landmark positions.
# 2) You can use the solution_check function at the
#    bottom of this document to check your code
#    for the two provided test cases. The grading
#    will be almost identical to this function, so
#    if you pass both test cases, you should be
#    marked correct on the homework.

from math import *
import random


# ------------------------------------------------
# 
# this is the matrix class
# we use it because it makes it easier to collect constraints in GraphSLAM
# and to calculate solutions (albeit inefficiently)
# 

class matrix:
    
    # implements basic operations of a matrix class

    # ------------
    #
    # initialization - can be called with an initial matrix
    #

    def __init__(self, value = [[]]):
        self.value = value
        self.dimx  = len(value)
        self.dimy  = len(value[0])
        if value == [[]]:
            self.dimx = 0
            
    # -----------
    #
    # defines matrix equality - returns true if corresponding elements
    #   in two matrices are within epsilon of each other.
    #
    
    def __eq__(self, other):
        epsilon = 0.01
        if self.dimx != other.dimx or self.dimy != other.dimy:
            return False
        for i in range(self.dimx):
            for j in range(self.dimy):
                if abs(self.value[i][j] - other.value[i][j]) > epsilon:
                    return False
        return True
    
    def __ne__(self, other):
        return not (self == other)

    # ------------
    #
    # makes matrix of a certain size and sets each element to zero
    #

    def zero(self, dimx, dimy):
        if dimy == 0:
            dimy = dimx
        # check if valid dimensions
        if dimx < 1 or dimy < 1:
            raise ValueError, "Invalid size of matrix"
        else:
            self.dimx  = dimx
            self.dimy  = dimy
            self.value = [[0.0 for row in range(dimy)] for col in range(dimx)]

    # ------------
    #
    # makes matrix of a certain (square) size and turns matrix into identity matrix
    #

    def identity(self, dim):
        # check if valid dimension
        if dim < 1:
            raise ValueError, "Invalid size of matrix"
        else:
            self.dimx  = dim
            self.dimy  = dim
            self.value = [[0.0 for row in range(dim)] for col in range(dim)]
            for i in range(dim):
                self.value[i][i] = 1.0
                
    # ------------
    #
    # prints out values of matrix
    #

    def show(self, txt = ''):
        for i in range(len(self.value)):
            print txt + '['+ ', '.join('%.3f'%x for x in self.value[i]) + ']' 
        print ' '

    # ------------
    #
    # defines elmement-wise matrix addition. Both matrices must be of equal dimensions
    #

    def __add__(self, other):
        # check if correct dimensions
        if self.dimx != other.dimx or self.dimx != other.dimx:
            raise ValueError, "Matrices must be of equal dimension to add"
        else:
            # add if correct dimensions
            res = matrix()
            res.zero(self.dimx, self.dimy)
            for i in range(self.dimx):
                for j in range(self.dimy):
                    res.value[i][j] = self.value[i][j] + other.value[i][j]
            return res

    # ------------
    #
    # defines elmement-wise matrix subtraction. Both matrices must be of equal dimensions
    #

    def __sub__(self, other):
        # check if correct dimensions
        if self.dimx != other.dimx or self.dimx != other.dimx:
            raise ValueError, "Matrices must be of equal dimension to subtract"
        else:
            # subtract if correct dimensions
            res = matrix()
            res.zero(self.dimx, self.dimy)
            for i in range(self.dimx):
                for j in range(self.dimy):
                    res.value[i][j] = self.value[i][j] - other.value[i][j]
            return res

    # ------------
    #
    # defines multiplication. Both matrices must be of fitting dimensions
    #

    def __mul__(self, other):
        # check if correct dimensions
        if self.dimy != other.dimx:
            raise ValueError, "Matrices must be m*n and n*p to multiply"
        else:
            # multiply if correct dimensions
            res = matrix()
            res.zero(self.dimx, other.dimy)
            for i in range(self.dimx):
                for j in range(other.dimy):
                    for k in range(self.dimy):
                        res.value[i][j] += self.value[i][k] * other.value[k][j]
        return res

    # ------------
    #
    # returns a matrix transpose
    #

    def transpose(self):
        # compute transpose
        res = matrix()
        res.zero(self.dimy, self.dimx)
        for i in range(self.dimx):
            for j in range(self.dimy):
                res.value[j][i] = self.value[i][j]
        return res

    # ------------
    #
    # creates a new matrix from the existing matrix elements.
    #
    # Example:
    #       l = matrix([[ 1,  2,  3,  4,  5], 
    #                   [ 6,  7,  8,  9, 10], 
    #                   [11, 12, 13, 14, 15]])
    #
    #       l.take([0, 2], [0, 2, 3])
    #
    # results in:
    #       
    #       [[1, 3, 4], 
    #        [11, 13, 14]]
    #       
    # 
    # take is used to remove rows and columns from existing matrices
    # list1/list2 define a sequence of rows/columns that shall be taken
    # is no list2 is provided, then list2 is set to list1 (good for symmetric matrices)
    #

    def take(self, list1, list2 = []):
        if list2 == []:
            list2 = list1
        if len(list1) > self.dimx or len(list2) > self.dimy:
            raise ValueError, "list invalid in take()"

        res = matrix()
        res.zero(len(list1), len(list2))
        for i in range(len(list1)):
            for j in range(len(list2)):
                res.value[i][j] = self.value[list1[i]][list2[j]]
        return res

    # ------------
    #
    # creates a new matrix from the existing matrix elements.
    #
    # Example:
    #       l = matrix([[1, 2, 3],
    #                  [4, 5, 6]])
    #
    #       l.expand(3, 5, [0, 2], [0, 2, 3])
    #
    # results in:
    #
    #       [[1, 0, 2, 3, 0], 
    #        [0, 0, 0, 0, 0], 
    #        [4, 0, 5, 6, 0]]
    # 
    # expand is used to introduce new rows and columns into an existing matrix
    # list1/list2 are the new indexes of row/columns in which the matrix
    # elements are being mapped. Elements for rows and columns 
    # that are not listed in list1/list2 
    # will be initialized by 0.0.
    #

    def expand(self, dimx, dimy, list1, list2 = []):
        if list2 == []:
            list2 = list1
        if len(list1) > self.dimx or len(list2) > self.dimy:
            raise ValueError, "list invalid in expand()"

        res = matrix()
        res.zero(dimx, dimy)
        for i in range(len(list1)):
            for j in range(len(list2)):
                res.value[list1[i]][list2[j]] = self.value[i][j]
        return res

    # ------------
    #
    # Computes the upper triangular Cholesky factorization of  
    # a positive definite matrix.
    # This code is based on http://adorio-research.org/wordpress/?p=4560

    def Cholesky(self, ztol= 1.0e-5):

        res = matrix()
        res.zero(self.dimx, self.dimx)

        for i in range(self.dimx):
            S = sum([(res.value[k][i])**2 for k in range(i)])
            d = self.value[i][i] - S
            if abs(d) < ztol:
                res.value[i][i] = 0.0
            else: 
                if d < 0.0:
                    raise ValueError, "Matrix not positive-definite"
                res.value[i][i] = sqrt(d)
            for j in range(i+1, self.dimx):
                S = sum([res.value[k][i] * res.value[k][j] for k in range(i)])
                if abs(S) < ztol:
                    S = 0.0
                res.value[i][j] = (self.value[i][j] - S)/res.value[i][i]
        return res 
 
    # ------------
    #
    # Computes inverse of matrix given its Cholesky upper Triangular
    # decomposition of matrix.
    # This code is based on http://adorio-research.org/wordpress/?p=4560

    def CholeskyInverse(self):
    # Computes inverse of matrix given its Cholesky upper Triangular
    # decomposition of matrix.
        # This code is based on http://adorio-research.org/wordpress/?p=4560

        res = matrix()
        res.zero(self.dimx, self.dimx)

    # Backward step for inverse.
        for j in reversed(range(self.dimx)):
            tjj = self.value[j][j]
            S = sum([self.value[j][k]*res.value[j][k] for k in range(j+1, self.dimx)])
            res.value[j][j] = 1.0/ tjj**2 - S/ tjj
            for i in reversed(range(j)):
                res.value[j][i] = res.value[i][j] = \
                    -sum([self.value[i][k]*res.value[k][j] for k in \
                              range(i+1,self.dimx)])/self.value[i][i]
        return res
    
    # ------------
    #
    # comutes and returns the inverse of a square matrix
    #

    def inverse(self):
        aux = self.Cholesky()
        res = aux.CholeskyInverse()
        return res

    # ------------
    #
    # prints matrix (needs work!)
    #

    def __repr__(self):
        return repr(self.value)

# ######################################################################

# ------------------------------------------------
# 
# this is the robot class
# 
# our robot lives in x-y space, and its motion is
# pointed in a random direction. It moves on a straight line
# until is comes close to a wall at which point it turns
# away from the wall and continues to move.
#
# For measurements, it simply senses the x- and y-distance
# to landmarks. This is different from range and bearing as 
# commonly studies in the literature, but this makes it much
# easier to implement the essentials of SLAM without
# cluttered math
#

class robot:

    # --------
    # init: 
    #   creates robot and initializes location to 0, 0
    #

    def __init__(self, world_size = 100.0, measurement_range = 30.0,
                 motion_noise = 1.0, measurement_noise = 1.0):
        self.measurement_noise = 0.0
        self.world_size = world_size
        self.measurement_range = measurement_range
        self.x = world_size / 2.0
        self.y = world_size / 2.0
        self.motion_noise = motion_noise
        self.measurement_noise = measurement_noise
        self.landmarks = []
        self.num_landmarks = 0


    def rand(self):
        return random.random() * 2.0 - 1.0

    # --------
    #
    # make random landmarks located in the world
    #

    def make_landmarks(self, num_landmarks):
        self.landmarks = []
        for i in range(num_landmarks):
            self.landmarks.append([round(random.random() * self.world_size),
                                   round(random.random() * self.world_size)])
        self.num_landmarks = num_landmarks

    # --------
    #
    # move: attempts to move robot by dx, dy. If outside world
    #       boundary, then the move does nothing and instead returns failure
    #

    def move(self, dx, dy):

        x = self.x + dx + self.rand() * self.motion_noise
        y = self.y + dy + self.rand() * self.motion_noise

        if x < 0.0 or x > self.world_size or y < 0.0 or y > self.world_size:
            return False
        else:
            self.x = x
            self.y = y
            return True
    
    # --------
    #
    # sense: returns x- and y- distances to landmarks within visibility range
    #        because not all landmarks may be in this range, the list of measurements
    #        is of variable length. Set measurement_range to -1 if you want all
    #        landmarks to be visible at all times
    #

    def sense(self):
        Z = []
        for i in range(self.num_landmarks):
            dx = self.landmarks[i][0] - self.x + self.rand() * self.measurement_noise
            dy = self.landmarks[i][1] - self.y + self.rand() * self.measurement_noise    
            if self.measurement_range < 0.0 or abs(dx) + abs(dy) <= self.measurement_range:
                Z.append([i, dx, dy])
        return Z

    # --------
    #
    # print robot location
    #

    def __repr__(self):
        return 'Robot: [x=%.5f y=%.5f]'  % (self.x, self.y)


# ######################################################################

# --------
# this routine makes the robot data
#

def make_data(N, num_landmarks, world_size, measurement_range, motion_noise, 
              measurement_noise, distance):

    complete = False

    while not complete:

        data = []

        # make robot and landmarks
        r = robot(world_size, measurement_range, motion_noise, measurement_noise)
        r.make_landmarks(num_landmarks)
        seen = [False for row in range(num_landmarks)]
    
        # guess an initial motion
        orientation = random.random() * 2.0 * pi
        dx = cos(orientation) * distance
        dy = sin(orientation) * distance
    
        for k in range(N-1):
    
            # sense
            Z = r.sense()

            # check off all landmarks that were observed 
            for i in range(len(Z)):
                seen[Z[i][0]] = True
    
            # move
            while not r.move(dx, dy):
                # if we'd be leaving the robot world, pick instead a new direction
                orientation = random.random() * 2.0 * pi
                dx = cos(orientation) * distance
                dy = sin(orientation) * distance

            # memorize data
            data.append([Z, [dx, dy]])

        # we are done when all landmarks were observed; otherwise re-run
        complete = (sum(seen) == num_landmarks)

    print ' '
    print 'Landmarks: ', r.landmarks
    print r

    return data
    
# ######################################################################

# --------------------------------
#
# full_slam - retains entire path and all landmarks
#             Feel free to use this for comparison.
#

def slam(data, N, num_landmarks, motion_noise, measurement_noise):

    # Set the dimension of the filter
    dim = 2 * (N + num_landmarks) 

    # make the constraint information matrix and vector
    Omega = matrix()
    Omega.zero(dim, dim)
    Omega.value[0][0] = 1.0
    Omega.value[1][1] = 1.0

    Xi = matrix()
    Xi.zero(dim, 1)
    Xi.value[0][0] = world_size / 2.0
    Xi.value[1][0] = world_size / 2.0
    
    # process the data

    for k in range(len(data)):

        # n is the index of the robot pose in the matrix/vector
        n = k * 2 
    
        measurement = data[k][0]
        motion      = data[k][1]
    
        # integrate the measurements
        for i in range(len(measurement)):
    
            # m is the index of the landmark coordinate in the matrix/vector
            m = 2 * (N + measurement[i][0])
    
            # update the information maxtrix/vector based on the measurement
            for b in range(2):
                Omega.value[n+b][n+b] +=  1.0 / measurement_noise
                Omega.value[m+b][m+b] +=  1.0 / measurement_noise
                Omega.value[n+b][m+b] += -1.0 / measurement_noise
                Omega.value[m+b][n+b] += -1.0 / measurement_noise
                Xi.value[n+b][0]      += -measurement[i][1+b] / measurement_noise
                Xi.value[m+b][0]      +=  measurement[i][1+b] / measurement_noise


        # update the information maxtrix/vector based on the robot motion
        for b in range(4):
            Omega.value[n+b][n+b] +=  1.0 / motion_noise
        for b in range(2):
            Omega.value[n+b  ][n+b+2] += -1.0 / motion_noise
            Omega.value[n+b+2][n+b  ] += -1.0 / motion_noise
            Xi.value[n+b  ][0]        += -motion[b] / motion_noise
            Xi.value[n+b+2][0]        +=  motion[b] / motion_noise

    # compute best estimate
    mu = Omega.inverse() * Xi

    # return the result
    return mu

# --------------------------------
#
# online_slam - retains all landmarks but only most recent robot pose
#

def online_slam(data, N, num_landmarks, motion_noise, measurement_noise):
    #
    #
    # Enter your code here!
    #
    #
    return mu, Omega # make sure you return both of these matrices to be marked correct.

# --------------------------------
#
# print the result of SLAM, the robot pose(s) and the landmarks
#

def print_result(N, num_landmarks, result):
    print
    print 'Estimated Pose(s):'
    for i in range(N):
        print '    ['+ ', '.join('%.3f'%x for x in result.value[2*i]) + ', ' \
            + ', '.join('%.3f'%x for x in result.value[2*i+1]) +']'
    print 
    print 'Estimated Landmarks:'
    for i in range(num_landmarks):
        print '    ['+ ', '.join('%.3f'%x for x in result.value[2*(N+i)]) + ', ' \
            + ', '.join('%.3f'%x for x in result.value[2*(N+i)+1]) +']'
        
# ------------------------------------------------------------------------
#
# Main routines
#

num_landmarks      = 5        # number of landmarks
N                  = 20       # time steps
world_size         = 100.0    # size of world
measurement_range  = 50.0     # range at which we can sense landmarks
motion_noise       = 2.0      # noise in robot motion
measurement_noise  = 2.0      # noise in the measurements
distance           = 20.0     # distance by which robot (intends to) move each iteratation 


# Uncomment the following three lines to run the full slam routine.

#data = make_data(N, num_landmarks, world_size, measurement_range, motion_noise, measurement_noise, distance)
#result = slam(data, N, num_landmarks, motion_noise, measurement_noise)
#print_result(N, num_landmarks, result)

# Uncomment the following three lines to run the online_slam routine.

#data = make_data(N, num_landmarks, world_size, measurement_range, motion_noise, measurement_noise, distance)
#result = online_slam(data, N, num_landmarks, motion_noise, measurement_noise)
#print_result(1, num_landmarks, result[0])

##########################################################

# ------------
# TESTING
#
# Uncomment one of the test cases below to check that your
# online_slam function works as expected.

def solution_check(result, answer_mu, answer_omega):

    if len(result) != 2:
        print "Your function must return TWO matrices, mu and Omega"
        return False
    
    user_mu = result[0]
    user_omega = result[1]
    
    if user_mu.dimx == answer_omega.dimx and user_mu.dimy == answer_omega.dimy:
        print "It looks like you returned your results in the wrong order. Make sure to return mu then Omega."
        return False
    
    if user_mu.dimx != answer_mu.dimx or user_mu.dimy != answer_mu.dimy:
        print "Your mu matrix doesn't have the correct dimensions. Mu should be a", answer_mu.dimx, " x ", answer_mu.dimy, "matrix."
        return False
    else:
        print "Mu has correct dimensions."
        
    if user_omega.dimx != answer_omega.dimx or user_omega.dimy != answer_omega.dimy:
        print "Your Omega matrix doesn't have the correct dimensions. Omega should be a", answer_omega.dimx, " x ", answer_omega.dimy, "matrix."
        return False
    else:
        print "Omega has correct dimensions."
        
    if user_mu != answer_mu:
        print "Mu has incorrect entries."
        return False
    else:
        print "Mu correct."
        
    if user_omega != answer_omega:
        print "Omega has incorrect entries."
        return False
    else:
        print "Omega correct."
        
    print "Test case passed!"
    return True

# -----------
# Test Case 1

testdata1          = [[[[1, 21.796713239511305, 25.32184135169971], [2, 15.067410969755826, -27.599928007267906]], [16.4522379034509, -11.372065246394495]],
                      [[[1, 6.1286996178786755, 35.70844618389858], [2, -0.7470113490937167, -17.709326161950294]], [16.4522379034509, -11.372065246394495]],
                      [[[0, 16.305692184072235, -11.72765549112342], [2, -17.49244296888888, -5.371360408288514]], [16.4522379034509, -11.372065246394495]],
                      [[[0, -0.6443452578030207, -2.542378369361001], [2, -32.17857547483552, 6.778675958806988]], [-16.66697847355152, 11.054945886894709]]]

answer_mu1         = matrix([[81.63549976607898],
                             [27.175270706192254],
                             [98.09737507003692],
                             [14.556272940621195],
                             [71.97926631050574],
                             [75.07644206765099],
                             [65.30397603859097],
                             [22.150809430682695]])

answer_omega1      = matrix([[0.36603773584905663, 0.0, -0.169811320754717, 0.0, -0.011320754716981133, 0.0, -0.1811320754716981, 0.0],
                             [0.0, 0.36603773584905663, 0.0, -0.169811320754717, 0.0, -0.011320754716981133, 0.0, -0.1811320754716981],
                             [-0.169811320754717, 0.0, 0.6509433962264151, 0.0, -0.05660377358490567, 0.0, -0.40566037735849064, 0.0],
                             [0.0, -0.169811320754717, 0.0, 0.6509433962264151, 0.0, -0.05660377358490567, 0.0, -0.40566037735849064],
                             [-0.011320754716981133, 0.0, -0.05660377358490567, 0.0, 0.6962264150943396, 0.0, -0.360377358490566, 0.0],
                             [0.0, -0.011320754716981133, 0.0, -0.05660377358490567, 0.0, 0.6962264150943396, 0.0, -0.360377358490566],
                             [-0.1811320754716981, 0.0, -0.4056603773584906, 0.0, -0.360377358490566, 0.0, 1.2339622641509433, 0.0],
                             [0.0, -0.1811320754716981, 0.0, -0.4056603773584906, 0.0, -0.360377358490566, 0.0, 1.2339622641509433]])

#result = online_slam(testdata1, 5, 3, 2.0, 2.0)
#solution_check(result, answer_mu1, answer_omega1)


# -----------
# Test Case 2

testdata2          = [[[[0, 12.637647070797396, 17.45189715769647], [1, 10.432982633935133, -25.49437383412288]], [17.232472057089492, 10.150955955063045]],
                      [[[0, -4.104607680013634, 11.41471295488775], [1, -2.6421937245699176, -30.500310738397154]], [17.232472057089492, 10.150955955063045]],
                      [[[0, -27.157759429499166, -1.9907376178358271], [1, -23.19841267128686, -43.2248146183254]], [-17.10510363812527, 10.364141523975523]],
                      [[[0, -2.7880265859173763, -16.41914969572965], [1, -3.6771540967943794, -54.29943770172535]], [-17.10510363812527, 10.364141523975523]],
                      [[[0, 10.844236516370763, -27.19190207903398], [1, 14.728670653019343, -63.53743222490458]], [14.192077112147086, -14.09201714598981]]]

answer_mu2         = matrix([[63.37479912250136],
                             [78.17644539069596],
                             [61.33207502170053],
                             [67.10699675357239],
                             [62.57455560221361],
                             [27.042758786080363]])

answer_omega2      = matrix([[0.22871751620895048, 0.0, -0.11351536555795691, 0.0, -0.11351536555795691, 0.0],
                             [0.0, 0.22871751620895048, 0.0, -0.11351536555795691, 0.0, -0.11351536555795691],
                             [-0.11351536555795691, 0.0, 0.7867205207948973, 0.0, -0.46327947920510265, 0.0],
                             [0.0, -0.11351536555795691, 0.0, 0.7867205207948973, 0.0, -0.46327947920510265],
                             [-0.11351536555795691, 0.0, -0.46327947920510265, 0.0, 0.7867205207948973, 0.0],
                             [0.0, -0.11351536555795691, 0.0, -0.46327947920510265, 0.0, 0.7867205207948973]])

#result = online_slam(testdata2, 6, 2, 3.0, 4.0)
#solution_check(result, answer_mu2, answer_omega2)
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