Commits

Tom Roche committed e3f2e8d

Initial commit of poster as printed for CMAS, unfortunately on 36-in paper, more unfortunately lacking content.

CMAS allows printing up to 46 x 70 in (1168 x 1778 mm).
However the largest available printer is 42-in max;
more unfortunately it was only loaded with 36-in paper.
Not such a problem, because

* I rushed the poster, so lacked sufficient content

* this is my first major LaTeX project, so I used a simple layout

* I worked from an A0 template, so targeted that initially, only later
learning how to scale a0poster (using package=geometry).

At this point this project is mostly for troubleshooting and learning more about LaTeX (for the next poster).

TODO:
* quit kludging positions with '\vspace' !
** fix (not kludge) list whitespace with more compact list layout (package): see
http://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/7068/eliminate-space-at-end-of-list-in-a-table
* (if easy) create, add to poster QR code for wiki
* get graphic (replacing Thomson et al 2012 fig 1) separating natural and agricultural soil source attributions
* get package=sidecap to set caption position *per figure* (not per document)
* (future) rewrite using package=sciposter or (better?) package=beamerposter
* add references for claims that
** N2O is currently the most important ozone depleter (para=1)
** N2O is currently the third most important radiative forcer (para=1)
** many researchers agree that agriculture is a major source sector
** N fixation and fertilizer application being important drivers of N2O emission

  • Participants

Comments (0)

Files changed (12)

+# ignore backups
+*~
+
+# ignore "non-true" inputs
+# ignore my raw text? not now
+# text/
+*.bib.* # temporary bibliography fiddling
+*.odt*
+
+# ignore products
+# TeX/Roche_CMAS2012.pdf
+*.pdf*
+TeX/Roche_CMAS2012.bbl
+
+# ignore byproducts
+*.aux
+*.blg
+*.log
+*.out
+*.ps

Figs/EPIC_window_all_crops.png

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New image

Figs/Miller_et_al_2012_fig02.png

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Figs/Thomson_et_al_2012__F1_medium.png

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New image

Figs/cmaq_aqmeii_domain.png

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Figs/qrCode.png

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Figs/unc_gillings_noWell.png

Added
New image

Figs/unc_gillings_wWell.png

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New image
+all: Roche_CMAS2012.pdf
+
+%.pdf: %.tex poster.bib
+	pdflatex $<
+	bibtex $*
+	pdflatex $<
+	pdflatex $<
+	evince $*.pdf &  # find real syntax for identifying the target
+
+clean:
+	rm a0header.ps *.aux *.bbl *.blg *.log *.pdf *.synctex.gz

TeX/Roche_CMAS2012.tex

+% 42 x 70 in landscape poster for CMAS 2012 (printing @ Odum or EPA)
+% based on 36 x 70 in landscape poster for CMAS 2012 (printed @ ENVR)
+% based on BHH A0 template: see ~/info/work/EPA/N2O/posters/BHH_template/ or
+% https://bitbucket.org/tlroche/cmas-2012-poster/changeset/0244fa0a82a3a53b3db00052137025dc4bfc0ea6
+% Original discussion and documentation at http://purl.org/nxg/note/posters
+% but much is not relevant to pdflatex
+
+% sciposter allows arbitrary paper size (default=A0) but will require significant rewrite: see `texdoc sciposter`
+% \documentclass[landscape]{sciposter}
+% \documentclass[a0]{a0poster}
+\documentclass{a0poster} % resize paper from A0 using package=geometry
+\pagestyle{empty}
+\setcounter{secnumdepth}{0}
+
+% start package loading-------------------------------------------------
+
+% resize paper for CMAS ∩ ENVR printer (36 x 70 in)
+% usepackage[paperheight=910mm,paperwidth=1770mm]{geometry}
+% resize paper for CMAS ∩ {EPA, Odum} printer (42 x 70 in)
+\usepackage[paperheight=1066mm,paperwidth=1770mm]{geometry}
+\usepackage[version=3]{mhchem}
+\usepackage{setspace}
+\usepackage{amsmath}
+\usepackage{amssymb}
+\usepackage{natbib}
+\usepackage{units}
+
+% see http://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/664/why-should-i-use-usepackaget1fontenc
+% plus it enables '>'
+\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
+% but to get '≥' requires even more mojo? No, just use math mode
+% \usepackage{qsymbols} % see "''<='"
+% \usepackage{unicode-math} ? no:
+% > ! Package unicode-math Error: Cannot be run with pdfLaTeX!
+
+% why are degree signs so painful? for a possibly superior alternative using package=textcomp, see
+% http://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/22086/macro-for-degree-symbol
+\usepackage{xspace}
+\newcommand{\degree}{\ensuremath{{}^{\circ}}\xspace}
+
+% font size definitions
+\renewcommand{\tiny}{\fontsize{14.4}{18}\selectfont}
+\renewcommand{\scriptsize}{\fontsize{17.28}{22}\selectfont}   
+\renewcommand{\footnotesize}{\fontsize{20.74}{25}\selectfont}
+\renewcommand{\small}{\fontsize{24.88}{30}\selectfont}
+\renewcommand{\normalsize}{\fontsize{29.86}{37}\selectfont}
+\renewcommand{\large}{\fontsize{35.83}{45}\selectfont}
+\renewcommand{\Large}{\fontsize{43}{45}\selectfont}
+\renewcommand{\LARGE}{\fontsize{51.6}{54}\selectfont}
+\renewcommand{\huge}{\fontsize{61.92}{64}\selectfont}
+\renewcommand{\Huge}{\fontsize{74.3}{77}\selectfont}
+\renewcommand{\veryHuge}{\fontsize{89.16}{93}\selectfont}
+\renewcommand{\VeryHuge}{\fontsize{107}{112}\selectfont}
+\renewcommand{\VERYHuge}{\fontsize{121.14}{134}\selectfont}
+
+% Graphics
+% font=times is nice on posters, but you might want to switch it off and go for CMR fonts.
+\usepackage{graphicx}
+\usepackage{wrapfig,times}
+\graphicspath{{../Figs/}}
+% These colours are well-tested for titles and headers. Don't over use color!
+\usepackage{color}
+\definecolor{DarkBlue}{rgb}{0.1,0.1,0.5}
+\definecolor{Red}{rgb}{0.9,0.0,0.1}
+\usepackage{subfig}
+% set caption font
+% \usepackage[sf,bf,labelfont = normalsize, textfont = normalsize]{caption}
+\usepackage[font=normalsize, textfont=it,labelfont=bf,format=hang,justification=raggedright]{caption}
+\setlength{\belowcaptionskip}{0pt}
+\setlength{\abovecaptionskip}{0pt}
+% \renewcommand{\captionfont}{\sffamily}
+% 'sidecap' allows captions on right or left of figure
+\usepackage[leftcaption]{sidecap} % but side can't be set per figure :-(
+% gotta have AQMEII-NA left-captioned
+% \usepackage{sidecap} % but side can't be set per figure :-(
+
+% The textpos package is necessary to position textblocks at arbitary places on the page.
+\usepackage[absolute]{textpos}
+\usepackage{listings}         % for code listings
+\lstset{language=R,breaklines=true,basicstyle=\small,breakatwhitespace=true,breakindent=25pt,prebreak={\textbackslash},frame=tb}
+
+% package=hyperref wants to be loaded last (per its texdoc)
+\usepackage[hidelinks]{hyperref} % no link decoration
+
+%   end package loading-------------------------------------------------
+
+% definitions of document parts and their font sizes
+% see documentation for a0poster class for the size options here
+\let\Textsize\normalsize
+\def\LHead#1{\noindent\hbox{{\LARGE\color{DarkBlue} \uppercase{#1}}}\vspace*{-7.6mm}\newline\rule{\textwidth}{5pt}}
+\def\CHead#1{\vspace*{-7.6mm}\begin{center}\LARGE\color{DarkBlue}\uppercase{#1}\end{center}\vspace*{-15.2mm}\rule{\textwidth}{5pt}}
+\def\RHead#1{\noindent\hbox to \hsize{\hfil{\LARGE\color{DarkBlue} \uppercase{#1}}}\vspace*{-7.6mm}\newline\rule{\textwidth}{5pt}}
+\def\NHead#1{\noindent\hbox{{\LARGE\color{DarkBlue} #1}}\medskip\\}
+\def\lHead#1{\noindent\hbox{{\Large\color{DarkBlue} #1}}\smallskip\\}
+% Move up Acknowledgements and Contacts, but not References
+\def\Aknlg#1{\vspace*{-10mm}\underline{\noindent\hbox to \hsize{\hfil{\large\color{DarkBlue}#1}}}}
+% \def\Aknlg#1{\underline{\noindent\hbox to \hsize{\hfil{\large\color{DarkBlue}#1}}}}
+\def\Cntct#1{\vspace*{-20mm}\underline{\noindent\hbox to \hsize{\hfil{\large\color{DarkBlue}#1}}}}
+\def\Rfncs#1{\underline{\noindent\hbox to \hsize{\hfil{\large\color{DarkBlue}#1}}}}
+% \def\refname{\textnormal{\Aknlg{References}}}
+\def\refname{\textnormal{\Rfncs{References}}}
+% make bibliography/references smaller--not here, see below
+% \def\refname{\small{\Aknlg{References}}}
+% size directives here seem to have no effect :-(
+% \def\refname{\footnotesize{\Aknlg{References}}}
+% but this moves up the reference *text* WITHOUT moving up the "References" heading!
+% \def\refname{\vspace*{-15.2mm}\textnormal{\Aknlg{References}}}
+
+% \def\Subhead#1{\noindent\hbox {{\large\color{DarkBlue} #1}\hfil}\bigskip}
+
+% This works for BHH's short title, not my long one
+% \def\Title#1{\center{\veryHuge\color{DarkBlue}#1}}
+\def\Title#1{\center{\huge\color{DarkBlue}#1}}
+
+% Set up the page grid
+
+% Note that [40mm,40mm] is the page margin, _not_ the grid size.
+% Grid size is always defined as PAGE_WIDTH/HGRID and PAGE_HEIGHT/VGRID.
+% Here we define grid=23w x 12h. This provides
+% 3 columns of width=7 boxes (with gap=1 box between columns), and
+% 12 vertical boxes ("a good number to work with").
+
+% Note however that textblocks can be positioned fractionally as well,
+% so really any convenient grid size can be used.
+%
+% Note that on 
+% paper size              grid spec  ->    grid cell
+% ---------------------  -----------    ----------------
+% 1189w x  841h mm (A0)   27w x  12h    44w   x 70h mm
+% CMAS ∩ ENVR printer:
+% 1778w x  914h mm        27w x  12h    66w   x 76h mm
+% 1778w x  914h mm        32w x  12h    55.5w x 76h mm
+% 1778w x  914h mm        62w x  26h    28.7w x 35.1h mm
+% CMAS ∩ {EPA, Odum} printer:
+% 1778w x 1066h mm       122w x 100h    14.6w x 10.7h mm
+
+%  width conversion (same page width) from 62w -> 122w ~= 28.7/14.6 ~= 1.97
+% height conversion (new page height) from 26h -> 100h ~= 35.1/10.7 ~= 3.28
+
+% \TPGrid[.75in,.75in]{27}{12} % e.g., 3 cols width=8, plus 2 gaps width=1.5
+% \TPGrid[10mm,10mm]{62}{26}     % e.g., 3 cols width=20, plus 2 gaps width=1
+\TPGrid[10mm,10mm]{122}{100}     % e.g., 3 cols width=40, plus 2 gaps width=1
+\parindent=0pt
+\parskip=0.5\baselineskip
+\setlength\fboxsep{0pt}
+\setlength\fboxrule{0.5pt}
+\begin{document}
+
+% Understanding textblocks is the key to being able to do a poster in LaTeX. In
+
+%    \begin{textblock}{wid}(x,y)
+%    ...
+%    \end{textblock}
+
+% the first argument gives the block width in units of the grid cells specified above in \TPGrid;
+% the second gives the (x,y) position on the grid, with the y axis pointing down.
+% You will have to do a lot of previewing to get everything in the right place.
+
+% start header (title, logos)-----------------------------------------
+
+% Watch out for hyphenation in titles - LaTeX will do it but it looks awful.
+% use chemical formulae from package=mhchem
+%    \Title{Simulation of \cf{N2O} Production and Transport in Central US Compared to Tower Measurements}\\
+% \begin{textblock}{27}(0,0)
+% \begin{textblock}{62}(0,0)
+\begin{textblock}{122}(0,0)
+    \centering
+    \Title{Roadmap to Simulation of \cf{N2O} Production and Transport in the Central US, with Comparison to Observations}\\
+    \bigskip
+    \NHead{Tom Roche$^{1}$, Ellen J. Cooter$^2$, Eri Saikawa$^3$}
+    \lHead{\textsl{$^1$Environmental Science and Engineering, UNC Chapel Hill; $^2$Atmospheric Modeling and Analysis Division, US EPA; $^3$Center for Global Change Science, MIT}}
+    \bigskip
+    \hrule
+\end{textblock}
+
+% Academic logo in the top left corner, government logo @ top right.
+% You may want to change this depending upon the graphics that are in your poster.
+% \begin{textblock}{2}(0,0)
+% \begin{textblock}{3}(0,0)
+\begin{textblock}{10}(0,0)
+    \begin{figure}\includegraphics[scale=1.9]{unc_gillings_noWell}\end{figure}
+\end{textblock}
+% why does this do just the text? and why do it anyway?
+%\begin{textblock}{2}(1.25,.685)
+%    \begin{figure}\colorbox{white}{\includegraphics[width = 3.8in,trim=1.3in 0 0 .7in, clip = true]{unc_gillings.png}}\end{figure}
+%\end{textblock}
+% \begin{textblock}{2}(25.5,0)
+% \begin{textblock}{3}(59,0)
+\begin{textblock}{6}(116,0)  % paperwidth - blockwidth
+%    \begin{figure}\includegraphics[width = 2.75in]{epalogo.pdf}\end{figure}
+    \begin{figure}\includegraphics[width = 69.8mm]{epalogo}\end{figure}
+\end{textblock}
+
+%   end header--------------------------------------------------------
+% start content-------------------------------------------------------
+
+% \begin{textblock}{8}(0,1.25) % left column=1
+% \begin{textblock}{20}(0,2.5) % left column=1
+\begin{textblock}{40}(0,8.2) % left column=1
+    \LHead{Motivation}
+        \cf{N2O} (nitrous oxide) is currently the most important depleter of stratospheric ozone and the third most important radiative forcer among anthropogenic emissions. Its tropospheric chemistry is relatively simple, but other relevant processes are not. Attempts to spatially and temporally quantify \cf{N2O} fluxes have achieved mixed results; however, many researchers agree that agriculture is a major source sector (Fig 1), with N fixation and fertilizer application being important drivers of \cf{N2O} emission. Better characterization of agricultural emissions may facilitate \cf{N2O} mitigation, and may improve understanding of GHG mitigation and adaptation opportunities.
+
+        Efforts to improve estimates of anthropogenic and areal emissions of \cf{N2O} can be characterized using three dimensions: spatial scale, temporal direction (forward or backward) and scale, and depth of insight. A process model makes stronger claims regarding its representation of a system, while a statistical model need only claim quantitative insight. Spatial scale varies from field-scale process modeling and emissions measurement to global emissions inventories (EIs) such as CLM-CN [\citet{k.w._oleson_clm3.5_2007}], EDGAR [\citet{european_commission_joint_research_centre_jrc_emission_2011}], GEIA [\citet{bouwman_uncertainties_1995}], and GFED [\citet{g._r._van_der_werf_global_2010}]. Temporal scales vary from days to years, and can run forward or backward (as with back-trajectory models). Such efforts are more likely to be policy-relevant if conducted at a policy-relevant scale and resolution, and more likely to be skillful where constrained by sufficient observations, i.e., monitoring.
+
+        When analyzed using these three dimensions, current \cf{N2O} modeling efforts fall into three regions, with varying levels of policy relevance and observational constraint. Firstly, strongly empirical, observation-driven field-scale work develops or calibrates models of soil processes which produce and consume \cf{N2O}. This scale suggests resource-intensive, individual- or firm-level policy actions. Secondly, significant effort is devoted to development of EIs for consumption by global-scale climate models. While many entities seek to influence global policies, the ability of these actors to implement and enforce policy tends to be much less than that of regional-scale governments (e.g., EU, US). The utility of this work is also limited by the low temporal frequency, low and irregular spatial coverage, and short history of world-wide continuously-monitored \cf{N2O} records. Thirdly, some recent papers have sought to leverage current US \cf{N2O} monitoring to use inverse modeling techniques to estimate \cf{N2O} EIs for the contiguous US (CONUS), using back-trajectory dispersion models to attribute emissions to potential source regions (Fig 2). Such studies restrict process modeling to meteorology; they mostly model geostatistically. Since their spatial domains correspond to existing regional, state, and national organizations and governments, these efforts should be more policy-relevant.
+
+        There are established models for agricultural biogeochemical processes (notably, EPIC [\citet{texas_agrilife_blackland_research_and_extension_center_epic_2011}], Fig 3) and atmospheric concentrations (notably, CMAQ). Since these can be run at regional scale, such efforts would share the policy relevance of the existing inverse statistical work (and their current relative lack of observational constraint), but could provide the greater depth of system insight (and therefore policy utility) that can derive from successful forward process modeling (as with contemporary conventional air-quality modeling). Particularly, regional process models, if sufficiently skillful, might allow prospective testing of the effects of various agricultural management regimes on \cf{N2O} emissions. The present study seeks to perform forward process modeling of \cf{N2O} over the North American AQMEII domain (AQMEII-NA, Fig 4), focusing on agricultural emissions.
+
+    \LHead{Strategy}
+    Leverage the following resources 
+    % Remove the big gap between intro and start of list.
+    % TODO: more elegant solution! e.g., more compact list layout (package)
+    \vspace{-10mm}
+    \begin{itemize}
+        \item NOAA has four monitors in the central US with daily observations for 2008
+        \item EPA and partners are generating \cf{N2O} emissions from EPIC over AQMEII-NA (and can do 2008) for agricultural soils
+        \item EDGAR-4.2 (a global anthropogenic EI) has \cf{N2O} with 0.1\degree resolution for 2008 over many source sectors
+        \item CLM-CN now provides a global EI for natural soils
+        \item EPA has a CMAQ run over AQMEII-NA for 2008
+%        \item CMAQ ≥ 5 uses namelists so as to more easily incorporate new non-reactive species
+% nope: gotta enter math mode and use plain-TeX macro
+        \item CMAQ $\geq$ 5 uses namelists so as to more easily incorporate new non-reactive species
+    \end{itemize}
+    % Remove the big gap between end of list and outro.
+    % TODO: more elegant solution! e.g., more compact list layout (package)
+    \vspace{-10mm}
+    to model \cf{N2O} over AQMEII-NA for 2008.
+
+% \begin{figure}[h!] % 'h!' == position *here*
+%   \centering
+%     \includegraphics[scale=2]{Thomson_et_al_2012__F1_medium}
+% caption under graphic
+%     \caption{Proportions of total global \cf{N2O} emitted by major sources and activities, from \citet{thomson_biological_2012}.}
+% \end{figure}
+\begin{SCfigure}      % does not allow page placement?
+  \raggedright        % figure should be left-justified, but cannot :-(
+    \includegraphics[scale=2.2]{Thomson_et_al_2012__F1_medium}
+    \caption{Proportions of total global \cf{N2O} emitted by major sources and activities, from \citet{thomson_biological_2012}.}
+% \end{figure}
+\end{SCfigure}
+
+\end{textblock} % left column=1
+
+% \begin{textblock}{9}(9,1.25) % center column=2
+% \begin{textblock}{20}(21,2.5) % center column=2
+\begin{textblock}{40}(41,8.2) % center column=2
+%    \CHead{Central Result Block}
+    \CHead{Problem}
+%    How skillfully can current CMAQ and emission inventories model \cf{N2O} concentrations observed at four NOAA monitors in the central US?
+%    {\large{How skillfully can current CMAQ and emission inventories model \cf{N2O} concentrations observed at 4 NOAA monitors in the central US?}}
+%    {\huge{How skillfully can current CMAQ and emission inventories model \cf{N2O} concentrations observed at 4 NOAA monitors in the central US?}}
+    \vspace{-20mm} % centering problem statement moved it down a *lot*
+    \begin{center}
+        {\color{Red}\LARGE{How skillfully can current CMAQ and emission inventories model\\\cf{N2O} concentrations observed at 4 NOAA monitors in the central US?}}
+    \end{center}
+
+%      \Subhead{Result Subset 1}
+%      This is where the pretty picture go that make the first point.
+
+%      \Subhead{Result Subset 2}
+%      This is where the pretty picture go that make the second point.
+
+\begin{figure}[h!]
+  \centering
+    \includegraphics[scale=3.0]{Miller_et_al_2012_fig02}
+% caption under graphic
+    \caption{\citet{miller_regional_2012} use back-trajectory geostatistics to estimate the regions responsible for contributing 75\% and 90\% of the \cf{N2O} observed at four NOAA ESRL towers May-Aug 2008.}
+\end{figure}
+
+\begin{figure}[h!]
+  \centering
+    \includegraphics[scale=2.0]{EPIC_window_all_crops}
+% caption under graphic
+    \caption{EPIC estimate of total \cf{N2O} emitted via denitrification in managed soils under 42 crops in the upper midwestern US.}
+\end{figure}
+
+\end{textblock} % center column=2
+
+% \begin{textblock}{8}(19,1.25)
+% \begin{textblock}{20}(42,2.5)
+\begin{textblock}{40}(82,8.2)
+    \RHead{Process}
+    % Remove the big gap between section=Process rule and start of list.
+    % TODO: more elegant solution! e.g., more compact list layout (package)
+    \vspace{-20mm}
+    \begin{enumerate}
+        \item Acquire \cf{N2O} NOAA observations for 2008 over CONUS.
+        \item Acquire standard/AQ inputs for a 2008 CMAQ run over AQMEII-NA.
+        \item Add \cf{N2O} to CMAQ 5.0.1 as non-reactive specie (NR).
+        \item Develop comprehensive \cf{N2O} EI and IC/BCs focusing on the CONUS and consumable by CMAQ. (in process)
+%        \begin{itemize}
+        \begin{enumerate}
+            \item assemble best available EIs and model outputs for the various \cf{N2O} source sectors and activities
+            \item (all) convert units to meet CMAQ requirements (e.g., for emissions, molar mass rate over the spatiotemporal quantum)
+            \item (all) ''retime'' (temporally interpolate) inputs to match run requirements (e.g., hourly)
+            \item (all) ''regrid'' (horizontally interpolate) to match run requirements (e.g., AQMEII-NA=12 km LCC)
+            \item (IC/BC) ''rebox'' (vertically interpolate) to match run requirements (e.g., AQMEII-NA=34 levels to 50 mb)
+            \item (all) convert to CMAQ-required file formats (i.e., IOAPI-formatted netCDF)
+            \item (all) merge \cf{N2O} as separate specie with the previous CMAQ run's inputs (AQ emissions, ICs, BCs)
+%        \end{itemize}
+        \end{enumerate}
+        \item Merge developed \cf{N2O} EI into existing CMAQ inputs.
+        \item Run the model!
+        \item Evaluate model estimations:
+        \begin{itemize}
+            \item Compare estimations to observations at NOAA sites using, e.g., standard deviation of residuals, autocorrelations, AICc
+            \item Compare estimations to results from other models, e.g., \citet{miller_regional_2012}
+        \end{itemize}
+        \item Justifiably augment model inputs. E.g., repeat 3 previous steps after
+        \begin{itemize}
+            \item imposing seasonality 
+            \item imposing diurnality
+%            \item 
+        \end{itemize}
+%        \item 
+    \end{enumerate}
+    \vspace{-30mm} % removes the big gap between end of section=Process and start of section=References
+% for this and possibly more elegant solutions, see http://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/7068/eliminate-space-at-end-of-list-in-a-table
+
+%    \bibliographystyle{plainnat} % selects plainnat.bst -> /usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/bibtex/bst/natbib/plainnat.bst
+    \bibliographystyle{plainnat4} % selects my TeX/plainnat4.bst
+%    \bibliography{poster}         % selects poster.bib
+% reduce references font size from normal to small (next stop, footnotesize)
+% see other suggestions @ http://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/329/how-to-change-font-size-for-bibliography
+    {\small\bibliography{poster}}
+% doesn't work here: maybe above?
+%    \def\bibfont{small} % since we're using package=natbib
+
+    \Aknlg{Acknowledgments}
+%    \footnotesize{{
+    Special thanks to many colleagues at EPA (especially Barron Henderson! now at UFlorida) and to many developers and users of R and extension packages (especially Dave Pierce of UCSD for his package=ncdf4).
+
+    This research was supported in part by EPA contract EP11D000511, but does not reflect official Agency policy.
+
+%     Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.
+%    }}
+
+    \Cntct{Contacts}
+    \Large{
+        \begin{itemize}
+            \item contact Tom Roche at \url{Tom_Roche@pobox.com}
+            % break this to expand the AQMEII-NA image
+            \item follow this project's wiki at\\\url{http://tinyurl.com/cmaqn2o}
+        \end{itemize}
+    }
+
+\vspace{-40mm}        % move the image up. TODO: use a more compact list package!
+% \begin{figure}[b]   % place @ bottom page/column
+% \begin{SCfigure}[b] % sidecap figure
+\begin{SCfigure}      % does not allow page placement?
+  \raggedleft         % figure is right-justified
+    \includegraphics[scale=1.8]{cmaq_aqmeii_domain}
+    \caption{Horizontal extents of the North American AQMEII domain.}
+% \end{figure}
+\end{SCfigure}
+
+    \end{textblock} % right column=3
+\end{document}

TeX/plainnat4.bst

+%% File: `plainnat.bst'
+%% A modification of `plain.bst' for use with natbib package 
+%%
+%% Copyright 1993-2007 Patrick W Daly
+%% Max-Planck-Institut f\"ur Sonnensystemforschung
+%% Max-Planck-Str. 2
+%% D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau
+%% Germany
+%% E-mail: daly@mps.mpg.de
+%%
+%% This program can be redistributed and/or modified under the terms
+%% of the LaTeX Project Public License Distributed from CTAN
+%% archives in directory macros/latex/base/lppl.txt; either
+%% version 1 of the License, or any later version.
+%%
+ % Version and source file information:
+ % \ProvidesFile{natbst.mbs}[2007/11/26 1.93 (PWD)]
+ %
+ % BibTeX `plainnat' family
+ %   version 0.99b for BibTeX versions 0.99a or later,
+ %   for LaTeX versions 2.09 and 2e.
+ %
+ % For use with the `natbib.sty' package; emulates the corresponding
+ %   member of the `plain' family, but with author-year citations.
+ %
+ % With version 6.0 of `natbib.sty', it may also be used for numerical
+ %   citations, while retaining the commands \citeauthor, \citefullauthor,
+ %   and \citeyear to print the corresponding information.
+ %
+ % For version 7.0 of `natbib.sty', the KEY field replaces missing
+ %   authors/editors, and the date is left blank in \bibitem.
+ %
+ % Includes field EID for the sequence/citation number of electronic journals
+ %  which is used instead of page numbers.
+ %
+ % Includes fields ISBN and ISSN.
+ %
+ % Includes field URL for Internet addresses.
+ %
+ % Includes field DOI for Digital Object Idenfifiers.
+ %
+ % Works best with the url.sty package of Donald Arseneau.
+ %
+ % Works with identical authors and year are further sorted by
+ %   citation key, to preserve any natural sequence.
+ %
+ENTRY
+  { address
+    author
+    booktitle
+    chapter
+    doi
+    eid
+    edition
+    editor
+    howpublished
+    institution
+    isbn
+    issn
+    journal
+    key
+    month
+    note
+    number
+    organization
+    pages
+    publisher
+    school
+    series
+    title
+    type
+    url
+    volume
+    year
+  }
+  {}
+  { label extra.label sort.label short.list }
+
+INTEGERS { output.state before.all mid.sentence after.sentence after.block }
+
+FUNCTION {init.state.consts}
+{ #0 'before.all :=
+  #1 'mid.sentence :=
+  #2 'after.sentence :=
+  #3 'after.block :=
+}
+
+STRINGS { s t }
+
+FUNCTION {output.nonnull}
+{ 's :=
+  output.state mid.sentence =
+    { ", " * write$ }
+    { output.state after.block =
+        { add.period$ write$
+          newline$
+          "\newblock " write$
+        }
+        { output.state before.all =
+            'write$
+            { add.period$ " " * write$ }
+          if$
+        }
+      if$
+      mid.sentence 'output.state :=
+    }
+  if$
+  s
+}
+
+FUNCTION {output}
+{ duplicate$ empty$
+    'pop$
+    'output.nonnull
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {output.check}
+{ 't :=
+  duplicate$ empty$
+    { pop$ "empty " t * " in " * cite$ * warning$ }
+    'output.nonnull
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {fin.entry}
+{ add.period$
+  write$
+  newline$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {new.block}
+{ output.state before.all =
+    'skip$
+    { after.block 'output.state := }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {new.sentence}
+{ output.state after.block =
+    'skip$
+    { output.state before.all =
+        'skip$
+        { after.sentence 'output.state := }
+      if$
+    }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {not}
+{   { #0 }
+    { #1 }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {and}
+{   'skip$
+    { pop$ #0 }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {or}
+{   { pop$ #1 }
+    'skip$
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {new.block.checka}
+{ empty$
+    'skip$
+    'new.block
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {new.block.checkb}
+{ empty$
+  swap$ empty$
+  and
+    'skip$
+    'new.block
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {new.sentence.checka}
+{ empty$
+    'skip$
+    'new.sentence
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {new.sentence.checkb}
+{ empty$
+  swap$ empty$
+  and
+    'skip$
+    'new.sentence
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {field.or.null}
+{ duplicate$ empty$
+    { pop$ "" }
+    'skip$
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {emphasize}
+{ duplicate$ empty$
+    { pop$ "" }
+    { "\emph{" swap$ * "}" * }
+  if$
+}
+
+INTEGERS { nameptr namesleft numnames }
+
+% altered from original plainnat.bst to truncate authors @ 4
+% see https://groups.google.com/forum/?fromgroups=#!topic/comp.text.tex/uaPEUrceqvU
+% post by Joseph Wright 3 May 2009, corrected by kj 4 May 2009
+FUNCTION {format.names}
+{ 's :=
+  #1 'nameptr :=
+  s num.names$ 'numnames :=
+  numnames 'namesleft :=
+  numnames #5 >
+    { s #1 "{ff~}{vv~}{ll}{, jj}" format.name$
+      " et~al." * }
+    {
+      { namesleft #0 > }
+      { s nameptr "{ff~}{vv~}{ll}{, jj}" format.name$ 't :=
+        nameptr #1 >
+          { namesleft #1 >
+              { ", " * t * }
+              { numnames #2 >
+                  { "," * }
+                  'skip$
+                if$
+                t "others" =
+                  { " et~al." * }
+                  { " and " * t * }
+                if$
+              }
+            if$
+          }
+          't
+        if$
+        nameptr #1 + 'nameptr :=
+        namesleft #1 - 'namesleft :=
+      }
+    while$
+  }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.key}
+{ empty$
+    { key field.or.null }
+    { "" }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.authors}
+{ author empty$
+    { "" }
+    { author format.names }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.editors}
+{ editor empty$
+    { "" }
+    { editor format.names
+      editor num.names$ #1 >
+        { ", editors" * }
+        { ", editor" * }
+      if$
+    }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.isbn}
+{ isbn empty$
+    { "" }
+    { new.block "ISBN " isbn * }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.issn}
+{ issn empty$
+    { "" }
+    { new.block "ISSN " issn * }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.url}
+{ url empty$
+    { "" }
+    { new.block "URL \url{" url * "}" * }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.doi}
+{ doi empty$
+    { "" }
+    { new.block "\doi{" doi * "}" * }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.title}
+{ title empty$
+    { "" }
+    { title "t" change.case$ }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.full.names}
+{'s :=
+  #1 'nameptr :=
+  s num.names$ 'numnames :=
+  numnames 'namesleft :=
+    { namesleft #0 > }
+    { s nameptr
+      "{vv~}{ll}" format.name$ 't :=
+      nameptr #1 >
+        {
+          namesleft #1 >
+            { ", " * t * }
+            {
+              numnames #2 >
+                { "," * }
+                'skip$
+              if$
+              t "others" =
+                { " et~al." * }
+                { " and " * t * }
+              if$
+            }
+          if$
+        }
+        't
+      if$
+      nameptr #1 + 'nameptr :=
+      namesleft #1 - 'namesleft :=
+    }
+  while$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {author.editor.full}
+{ author empty$
+    { editor empty$
+        { "" }
+        { editor format.full.names }
+      if$
+    }
+    { author format.full.names }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {author.full}
+{ author empty$
+    { "" }
+    { author format.full.names }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {editor.full}
+{ editor empty$
+    { "" }
+    { editor format.full.names }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {make.full.names}
+{ type$ "book" =
+  type$ "inbook" =
+  or
+    'author.editor.full
+    { type$ "proceedings" =
+        'editor.full
+        'author.full
+      if$
+    }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {output.bibitem}
+{ newline$
+  "\bibitem[" write$
+  label write$
+  ")" make.full.names duplicate$ short.list =
+     { pop$ }
+     { * }
+   if$
+  "]{" * write$
+  cite$ write$
+  "}" write$
+  newline$
+  ""
+  before.all 'output.state :=
+}
+
+FUNCTION {n.dashify}
+{ 't :=
+  ""
+    { t empty$ not }
+    { t #1 #1 substring$ "-" =
+        { t #1 #2 substring$ "--" = not
+            { "--" *
+              t #2 global.max$ substring$ 't :=
+            }
+            {   { t #1 #1 substring$ "-" = }
+                { "-" *
+                  t #2 global.max$ substring$ 't :=
+                }
+              while$
+            }
+          if$
+        }
+        { t #1 #1 substring$ *
+          t #2 global.max$ substring$ 't :=
+        }
+      if$
+    }
+  while$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.date}
+{ year duplicate$ empty$
+    { "empty year in " cite$ * warning$
+       pop$ "" }
+    'skip$
+  if$
+  month empty$
+    'skip$
+    { month
+      " " * swap$ *
+    }
+  if$
+  extra.label *
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.btitle}
+{ title emphasize
+}
+
+FUNCTION {tie.or.space.connect}
+{ duplicate$ text.length$ #3 <
+    { "~" }
+    { " " }
+  if$
+  swap$ * *
+}
+
+FUNCTION {either.or.check}
+{ empty$
+    'pop$
+    { "can't use both " swap$ * " fields in " * cite$ * warning$ }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.bvolume}
+{ volume empty$
+    { "" }
+    { "volume" volume tie.or.space.connect
+      series empty$
+        'skip$
+        { " of " * series emphasize * }
+      if$
+      "volume and number" number either.or.check
+    }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.number.series}
+{ volume empty$
+    { number empty$
+        { series field.or.null }
+        { output.state mid.sentence =
+            { "number" }
+            { "Number" }
+          if$
+          number tie.or.space.connect
+          series empty$
+            { "there's a number but no series in " cite$ * warning$ }
+            { " in " * series * }
+          if$
+        }
+      if$
+    }
+    { "" }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.edition}
+{ edition empty$
+    { "" }
+    { output.state mid.sentence =
+        { edition "l" change.case$ " edition" * }
+        { edition "t" change.case$ " edition" * }
+      if$
+    }
+  if$
+}
+
+INTEGERS { multiresult }
+
+FUNCTION {multi.page.check}
+{ 't :=
+  #0 'multiresult :=
+    { multiresult not
+      t empty$ not
+      and
+    }
+    { t #1 #1 substring$
+      duplicate$ "-" =
+      swap$ duplicate$ "," =
+      swap$ "+" =
+      or or
+        { #1 'multiresult := }
+        { t #2 global.max$ substring$ 't := }
+      if$
+    }
+  while$
+  multiresult
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.pages}
+{ pages empty$
+    { "" }
+    { pages multi.page.check
+        { "pages" pages n.dashify tie.or.space.connect }
+        { "page" pages tie.or.space.connect }
+      if$
+    }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.eid}
+{ eid empty$
+    { "" }
+    { "art." eid tie.or.space.connect }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.vol.num.pages}
+{ volume field.or.null
+  number empty$
+    'skip$
+    { "\penalty0 (" number * ")" * *
+      volume empty$
+        { "there's a number but no volume in " cite$ * warning$ }
+        'skip$
+      if$
+    }
+  if$
+  pages empty$
+    'skip$
+    { duplicate$ empty$
+        { pop$ format.pages }
+        { ":\penalty0 " * pages n.dashify * }
+      if$
+    }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.vol.num.eid}
+{ volume field.or.null
+  number empty$
+    'skip$
+    { "\penalty0 (" number * ")" * *
+      volume empty$
+        { "there's a number but no volume in " cite$ * warning$ }
+        'skip$
+      if$
+    }
+  if$
+  eid empty$
+    'skip$
+    { duplicate$ empty$
+        { pop$ format.eid }
+        { ":\penalty0 " * eid * }
+      if$
+    }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.chapter.pages}
+{ chapter empty$
+    'format.pages
+    { type empty$
+        { "chapter" }
+        { type "l" change.case$ }
+      if$
+      chapter tie.or.space.connect
+      pages empty$
+        'skip$
+        { ", " * format.pages * }
+      if$
+    }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.in.ed.booktitle}
+{ booktitle empty$
+    { "" }
+    { editor empty$
+        { "In " booktitle emphasize * }
+        { "In " format.editors * ", " * booktitle emphasize * }
+      if$
+    }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {empty.misc.check}
+{ author empty$ title empty$ howpublished empty$
+  month empty$ year empty$ note empty$
+  and and and and and
+  key empty$ not and
+    { "all relevant fields are empty in " cite$ * warning$ }
+    'skip$
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.thesis.type}
+{ type empty$
+    'skip$
+    { pop$
+      type "t" change.case$
+    }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.tr.number}
+{ type empty$
+    { "Technical Report" }
+    'type
+  if$
+  number empty$
+    { "t" change.case$ }
+    { number tie.or.space.connect }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.article.crossref}
+{ key empty$
+    { journal empty$
+        { "need key or journal for " cite$ * " to crossref " * crossref *
+          warning$
+          ""
+        }
+        { "In \emph{" journal * "}" * }
+      if$
+    }
+    { "In " }
+  if$
+  " \citet{" * crossref * "}" *
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.book.crossref}
+{ volume empty$
+    { "empty volume in " cite$ * "'s crossref of " * crossref * warning$
+      "In "
+    }
+    { "Volume" volume tie.or.space.connect
+      " of " *
+    }
+  if$
+  editor empty$
+  editor field.or.null author field.or.null =
+  or
+    { key empty$
+        { series empty$
+            { "need editor, key, or series for " cite$ * " to crossref " *
+              crossref * warning$
+              "" *
+            }
+            { "\emph{" * series * "}" * }
+          if$
+        }
+        'skip$
+      if$
+    }
+    'skip$
+  if$
+  " \citet{" * crossref * "}" *
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.incoll.inproc.crossref}
+{ editor empty$
+  editor field.or.null author field.or.null =
+  or
+    { key empty$
+        { booktitle empty$
+            { "need editor, key, or booktitle for " cite$ * " to crossref " *
+              crossref * warning$
+              ""
+            }
+            { "In \emph{" booktitle * "}" * }
+          if$
+        }
+        { "In " }
+      if$
+    }
+    { "In " }
+  if$
+  " \citet{" * crossref * "}" *
+}
+
+FUNCTION {article}
+{ output.bibitem
+  format.authors "author" output.check
+  author format.key output
+  new.block
+  format.title "title" output.check
+  new.block
+  crossref missing$
+    { journal emphasize "journal" output.check
+      eid empty$
+        { format.vol.num.pages output }
+        { format.vol.num.eid output }
+      if$
+      format.date "year" output.check
+    }
+    { format.article.crossref output.nonnull
+      eid empty$
+        { format.pages output }
+        { format.eid output }
+      if$
+    }
+  if$
+  format.issn output
+  format.doi output
+  format.url output
+  new.block
+  note output
+  fin.entry
+}
+
+FUNCTION {book}
+{ output.bibitem
+  author empty$
+    { format.editors "author and editor" output.check
+      editor format.key output
+    }
+    { format.authors output.nonnull
+      crossref missing$
+        { "author and editor" editor either.or.check }
+        'skip$
+      if$
+    }
+  if$
+  new.block
+  format.btitle "title" output.check
+  crossref missing$
+    { format.bvolume output
+      new.block
+      format.number.series output
+      new.sentence
+      publisher "publisher" output.check
+      address output
+    }
+    { new.block
+      format.book.crossref output.nonnull
+    }
+  if$
+  format.edition output
+  format.date "year" output.check
+  format.isbn output
+  format.doi output
+  format.url output
+  new.block
+  note output
+  fin.entry
+}
+
+FUNCTION {booklet}
+{ output.bibitem
+  format.authors output
+  author format.key output
+  new.block
+  format.title "title" output.check
+  howpublished address new.block.checkb
+  howpublished output
+  address output
+  format.date output
+  format.isbn output
+  format.doi output
+  format.url output
+  new.block
+  note output
+  fin.entry
+}
+
+FUNCTION {inbook}
+{ output.bibitem
+  author empty$
+    { format.editors "author and editor" output.check
+      editor format.key output
+    }
+    { format.authors output.nonnull
+      crossref missing$
+        { "author and editor" editor either.or.check }
+        'skip$
+      if$
+    }
+  if$
+  new.block
+  format.btitle "title" output.check
+  crossref missing$
+    { format.bvolume output
+      format.chapter.pages "chapter and pages" output.check
+      new.block
+      format.number.series output
+      new.sentence
+      publisher "publisher" output.check
+      address output
+    }
+    { format.chapter.pages "chapter and pages" output.check
+      new.block
+      format.book.crossref output.nonnull
+    }
+  if$
+  format.edition output
+  format.date "year" output.check
+  format.isbn output
+  format.doi output
+  format.url output
+  new.block
+  note output
+  fin.entry
+}
+
+FUNCTION {incollection}
+{ output.bibitem
+  format.authors "author" output.check
+  author format.key output
+  new.block
+  format.title "title" output.check
+  new.block
+  crossref missing$
+    { format.in.ed.booktitle "booktitle" output.check
+      format.bvolume output
+      format.number.series output
+      format.chapter.pages output
+      new.sentence
+      publisher "publisher" output.check
+      address output
+      format.edition output
+      format.date "year" output.check
+    }
+    { format.incoll.inproc.crossref output.nonnull
+      format.chapter.pages output
+    }
+  if$
+  format.isbn output
+  format.doi output
+  format.url output
+  new.block
+  note output
+  fin.entry
+}
+
+FUNCTION {inproceedings}
+{ output.bibitem
+  format.authors "author" output.check
+  author format.key output
+  new.block
+  format.title "title" output.check
+  new.block
+  crossref missing$
+    { format.in.ed.booktitle "booktitle" output.check
+      format.bvolume output
+      format.number.series output
+      format.pages output
+      address empty$
+        { organization publisher new.sentence.checkb
+          organization output
+          publisher output
+          format.date "year" output.check
+        }
+        { address output.nonnull
+          format.date "year" output.check
+          new.sentence
+          organization output
+          publisher output
+        }
+      if$
+    }
+    { format.incoll.inproc.crossref output.nonnull
+      format.pages output
+    }
+  if$
+  format.isbn output
+  format.doi output
+  format.url output
+  new.block
+  note output
+  fin.entry
+}
+
+FUNCTION {conference} { inproceedings }
+
+FUNCTION {manual}
+{ output.bibitem
+  format.authors output
+  author format.key output
+  new.block
+  format.btitle "title" output.check
+  organization address new.block.checkb
+  organization output
+  address output
+  format.edition output
+  format.date output
+  format.url output
+  new.block
+  note output
+  fin.entry
+}
+
+FUNCTION {mastersthesis}
+{ output.bibitem
+  format.authors "author" output.check
+  author format.key output
+  new.block
+  format.title "title" output.check
+  new.block
+  "Master's thesis" format.thesis.type output.nonnull
+  school "school" output.check
+  address output
+  format.date "year" output.check
+  format.url output
+  new.block
+  note output
+  fin.entry
+}
+
+FUNCTION {misc}
+{ output.bibitem
+  format.authors output
+  author format.key output
+  title howpublished new.block.checkb
+  format.title output
+  howpublished new.block.checka
+  howpublished output
+  format.date output
+  format.issn output
+  format.url output
+  new.block
+  note output
+  fin.entry
+  empty.misc.check
+}
+
+FUNCTION {phdthesis}
+{ output.bibitem
+  format.authors "author" output.check
+  author format.key output
+  new.block
+  format.btitle "title" output.check
+  new.block
+  "PhD thesis" format.thesis.type output.nonnull
+  school "school" output.check
+  address output
+  format.date "year" output.check
+  format.url output
+  new.block
+  note output
+  fin.entry
+}
+
+FUNCTION {proceedings}
+{ output.bibitem
+  format.editors output
+  editor format.key output
+  new.block
+  format.btitle "title" output.check
+  format.bvolume output
+  format.number.series output
+  address output
+  format.date "year" output.check
+  new.sentence
+  organization output
+  publisher output
+  format.isbn output
+  format.doi output
+  format.url output
+  new.block
+  note output
+  fin.entry
+}
+
+FUNCTION {techreport}
+{ output.bibitem
+  format.authors "author" output.check
+  author format.key output
+  new.block
+  format.title "title" output.check
+  new.block
+  format.tr.number output.nonnull
+  institution "institution" output.check
+  address output
+  format.date "year" output.check
+  format.url output
+  new.block
+  note output
+  fin.entry
+}
+
+FUNCTION {unpublished}
+{ output.bibitem
+  format.authors "author" output.check
+  author format.key output
+  new.block
+  format.title "title" output.check
+  new.block
+  note "note" output.check
+  format.date output
+  format.url output
+  fin.entry
+}
+
+FUNCTION {default.type} { misc }
+
+
+MACRO {jan} {"January"}
+
+MACRO {feb} {"February"}
+
+MACRO {mar} {"March"}
+
+MACRO {apr} {"April"}
+
+MACRO {may} {"May"}
+
+MACRO {jun} {"June"}
+
+MACRO {jul} {"July"}
+
+MACRO {aug} {"August"}
+
+MACRO {sep} {"September"}
+
+MACRO {oct} {"October"}
+
+MACRO {nov} {"November"}
+
+MACRO {dec} {"December"}
+
+
+
+MACRO {acmcs} {"ACM Computing Surveys"}
+
+MACRO {acta} {"Acta Informatica"}
+
+MACRO {cacm} {"Communications of the ACM"}
+
+MACRO {ibmjrd} {"IBM Journal of Research and Development"}
+
+MACRO {ibmsj} {"IBM Systems Journal"}
+
+MACRO {ieeese} {"IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering"}
+
+MACRO {ieeetc} {"IEEE Transactions on Computers"}
+
+MACRO {ieeetcad}
+ {"IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits"}
+
+MACRO {ipl} {"Information Processing Letters"}
+
+MACRO {jacm} {"Journal of the ACM"}
+
+MACRO {jcss} {"Journal of Computer and System Sciences"}
+
+MACRO {scp} {"Science of Computer Programming"}
+
+MACRO {sicomp} {"SIAM Journal on Computing"}
+
+MACRO {tocs} {"ACM Transactions on Computer Systems"}
+
+MACRO {tods} {"ACM Transactions on Database Systems"}
+
+MACRO {tog} {"ACM Transactions on Graphics"}
+
+MACRO {toms} {"ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software"}
+
+MACRO {toois} {"ACM Transactions on Office Information Systems"}
+
+MACRO {toplas} {"ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems"}
+
+MACRO {tcs} {"Theoretical Computer Science"}
+
+
+READ
+
+FUNCTION {sortify}
+{ purify$
+  "l" change.case$
+}
+
+INTEGERS { len }
+
+FUNCTION {chop.word}
+{ 's :=
+  'len :=
+  s #1 len substring$ =
+    { s len #1 + global.max$ substring$ }
+    's
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.lab.names}
+{ 's :=
+  s #1 "{vv~}{ll}" format.name$
+  s num.names$ duplicate$
+  #2 >
+    { pop$ " et~al." * }
+    { #2 <
+        'skip$
+        { s #2 "{ff }{vv }{ll}{ jj}" format.name$ "others" =
+            { " et~al." * }
+            { " and " * s #2 "{vv~}{ll}" format.name$ * }
+          if$
+        }
+      if$
+    }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {author.key.label}
+{ author empty$
+    { key empty$
+        { cite$ #1 #3 substring$ }
+        'key
+      if$
+    }
+    { author format.lab.names }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {author.editor.key.label}
+{ author empty$
+    { editor empty$
+        { key empty$
+            { cite$ #1 #3 substring$ }
+            'key
+          if$
+        }
+        { editor format.lab.names }
+      if$
+    }
+    { author format.lab.names }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {author.key.organization.label}
+{ author empty$
+    { key empty$
+        { organization empty$
+            { cite$ #1 #3 substring$ }
+            { "The " #4 organization chop.word #3 text.prefix$ }
+          if$
+        }
+        'key
+      if$
+    }
+    { author format.lab.names }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {editor.key.organization.label}
+{ editor empty$
+    { key empty$
+        { organization empty$
+            { cite$ #1 #3 substring$ }
+            { "The " #4 organization chop.word #3 text.prefix$ }
+          if$
+        }
+        'key
+      if$
+    }
+    { editor format.lab.names }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {calc.short.authors}
+{ type$ "book" =
+  type$ "inbook" =
+  or
+    'author.editor.key.label
+    { type$ "proceedings" =
+        'editor.key.organization.label
+        { type$ "manual" =
+            'author.key.organization.label
+            'author.key.label
+          if$
+        }
+      if$
+    }
+  if$
+  'short.list :=
+}
+
+FUNCTION {calc.label}
+{ calc.short.authors
+  short.list
+  "("
+  *
+  year duplicate$ empty$
+  short.list key field.or.null = or
+     { pop$ "" }
+     'skip$
+  if$
+  *
+  'label :=
+}
+
+FUNCTION {sort.format.names}
+{ 's :=
+  #1 'nameptr :=
+  ""
+  s num.names$ 'numnames :=
+  numnames 'namesleft :=
+    { namesleft #0 > }
+    {
+      s nameptr "{vv{ } }{ll{ }}{  ff{ }}{  jj{ }}" format.name$ 't :=
+      nameptr #1 >
+        {
+          "   "  *
+          namesleft #1 = t "others" = and
+            { "zzzzz" * }
+            { numnames #2 > nameptr #2 = and
+                { "zz" * year field.or.null * "   " * }
+                'skip$
+              if$
+              t sortify *
+            }
+          if$
+        }
+        { t sortify * }
+      if$
+      nameptr #1 + 'nameptr :=
+      namesleft #1 - 'namesleft :=
+    }
+  while$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {sort.format.title}
+{ 't :=
+  "A " #2
+    "An " #3
+      "The " #4 t chop.word
+    chop.word
+  chop.word
+  sortify
+  #1 global.max$ substring$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {author.sort}
+{ author empty$
+    { key empty$
+        { "to sort, need author or key in " cite$ * warning$
+          ""
+        }
+        { key sortify }
+      if$
+    }
+    { author sort.format.names }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {author.editor.sort}
+{ author empty$
+    { editor empty$
+        { key empty$
+            { "to sort, need author, editor, or key in " cite$ * warning$
+              ""
+            }
+            { key sortify }
+          if$
+        }
+        { editor sort.format.names }
+      if$
+    }
+    { author sort.format.names }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {author.organization.sort}
+{ author empty$
+    { organization empty$
+        { key empty$
+            { "to sort, need author, organization, or key in " cite$ * warning$
+              ""
+            }
+            { key sortify }
+          if$
+        }
+        { "The " #4 organization chop.word sortify }
+      if$
+    }
+    { author sort.format.names }
+  if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {editor.organization.sort}
+{ editor empty$
+    { organization empty$
+        { key empty$
+            { "to sort, need editor, organization, or key in " cite$ * warning$
+              ""
+            }
+            { key sortify }
+          if$
+        }
+        { "The " #4 organization chop.word sortify }
+      if$
+    }
+    { editor sort.format.names }
+  if$
+}
+
+
+FUNCTION {presort}
+{ calc.label
+  label sortify
+  "    "
+  *
+  type$ "book" =
+  type$ "inbook" =
+  or
+    'author.editor.sort
+    { type$ "proceedings" =
+        'editor.organization.sort
+        { type$ "manual" =
+            'author.organization.sort
+            'author.sort
+          if$
+        }
+      if$
+    }
+  if$
+  "    "
+  *
+  year field.or.null sortify
+  *
+  "    "
+  *
+  cite$
+  *
+  #1 entry.max$ substring$
+  'sort.label :=
+  sort.label *
+  #1 entry.max$ substring$
+  'sort.key$ :=
+}
+
+ITERATE {presort}
+
+SORT
+
+STRINGS { longest.label last.label next.extra }
+
+INTEGERS { longest.label.width last.extra.num number.label }
+
+FUNCTION {initialize.longest.label}
+{ "" 'longest.label :=
+  #0 int.to.chr$ 'last.label :=
+  "" 'next.extra :=
+  #0 'longest.label.width :=
+  #0 'last.extra.num :=
+  #0 'number.label :=
+}
+
+FUNCTION {forward.pass}
+{ last.label label =
+    { last.extra.num #1 + 'last.extra.num :=
+      last.extra.num int.to.chr$ 'extra.label :=
+    }
+    { "a" chr.to.int$ 'last.extra.num :=
+      "" 'extra.label :=
+      label 'last.label :=
+    }
+  if$
+  number.label #1 + 'number.label :=
+}
+
+FUNCTION {reverse.pass}
+{ next.extra "b" =
+    { "a" 'extra.label := }
+    'skip$
+  if$
+  extra.label 'next.extra :=
+  extra.label
+  duplicate$ empty$
+    'skip$
+    { "{\natexlab{" swap$ * "}}" * }
+  if$
+  'extra.label :=
+  label extra.label * 'label :=
+}
+
+EXECUTE {initialize.longest.label}
+
+ITERATE {forward.pass}
+
+REVERSE {reverse.pass}
+
+FUNCTION {bib.sort.order}
+{ sort.label  'sort.key$ :=
+}
+
+ITERATE {bib.sort.order}
+
+SORT
+
+FUNCTION {begin.bib}
+{   preamble$ empty$
+    'skip$
+    { preamble$ write$ newline$ }
+  if$
+  "\begin{thebibliography}{" number.label int.to.str$ * "}" *
+  write$ newline$
+  "\providecommand{\natexlab}[1]{#1}"
+  write$ newline$
+  "\providecommand{\url}[1]{\texttt{#1}}"
+  write$ newline$
+  "\expandafter\ifx\csname urlstyle\endcsname\relax"
+  write$ newline$
+  "  \providecommand{\doi}[1]{doi: #1}\else"
+  write$ newline$
+  "  \providecommand{\doi}{doi: \begingroup \urlstyle{rm}\Url}\fi"
+  write$ newline$
+}
+
+EXECUTE {begin.bib}
+
+EXECUTE {init.state.consts}
+
+ITERATE {call.type$}
+
+FUNCTION {end.bib}
+{ newline$
+  "\end{thebibliography}" write$ newline$
+}
+
+EXECUTE {end.bib}
+
+@article{bouwman_uncertainties_1995,
+	title = {Uncertainties in the global source distribution of nitrous oxide},
+	volume = {100},
+	url = {http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/1995/94JD02946.shtml},
+	doi = {199510.1029/94JD02946},
+	number = {D2},
+	urldate = {2012-07-03},
+	journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research},
+	author = {Bouwman, A. F. and Hoek, K. W. Van der and Olivier, J. G. J.},
+	month = feb,
+	year = {1995},
+	pages = {PP. 2785--2800}
+},
+
+@misc{european_commission_joint_research_centre_jrc_emission_2011,
+	title = {Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research {(EDGAR)}},
+	shorttitle = {Global Emissions {EDGAR} v4.2 {(November} 2011)},
+	url = {http://edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu/overview.php?v=42},
+	urldate = {2012-10-11},
+	author = {{{European} Commission Joint Research Centre {(JRC)}} and {{Netherlands} Environmental Assessment Agency {(PBL)}}},
+	month = nov,
+	year = {2011},
+	howpublished = {http://edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu/overview.php?v=42},
+	file = {EUROPA - EDGAR Overview:/home/tlroche/.zotero/zotero/20111008/zotero/storage/TJN3JRW2/overview.html:text/html}
+},
+
+@article{g._r._van_der_werf_global_2010,
+	title = {Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997-2009)},
+	volume = {10},
+	issn = {16807316},
+	url = {http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/10/11707/2010/acp-10-11707-2010.html},
+	doi = {10.5194/acp-10-11707-2010},
+	abstract = {New burned area datasets and top-down constraints from atmospheric concentration measurements of pyrogenic gases have decreased the large uncertainty in fire emissions estimates. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural waste, and peat fires to total global fire emissions. Here we used a revised version of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach {(CASA)} biogeochemical model and improved satellite-derived estimates of area burned, fire activity, and plant productivity to calculate fire emissions for the 1997–2009 period on a 0.5° spatial resolution with a monthly time step. For November 2000 onwards, estimates were based on burned area, active fire detections, and plant productivity from the {MODerate} resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer {(MODIS)} sensor. For the partitioning we focused on the {MODIS} era. We used maps of burned area derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission {(TRMM)} Visible and Infrared Scanner {(VIRS)} and Along-Track Scanning Radiometer {(ATSR)} active fire data prior to {MODIS} (1997–2000) and estimates of plant productivity derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer {(AVHRR)} observations during the same period. Average global fire carbon emissions according to this version 3 of the Global Fire Emissions Database {(GFED3)} were 2.0 Pg C year−1 with significant interannual variability during 1997–2001 (2.8 Pg C year−1 in 1998 and 1.6 Pg C year−1 in 2001). Globally, emissions during 2002–2007 were relatively constant (around 2.1 Pg C year−1) before declining in 2008 (1.7 Pg C year−1) and 2009 (1.5 Pg C year−1) partly due to lower deforestation fire emissions in South America and tropical Asia. On a regional basis, emissions were highly variable during 2002–2007 (e.g., boreal Asia, South America, and Indonesia), but these regional differences canceled out at a global level. During the {MODIS} era (2001–2009), most carbon emissions were from fires in grasslands and savannas (44\%) with smaller contributions from tropical deforestation and degradation fires (20\%), woodland fires (mostly confined to the tropics, 16\%), forest fires (mostly in the extratropics, 15\%), agricultural waste burning (3\%), and tropical peat fires (3\%). The contribution from agricultural waste fires was likely a lower bound because our approach for measuring burned area could not detect all of these relatively small fires. Total carbon emissions were on average 13\% lower than in our previous {(GFED2)} work. For reduced trace gases such as {CO} and {CH4}, deforestation, degradation, and peat fires were more important contributors because of higher emissions of reduced trace gases per unit carbon combusted compared to savanna fires. Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation, degradation, and peatland fires were on average 0.5 Pg C year−1. The carbon emissions from these fires may not be balanced by regrowth following fire. Our results provide the first global assessment of the contribution of different sources to total global fire emissions for the past decade, and supply the community with an improved 13-year fire emissions time series.},
+	number = {23},
+	urldate = {2012-10-11},
+	journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics},
+	author = {{{G.} R. van der Werf} and {{J.} T. Randerson} and {{L.} Giglio} and {{G.} J. Collatz} and {{M.} Mu} and {{P.} S. Kasibhatla} and {{D.} C. Morton} and {{R.} S. {DeFries}} and {{Y.} Jin} and {{T.} T. van Leeuwen}},
+	year = {2010},
+	pages = {11707--11735},
+	file = {ACP - Abstract - Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997–2009):/home/tlroche/.zotero/zotero/20111008/zotero/storage/AFAXFMH7/acp-10-11707-2010.html:text/html}
+},
+
+@article{miller_regional_2012,
+	title = {Regional sources of nitrous oxide over the United States: Seasonal variation and spatial distribution},
+	volume = {117},
+	shorttitle = {Regional sources of nitrous oxide over the United States},
+	url = {http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2012/2011JD016951.shtml},
+	doi = {201210.1029/2011JD016951},
+	urldate = {2012-04-17},
+	journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research},
+	author = {Miller, S. M. and Kort, E. A. and Hirsch, A. I. and Dlugokencky, E. J. and Andrews, A. E. and Xu, X. and Tian, H. and Nehrkorn, T. and Eluszkiewicz, J. and Michalak, A. M. and Wofsy, S. C.},
+	month = mar,
+	year = {2012},
+	pages = {13 PP.}
+},
+
+@techreport{k.w._oleson_clm3.5_2007,
+	address = {Boulder, {CO}},
+	title = {{CLM3.5} Documentation},
+	shorttitle = {{CLM3.5} Documentation},
+	url = {http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/tss/clm/distribution/clm3.5/},
+	urldate = {2012-10-11},
+	institution = {{UCAR}},
+	author = {{{K.W.} Oleson} and {{G.-Y.} Niu} and {{Z.-L.} Yang} and {{D.M.} Lawrence} and {{P.E.} Thornton} and {{P.J.} Lawrence} and {{R.} Stockli} and {{R.E.} Dickinson} and {{G.B.} Bonan} and {{S.} Levis}},
+	month = apr,
+	year = {2007},
+	pages = {35},
+	file = {CLM3.5 Public Release Home Page:/home/tlroche/.zotero/zotero/20111008/zotero/storage/BT8ATHT2/index.html:text/html}
+},
+
+@article{miller_regional_2012,
+	title = {Regional sources of nitrous oxide over the United States: Seasonal variation and spatial distribution},
+	volume = {117},
+	shorttitle = {Regional sources of nitrous oxide over the United States},
+	url = {http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2012/2011JD016951.shtml},
+	doi = {201210.1029/2011JD016951},
+	urldate = {2012-04-17},
+	journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research},
+	author = {Miller, S. M. and Kort, E. A. and Hirsch, A. I. and Dlugokencky, E. J. and Andrews, A. E. and Xu, X. and Tian, H. and Nehrkorn, T. and Eluszkiewicz, J. and Michalak, A. M. and Wofsy, S. C.},
+	month = mar,
+	year = {2012},
+	pages = {13 PP.}
+},
+
+@misc{texas_agrilife_blackland_research_and_extension_center_epic_2011,
+	title = {{EPIC} and {APEX} Models},
+	shorttitle = {{EPIC} and {APEX} Models},
+	url = {http://epicapex.brc.tamus.edu/},
+	type = {text/html/images},
+	abstract = {Environmental Policy Integrated Climate {(EPIC)} Model
+
+{EPIC}, a cropping systems simulation model, was developed to estimate soil productivity as affected by erosion throughout the United States during the 1980's. It was a response to the first Resources and Conservation Act {(RCA)} appraisal conducted in 1980, which revealed a significant need for improved technology for evaluating the impacts of soil erosion on soil productivity.
+
+{EPIC} simulates all crops with one crop growth model using unique parameter values for each crop. The processes simulated include leaf interception of solar radiation; conversion to biomass; division of biomass into roots, above ground mass, and economic yield; root growth; water use; and nutrient uptake.
+
+{EPIC} is a field scale, daily time step model composed of physically based components for soil and crop processes such as erosion, nutrient balance, crop growth, and related processes. It is designed to simulate drainage areas that are characterized by homogeneous weather, soil, landscape, crop rotation, and management. Since the initial development, {EPIC} has been continually improving through the additions of algorithms to simulate water quality, climate change and the effect of atmospheric {CO2concentration}, and nitrogen and carbon cycling.
+Agricultural {Policy/Environmental} {eXtender} {(APEX)} Model
+
+The {APEX} model was developed to extend the {EPIC} model capabilities to whole farms and small watersheds. In addition to the {EPIC} functions, {APEX} has components for routing water, sediment, nutrients, and pesticides across complex landscapes and channel systems to the watershed outlet. {APEX} also has groundwater and reservoir components. A watershed can be subdivided as much as necessary to assure that each subarea is relatively homogeneous in terms of soil, land use, management, and weather. The routing mechanisms provide for evaluation of interactions between subareas involving surface runoff, return flow, sediment deposition and degradation, nutrient transport, and groundwater flow. Water quality in terms of nitrogen (ammonium, nitrate, and organic), phosphorus (soluble and adsorbed/mineral and organic), and pesticides concentrations {(GLEAMS} pesticide model is used to estimated pesticide fate.) may be estimated for each subarea and at the watershed outlet.},
+	language = {english},
+	urldate = {2012-10-11},
+	author = {{{Texas} {AgriLife} Blackland Research and Extension Center}},
+	month = sep,
+	year = {2011},
+	howpublished = {http://epicapex.brc.tamus.edu/},
+	file = {Snapshot:/home/tlroche/.zotero/zotero/20111008/zotero/storage/J3KXC4QH/epicapex.brc.tamus.edu.html:text/html}
+},
+
+@article{thomson_biological_2012,
+	title = {Biological sources and sinks of nitrous oxide and strategies to mitigate emissions},
+	volume = {367},
+	issn = {0962-8436, 1471-2970},
+	url = {http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/367/1593/1157},
+	doi = {10.1098/rstb.2011.0415},
+	abstract = {Nitrous oxide {(N2O)} is a powerful atmospheric greenhouse gas and cause of ozone layer depletion. Global emissions continue to rise. More than two-thirds of these emissions arise from bacterial and fungal denitrification and nitrification processes in soils, largely as a result of the application of nitrogenous fertilizers. This article summarizes the outcomes of an interdisciplinary meeting, {‘Nitrous} oxide {(N2O)} the forgotten greenhouse gas’, held at the Kavli Royal Society International Centre, from 23 to 24 May 2011. It provides an introduction and background to the nature of the problem, and summarizes the conclusions reached regarding the biological sources and sinks of {N2O} in oceans, soils and wastewaters, and discusses the genetic regulation and molecular details of the enzymes responsible. Techniques for providing global and local {N2O} budgets are discussed. The findings of the meeting are drawn together in a review of strategies for mitigating {N2O} emissions, under three headings, namely: (i) managing soil chemistry and microbiology, (ii) engineering crop plants to fix nitrogen, and (iii) sustainable agricultural intensification.},
+	language = {en},
+	number = {1593},
+	urldate = {2012-06-29},
+	journal = {Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences},
+	author = {Thomson, A.J. and Giannopoulos, G. and Pretty, J. and Baggs, E.M. and Richardson, D.J.},
+	month = may,
+	year = {2012},
+	keywords = {Climate change, denitrification, greenhouse gas, mitigating emissions, nitrous oxide},
+	pages = {1157--1168},
+	file = {Full Text PDF:/home/tlroche/.zotero/zotero/20111008/zotero/storage/M6FD2BXR/Thomson et al. - 2012 - Biological sources and sinks of nitrous oxide and .pdf:application/pdf;Snapshot:/home/tlroche/.zotero/zotero/20111008/zotero/storage/VPJ2VWBE/1157.html:text/html}
+},