CMAS 2012 poster / TeX / Roche_CMAS2012.tex

% 42 x 70 in landscape poster for CMAS 2012 (printing @ Odum or EPA)
% based on 36 x 70 in landscape poster for CMAS 2012 (printed @ ENVR)
% based on BHH A0 template: see ~/info/work/EPA/N2O/posters/BHH_template/ or
% Original discussion and documentation at
% but much is not relevant to pdflatex

% sciposter allows arbitrary paper size (default=A0) but will require significant rewrite: see `texdoc sciposter`
% \documentclass[landscape]{sciposter}
% \documentclass[a0]{a0poster}
\documentclass{a0poster} % resize paper from A0 using package=geometry

% start package loading-------------------------------------------------

% resize paper for CMAS ∩ ENVR printer (36 x 70 in)
% usepackage[paperheight=910mm,paperwidth=1770mm]{geometry}
% resize paper for CMAS ∩ {EPA, Odum} printer (42 x 70 in)

% see
% plus it enables '>'
% but to get '≥' requires even more mojo? No, just use math mode
% \usepackage{qsymbols} % see "''<='"
% \usepackage{unicode-math} ? no:
% > ! Package unicode-math Error: Cannot be run with pdfLaTeX!

% why are degree signs so painful? for a possibly superior alternative using package=textcomp, see

% font size definitions

% Graphics
% font=times is nice on posters, but you might want to switch it off and go for CMR fonts.
% These colours are well-tested for titles and headers. Don't over use color!
% set caption font
% \usepackage[sf,bf,labelfont = normalsize, textfont = normalsize]{caption}
\usepackage[font=normalsize, textfont=it,labelfont=bf,format=hang,justification=raggedright]{caption}
% \renewcommand{\captionfont}{\sffamily}
% 'sidecap' allows captions on right or left of figure
\usepackage[leftcaption]{sidecap} % but side can't be set per figure :-(
% gotta have AQMEII-NA left-captioned
% \usepackage{sidecap} % but side can't be set per figure :-(

% The textpos package is necessary to position textblocks at arbitary places on the page.
\usepackage{listings}         % for code listings

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\usepackage[hidelinks]{hyperref} % no link decoration

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% definitions of document parts and their font sizes
% see documentation for a0poster class for the size options here
\def\LHead#1{\noindent\hbox{{\LARGE\color{DarkBlue} \uppercase{#1}}}\vspace*{-7.6mm}\newline\rule{\textwidth}{5pt}}
\def\RHead#1{\noindent\hbox to \hsize{\hfil{\LARGE\color{DarkBlue} \uppercase{#1}}}\vspace*{-7.6mm}\newline\rule{\textwidth}{5pt}}
\def\NHead#1{\noindent\hbox{{\LARGE\color{DarkBlue} #1}}\medskip\\}
\def\lHead#1{\noindent\hbox{{\Large\color{DarkBlue} #1}}\smallskip\\}
% Move up Acknowledgements and Contacts, but not References
\def\Aknlg#1{\vspace*{-10mm}\underline{\noindent\hbox to \hsize{\hfil{\large\color{DarkBlue}#1}}}}
% \def\Aknlg#1{\underline{\noindent\hbox to \hsize{\hfil{\large\color{DarkBlue}#1}}}}
\def\Cntct#1{\vspace*{-20mm}\underline{\noindent\hbox to \hsize{\hfil{\large\color{DarkBlue}#1}}}}
\def\Rfncs#1{\underline{\noindent\hbox to \hsize{\hfil{\large\color{DarkBlue}#1}}}}
% \def\refname{\textnormal{\Aknlg{References}}}
% make bibliography/references smaller--not here, see below
% \def\refname{\small{\Aknlg{References}}}
% size directives here seem to have no effect :-(
% \def\refname{\footnotesize{\Aknlg{References}}}
% but this moves up the reference *text* WITHOUT moving up the "References" heading!
% \def\refname{\vspace*{-15.2mm}\textnormal{\Aknlg{References}}}

% \def\Subhead#1{\noindent\hbox {{\large\color{DarkBlue} #1}\hfil}\bigskip}

% This works for BHH's short title, not my long one
% \def\Title#1{\center{\veryHuge\color{DarkBlue}#1}}

% Set up the page grid

% Note that [40mm,40mm] is the page margin, _not_ the grid size.
% Grid size is always defined as PAGE_WIDTH/HGRID and PAGE_HEIGHT/VGRID.
% Here we define grid=23w x 12h. This provides
% 3 columns of width=7 boxes (with gap=1 box between columns), and
% 12 vertical boxes ("a good number to work with").

% Note however that textblocks can be positioned fractionally as well,
% so really any convenient grid size can be used.
% Note that on 
% paper size              grid spec  ->    grid cell
% ---------------------  -----------    ----------------
% 1189w x  841h mm (A0)   27w x  12h    44w   x 70h mm
% CMAS ∩ ENVR printer:
% 1778w x  914h mm        27w x  12h    66w   x 76h mm
% 1778w x  914h mm        32w x  12h    55.5w x 76h mm
% 1778w x  914h mm        62w x  26h    28.7w x 35.1h mm
% CMAS ∩ {EPA, Odum} printer:
% 1778w x 1066h mm       122w x 100h    14.6w x 10.7h mm

%  width conversion (same page width) from 62w -> 122w ~= 28.7/14.6 ~= 1.97
% height conversion (new page height) from 26h -> 100h ~= 35.1/10.7 ~= 3.28

% \TPGrid[.75in,.75in]{27}{12} % e.g., 3 cols width=8, plus 2 gaps width=1.5
% \TPGrid[10mm,10mm]{62}{26}     % e.g., 3 cols width=20, plus 2 gaps width=1
\TPGrid[10mm,10mm]{122}{100}     % e.g., 3 cols width=40, plus 2 gaps width=1

% Understanding textblocks is the key to being able to do a poster in LaTeX. In

%    \begin{textblock}{wid}(x,y)
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% start header (title, logos)-----------------------------------------

% Watch out for hyphenation in titles - LaTeX will do it but it looks awful.
% use chemical formulae from package=mhchem
%    \Title{Simulation of \cf{N2O} Production and Transport in Central US Compared to Tower Measurements}\\
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    \Title{Roadmap to Simulation of \cf{N2O} Production and Transport in the Central US, with Comparison to Observations}\\
    \NHead{Tom Roche$^{1}$, Ellen J. Cooter$^2$, Eri Saikawa$^3$}
    \lHead{\textsl{$^1$Environmental Science and Engineering, UNC Chapel Hill; $^2$Atmospheric Modeling and Analysis Division, US EPA; $^3$Center for Global Change Science, MIT}}

% Academic logo in the top left corner, government logo @ top right.
% You may want to change this depending upon the graphics that are in your poster.
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        \cf{N2O} (nitrous oxide) is currently the most important depleter of stratospheric ozone and the third most important radiative forcer among anthropogenic emissions. Its tropospheric chemistry is relatively simple, but other relevant processes are not. Attempts to spatially and temporally quantify \cf{N2O} fluxes have achieved mixed results; however, many researchers agree that agriculture is a major source sector (Fig 1), with N fixation and fertilizer application being important drivers of \cf{N2O} emission. Better characterization of agricultural emissions may facilitate \cf{N2O} mitigation, and may improve understanding of GHG mitigation and adaptation opportunities.

        Efforts to improve estimates of anthropogenic and areal emissions of \cf{N2O} can be characterized using three dimensions: spatial scale, temporal direction (forward or backward) and scale, and depth of insight. A process model makes stronger claims regarding its representation of a system, while a statistical model need only claim quantitative insight. Spatial scale varies from field-scale process modeling and emissions measurement to global emissions inventories (EIs) such as CLM-CN [\citet{k.w._oleson_clm3.5_2007}], EDGAR [\citet{european_commission_joint_research_centre_jrc_emission_2011}], GEIA [\citet{bouwman_uncertainties_1995}], and GFED [\citet{g._r._van_der_werf_global_2010}]. Temporal scales vary from days to years, and can run forward or backward (as with back-trajectory models). Such efforts are more likely to be policy-relevant if conducted at a policy-relevant scale and resolution, and more likely to be skillful where constrained by sufficient observations, i.e., monitoring.

        When analyzed using these three dimensions, current \cf{N2O} modeling efforts fall into three regions, with varying levels of policy relevance and observational constraint. Firstly, strongly empirical, observation-driven field-scale work develops or calibrates models of soil processes which produce and consume \cf{N2O}. This scale suggests resource-intensive, individual- or firm-level policy actions. Secondly, significant effort is devoted to development of EIs for consumption by global-scale climate models. While many entities seek to influence global policies, the ability of these actors to implement and enforce policy tends to be much less than that of regional-scale governments (e.g., EU, US). The utility of this work is also limited by the low temporal frequency, low and irregular spatial coverage, and short history of world-wide continuously-monitored \cf{N2O} records. Thirdly, some recent papers have sought to leverage current US \cf{N2O} monitoring to use inverse modeling techniques to estimate \cf{N2O} EIs for the contiguous US (CONUS), using back-trajectory dispersion models to attribute emissions to potential source regions (Fig 2). Such studies restrict process modeling to meteorology; they mostly model geostatistically. Since their spatial domains correspond to existing regional, state, and national organizations and governments, these efforts should be more policy-relevant.

        There are established models for agricultural biogeochemical processes (notably, EPIC [\citet{texas_agrilife_blackland_research_and_extension_center_epic_2011}], Fig 3) and atmospheric concentrations (notably, CMAQ). Since these can be run at regional scale, such efforts would share the policy relevance of the existing inverse statistical work (and their current relative lack of observational constraint), but could provide the greater depth of system insight (and therefore policy utility) that can derive from successful forward process modeling (as with contemporary conventional air-quality modeling). Particularly, regional process models, if sufficiently skillful, might allow prospective testing of the effects of various agricultural management regimes on \cf{N2O} emissions. The present study seeks to perform forward process modeling of \cf{N2O} over the North American AQMEII domain (AQMEII-NA, Fig 4), focusing on agricultural emissions.

    Leverage the following resources 
    % Remove the big gap between intro and start of list.
    % TODO: more elegant solution! e.g., more compact list layout (package)
        \item NOAA has four monitors in the central US with daily observations for 2008
        \item EPA and partners are generating \cf{N2O} emissions from EPIC over AQMEII-NA (and can do 2008) for agricultural soils
        \item EDGAR-4.2 (a global anthropogenic EI) has \cf{N2O} with 0.1\degree resolution for 2008 over many source sectors
        \item CLM-CN now provides a global EI for natural soils
        \item EPA has a CMAQ run over AQMEII-NA for 2008
%        \item CMAQ ≥ 5 uses namelists so as to more easily incorporate new non-reactive species
% nope: gotta enter math mode and use plain-TeX macro
        \item CMAQ $\geq$ 5 uses namelists so as to more easily incorporate new non-reactive species
    % Remove the big gap between end of list and outro.
    % TODO: more elegant solution! e.g., more compact list layout (package)
    to model \cf{N2O} over AQMEII-NA for 2008.

% \begin{figure}[h!] % 'h!' == position *here*
%   \centering
%     \includegraphics[scale=2]{Thomson_et_al_2012__F1_medium}
% caption under graphic
%     \caption{Proportions of total global \cf{N2O} emitted by major sources and activities, from \citet{thomson_biological_2012}.}
% \end{figure}
\begin{SCfigure}      % does not allow page placement?
  \raggedright        % figure should be left-justified, but cannot :-(
    \caption{Proportions of total global \cf{N2O} emitted by major sources and activities, from \citet{thomson_biological_2012}.}
% \end{figure}

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%    \CHead{Central Result Block}
%    How skillfully can current CMAQ and emission inventories model \cf{N2O} concentrations observed at four NOAA monitors in the central US?
%    {\large{How skillfully can current CMAQ and emission inventories model \cf{N2O} concentrations observed at 4 NOAA monitors in the central US?}}
%    {\huge{How skillfully can current CMAQ and emission inventories model \cf{N2O} concentrations observed at 4 NOAA monitors in the central US?}}
    \vspace{-20mm} % centering problem statement moved it down a *lot*
        {\color{Red}\LARGE{How skillfully can current CMAQ and emission inventories model\\\cf{N2O} concentrations observed at 4 NOAA monitors in the central US?}}

%      \Subhead{Result Subset 1}
%      This is where the pretty picture go that make the first point.

%      \Subhead{Result Subset 2}
%      This is where the pretty picture go that make the second point.

% caption under graphic
    \caption{\citet{miller_regional_2012} use back-trajectory geostatistics to estimate the regions responsible for contributing 75\% and 90\% of the \cf{N2O} observed at four NOAA ESRL towers May-Aug 2008.}

% caption under graphic
    \caption{EPIC estimate of total \cf{N2O} emitted via denitrification in managed soils under 42 crops in the upper midwestern US.}

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    % Remove the big gap between section=Process rule and start of list.
    % TODO: more elegant solution! e.g., more compact list layout (package)
        \item Acquire \cf{N2O} NOAA observations for 2008 over CONUS.
        \item Acquire standard/AQ inputs for a 2008 CMAQ run over AQMEII-NA.
        \item Add \cf{N2O} to CMAQ 5.0.1 as non-reactive specie (NR).
        \item Develop comprehensive \cf{N2O} EI and IC/BCs focusing on the CONUS and consumable by CMAQ. (in process)
%        \begin{itemize}
            \item assemble best available EIs and model outputs for the various \cf{N2O} source sectors and activities
            \item (all) convert units to meet CMAQ requirements (e.g., for emissions, molar mass rate over the spatiotemporal quantum)
            \item (all) ''retime'' (temporally interpolate) inputs to match run requirements (e.g., hourly)
            \item (all) ''regrid'' (horizontally interpolate) to match run requirements (e.g., AQMEII-NA=12 km LCC)
            \item (IC/BC) ''rebox'' (vertically interpolate) to match run requirements (e.g., AQMEII-NA=34 levels to 50 mb)
            \item (all) convert to CMAQ-required file formats (i.e., IOAPI-formatted netCDF)
            \item (all) merge \cf{N2O} as separate specie with the previous CMAQ run's inputs (AQ emissions, ICs, BCs)
%        \end{itemize}
        \item Merge developed \cf{N2O} EI into existing CMAQ inputs.
        \item Run the model!
        \item Evaluate model estimations:
            \item Compare estimations to observations at NOAA sites using, e.g., standard deviation of residuals, autocorrelations, AICc
            \item Compare estimations to results from other models, e.g., \citet{miller_regional_2012}
        \item Justifiably augment model inputs. E.g., repeat 3 previous steps after
            \item imposing seasonality 
            \item imposing diurnality
%            \item 
%        \item 
    \vspace{-30mm} % removes the big gap between end of section=Process and start of section=References
% for this and possibly more elegant solutions, see

%    \bibliographystyle{plainnat} % selects plainnat.bst -> /usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/bibtex/bst/natbib/plainnat.bst
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% reduce references font size from normal to small (next stop, footnotesize)
% see other suggestions @
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%    \def\bibfont{small} % since we're using package=natbib

%    \footnotesize{{
    Special thanks to many colleagues at EPA (especially Barron Henderson! now at UFlorida) and to many developers and users of R and extension packages (especially Dave Pierce of UCSD for his package=ncdf4).

    This research was supported in part by EPA contract EP11D000511, but does not reflect official Agency policy.

%     Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.
%    }}

            \item contact Tom Roche at \url{}
            % break this to expand the AQMEII-NA image
            \item follow this project's wiki at\\\url{}

\vspace{-40mm}        % move the image up. TODO: use a more compact list package!
% \begin{figure}[b]   % place @ bottom page/column
% \begin{SCfigure}[b] % sidecap figure
\begin{SCfigure}      % does not allow page placement?
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    \caption{Horizontal extents of the North American AQMEII domain.}
% \end{figure}

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