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Hiroyoshi Komatsu committed a333407

bugfix & packaging new version

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Files changed (4)

    * Using jsonrpclib for stability and performance
    * Can edit the constants as argument such as Stanford Core NLP directory.
    * Adjust parameters not to timeout in high load
+   * Fix a problem on input long texts by Johannes Castner [stanford-corenlp-python](https://github.com/jac2130/stanford-corenlp-python)
    * Packaging
-   * Fix problem of long texts by Johannes Castner [stanford-corenlp-python](https://github.com/jac2130/stanford-corenlp-python)
 
 ## Requirements
    * [jsonrpclib](https://github.com/joshmarshall/jsonrpclib)
 	                              u'PartOfSpeech': u'.'}]]}],
 	u'coref': [[[[u'It', 1, 0, 0, 1], [u'Hello world', 0, 1, 0, 2]]]]}
 
-To use it in a regular script or to edit/debug it (because errors via RPC are opaque), load the module instead:
+Not to use JSON-RPC, load the module instead:
 
     from corenlp import StanfordCoreNLP
     corenlp_dir = "stanford-corenlp-full-2013-04-04/"
     corenlp = StanfordCoreNLP(corenlp_dir)  # wait a few minutes...
     corenlp.parse("Parse it")
 
-If you need to parse longs texts (more than 30-50 sentences), you have to use a batch_parse function. It reads text files from input directory and returns a generator object of dictionaries that parsed each file results:
+If you need to parse longs texts (more than 30-50 sentences), you have to use a batch_parse() function. It reads text files from input directory and returns a generator object of dictionaries parsed each file results:
 
     from corenlp import batch_process
     raw_text_directory = "sample_raw_text/"
-    batch_process(raw_text_directory)  # It returns a generator object
+    parsed = batch_process(raw_text_directory)  # It returns a generator object
+    print parsed  #=> {'coref': ..., 'sentences': ..., 'file_name': 'new_sample.txt'}
 
 ## Developer
    * Hiroyoshi Komatsu [hiroyoshi.komat@gmail.com]

corenlp/corenlp.py

 
     return results
 
-def parse_parser_xml_results(xml):
+def parse_parser_xml_results(xml, file_name=""):
     import xmltodict
     from collections import OrderedDict
 
                  for j in xrange(len(raw_sent_list))]
 
     results = {'coref':coref_list, 'sentences':sentences}
+    if file_name:
+        results['file_name'] = file_name
 
     return results
 
     #we get a list of the cleaned files that we want to parse:
 
     files = [input_dir+'/'+f for f in os.listdir(input_dir)]
+    file_name = re.sub('.xml$', '', f)
 
     #creating the file list of files to parse
 
         for output_file in os.listdir(xml_dir):
             with open(xml_dir+'/'+output_file, 'r') as xml:
                 parsed = xml.read()
-            yield parse_parser_xml_results(parsed)
+            yield parse_parser_xml_results(parsed, file_name)
     finally:
         file_list.close()
         try:
                       help='Host to serve on (default localhost; 0.0.0.0 to make public)')
     parser.add_option('-S', '--corenlp', default="stanford-corenlp-full-2013-04-04",
                       help='Stanford CoreNLP tool directory (default stanford-corenlp-full-2013-04-04/)')
-    parser.add_option('-x', '--xml', action="store_true",
-                      help="Using XML format for read CoreNLP outputs (default false, but the option will be true on the future)")
     options, args = parser.parse_args()
     # server = jsonrpc.Server(jsonrpc.JsonRpc20(),
     #                         jsonrpc.TransportTcpIp(addr=(options.host, int(options.port))))

sample_raw_text/new_sample.txt

-Mr. MITCHELL. Mr. President, fol-
- lowing the conclusion of morning busi-
- ness at 3:30 p.m., I will seek unani-
- mous consent to proceed to the consid-
- eration of calendar item No. 427, that
- Is S. 1630, the clean air legislation.
-
-       THE SENATE AGENDA
-   Mr. MITCHELL. Mr. President, we
- begin this session with the Clean Air
- Act. This is critical legislation. It has
- been over 12 years since the Clean Air
- Act was last debated in the Senate.
- Since then, our population has grown,
- automobile use Increased, and the
- economy expanded, with the accompa-
- nying increases in production facili-
- ties, energy use, congestion, and inevi-
- tably, pollution.
-   These factors have overwhelmed our
- efforts to improve air quality In the
- places where the majority of Ameri-
- cans live and work.
-   Today, more than half the American
- people are forced to breathe air that
- does not meet national health stand-
- ards.
-   This will be a substantive debate
- and, on some issues, a controversial
- one. Air quality issues vary by region.
- Some   regions are at significantly
- greater risk from the effects of acid
- rain; some rural areas do not suffer as
- much from ozone as cities; congested
- urban areas are seeing a further degra-
- dation in air quality.
-   I welcome the President's strong call
- for action on a Clean Air Act. I com-
- mend him for it. It is my intention
- that the Senate give him a strong
- Clean Air Act.
-   There are many aspects to this issue.
- One overrides all others. We must pro-
- tect the health of Americans.
-   We will, as we should, debate the
- costs of this bill. In that regard, I em-
- phasize two points.
-   First, if measured solely in dollars
- and cents, this bill should pass because
- the cost of inaction is higher than the
- cost of action.
-   It costs the United States more in
- health care and lost productivity than
- it would to clean up air pollution. This
-
-
- 0 This "bullet" symbol identifies statements or insertions which are not spoken by a Member of the Senate on the floor.
-
- 
-
-
- CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-SENATE
-
-
- bill will save the American people
- money.
-   Second, the bill ought not be meas-
- ured solely in dollars and cents. That
- would exclude consideration of the
- most important of our values-human
- values.
-   The evidence is clear, compelling
- and undisputed that air pollution
- causes thousands of premature deaths
- and millions of illnesses each year. Es-
- pecially vulnerable are children.
-   I ask each Senator, what Is the
- dollar value of a human life? What is
- the dollar value of a child's health?
- Your child's health? Obviously, these
- are unanswerable questions. But just
- because we can't put a dollar value on
- a child's health doesn't mean we
- should exclude the health of Ameri-
- can children from this debate. To the
- contrary, it is and should be central to
- this debate.
-   We should get in perspective and
- keep in perspective the fact that we
- are considering a health bill. Its pur-
- pose is basic: To make the air we must
- all breathe fit for human lungs.
-   Beyond the Clean Air Act, this 2d
- session of the 101st Congress will be
- busy. We have unfinished business
- from the first session to complete, im-
- portant reauthorizations to write, a
- dramatically different world against
- which to weigh our Nation's security
- needs and priorities, as well as the re-
- quired  budget   and   appropriations
- measures for 1991.
-   I hope conferees on the unfinished
- business of the first session, drug
- treatment legislation and oilspill liabil-
- ity, will act promptly. These are im-
- portant matters we should be able to
- finish swiftly.
-   Tomorrow, the House will override
- the President's veto of legislation ex-
- tending the visa protections of Chi-
- nese students and exchange scholars.
- It is my intention to ask the Senate to
- move promptly to that proposal.
-   I regret the President's veto of this
- bill. His claim that he is doing as much
- through a Presidential memorandum
- of disapproval as the bill would do
- through the law is unpersuasive.
-   The President's memorandum of dis-
- approval is only an administrative
- action. It provides no statutory legal
- protection for the Chinese students. It
- can be revoked by the President or the
- Attorney General at their discretion.
-   This administrative action could also
- be challenged because immigration
- law does not, in general, permit aliens
- to adjust their status if they apply to
- do so while they are technically in ille-
- gal status. It is an open question
- whether the administration has the
- authority to grant such a generalized
- waiver of a congressionally mandated
- stipulation. The best way to answer
- that question and to resolve all doubt
- is to do what Congress did last year:
- Change the law.
-
-
-   That is why we must now override
- the veto.
-   Equally important, the veto sends
- exactly the wrong signal.
-   The President says he does not want
- to isolate the Government of China.
- Neither do I.
-   But to the extent that it is isolated,
- the Government of China isolated
- itself. It isolated itself from its own
- people and from the community of na-
- tions by murdering its own citizens, by
- denying to those citizens even the
- most basic of human rights. Our re-
- sponse to the urgent and well-founded
- fears of the Chinese students in our
- country was not taken to isolate
- anyone: It was an appropriate Ameri-
- can response to the victims of murder
- by government.
-   I hope my colleagues will repeat
- their unanimous approval of the bill
- last year with an equally strong vote
- to override the veto. It is the right
- thing to do.
-   It is my intention to proceed to the
- crime legislation on or about February
- 7, as provided in the agreement we
- reached last year.
-   Senator BIDEN, the chairman of the
- Judiciary Committee, has proposed a
- vehicle which incorporates the three
- uncompleted    items  of  the  Bush
- agenda-another Federal death penal-
- ty, habeus corpus reform, and exclu-
- sionary rule changes-along with some
- important additional elements to curb
- drug money-laundering, the DeConcini
- assault weapons bill, language to curb
- the export of assault weapons to drug
- dealers in Latin America, as well as ad-
- ditional funding for law enforcement
- personnel and other matters.
-   I know other Senators have propos-
- als in this field as well.
-   The most effective direct assistance
- the Federal Government can provide
- to States for the purpose of curbing
- violent crime is additional resources
- for law enforcement, prosecution, and
- detention. We made a good start on fi-
- nancing that assistance last year. I
- hope the President's budget for 1991
- builds on that beginning.
-   Following passage of clean air legis-
- lation, we will consider national serv-
- ice legislation.
-   The national 3ervice concept seeks
- to reinstate at a national level the
- sense of community, participation, and
- self-help that are all part of the Amer-
- ican tradition.
-   National service will give our young
- people an opportunity to use their
- energy and ideals to help the larger so-
- ciety. It can give an alternative to that
- half of our young people who do not
- go to college. It will give them a way
- to make a contribution and, at the
- same time, earn a stake in their own
- education or their first home.
-   For the many young people who
- know that their desire to attend col-
- lege poses an enormous financial sacri-
- fice to their parents, national service
-
-
- can be a way to help themselves, by
- earning their tuition costs in advance
- of school, rather than graduating with
- an enormous debt load.
-   Most important, national service will
- show young people in very direct and
- practical terms that their efforts, their
- talents and their ideals are valued by
- their society and needed by many mil-
- lions of their fellow citizens.
-   The bill we will debate includes a
- voluntary service component, a conser-
- vation component, and a pilot program
- for the core idea of national service in
- exchange for education or home own-
- ership credits.
-   It is my intention also to move
- promptly to address the Nation's key
- education needs.
-   Our higher education system is
- among the finest in the world. But
- half our students do not go on to
- higher education. The education crisis
- is not at the college level; it is at the
- elementary   and   secondary   levels,
- where the basic foundations of liter-
- acy, mathematical skills, and learning
- skills are established.
-   We will debate the Educational Ex-
- cellence Act, which contains the Presi-
- dent's proposals to give awards to
- schools and teachers for excellence,
- encourage Innovative teaching meth-
- ods, and reduce student loan defaults.
-   I also want to consider the National
- Literacy Act, which is designed to
- eliminate illiteracy in this Nation by
- the year 2000. No single action is more
- critical to our future economic securi-
- ty. By the end of the century, ade-
- quate literacy will be an essential pre-
- condition to living in our society.
-   Only 14 percent of the jobs available
- then will be adequately performed by
- high school graduates. Most Jobs will
- need higher skills. Brt 80 percent of
- new job seekers at that time will be
- minorities, immigrants, and women. If
- we have not substantially improved
- our literacy levels by that time, we
- risk seeing those jobs exported over-
- seas.
-   For the last decade, we have read re-
- ports and analyses of the shortcom-
- ings in basic educational achievement
- in our country. It is time to act on
- what we know, both as to shortcom-
- ings and the best way to correct them.
-   We know that a third of our math
- and science teachers today are un-
- qualified to teach in those subjects; we
- know we face a shortfall of teachers in
- the next decade that could reach 2
- million, we know American children
- score consistently lower on math and
- science tests than children from Asian
- and European countries. We know
- reading and writing skills need sub-
- stantial improvement.
-   We also know that early interven-
- tion and focused resources help. We
- know that extra help to the disadvan-
- taged in elementary schools raises edu-
- cational achievement levels in high
-
-
- January 23, 1990
-
- 
-
-
- January 23, 1990                   CO
- schools; we know     Head Start and
- other   enrichment programs      bring
- gains that continue through a child's
- school life.
-   This year, it is time to put what we
- know Is needed together with what we
- know will make a difference, and get
- our school system back on track. After
- a decade of reports and rhetoric,
- Americans expect action and I think
- we should provide It.
-   Americans also expect action on
- child care legislation. I hope the dif-
- ferences there can be worked out
- shortly so that a final form of this bill
- can be voted upon and sent to the
- President. Working parents need af-
- fordable care for their children but
- they also want quality care. The Con-
- gress should pass a bill to ensure both.
-   Those   immediate    concerns-clean
- air, national service, crime legislation,
- and education reform measures-are a
- good start for our work this year. But
- they do not exhaust our agenda.
-   One issue of particular importance
- to all of us is campaign finance
- reform.
-   It is evident that if we do not reform
- the manner in which election cam-
- paigns are financed, we will forfeit the
- trust of the American people. The
- enormous costs of campaigning are
- making it more and more difficult for
- any other than the very wealthy to
- contemplate serving in the Congress.
- The demands of election campaigns
- force far too much attention to be
- paid to fundraising activities.
-   The appearance is one that under-
- mines confidence in Congress. The re-
- ality is one that distorts Congress'
- ability to function.
-   Campaign finance reform is a goal I
- have pursued for 8 years. I shall con-
- tinue to press for It, and I hope that
- this year we will finally see an oppor-
- tunity to take effective action.
-
-     THE RETIREMENT OF MAX
-               BARBER
-   Mr. MITCHELL. Mr. President, I
- would like to take this opportunity to
- acknowledge the recent retirement of
- Max Barber, who served as superin-
- tendent of the Senate Radio-TV Gal-
- lery.
-   Max has been a familiar face in the
- U.S. Capitol for 38 years. During those
- years, Max worked as an elevator oper-
- tor, served on the Capitol Police
- Force, and most recently was the su-
- perintendent of the Senate Radio-TV
- Gallery, where for 17 years he assisted
- our friends in the broadcast media.
-   Max was privileged to witness many
- changes that have occurred in the
- Congress. I was privileged to have his
- support and assistance during my first
- year as majority leader.
-   Shortly before the holidays, Max an-
- nounced his retirement. I understand
- that he and his wife, Sylvia, are now
- enjoying the sunny skies of Florida for
-
-
- NGRESSIONAL RECORD-SENATE
-
-
- the winter months. On behalf of all
- my colleagues in Congress, I wish Max
- and Sylvia a most happy and healthy
- retirement. He will be missed.
-   I also want to take this opportunity
- to extend to his successor, Larry Jane-
- zich, the very best wishes in his new
- role. I know he is up to the task.
-
- AN ENVIRONMENTAL DIVIDEND:
-   CAPITALIZING ON NEW OPPOR-
-   TUNITIES FOR INTERNATION-
-   AL ACTION
-   Mr. MITCHELL. Mr. President, I
- ask unanimous consent that a speech
- given by the distinguished chairman
- of the Senate Foreign Relations Com-
- mittee, Senator CLAIBORNE PELL of
- Rhode Island, be inserted in the
- RECORD.
-   The honorable chairman of the For-
- eign Relations Committee recently ad-
- dressed the Global Forum on Environ-
- ment and Development for Survival in
- Moscow. His remarks focus on the cat-
- astrophic threats to the world's envi-
- ronment-including     global   climate
- change, ozone depletion and a host of
- problems that require international
- cooperation.
-   I would like to call this important
- speech to the attention of my col-
- leagues. Not only does it deal with one
- of the most significant problems of
- our times, it does so with eloquence
- and clarity. I hope other Senators will
- take the time to review Senator PELL'S
- statement.
-   There being no objection, the re-
- marks werc ordered to be printed in
- the RECORD, as follows:
- AN ENVIRONMENTAL DIVIDEND: CAPITALIZING
-   ON NEw OPPORTUNITIES FOR INTERNATIONAL
-   AcTION
- (Remarks by Senator Claiborne Pell, Global
-   Forum on Environment and Development,
-   Moscow, U.S.S.R., January 17, 1990)
-   We are gathered here at an extraordinary
- time in human history. In a matter of
- months a series of popular movements have
- transformed Europe. The Iron Curtain has
- ceased to be a barrier between East and
- West. A democratically elected government
- has taken power in Poland, and in the next
- few months free elcdtions will be held in
- East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria,
- Hungary, and Romania. In addition, the
- Soviet Union is well along on a path to free-
- dom, openness and democratic renewal.
-   With the changes in Eastern Europe and
- the Soviet U nion, East and West will begin
- to share common values of a belief in indi-
- vidual rights and democratic institutions.
- The wave of democracy is also spreading to
- the developing world. With the recent elec-
- tions in Chile, every government in South
- America will be a democracy. Elsewhere In
- the just concluded decade, dictatorships in
- the Philippines and Pakistan have disap-
- peared and India's recent elections, the larg-
- est exercise of popular choice in human his-
- tory, reminds us of the appeal of democracy
- to even the world's poorest people. Of
- course, there are setbacks, as last June's
- events in Tiananmen Square remind us, and
- democracy can be fragile as witnessed by
- recent events in Manila. Of the overall
-
-
- trend, however, we can be optimistic: democ-
- racy Is indeed on the march.
-   It is an interesting fact that modern histo-
- ry has never known a war between demo-
- cratic states. And, Indeed, the spread of de-
- mocracy and freedom across Europe has re-
- sulted In a dramatic reduction of tensions.
- In 1981, the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists
- advanced the clock of global survival to
- three minutes before the midnight of nucle-
- ar Armageddon. Today with a treaty on In-
- termediate Nuclear Forces In place and
- agreements for drastic reductions in strate-
- gic and conventional forces in the offing, we
- can see the hands of that clock being set
- further back.
-   We in the United States consider the Eu-
- ropean democracies to be our friends and
- allies. Looking ahead we might ask whether
- democratic nations in Eastern Europe and
- the Soviet Union might also be our friends
- and allies, and if so, for what threat do we
- need anything comparable to our existing
- level of armaments?
-   A more peaceful world does not translate
- into a problem-free world. Indeed, as the
- threat of nuclear incineration recedes, we
- can see more clearly the danger posed by
- environmental degradation and global cli-
- mate change. As nuclear winter would sud-
- denly alter man's climate and prospects for
- survival, so might global warming albeit
- more gradually. If we do nothing we may be
- trading the risk of a flash fry for the cer-
- tainty of a slow roasting. In the end, howev-
- er, the results can be comparably cata-
- strophic.
-   If a deteriorating environment is compara-
- ble in consequence, if not immediacy, to
- global war, then logically it requires a com-
- parable response. Put simply, we must be
- prepared to come forward with the re-
- sources to protect our environment. Today
- my country spends $295.6 billion on defense
- and $5.6 billion at the federal level, or about
- one-fifteenth as much, on protecting our en-
- vironment. It is not realistic to expect these
- proportions to be reversed, but they must be
- changed.
-   The end of the Cold War is already lead-
- ing to cuts in military spending. This trend
- should be accelerated as we conclude agree-
- ments to reduce strategic and conventional
- arms. These will jave substantial money for
- both the countries of NATO and those
- linked to the Warsaw Pact. We have suc-
- cessfully met the challenge of the Cold War.
- The question now is how will we meet the
- challenge of peace?
-   Here I would suggest that a meaningful
- percentage, perhaps 15 percent, of our pro-
- spective peace dividend be dedicated to the
- environment. And I would propose that the
- upcoming agreements on strategic and con-
- ventional forces explicitly earmark 15 per-
- cent of the resultant savings for additional
- environmental protection to be expended
- either within the country where the savings
- are made or internationally.
-   Under the domestic law of the United
- States such funds would have to be appro-
- priated pursuant to our constitutional proc-
- esses. I am sure the same would be true for
- other countries that would participate in
- such an agreement. However, the inclusion
- of an environmental peace dividend in an
- arms control treaty will create an obligation
- and a goal for both West and East. It would
- also set an important precedent for future
- East-West agreements, one where we agree
- not only on measures to reduce the risk of
- mutual destruction but also on major meas-
- ures of mutual cooperation.
-
- 
-
-
- CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-SENATE
-
-
- January 23, 1990
-
-
-   I would further propose that we direct the
- earmarked    environmental   expenditure
- largely to those problems which are interna-
- tional or global in nature. In Europe this
- would mean spending to clean up shared
- rivers, to prevent air pollution which in
- Europe has no boundaries, and to neutralize
- acid rain which is destroying the forests,
- lakes, and monuments of Europe.
-   It is no secret that the countries of East-
- ern Europe have lagged far behind Western
- Europe In utilizing pollution control tech.
- nologies in their manufacturing and power
- generation processes. Partly this results
- from antiquated plants, partly from eco-
- nomic distress that necessitates use of pol-
- luting technologies and fuels, such as high
- sulfur coal, and partly it is the product of a
- political system in which the ruling elite
- was not responsive to the concerns of the
- population. Whatever the reason, however,
- the victims of East European pollution live
- in both the Eastern and Western wings of
- the common European home. Both wings
- will benefit from cleaning up the environ-
- ment. However, it follows that a very large
- part of the European generated component
- of my proposed environmental peace divi-
- dend should be channeled to Eastern
- Europe.
-   In the case of the United States and
- Canada, our people will undoubtedly expect
- that the greater part of our peace dividend
- be spent in a manner that visibly benefits
- our own people. Thus, most of our two coun-
- tries' new    environmental   expenditure
- should occur on our North American conti-
- nent. This expenditure should nonetheless
- be made in a way that benefits the global
- environment. North Americans are both in
- the aggregate and on a per capita basis the
- biggest producers of the greenhouse gases,
- and In particular of carbon dioxide. Logical-
- ly, the effort to begin to control global
- warming must start In North America.
- Under my proposed scheme I would recom-
- mend that a great part of our environmen-
- tal dividend be used to develop energy con-
- servation technologies as well as alterna-
- tives to fossil fuels. As a bonus, this effort
- will help ameliorate the problem of acid
- rain, which has become a major bilateral
- issue in U.S.-Canada relations and has in-
- flicted damage on my home region of New
- England.
-   At this time I cannot state the amount of
- new environmental expenditure to be gener-
- ated by my proposal. However, some project
- that the end of the Cold War might lead to
- a 50 percent reduction in U.S. defense
- spending by the end of this century. If 15
- percent of this saving went to the environ-
- mental peace dividend, the annual new envi-
- ronmental expenditure in the United States
- would equal $22 billion, or four times our
- present federal effort. Comparable sums
- should be generated by reductions in Euro-
- pean and Soviet defense expenditure. With
- this level of resource commitment we might
- truly begin to have an impact on the mam-
- moth environmental problems facing us.
-   So far I have discussed how the peace divi-
-   dend generated by the end of the Cold War
-   might be used to enhance the environment
-   of the Cold Warring nations, that Is, of
-   Europe and North America. We live in a
-   single global community. The Spring clean-
-   ing made possible by the thaw In the Cold
-   War will benefit not only our house but also
-   our global community. However, we cannot
-   be indifferent to an environmental deterio-
-   ration in that part of the world which is nei-
-   ther East nor West, that is, the Third
-   World, the developing world which is home
-   to 70 percent of the world's population.
-
-
-   On an environmental level, we will accom-
- plish little if the savings in greenhouse
- gases made by conservation and new tech-
- nology use In the developed countries are
- offset by the ecologically unsound Industri-
- alization of the developing world and by the
- destruction of the tropical forests which are
- quite literally the lungs of our planet.
- Worse, environmental degradation in the
- third world is the product of, the compan-
- ion of, and the cause of increased poverty
- and human misery. This misery can only
- breed popular anger and governmental in-
- stability. It could harm the process of de-
- mocratization in the third world and lead to
- the emergence of aggressive regimes. It
- would be truly tragic if the end of the Cold
- War were followed by new wars in the devel-
- oping world or growing conflict along north-
- south, rich-poor lines.
-   Given the consequences, our response to
- environmental deterioration in the third
- world is woefully inadequate. Until recently,
- the principal development banks and major
- donors did not include the environment as
- priority in the development process. Indeed,
- many donor-financed projects went forward
- without regard to the environmental conse-
- quences with sometimes disastrous conse-
- quences.
-   It was only in 1972 that the international
- community established an organization spe-
- cifically concerned with the global environ-
- ment. That organization, the United Na-
- tions Environment Program, remains stun-
- ningly underfunded. In 1989 the UNEP
- budget was a mere $30 million, not even one
- percent of U.S. environmental expenditure
- at the federal level. In its 17 years UNEP
- has had an extraordinary catalytic role in
- developing international environmental law,
- in assisting developing countries build envi-
- ronmental institutions, and in enhancing an
- awareness of the close link between the en-
- vironment    and   development.   Among
- UNEP's recent achievements is the Montre-
- al Protocol on the ozone layer, the major
- international environmental agreement of
- the decade and the first serious effort to ad-
- dress the global warming problem. This
- alone would, In my view, justify the paltry
- sums our world community has expended on
- UNEP.
-   I believe we should in this decade resolve
- to support a rapid increase in the size and
- scope of UNEP activities. I would urge a
- tenfold expansion in the UNEP budget over
- the next three years. This, of course, will re-
- quire leadership from the parliamentarians
- amongst us to Increase our own countries'
- contributions. However, even at the $300
- million level, UNEP would still be a modest
- sized U.N. agency, and the overall effort
- would be still small as compared to the envi-
- ronmental needs of the developing world or
- the scale of the global environmental prob-
- lem.
-   As you will have noticed my remarks have
-   focused heavily on the Issue of resources.
-   After a decade of borrowing and spending, it
-   has become fashionable in the United
- States to talk of actions that do not cost
- money. Given the economic crisis of the
- East, they too may be subject to the same
- tendency. And there is, of course, much that
- can be done to protect the environment
- without costing a lot of money. However, we
- cannot seriously address our environmental
- crisis unless we are also prepared to address
- the need for major new resources. Hence
- the Importance I have given to means for
- finding such resources.
-   As a planet we face a threat to our surviv-
-   al comparable to the threat a foreign enemy
-
-
- can pose to national survival. New ideas and
- cost-free measures have their place. There
- is, however, no substitute for cold, hard
- cash. Fortunately, the prospective peace
- dividend provides a source for such cash.
-   This said, I would like to put in a word on
- behalf of several relatively low cost environ-
- mental Initiatives with which I personally
- have long been associated. On several occa-
- sions I have persuaded my Senate col-
- leagues to endorse resolutions containing
- draft treaty language. I am pleased to say
- that two of these efforts were, In fact, con-
- verted from Senate resolution into an actual
- treaty now In force. These are a treaty ban-
- ning tile emplacement of weapons of mass
- destruction on the seabed floor and a treaty
- banning the use of environmental modifica-
- tion techinques In warfare.
-   In 1977 I put forward draft language for a
- third treaty, an international agreement
- mandating the preparation of an environ-
- mental impact assessment for all projects,
- public and private, that would impact on
- the territory of another state or on the
- global commons. My proposed Environmen-
- tal Impact Assessment Treaty would not
- prohibit a state from carrying out the activi-
- ty. It would, however, be required to make a
- detailed assessment of the impact of the ac-
- tivity and to communicate this information
- to the affected countries or, in the case of
- the global commons, to the United Nations
- Environment Program.
-   This idea was endorsed unanimously by
- the U.S. Senate in 1078. Since then it has
- been on the agenda of the UNEP Governing
- Council and, as principles to be followed by
- member states, has received the endorse-
- ment of that Governing Council. Further,
- UNEP's international law unit has made
- substantial progress toward drafting a
- treaty. I realize many European agreements
- go far beyond this treaty. However, where
- no such agreements are in place, I believe
- this  Environmental Impact Assessment
- Treaty represents an important step toward
- greater environmental responsibility.
-   Second, I would urge we move forward
- quickly with proposals to draft and enact an
- International convention to protect biologi-
- cal diversity. This, too, is an issue of person-
- al concern and I am proud to be the author
- of a provision of U.S. law establishing a pro-
- gram, under the auspices of our Agency for
- International Development, to assist coun-
- tries in the protection of biological diversi-
- ty. With the rate of extinctions rapidly ac-
- celerating there can be no doubt of the seri-
- ousness of the problem. Here in the pres-
- ence of so many spiritual leaders I can only
- wonder how the divine must view the de-
- struction of so many of His creations. And I
- wonder what He must think of the cavalier
- manner In which these extinctions are being
- carried out-elephants and rhinos destroyed
- for ivory trinkets and aphrodisiac powder,
- or perhaps worse, entire species obliterated
- without man even knowing what was once
- there.
-   A treaty to conserve biological diversity
- should include provisions under which coun-
- tries would register species-rich habitats,
- and in particular, the habitats of endan-
- gered species. Registration of the habitat
- would include an obligation to protect the
- habitat, and the species contained therein.
- In my view, a treaty should spell out mini-
- mum standards for habitat and species pro-
- tection. In return for protecting these habi-
- tats, the registering countries should receive
- technical assistance for their protective ac-
- tivities and perhaps a priority for other
- kinds of assistance Intended to encourage
-
- 
-
-
- January 23, 1990                  CO
- local peoples to value the preserved life re-
- sources.
-   Finally, I would note that the last 15
-   years has seen an enormous explosion in the
- number and scope of international legal
- agreements relating to the environment.
- The development of international environ-
- mental law is a low cost and highly benefi-
- cial way of protecting global environment
- and of enhancing global environmental co-
- operation. This Is a trend we must encour-
- age. I would hope that UNEP's environmen-
- tal law unit might become the nucleus of a
- new International environmental law insti-
- tute. Such an institute should draw on the
- resources of UNEP members, and In particu-
- lar those with more developed domestic en-
- vironmental law. I would hope these states
- might secund lawyers to the international
- environmental law institute both for the
- purpose of developing further international
- environmental law and to assist countries in
- the development of domestic environmental
- law.
-   Twenty-five years ago, in his last speech
- to the United Nations, U.S. Ambassador
- Adlai Stevenson made reference to the pho-
- tographs of Earth taken from an early space
- mission. Today these images have become
- commonplace but at that time they were
- strikingly new and they led Ambassador
- Stevenson to reflect on the fragility of our
- human environment.
-   "We travel together," he said, "passengers
- on a little space ship, dependent on its vul-
- nerable reserves of air and soil, all commit-
- ted for our safety to its security and peace;
- preserved from annihilation only by the
- care, the work, and I will say, the love we
- give our fragile craft."
-   The rapid political changes of the last
- year now provide an extraordinary opportu-
- nity-an  opportunity for unprecedented
- global cooperation and an opportunity to
- mobilize significant new resources-to the
- task of protecting our fragile craft. We must
- go forward from here reaffirming our love
- for this planet and rededicating ourselves to
- its protection.
-   Mr. MITCHELL. Mr. President, I
- would like now to yield to my distin-
- guished friend and colleague, the Re-
- publican leader and to say that it is as
- always a pleasure to be here on the
- Senate floor with the distinguished
- Republican leader. I look forward to
- what I know will be a busy and I hope
- will also be a very productive session
- for the Senate and the Nation.
 AUTHOR = "Hiroyoshi Komatsu"
 AUTHOR_EMAIL = "hiroyoshi.komat@gmail.com"
 URL = "https://bitbucket.org/torotoki/corenlp-python"
-VERSION = "1.0.3"
+VERSION = "1.1.0"
 
 # Utility function to read the README file.
 # Used for the long_description.  It's nice, because now 1) we have a top level