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+Mr. MITCHELL. Mr. President, fol-
+ lowing the conclusion of morning busi-
+ ness at 3:30 p.m., I will seek unani-
+ mous consent to proceed to the consid-
+ eration of calendar item No. 427, that
+ Is S. 1630, the clean air legislation.
+
+       THE SENATE AGENDA
+   Mr. MITCHELL. Mr. President, we
+ begin this session with the Clean Air
+ Act. This is critical legislation. It has
+ been over 12 years since the Clean Air
+ Act was last debated in the Senate.
+ Since then, our population has grown,
+ automobile use Increased, and the
+ economy expanded, with the accompa-
+ nying increases in production facili-
+ ties, energy use, congestion, and inevi-
+ tably, pollution.
+   These factors have overwhelmed our
+ efforts to improve air quality In the
+ places where the majority of Ameri-
+ cans live and work.
+   Today, more than half the American
+ people are forced to breathe air that
+ does not meet national health stand-
+ ards.
+   This will be a substantive debate
+ and, on some issues, a controversial
+ one. Air quality issues vary by region.
+ Some   regions are at significantly
+ greater risk from the effects of acid
+ rain; some rural areas do not suffer as
+ much from ozone as cities; congested
+ urban areas are seeing a further degra-
+ dation in air quality.
+   I welcome the President's strong call
+ for action on a Clean Air Act. I com-
+ mend him for it. It is my intention
+ that the Senate give him a strong
+ Clean Air Act.
+   There are many aspects to this issue.
+ One overrides all others. We must pro-
+ tect the health of Americans.
+   We will, as we should, debate the
+ costs of this bill. In that regard, I em-
+ phasize two points.
+   First, if measured solely in dollars
+ and cents, this bill should pass because
+ the cost of inaction is higher than the
+ cost of action.
+   It costs the United States more in
+ health care and lost productivity than
+ it would to clean up air pollution. This
+
+
+ 0 This "bullet" symbol identifies statements or insertions which are not spoken by a Member of the Senate on the floor.
+
+ 
+
+
+ CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-SENATE
+
+
+ bill will save the American people
+ money.
+   Second, the bill ought not be meas-
+ ured solely in dollars and cents. That
+ would exclude consideration of the
+ most important of our values-human
+ values.
+   The evidence is clear, compelling
+ and undisputed that air pollution
+ causes thousands of premature deaths
+ and millions of illnesses each year. Es-
+ pecially vulnerable are children.
+   I ask each Senator, what Is the
+ dollar value of a human life? What is
+ the dollar value of a child's health?
+ Your child's health? Obviously, these
+ are unanswerable questions. But just
+ because we can't put a dollar value on
+ a child's health doesn't mean we
+ should exclude the health of Ameri-
+ can children from this debate. To the
+ contrary, it is and should be central to
+ this debate.
+   We should get in perspective and
+ keep in perspective the fact that we
+ are considering a health bill. Its pur-
+ pose is basic: To make the air we must
+ all breathe fit for human lungs.
+   Beyond the Clean Air Act, this 2d
+ session of the 101st Congress will be
+ busy. We have unfinished business
+ from the first session to complete, im-
+ portant reauthorizations to write, a
+ dramatically different world against
+ which to weigh our Nation's security
+ needs and priorities, as well as the re-
+ quired  budget   and   appropriations
+ measures for 1991.
+   I hope conferees on the unfinished
+ business of the first session, drug
+ treatment legislation and oilspill liabil-
+ ity, will act promptly. These are im-
+ portant matters we should be able to
+ finish swiftly.
+   Tomorrow, the House will override
+ the President's veto of legislation ex-
+ tending the visa protections of Chi-
+ nese students and exchange scholars.
+ It is my intention to ask the Senate to
+ move promptly to that proposal.
+   I regret the President's veto of this
+ bill. His claim that he is doing as much
+ through a Presidential memorandum
+ of disapproval as the bill would do
+ through the law is unpersuasive.
+   The President's memorandum of dis-
+ approval is only an administrative
+ action. It provides no statutory legal
+ protection for the Chinese students. It
+ can be revoked by the President or the
+ Attorney General at their discretion.
+   This administrative action could also
+ be challenged because immigration
+ law does not, in general, permit aliens
+ to adjust their status if they apply to
+ do so while they are technically in ille-
+ gal status. It is an open question
+ whether the administration has the
+ authority to grant such a generalized
+ waiver of a congressionally mandated
+ stipulation. The best way to answer
+ that question and to resolve all doubt
+ is to do what Congress did last year:
+ Change the law.
+
+
+   That is why we must now override
+ the veto.
+   Equally important, the veto sends
+ exactly the wrong signal.
+   The President says he does not want
+ to isolate the Government of China.
+ Neither do I.
+   But to the extent that it is isolated,
+ the Government of China isolated
+ itself. It isolated itself from its own
+ people and from the community of na-
+ tions by murdering its own citizens, by
+ denying to those citizens even the
+ most basic of human rights. Our re-
+ sponse to the urgent and well-founded
+ fears of the Chinese students in our
+ country was not taken to isolate
+ anyone: It was an appropriate Ameri-
+ can response to the victims of murder
+ by government.
+   I hope my colleagues will repeat
+ their unanimous approval of the bill
+ last year with an equally strong vote
+ to override the veto. It is the right
+ thing to do.
+   It is my intention to proceed to the
+ crime legislation on or about February
+ 7, as provided in the agreement we
+ reached last year.
+   Senator BIDEN, the chairman of the
+ Judiciary Committee, has proposed a
+ vehicle which incorporates the three
+ uncompleted    items  of  the  Bush
+ agenda-another Federal death penal-
+ ty, habeus corpus reform, and exclu-
+ sionary rule changes-along with some
+ important additional elements to curb
+ drug money-laundering, the DeConcini
+ assault weapons bill, language to curb
+ the export of assault weapons to drug
+ dealers in Latin America, as well as ad-
+ ditional funding for law enforcement
+ personnel and other matters.
+   I know other Senators have propos-
+ als in this field as well.
+   The most effective direct assistance
+ the Federal Government can provide
+ to States for the purpose of curbing
+ violent crime is additional resources
+ for law enforcement, prosecution, and
+ detention. We made a good start on fi-
+ nancing that assistance last year. I
+ hope the President's budget for 1991
+ builds on that beginning.
+   Following passage of clean air legis-
+ lation, we will consider national serv-
+ ice legislation.
+   The national 3ervice concept seeks
+ to reinstate at a national level the
+ sense of community, participation, and
+ self-help that are all part of the Amer-
+ ican tradition.
+   National service will give our young
+ people an opportunity to use their
+ energy and ideals to help the larger so-
+ ciety. It can give an alternative to that
+ half of our young people who do not
+ go to college. It will give them a way
+ to make a contribution and, at the
+ same time, earn a stake in their own
+ education or their first home.
+   For the many young people who
+ know that their desire to attend col-
+ lege poses an enormous financial sacri-
+ fice to their parents, national service
+
+
+ can be a way to help themselves, by
+ earning their tuition costs in advance
+ of school, rather than graduating with
+ an enormous debt load.
+   Most important, national service will
+ show young people in very direct and
+ practical terms that their efforts, their
+ talents and their ideals are valued by
+ their society and needed by many mil-
+ lions of their fellow citizens.
+   The bill we will debate includes a
+ voluntary service component, a conser-
+ vation component, and a pilot program
+ for the core idea of national service in
+ exchange for education or home own-
+ ership credits.
+   It is my intention also to move
+ promptly to address the Nation's key
+ education needs.
+   Our higher education system is
+ among the finest in the world. But
+ half our students do not go on to
+ higher education. The education crisis
+ is not at the college level; it is at the
+ elementary   and   secondary   levels,
+ where the basic foundations of liter-
+ acy, mathematical skills, and learning
+ skills are established.
+   We will debate the Educational Ex-
+ cellence Act, which contains the Presi-
+ dent's proposals to give awards to
+ schools and teachers for excellence,
+ encourage Innovative teaching meth-
+ ods, and reduce student loan defaults.
+   I also want to consider the National
+ Literacy Act, which is designed to
+ eliminate illiteracy in this Nation by
+ the year 2000. No single action is more
+ critical to our future economic securi-
+ ty. By the end of the century, ade-
+ quate literacy will be an essential pre-
+ condition to living in our society.
+   Only 14 percent of the jobs available
+ then will be adequately performed by
+ high school graduates. Most Jobs will
+ need higher skills. Brt 80 percent of
+ new job seekers at that time will be
+ minorities, immigrants, and women. If
+ we have not substantially improved
+ our literacy levels by that time, we
+ risk seeing those jobs exported over-
+ seas.
+   For the last decade, we have read re-
+ ports and analyses of the shortcom-
+ ings in basic educational achievement
+ in our country. It is time to act on
+ what we know, both as to shortcom-
+ ings and the best way to correct them.
+   We know that a third of our math
+ and science teachers today are un-
+ qualified to teach in those subjects; we
+ know we face a shortfall of teachers in
+ the next decade that could reach 2
+ million, we know American children
+ score consistently lower on math and
+ science tests than children from Asian
+ and European countries. We know
+ reading and writing skills need sub-
+ stantial improvement.
+   We also know that early interven-
+ tion and focused resources help. We
+ know that extra help to the disadvan-
+ taged in elementary schools raises edu-
+ cational achievement levels in high
+
+
+ January 23, 1990
+
+ 
+
+
+ January 23, 1990                   CO
+ schools; we know     Head Start and
+ other   enrichment programs      bring
+ gains that continue through a child's
+ school life.
+   This year, it is time to put what we
+ know Is needed together with what we
+ know will make a difference, and get
+ our school system back on track. After
+ a decade of reports and rhetoric,
+ Americans expect action and I think
+ we should provide It.
+   Americans also expect action on
+ child care legislation. I hope the dif-
+ ferences there can be worked out
+ shortly so that a final form of this bill
+ can be voted upon and sent to the
+ President. Working parents need af-
+ fordable care for their children but
+ they also want quality care. The Con-
+ gress should pass a bill to ensure both.
+   Those   immediate    concerns-clean
+ air, national service, crime legislation,
+ and education reform measures-are a
+ good start for our work this year. But
+ they do not exhaust our agenda.
+   One issue of particular importance
+ to all of us is campaign finance
+ reform.
+   It is evident that if we do not reform
+ the manner in which election cam-
+ paigns are financed, we will forfeit the
+ trust of the American people. The
+ enormous costs of campaigning are
+ making it more and more difficult for
+ any other than the very wealthy to
+ contemplate serving in the Congress.
+ The demands of election campaigns
+ force far too much attention to be
+ paid to fundraising activities.
+   The appearance is one that under-
+ mines confidence in Congress. The re-
+ ality is one that distorts Congress'
+ ability to function.
+   Campaign finance reform is a goal I
+ have pursued for 8 years. I shall con-
+ tinue to press for It, and I hope that
+ this year we will finally see an oppor-
+ tunity to take effective action.
+
+     THE RETIREMENT OF MAX
+               BARBER
+   Mr. MITCHELL. Mr. President, I
+ would like to take this opportunity to
+ acknowledge the recent retirement of
+ Max Barber, who served as superin-
+ tendent of the Senate Radio-TV Gal-
+ lery.
+   Max has been a familiar face in the
+ U.S. Capitol for 38 years. During those
+ years, Max worked as an elevator oper-
+ tor, served on the Capitol Police
+ Force, and most recently was the su-
+ perintendent of the Senate Radio-TV
+ Gallery, where for 17 years he assisted
+ our friends in the broadcast media.
+   Max was privileged to witness many
+ changes that have occurred in the
+ Congress. I was privileged to have his
+ support and assistance during my first
+ year as majority leader.
+   Shortly before the holidays, Max an-
+ nounced his retirement. I understand
+ that he and his wife, Sylvia, are now
+ enjoying the sunny skies of Florida for
+
+
+ NGRESSIONAL RECORD-SENATE
+
+
+ the winter months. On behalf of all
+ my colleagues in Congress, I wish Max
+ and Sylvia a most happy and healthy
+ retirement. He will be missed.
+   I also want to take this opportunity
+ to extend to his successor, Larry Jane-
+ zich, the very best wishes in his new
+ role. I know he is up to the task.
+
+ AN ENVIRONMENTAL DIVIDEND:
+   CAPITALIZING ON NEW OPPOR-
+   TUNITIES FOR INTERNATION-
+   AL ACTION
+   Mr. MITCHELL. Mr. President, I
+ ask unanimous consent that a speech
+ given by the distinguished chairman
+ of the Senate Foreign Relations Com-
+ mittee, Senator CLAIBORNE PELL of
+ Rhode Island, be inserted in the
+ RECORD.
+   The honorable chairman of the For-
+ eign Relations Committee recently ad-
+ dressed the Global Forum on Environ-
+ ment and Development for Survival in
+ Moscow. His remarks focus on the cat-
+ astrophic threats to the world's envi-
+ ronment-including     global   climate
+ change, ozone depletion and a host of
+ problems that require international
+ cooperation.
+   I would like to call this important
+ speech to the attention of my col-
+ leagues. Not only does it deal with one
+ of the most significant problems of
+ our times, it does so with eloquence
+ and clarity. I hope other Senators will
+ take the time to review Senator PELL'S
+ statement.
+   There being no objection, the re-
+ marks werc ordered to be printed in
+ the RECORD, as follows:
+ AN ENVIRONMENTAL DIVIDEND: CAPITALIZING
+   ON NEw OPPORTUNITIES FOR INTERNATIONAL
+   AcTION
+ (Remarks by Senator Claiborne Pell, Global
+   Forum on Environment and Development,
+   Moscow, U.S.S.R., January 17, 1990)
+   We are gathered here at an extraordinary
+ time in human history. In a matter of
+ months a series of popular movements have
+ transformed Europe. The Iron Curtain has
+ ceased to be a barrier between East and
+ West. A democratically elected government
+ has taken power in Poland, and in the next
+ few months free elcdtions will be held in
+ East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria,
+ Hungary, and Romania. In addition, the
+ Soviet Union is well along on a path to free-
+ dom, openness and democratic renewal.
+   With the changes in Eastern Europe and
+ the Soviet U nion, East and West will begin
+ to share common values of a belief in indi-
+ vidual rights and democratic institutions.
+ The wave of democracy is also spreading to
+ the developing world. With the recent elec-
+ tions in Chile, every government in South
+ America will be a democracy. Elsewhere In
+ the just concluded decade, dictatorships in
+ the Philippines and Pakistan have disap-
+ peared and India's recent elections, the larg-
+ est exercise of popular choice in human his-
+ tory, reminds us of the appeal of democracy
+ to even the world's poorest people. Of
+ course, there are setbacks, as last June's
+ events in Tiananmen Square remind us, and
+ democracy can be fragile as witnessed by
+ recent events in Manila. Of the overall
+
+
+ trend, however, we can be optimistic: democ-
+ racy Is indeed on the march.
+   It is an interesting fact that modern histo-
+ ry has never known a war between demo-
+ cratic states. And, Indeed, the spread of de-
+ mocracy and freedom across Europe has re-
+ sulted In a dramatic reduction of tensions.
+ In 1981, the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists
+ advanced the clock of global survival to
+ three minutes before the midnight of nucle-
+ ar Armageddon. Today with a treaty on In-
+ termediate Nuclear Forces In place and
+ agreements for drastic reductions in strate-
+ gic and conventional forces in the offing, we
+ can see the hands of that clock being set
+ further back.
+   We in the United States consider the Eu-
+ ropean democracies to be our friends and
+ allies. Looking ahead we might ask whether
+ democratic nations in Eastern Europe and
+ the Soviet Union might also be our friends
+ and allies, and if so, for what threat do we
+ need anything comparable to our existing
+ level of armaments?
+   A more peaceful world does not translate
+ into a problem-free world. Indeed, as the
+ threat of nuclear incineration recedes, we
+ can see more clearly the danger posed by
+ environmental degradation and global cli-
+ mate change. As nuclear winter would sud-
+ denly alter man's climate and prospects for
+ survival, so might global warming albeit
+ more gradually. If we do nothing we may be
+ trading the risk of a flash fry for the cer-
+ tainty of a slow roasting. In the end, howev-
+ er, the results can be comparably cata-
+ strophic.
+   If a deteriorating environment is compara-
+ ble in consequence, if not immediacy, to
+ global war, then logically it requires a com-
+ parable response. Put simply, we must be
+ prepared to come forward with the re-
+ sources to protect our environment. Today
+ my country spends $295.6 billion on defense
+ and $5.6 billion at the federal level, or about
+ one-fifteenth as much, on protecting our en-
+ vironment. It is not realistic to expect these
+ proportions to be reversed, but they must be
+ changed.
+   The end of the Cold War is already lead-
+ ing to cuts in military spending. This trend
+ should be accelerated as we conclude agree-
+ ments to reduce strategic and conventional
+ arms. These will jave substantial money for
+ both the countries of NATO and those
+ linked to the Warsaw Pact. We have suc-
+ cessfully met the challenge of the Cold War.
+ The question now is how will we meet the
+ challenge of peace?
+   Here I would suggest that a meaningful
+ percentage, perhaps 15 percent, of our pro-
+ spective peace dividend be dedicated to the
+ environment. And I would propose that the
+ upcoming agreements on strategic and con-
+ ventional forces explicitly earmark 15 per-
+ cent of the resultant savings for additional
+ environmental protection to be expended
+ either within the country where the savings
+ are made or internationally.
+   Under the domestic law of the United
+ States such funds would have to be appro-
+ priated pursuant to our constitutional proc-
+ esses. I am sure the same would be true for
+ other countries that would participate in
+ such an agreement. However, the inclusion
+ of an environmental peace dividend in an
+ arms control treaty will create an obligation
+ and a goal for both West and East. It would
+ also set an important precedent for future
+ East-West agreements, one where we agree
+ not only on measures to reduce the risk of
+ mutual destruction but also on major meas-
+ ures of mutual cooperation.
+
+ 
+
+
+ CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-SENATE
+
+
+ January 23, 1990
+
+
+   I would further propose that we direct the
+ earmarked    environmental   expenditure
+ largely to those problems which are interna-
+ tional or global in nature. In Europe this
+ would mean spending to clean up shared
+ rivers, to prevent air pollution which in
+ Europe has no boundaries, and to neutralize
+ acid rain which is destroying the forests,
+ lakes, and monuments of Europe.
+   It is no secret that the countries of East-
+ ern Europe have lagged far behind Western
+ Europe In utilizing pollution control tech.
+ nologies in their manufacturing and power
+ generation processes. Partly this results
+ from antiquated plants, partly from eco-
+ nomic distress that necessitates use of pol-
+ luting technologies and fuels, such as high
+ sulfur coal, and partly it is the product of a
+ political system in which the ruling elite
+ was not responsive to the concerns of the
+ population. Whatever the reason, however,
+ the victims of East European pollution live
+ in both the Eastern and Western wings of
+ the common European home. Both wings
+ will benefit from cleaning up the environ-
+ ment. However, it follows that a very large
+ part of the European generated component
+ of my proposed environmental peace divi-
+ dend should be channeled to Eastern
+ Europe.
+   In the case of the United States and
+ Canada, our people will undoubtedly expect
+ that the greater part of our peace dividend
+ be spent in a manner that visibly benefits
+ our own people. Thus, most of our two coun-
+ tries' new    environmental   expenditure
+ should occur on our North American conti-
+ nent. This expenditure should nonetheless
+ be made in a way that benefits the global
+ environment. North Americans are both in
+ the aggregate and on a per capita basis the
+ biggest producers of the greenhouse gases,
+ and In particular of carbon dioxide. Logical-
+ ly, the effort to begin to control global
+ warming must start In North America.
+ Under my proposed scheme I would recom-
+ mend that a great part of our environmen-
+ tal dividend be used to develop energy con-
+ servation technologies as well as alterna-
+ tives to fossil fuels. As a bonus, this effort
+ will help ameliorate the problem of acid
+ rain, which has become a major bilateral
+ issue in U.S.-Canada relations and has in-
+ flicted damage on my home region of New
+ England.
+   At this time I cannot state the amount of
+ new environmental expenditure to be gener-
+ ated by my proposal. However, some project
+ that the end of the Cold War might lead to
+ a 50 percent reduction in U.S. defense
+ spending by the end of this century. If 15
+ percent of this saving went to the environ-
+ mental peace dividend, the annual new envi-
+ ronmental expenditure in the United States
+ would equal $22 billion, or four times our
+ present federal effort. Comparable sums
+ should be generated by reductions in Euro-
+ pean and Soviet defense expenditure. With
+ this level of resource commitment we might
+ truly begin to have an impact on the mam-
+ moth environmental problems facing us.
+   So far I have discussed how the peace divi-
+   dend generated by the end of the Cold War
+   might be used to enhance the environment
+   of the Cold Warring nations, that Is, of
+   Europe and North America. We live in a
+   single global community. The Spring clean-
+   ing made possible by the thaw In the Cold
+   War will benefit not only our house but also
+   our global community. However, we cannot
+   be indifferent to an environmental deterio-
+   ration in that part of the world which is nei-
+   ther East nor West, that is, the Third
+   World, the developing world which is home
+   to 70 percent of the world's population.
+
+
+   On an environmental level, we will accom-
+ plish little if the savings in greenhouse
+ gases made by conservation and new tech-
+ nology use In the developed countries are
+ offset by the ecologically unsound Industri-
+ alization of the developing world and by the
+ destruction of the tropical forests which are
+ quite literally the lungs of our planet.
+ Worse, environmental degradation in the
+ third world is the product of, the compan-
+ ion of, and the cause of increased poverty
+ and human misery. This misery can only
+ breed popular anger and governmental in-
+ stability. It could harm the process of de-
+ mocratization in the third world and lead to
+ the emergence of aggressive regimes. It
+ would be truly tragic if the end of the Cold
+ War were followed by new wars in the devel-
+ oping world or growing conflict along north-
+ south, rich-poor lines.
+   Given the consequences, our response to
+ environmental deterioration in the third
+ world is woefully inadequate. Until recently,
+ the principal development banks and major
+ donors did not include the environment as
+ priority in the development process. Indeed,
+ many donor-financed projects went forward
+ without regard to the environmental conse-
+ quences with sometimes disastrous conse-
+ quences.
+   It was only in 1972 that the international
+ community established an organization spe-
+ cifically concerned with the global environ-
+ ment. That organization, the United Na-
+ tions Environment Program, remains stun-
+ ningly underfunded. In 1989 the UNEP
+ budget was a mere $30 million, not even one
+ percent of U.S. environmental expenditure
+ at the federal level. In its 17 years UNEP
+ has had an extraordinary catalytic role in
+ developing international environmental law,
+ in assisting developing countries build envi-
+ ronmental institutions, and in enhancing an
+ awareness of the close link between the en-
+ vironment    and   development.   Among
+ UNEP's recent achievements is the Montre-
+ al Protocol on the ozone layer, the major
+ international environmental agreement of
+ the decade and the first serious effort to ad-
+ dress the global warming problem. This
+ alone would, In my view, justify the paltry
+ sums our world community has expended on
+ UNEP.
+   I believe we should in this decade resolve
+ to support a rapid increase in the size and
+ scope of UNEP activities. I would urge a
+ tenfold expansion in the UNEP budget over
+ the next three years. This, of course, will re-
+ quire leadership from the parliamentarians
+ amongst us to Increase our own countries'
+ contributions. However, even at the $300
+ million level, UNEP would still be a modest
+ sized U.N. agency, and the overall effort
+ would be still small as compared to the envi-
+ ronmental needs of the developing world or
+ the scale of the global environmental prob-
+ lem.
+   As you will have noticed my remarks have
+   focused heavily on the Issue of resources.
+   After a decade of borrowing and spending, it
+   has become fashionable in the United
+ States to talk of actions that do not cost
+ money. Given the economic crisis of the
+ East, they too may be subject to the same
+ tendency. And there is, of course, much that
+ can be done to protect the environment
+ without costing a lot of money. However, we
+ cannot seriously address our environmental
+ crisis unless we are also prepared to address
+ the need for major new resources. Hence
+ the Importance I have given to means for
+ finding such resources.
+   As a planet we face a threat to our surviv-
+   al comparable to the threat a foreign enemy
+
+
+ can pose to national survival. New ideas and
+ cost-free measures have their place. There
+ is, however, no substitute for cold, hard
+ cash. Fortunately, the prospective peace
+ dividend provides a source for such cash.
+   This said, I would like to put in a word on
+ behalf of several relatively low cost environ-
+ mental Initiatives with which I personally
+ have long been associated. On several occa-
+ sions I have persuaded my Senate col-
+ leagues to endorse resolutions containing
+ draft treaty language. I am pleased to say
+ that two of these efforts were, In fact, con-
+ verted from Senate resolution into an actual
+ treaty now In force. These are a treaty ban-
+ ning tile emplacement of weapons of mass
+ destruction on the seabed floor and a treaty
+ banning the use of environmental modifica-
+ tion techinques In warfare.
+   In 1977 I put forward draft language for a
+ third treaty, an international agreement
+ mandating the preparation of an environ-
+ mental impact assessment for all projects,
+ public and private, that would impact on
+ the territory of another state or on the
+ global commons. My proposed Environmen-
+ tal Impact Assessment Treaty would not
+ prohibit a state from carrying out the activi-
+ ty. It would, however, be required to make a
+ detailed assessment of the impact of the ac-
+ tivity and to communicate this information
+ to the affected countries or, in the case of
+ the global commons, to the United Nations
+ Environment Program.
+   This idea was endorsed unanimously by
+ the U.S. Senate in 1078. Since then it has
+ been on the agenda of the UNEP Governing
+ Council and, as principles to be followed by
+ member states, has received the endorse-
+ ment of that Governing Council. Further,
+ UNEP's international law unit has made
+ substantial progress toward drafting a
+ treaty. I realize many European agreements
+ go far beyond this treaty. However, where
+ no such agreements are in place, I believe
+ this  Environmental Impact Assessment
+ Treaty represents an important step toward
+ greater environmental responsibility.
+   Second, I would urge we move forward
+ quickly with proposals to draft and enact an
+ International convention to protect biologi-
+ cal diversity. This, too, is an issue of person-
+ al concern and I am proud to be the author
+ of a provision of U.S. law establishing a pro-
+ gram, under the auspices of our Agency for
+ International Development, to assist coun-
+ tries in the protection of biological diversi-
+ ty. With the rate of extinctions rapidly ac-
+ celerating there can be no doubt of the seri-
+ ousness of the problem. Here in the pres-
+ ence of so many spiritual leaders I can only
+ wonder how the divine must view the de-
+ struction of so many of His creations. And I
+ wonder what He must think of the cavalier
+ manner In which these extinctions are being
+ carried out-elephants and rhinos destroyed
+ for ivory trinkets and aphrodisiac powder,
+ or perhaps worse, entire species obliterated
+ without man even knowing what was once
+ there.
+   A treaty to conserve biological diversity
+ should include provisions under which coun-
+ tries would register species-rich habitats,
+ and in particular, the habitats of endan-
+ gered species. Registration of the habitat
+ would include an obligation to protect the
+ habitat, and the species contained therein.
+ In my view, a treaty should spell out mini-
+ mum standards for habitat and species pro-
+ tection. In return for protecting these habi-
+ tats, the registering countries should receive
+ technical assistance for their protective ac-
+ tivities and perhaps a priority for other
+ kinds of assistance Intended to encourage
+
+ 
+
+
+ January 23, 1990                  CO
+ local peoples to value the preserved life re-
+ sources.
+   Finally, I would note that the last 15
+   years has seen an enormous explosion in the
+ number and scope of international legal
+ agreements relating to the environment.
+ The development of international environ-
+ mental law is a low cost and highly benefi-
+ cial way of protecting global environment
+ and of enhancing global environmental co-
+ operation. This Is a trend we must encour-
+ age. I would hope that UNEP's environmen-
+ tal law unit might become the nucleus of a
+ new International environmental law insti-
+ tute. Such an institute should draw on the
+ resources of UNEP members, and In particu-
+ lar those with more developed domestic en-
+ vironmental law. I would hope these states
+ might secund lawyers to the international
+ environmental law institute both for the
+ purpose of developing further international
+ environmental law and to assist countries in
+ the development of domestic environmental
+ law.
+   Twenty-five years ago, in his last speech
+ to the United Nations, U.S. Ambassador
+ Adlai Stevenson made reference to the pho-
+ tographs of Earth taken from an early space
+ mission. Today these images have become
+ commonplace but at that time they were
+ strikingly new and they led Ambassador
+ Stevenson to reflect on the fragility of our
+ human environment.
+   "We travel together," he said, "passengers
+ on a little space ship, dependent on its vul-
+ nerable reserves of air and soil, all commit-
+ ted for our safety to its security and peace;
+ preserved from annihilation only by the
+ care, the work, and I will say, the love we
+ give our fragile craft."
+   The rapid political changes of the last
+ year now provide an extraordinary opportu-
+ nity-an  opportunity for unprecedented
+ global cooperation and an opportunity to
+ mobilize significant new resources-to the
+ task of protecting our fragile craft. We must
+ go forward from here reaffirming our love
+ for this planet and rededicating ourselves to
+ its protection.
+   Mr. MITCHELL. Mr. President, I
+ would like now to yield to my distin-
+ guished friend and colleague, the Re-
+ publican leader and to say that it is as
+ always a pleasure to be here on the
+ Senate floor with the distinguished
+ Republican leader. I look forward to
+ what I know will be a busy and I hope
+ will also be a very productive session
+ for the Senate and the Nation.
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