GNU Trove: High performance collections for Java


The GNU Trove library has two objectives:

  1. Provide "free" (as in "free speech" and "free beer"), fast,
    lightweight implementations of the java.util Collections API.
    These implementations are designed to be pluggable replacements
    for their JDK equivalents.
  2. Whenever possible, provide the same collections support for
    primitive types. This gap in the JDK is often addressed by using
    the "wrapper" classes (java.lang.Integer, java.lang.Float, etc.)
    with Object-based collections. For most applications, however,
    collections which store primitives directly will require less
    space and yield significant performance gains.

Hashtable techniques

The Trove maps/sets use open addressing instead of the chaining
approach taken by the JDK hashtables. This eliminates the need to
create Map.Entry wrappper objects for every item in a table and so
reduces the O (big-oh) in the performance of the hashtable algorithm.
The size of the tables used in Trove's maps/sets is always a prime
number, improving the probability of an optimal distribution of
entries across the table, and so reducing the likelihood of
performance-degrading collisions. Trove sets are not backed by maps,
and so using a THashSet does not result in the allocation of an unused
"values" array.

Hashing strategies

Trove's maps/sets support the use of custom hashing strategies,
allowing you to tune collections based on characteristics of the input
data. This feature also allows you to define hash functions when it is
not feasible to override Object.hashCode(). For example, the
java.lang.String class is final, and its implementation of hashCode()
takes O(n) time to complete. In some applications, however, it may be
possible for a custom hashing function to save time by skipping
portions of the string that are invariant.

Using java.util.HashMap, it is not possible to use Java language
arrays as keys. For example, this code:

char[] foo, bar;
foo = new char[] {'a','b','c'};
bar = new char[] {'a','b','c'};
System.out.println(foo.hashCode() == bar.hashCode() ? "equal" : "not equal");
System.out.println(foo.equals(bar) ? "equal" : "not equal");

...produces this output:

not equal
not equal

And so an entry stored in a java.util.HashMap with foo as a key could
not be retrieved with bar, since there is no way to override
hashCode() or equals() on language array objects.

In a, however, you can implement a
gnu.trove.strategy.HashingStrategy to enable hashing on arrays:

class CharArrayStrategy implements HashingStrategy {
    public int computeHashCode(Object o) {
        char[] c = (char[])o;
        // use the shift-add-xor class of string hashing functions
        // cf. Ramakrishna and Zobel,
        //     "Performance in Practice of String Hashing Functions"
        int h = 31; // seed chosen at random
        for (int i = 0; i < c.length; i++) { // could skip invariants
            // L=5, R=2 works well for ASCII input
            h = h ^ ((h << 5) + (h >> 2) + c[i]);
        return h;

    public boolean equals(Object o1, Object o2) {
        char[] c1 = (char[])o1;
        char[] c2 = (char[])o2;
        // could drop this check for fixed-length keys
        if (c1.length != c2.length) {
            return false;
        // could skip invariants
        for (int i = 0, len = c1.length; i < len; i++) {
            if (c1[i] != c2[i]) {
                return false;
        return true;

Iterators in primitive collections

Trove's primitive mappings include access through Iterators as well
as procedures and functions. The API documentation on those classes
contains several examples showing how these can be used effectively
and explaining why their semantics differ from those of

Last modified: Nov 9, 2017