featuring PyMite

:Author:    Dean Hall
:Copyright: Copyright 2002 Dean Hall.  See License_ for details.
:Release:   09
:Site:      http://www.pythononachip.org


Python-on-a-Chip (p14p) is a project to develop a reduced Python virtual machine
(codenamed PyMite) that runs a significant subset of the Python 2.6 language
on microcontrollers without an OS.  The other parts of p14p are the device
drivers, high-level libraries and other tools.  Please join the
`python-on-a-chip google group`_ to discuss this project.

.. _`python-on-a-chip google group`: http://groups.google.com/group/python-on-a-chip


See the LICENSE_ file to understand the terms of licensing
for each component of the Python-on-a-Chip program.



P14p is built, for most platforms, using a POSIX-like terminal, a Makefile
(or using SCons) and a GCC [cross] compiler.  The desktop64 platform is the 
default target platform and it builds for Mac OS X, Linux or Cygwin.

GNU Make should be installed since other forms of Make aren't 100% compatible.
The development system should have installed the
`GNU Compiler Collection`_ version 3.4 or later and `Python`_ 2.6.
The SCons build system is experimental.
Please read ``docs/src/BuildSystem.txt`` for more details.

To build p14p for the desktop platform and run the interactive prompt::

    $ make ipm
    ipm> print "Hello world."
    Hello world.
    ipm> ^D

Press Control+D when done with the interactive prompt.
To run the system tests on the desktop::

    $ make check

To cross-compile for a different platform, type ``make PLATFORM=<plat>``
where ``<plat>`` is the name of a subdirectory in ``src/platform/``.
For example::

    $ make PLATFORM=avr

The author uses avr-gcc to compile for Atmel AVR microcontrollers.
Other platforms use other compilers.  The windows platform uses a MicroSoft IDE.

Since p14p is so deeply embedded, it does not rely on many libraries.
For example, the avr platform needs only avr-libc and the econotag platform
requires newlib but also uses libmc1322x for advanced wireless features.

.. _`GNU Compiler Collection`: http://gcc.gnu.org/
.. _`Python`: http://www.python.org/download


Please browse the `Python-on-a-chip project`_ site for up-to-date information.
and join the `Python-on-a-chip maillist`_ for discussion about the p14p project.

.. _`Python-on-a-chip project`: http://code.google.com/p/python-on-a-chip/
.. _`Python-on-a-chip maillist`: http://groups.google.com/group/python-on-a-chip


My personal thanks go out to these people for their recent contribution to p14p:


- David Earlam: finding and fixing a defect with backtraces.
- JT: reporting and fixing a defect with the mbed build.
- Sitti: suggested an improvement for the mbed Makefile.
- James Thomas: Created issues and patches for ipm, mbed and __bi.py.
- Sergiu Mihai: Reported that arduino_mega port wasn't working
- Andrej Antonov: Reported and sent patch to desktop/ipm.py
- Tonio Monnet: Maintained the pmHeapDump.py tool


- Oscar Lindberg: Porting p14p to the MoSync platform.
- Alex Litz: Reported an error on the windows platform.
- Tonio Monnet: Recommended to use 'const' for the native func table to save RAM, enhancements to src/tools/pmHeapDump.py.
- Michael (michaelnt): Reporting mbed sys.time() and including a patch.
- Angus Gratton: enhancements to lib/avr, port to Teensy++
- J.W. Bruce: Reporting build issue and provided fix.
- Michael (xinx): Found mbed name conflict, reported PySerial issue in ipm and provided fix, reported error in the porting document, donated code to allow hex string formatting.
- Michael Reithinger: Reported GC defects and provided fixes.
- Davide Carboni: Reported a build break, implemented module loading in ipm.
- Markus Gritsch: Feedback on PIC port and ipm docs.
- Bryan Jones: Making Doxygen docs, developing port to PIC24/dsPIC33 platform, mainlining VM bug fixes and helping the windows port.
- Trammell Hudson: Patches for string concatenation and backtick operator (UNARY_CONVERT).
- Duncan McGreggor: Creating an excellent Python-on-a-Chip logo.
- Jan Wedel: Reporting an issue and providing a fix for the DELETE_ATTR bytecode.
- Tyler Wilson: Porting and maintaining p14p on the Windows platform and making good VM improvement suggestions.
- Thomas Fenzl: Patching and testing for 64-bit systems.
- Alex Clausen: Reporting a build break and including a patch for 64-bit systems.
- James Snyder: Porting and maintaining p14p on the STM32 platform.

Target Platforms

Platforms in **bold** are new since the previous release:

    - **arduino_mega**: The Atmel ATmega1280 based `Arduino Mega board`_
    - at91sam7s-ek: The Atmel `evaluation kit for the ARM7 AT91SAM7S64`_ **[Not Recommended]**
    - avr: Generic `Atmel AVR`_
    - desktop: Mac OS X, Linux, Cygwin or any other Posix-like desktop OS
    - **desktop64**: Mac OS X, Linux, Cygwin or any other 64-bit Posix-like desktop OS
    - **econotag**: The Freescale MC13224 based `Redbee EconoTAG`_ 802.15.4 wireless module
    - mbed: The NXP LPC1368 based mbed_ microcontroller platform
    - mmb103: The Atmel ATmega103 based Mega Mini Board **[Not Recommended]**
    - **mosync**: The MoSync_ cross-platform framework for mobile platforms.
    - **pic24**: The `Microchip PIC24/dsPIC family`_
    - **stm32**: The ST Microelectronics STM32F103 `ET-STM32 Stamp Module`_
    - **teensy**: The Atmel ATmega 1280 based `Teensy++ 2.0`_
    - **windows**: The MicroSoft Windows desktop OS

.. _`Arduino Mega board`: http://arduino.cc/en/Main/ArduinoBoardMega
.. _`evaluation kit for the ARM7 AT91SAM7S64`:  http://www.atmel.com/dyn/products/tools_card.asp?tool_id=3784
.. _`Atmel AVR`: http://www.atmel.com/products/AVR/megaavr.asp?family_id=607&source=avrhomereadmore
.. _`Redbee EconoTAG`: http://redwirellc.com/store/index.php?route=product/product&product_id=56
.. _mbed: http://mbed.org/
.. _MoSync: http://www.mosync.com/
.. _`Microchip PIC24/dsPIC family`: http://www.microchip.com/stellent/idcplg?IdcService=SS_GET_PAGE&nodeId=2629&param=en533465
.. _`ET-STM32 Stamp Module`: http://www.futurlec.com/ET-STM32_Stamp.shtml
.. _`Teensy++ 2.0`: http://www.pjrc.com/teensy/

Release Notes

This is release 09

* Release 09, 2010/09/21

    For a complete list of changes for this release, `go here`_.
    Added support for the following major new features:

        - Classes with multiple inheritance
        - Generators with iterators, expressions and coroutines
        - String concatenation using the addition operator '+'
        - Migrated to Python 2.6 compiler and bytecodes
        - The backtick operator (s=`x`) for integers and floats
        - String format (%) using %d,s,f format chars
        - Closures. Also allows decorators with an argument
        - The Bytearray class: packet = bytearray(128); b = bytearray(b"abc")


        - Improved appearance of ipm
        - Fixed three nasty defects in the Garbage Collector
        - Improved readability of exception tracebacks for some platforms
        - Moved native function tables to "const" to save RAM
        - Added iter() to builtins (commented out)
        - Fixed string.count and string.find

* Release 08, 2009/04/20
* Release 07, 2009/03/08
* Release 06, 2009/01/30
* Release 05, 2007/05/10
* Release 04, 2006/12/14
* Release 03, 2006/09/17
* Release 02, 2006/08/11
* Release 01, 2003/03/18

.. _`go here`: http://code.google.com/p/python-on-a-chip/issues/list?can=1&q=Milestone%3D09

.. :mode=rest: