webcolors / webcolors.py

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"""
Utility functions for with the color names and color value formats
defined by the HTML and CSS specifications for use in documents on the
Web.


What this module supports
-------------------------

This module supports the following methods of specifying sRGB colors,
and conversions between them:

* Six-digit hexadecimal.

* Three-digit hexadecimal.

* Integer ``rgb()`` triplet.

* Percentage ``rgb()`` triplet.

* Varying selections of predefined color names.

This module does not support ``hsl()`` triplets, nor does it support
opacity/alpha-channel information via ``rgba()`` or ``hsla()``.

If you need to convert between RGB-specified colors and HSL-specified
colors, or colors specified via other means, consult `the colorsys
module`_ in the Python standard library, which can perform conversions
amongst several common color systems.

.. _the colorsys module: http://docs.python.org/library/colorsys.html


Normalization and conventions
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

For colors specified via hexadecimal values, this module will accept
input in the following formats:

* A hash mark (#) followed by three hexadecimal digits, where digits
  A-F may be upper- or lower-case.

* A hash mark (#) followed by six hexadecimal digits, where digits A-F
  may be upper- or lower-case.

For output which consists of a color specified via hexadecimal values,
and for functions which perform intermediate conversion to hexadecimal
before returning a result in another format, this module always
normalizes such values to the following format:

* A hash mark (#) followed by six hexadecimal digits, with digits A-F
  forced to lower-case.

The function :func:`normalize_hex` in this module can be used to
perform this normalization manually if desired.

For colors specified via predefined names, this module will accept
input in the following formats:

* An entirely lower-case name, such as ``aliceblue``.

* A name using CamelCase, such as ``AliceBlue``.

For output which consists of a color specified via a predefined name,
and for functions which perform intermediate conversion to a
predefined name before returning a result in another format, this
module always normalizes such values to be entirely lower-case.

For purposes of identifying the specification from which to draw the
selection of defined color names, this module recognizes the following
identifiers:

``html4``
    The HTML 4 named colors.

``css2``
    The CSS 2 named colors.

``css21``
    The CSS 2.1 named colors.

``css3``
    The CSS 3/SVG named colors.

The CSS 1 specification is not represented here, as it merely
"suggested" a set of color names, and declined to provide values for
them.


Mappings of color names
-----------------------

For each set of defined color names -- HTML 4, CSS 2, CSS 2.1 and CSS
3 -- this module exports two mappings: one of normalized color names
to normalized hexadecimal values, and one of normalized hexadecimal
values to normalized color names. These eight mappings are as follows:

``html4_names_to_hex``
    Mapping of normalized HTML 4 color names to normalized hexadecimal
    values.

``html4_hex_to_names``
    Mapping of normalized hexadecimal values to normalized HTML 4
    color names.

``css2_names_to_hex``
    Mapping of normalized CSS 2 color names to normalized hexadecimal
    values. Because CSS 2 defines the same set of named colors as HTML
    4, this is merely an alias for ``html4_names_to_hex``.

``css2_hex_to_names``
    Mapping of normalized hexadecimal values to normalized CSS 2 color
    nams. For the reasons described above, this is merely an alias for
    ``html4_hex_to_names``.

``css21_names_to_hex``
    Mapping of normalized CSS 2.1 color names to normalized
    hexadecimal values. This is identical to ``html4_names_to_hex``,
    except for one addition: ``orange``.

``css21_hex_to_names``
    Mapping of normalized hexadecimal values to normalized CSS 2.1
    color names. As above, this is identical to ``html4_hex_to_names``
    except for the addition of ``orange``.

``css3_names_to_hex``
    Mapping of normalized CSS3 color names to normalized hexadecimal
    values.

``css3_hex_to_names``
    Mapping of normalized hexadecimal values to normalized CSS3 color
    names.

"""

import math
import re


def _reversedict(d):
    """
    Internal helper for generating reverse mappings; given a
    dictionary, returns a new dictionary with keys and values swapped.

    """
    return dict(zip(d.values(), d.keys()))


HEX_COLOR_RE = re.compile(r'^#([a-fA-F0-9]{3}|[a-fA-F0-9]{6})$')

SUPPORTED_SPECIFICATIONS = ('html4', 'css2', 'css21', 'css3')


# Mappings of color names to normalized hexadecimal color values.
#################################################################

html4_names_to_hex = {'aqua': '#00ffff',
                      'black': '#000000',
                      'blue': '#0000ff',
                      'fuchsia': '#ff00ff',
                      'green': '#008000',
                      'grey': '#808080',
                      'lime': '#00ff00',
                      'maroon': '#800000',
                      'navy': '#000080',
                      'olive': '#808000',
                      'purple': '#800080',
                      'red': '#ff0000',
                      'silver': '#c0c0c0',
                      'teal': '#008080',
                      'white': '#ffffff',
                      'yellow': '#ffff00'}

css2_names_to_hex = html4_names_to_hex

css21_names_to_hex = dict(html4_names_to_hex, orange='#ffa500')

css3_names_to_hex = {'aliceblue': '#f0f8ff',
                     'antiquewhite': '#faebd7',
                     'aqua': '#00ffff',
                     'aquamarine': '#7fffd4',
                     'azure': '#f0ffff',
                     'beige': '#f5f5dc',
                     'bisque': '#ffe4c4',
                     'black': '#000000',
                     'blanchedalmond': '#ffebcd',
                     'blue': '#0000ff',
                     'blueviolet': '#8a2be2',
                     'brown': '#a52a2a',
                     'burlywood': '#deb887',
                     'cadetblue': '#5f9ea0',
                     'chartreuse': '#7fff00',
                     'chocolate': '#d2691e',
                     'coral': '#ff7f50',
                     'cornflowerblue': '#6495ed',
                     'cornsilk': '#fff8dc',
                     'crimson': '#dc143c',
                     'cyan': '#00ffff',
                     'darkblue': '#00008b',
                     'darkcyan': '#008b8b',
                     'darkgoldenrod': '#b8860b',
                     'darkgray': '#a9a9a9',
                     'darkgrey': '#a9a9a9',
                     'darkgreen': '#006400',
                     'darkkhaki': '#bdb76b',
                     'darkmagenta': '#8b008b',
                     'darkolivegreen': '#556b2f',
                     'darkorange': '#ff8c00',
                     'darkorchid': '#9932cc',
                     'darkred': '#8b0000',
                     'darksalmon': '#e9967a',
                     'darkseagreen': '#8fbc8f',
                     'darkslateblue': '#483d8b',
                     'darkslategray': '#2f4f4f',
                     'darkslategrey': '#2f4f4f',
                     'darkturquoise': '#00ced1',
                     'darkviolet': '#9400d3',
                     'deeppink': '#ff1493',
                     'deepskyblue': '#00bfff',
                     'dimgray': '#696969',
                     'dimgrey': '#696969',
                     'dodgerblue': '#1e90ff',
                     'firebrick': '#b22222',
                     'floralwhite': '#fffaf0',
                     'forestgreen': '#228b22',
                     'fuchsia': '#ff00ff',
                     'gainsboro': '#dcdcdc',
                     'ghostwhite': '#f8f8ff',
                     'gold': '#ffd700',
                     'goldenrod': '#daa520',
                     'gray': '#808080',
                     'grey': '#808080',
                     'green': '#008000',
                     'greenyellow': '#adff2f',
                     'honeydew': '#f0fff0',
                     'hotpink': '#ff69b4',
                     'indianred': '#cd5c5c',
                     'indigo': '#4b0082',
                     'ivory': '#fffff0',
                     'khaki': '#f0e68c',
                     'lavender': '#e6e6fa',
                     'lavenderblush': '#fff0f5',
                     'lawngreen': '#7cfc00',
                     'lemonchiffon': '#fffacd',
                     'lightblue': '#add8e6',
                     'lightcoral': '#f08080',
                     'lightcyan': '#e0ffff',
                     'lightgoldenrodyellow': '#fafad2',
                     'lightgray': '#d3d3d3',
                     'lightgrey': '#d3d3d3',
                     'lightgreen': '#90ee90',
                     'lightpink': '#ffb6c1',
                     'lightsalmon': '#ffa07a',
                     'lightseagreen': '#20b2aa',
                     'lightskyblue': '#87cefa',
                     'lightslategray': '#778899',
                     'lightslategrey': '#778899',
                     'lightsteelblue': '#b0c4de',
                     'lightyellow': '#ffffe0',
                     'lime': '#00ff00',
                     'limegreen': '#32cd32',
                     'linen': '#faf0e6',
                     'magenta': '#ff00ff',
                     'maroon': '#800000',
                     'mediumaquamarine': '#66cdaa',
                     'mediumblue': '#0000cd',
                     'mediumorchid': '#ba55d3',
                     'mediumpurple': '#9370d8',
                     'mediumseagreen': '#3cb371',
                     'mediumslateblue': '#7b68ee',
                     'mediumspringgreen': '#00fa9a',
                     'mediumturquoise': '#48d1cc',
                     'mediumvioletred': '#c71585',
                     'midnightblue': '#191970',
                     'mintcream': '#f5fffa',
                     'mistyrose': '#ffe4e1',
                     'moccasin': '#ffe4b5',
                     'navajowhite': '#ffdead',
                     'navy': '#000080',
                     'oldlace': '#fdf5e6',
                     'olive': '#808000',
                     'olivedrab': '#6b8e23',
                     'orange': '#ffa500',
                     'orangered': '#ff4500',
                     'orchid': '#da70d6',
                     'palegoldenrod': '#eee8aa',
                     'palegreen': '#98fb98',
                     'paleturquoise': '#afeeee',
                     'palevioletred': '#d87093',
                     'papayawhip': '#ffefd5',
                     'peachpuff': '#ffdab9',
                     'peru': '#cd853f',
                     'pink': '#ffc0cb',
                     'plum': '#dda0dd',
                     'powderblue': '#b0e0e6',
                     'purple': '#800080',
                     'red': '#ff0000',
                     'rosybrown': '#bc8f8f',
                     'royalblue': '#4169e1',
                     'saddlebrown': '#8b4513',
                     'salmon': '#fa8072',
                     'sandybrown': '#f4a460',
                     'seagreen': '#2e8b57',
                     'seashell': '#fff5ee',
                     'sienna': '#a0522d',
                     'silver': '#c0c0c0',
                     'skyblue': '#87ceeb',
                     'slateblue': '#6a5acd',
                     'slategray': '#708090',
                     'slategrey': '#708090',
                     'snow': '#fffafa',
                     'springgreen': '#00ff7f',
                     'steelblue': '#4682b4',
                     'tan': '#d2b48c',
                     'teal': '#008080',
                     'thistle': '#d8bfd8',
                     'tomato': '#ff6347',
                     'turquoise': '#40e0d0',
                     'violet': '#ee82ee',
                     'wheat': '#f5deb3',
                     'white': '#ffffff',
                     'whitesmoke': '#f5f5f5',
                     'yellow': '#ffff00',
                     'yellowgreen': '#9acd32'}


# Mappings of normalized hexadecimal color values to color names.
#################################################################

html4_hex_to_names = _reversedict(html4_names_to_hex)

css2_hex_to_names = html4_hex_to_names

css21_hex_to_names = _reversedict(css21_names_to_hex)

css3_hex_to_names = _reversedict(css3_names_to_hex)


# Normalization routines.
#################################################################

def normalize_hex(hex_value):
    """
    Normalize a hexadecimal color value to the following form and
    return the result::

        #[a-f0-9]{6}

    In other words, the following transformations are applied as
    needed:

    * If the value contains only three hexadecimal digits, it is
      expanded to six.

    * The value is normalized to lower-case.

    If the supplied value cannot be interpreted as a hexadecimal color
    value, ``ValueError`` is raised.

    Examples:

    >>> normalize_hex('#0099cc')
    '#0099cc'
    >>> normalize_hex('#0099CC')
    '#0099cc'
    >>> normalize_hex('#09c')
    '#0099cc'
    >>> normalize_hex('#09C')
    '#0099cc'
    >>> normalize_hex('0099cc')
    Traceback (most recent call last):
        ...
    ValueError: '0099cc' is not a valid hexadecimal color value.

    """
    try:
        hex_digits = HEX_COLOR_RE.match(hex_value).groups()[0]
    except AttributeError:
        raise ValueError("'%s' is not a valid hexadecimal color value." % hex_value)
    if len(hex_digits) == 3:
        hex_digits = ''.join(map(lambda s: 2 * s, hex_digits))
    return '#%s' % hex_digits.lower()


# Conversions from color names to various formats.
#################################################################

def name_to_hex(name, spec='css3'):
    """
    Convert a color name to a normalized hexadecimal color value.

    The optional keyword argument ``spec`` determines which
    specification's list of color names will be used; valid values are
    ``html4``, ``css2``, ``css21`` and ``css3``, and the default is
    ``css3``.

    The color name will be normalized to lower-case before being
    looked up, and when no color of that name exists in the given
    specification, ``ValueError`` is raised.

    Examples:

    >>> name_to_hex('white')
    '#ffffff'
    >>> name_to_hex('navy')
    '#000080'
    >>> name_to_hex('goldenrod')
    '#daa520'
    >>> name_to_hex('goldenrod', spec='html4')
    Traceback (most recent call last):
        ...
    ValueError: 'goldenrod' is not defined as a named color in html4.

    """
    if spec not in SUPPORTED_SPECIFICATIONS:
        raise TypeError("'%s' is not a supported specification for color name lookups; supported specifications are: %s." % (spec,
                                                                                                                             ', '.join(SUPPORTED_SPECIFICATIONS)))
    normalized = name.lower()
    try:
        hex_value = globals()['%s_names_to_hex' % spec][normalized]
    except KeyError:
        raise ValueError("'%s' is not defined as a named color in %s." % (name, spec))
    return hex_value


def name_to_rgb(name, spec='css3'):
    """
    Convert a color name to a 3-tuple of integers suitable for use in
    an ``rgb()`` triplet specifying that color.

    The optional keyword argument ``spec`` determines which
    specification's list of color names will be used; valid values are
    ``html4``, ``css2``, ``css21`` and ``css3``, and the default is
    ``css3``.

    The color name will be normalized to lower-case before being
    looked up, and when no color of that name exists in the given
    specification, ``ValueError`` is raised.

    Examples:

    >>> name_to_rgb('white')
    (255, 255, 255)
    >>> name_to_rgb('navy')
    (0, 0, 128)
    >>> name_to_rgb('goldenrod')
    (218, 165, 32)

    """
    return hex_to_rgb(name_to_hex(name, spec=spec))


def name_to_rgb_percent(name, spec='css3'):
    """
    Convert a color name to a 3-tuple of percentages suitable for use
    in an ``rgb()`` triplet specifying that color.

    The optional keyword argument ``spec`` determines which
    specification's list of color names will be used; valid values are
    ``html4``, ``css2``, ``css21`` and ``css3``, and the default is
    ``css3``.

    The color name will be normalized to lower-case before being
    looked up, and when no color of that name exists in the given
    specification, ``ValueError`` is raised.

    Examples:

    >>> name_to_rgb_percent('white')
    ('100%', '100%', '100%')
    >>> name_to_rgb_percent('navy')
    ('0%', '0%', '50%')
    >>> name_to_rgb_percent('goldenrod')
    ('85.49%', '64.71%', '12.5%')

    """
    return rgb_to_rgb_percent(name_to_rgb(name, spec=spec))


# Conversions from hexadecimal color values to various formats.
#################################################################

def hex_to_name(hex_value, spec='css3'):
    """
    Convert a hexadecimal color value to its corresponding normalized
    color name, if any such name exists.

    The optional keyword argument ``spec`` determines which
    specification's list of color names will be used; valid values are
    ``html4``, ``css2``, ``css21`` and ``css3``, and the default is
    ``css3``.

    The hexadecimal value will be normalized before being looked up,
    and when no color name for the value is found in the given
    specification, ``ValueError`` is raised.

    Examples:

    >>> hex_to_name('#ffffff')
    'white'
    >>> hex_to_name('#fff')
    'white'
    >>> hex_to_name('#000080')
    'navy'
    >>> hex_to_name('#daa520')
    'goldenrod'
    >>> hex_to_name('#daa520', spec='html4')
    Traceback (most recent call last):
        ...
    ValueError: '#daa520' has no defined color name in html4.

    """
    if spec not in SUPPORTED_SPECIFICATIONS:
        raise TypeError("'%s' is not a supported specification for color name lookups; supported specifications are: %s." % (spec,
                                                                                                                             ', '.join(SUPPORTED_SPECIFICATIONS)))
    normalized = normalize_hex(hex_value)
    try:
        name = globals()['%s_hex_to_names' % spec][normalized]
    except KeyError:
        raise ValueError("'%s' has no defined color name in %s." % (hex_value, spec))
    return name


def hex_to_rgb(hex_value):
    """
    Convert a hexadecimal color value to a 3-tuple of integers
    suitable for use in an ``rgb()`` triplet specifying that color.

    The hexadecimal value will be normalized before being converted.

    Examples:

    >>> hex_to_rgb('#fff')
    (255, 255, 255)
    >>> hex_to_rgb('#000080')
    (0, 0, 128)

    """
    hex_digits = normalize_hex(hex_value)
    return tuple(map(lambda s: int(s, 16),
                     (hex_digits[1:3], hex_digits[3:5], hex_digits[5:7])))


def hex_to_rgb_percent(hex_value):
    """
    Convert a hexadecimal color value to a 3-tuple of percentages
    suitable for use in an ``rgb()`` triplet representing that color.

    The hexadecimal value will be normalized before converting.

    Examples:

    >>> hex_to_rgb_percent('#ffffff')
    ('100%', '100%', '100%')
    >>> hex_to_rgb_percent('#000080')
    ('0%', '0%', '50%')

    """
    return rgb_to_rgb_percent(hex_to_rgb(hex_value))


# Conversions from  integer rgb() triplets to various formats.
#################################################################

def rgb_to_name(rgb_triplet, spec='css3'):
    """
    Convert a 3-tuple of integers, suitable for use in an ``rgb()``
    color triplet, to its corresponding normalized color name, if any
    such name exists.

    The optional keyword argument ``spec`` determines which
    specification's list of color names will be used; valid values are
    ``html4``, ``css2``, ``css21`` and ``css3``, and the default is
    ``css3``.

    If there is no matching name, ``ValueError`` is raised.

    Examples:

    >>> rgb_to_name((255, 255, 255))
    'white'
    >>> rgb_to_name((0, 0, 128))
    'navy'

    """
    return hex_to_name(rgb_to_hex(rgb_triplet), spec=spec)


def rgb_to_hex(rgb_triplet):
    """
    Convert a 3-tuple of integers, suitable for use in an ``rgb()``
    color triplet, to a normalized hexadecimal value for that color.

    Examples:

    >>> rgb_to_hex((255, 255, 255))
    '#ffffff'
    >>> rgb_to_hex((0, 0, 128))
    '#000080'

    """
    return '#%02x%02x%02x' % rgb_triplet


def rgb_to_rgb_percent(rgb_triplet):
    """
    Convert a 3-tuple of integers, suitable for use in an ``rgb()``
    color triplet, to a 3-tuple of percentages suitable for use in
    representing that color.

    This function makes some trade-offs in terms of the accuracy of
    the final representation; for some common integer values,
    special-case logic is used to ensure a precise result (e.g.,
    integer 128 will always convert to '50%', integer 32 will always
    convert to '12.5%'), but for all other values a standard Python
    ``float`` is used and rounded to two decimal places, which may
    result in a loss of precision for some values.

    Examples:

    >>> rgb_to_rgb_percent((255, 255, 255))
    ('100%', '100%', '100%')
    >>> rgb_to_rgb_percent((0, 0, 128))
    ('0%', '0%', '50%')
    >>> rgb_to_rgb_percent((218, 165, 32))
    ('85.49%', '64.71%', '12.5%')

    """
    # In order to maintain precision for common values,
    # 256 / 2**n is special-cased for values of n
    # from 0 through 4, as well as 0 itself.
    specials = {255: '100%', 128: '50%', 64: '25%',
                 32: '12.5%', 16: '6.25%', 0: '0%'}
    return tuple(map(lambda d: specials.get(d, '%.02f%%' % ((d / 255.0) * 100)),
                     rgb_triplet))


# Conversions from percentage rgb() triplets to various formats.
#################################################################

def rgb_percent_to_name(rgb_percent_triplet, spec='css3'):
    """
    Convert a 3-tuple of percentages, suitable for use in an ``rgb()``
    color triplet, to its corresponding normalized color name, if any
    such name exists.

    The optional keyword argument ``spec`` determines which
    specification's list of color names will be used; valid values are
    ``html4``, ``css2``, ``css21`` and ``css3``, and the default is
    ``css3``.

    If there is no matching name, ``ValueError`` is raised.

    Examples:

    >>> rgb_percent_to_name(('100%', '100%', '100%'))
    'white'
    >>> rgb_percent_to_name(('0%', '0%', '50%'))
    'navy'
    >>> rgb_percent_to_name(('85.49%', '64.71%', '12.5%'))
    'goldenrod'

    """
    return rgb_to_name(rgb_percent_to_rgb(rgb_percent_triplet), spec=spec)


def rgb_percent_to_hex(rgb_percent_triplet):
    """
    Convert a 3-tuple of percentages, suitable for use in an ``rgb()``
    color triplet, to a normalized hexadecimal color value for that
    color.

    Examples:

    >>> rgb_percent_to_hex(('100%', '100%', '0%'))
    '#ffff00'
    >>> rgb_percent_to_hex(('0%', '0%', '50%'))
    '#000080'
    >>> rgb_percent_to_hex(('85.49%', '64.71%', '12.5%'))
    '#daa520'

    """
    return rgb_to_hex(rgb_percent_to_rgb(rgb_percent_triplet))


def _percent_to_integer(percent):
    """
    Internal helper for converting a percentage value to an integer
    between 0 and 255 inclusive.

    """
    num = float(percent.split('%')[0]) / 100.0 * 255
    e = num - math.floor(num)
    return e < 0.5 and int(math.floor(num)) or int(math.ceil(num))


def rgb_percent_to_rgb(rgb_percent_triplet):
    """
    Convert a 3-tuple of percentages, suitable for use in an ``rgb()``
    color triplet, to a 3-tuple of integers suitable for use in
    representing that color.

    Some precision may be lost in this conversion. See the note
    regarding precision for ``rgb_to_rgb_percent()`` for details;
    generally speaking, the following is true for any 3-tuple ``t`` of
    integers in the range 0...255 inclusive::

        t == rgb_percent_to_rgb(rgb_to_rgb_percent(t))

    Examples:

    >>> rgb_percent_to_rgb(('100%', '100%', '100%'))
    (255, 255, 255)
    >>> rgb_percent_to_rgb(('0%', '0%', '50%'))
    (0, 0, 128)
    >>> rgb_percent_to_rgb(('85.49%', '64.71%', '12.5%'))
    (218, 165, 32)

    """
    return tuple(map(_percent_to_integer, rgb_percent_triplet))


if __name__ == '__main__':
    import doctest
    doctest.testmod()
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