shadowircd / doc / CIDR.txt

$Id: CIDR.txt 6 2005-09-10 01:02:21Z nenolod $

CIDR Information
----------------
  Presently, we all use IPv4.  The format of IPv4 is the following:

A.B.C.D

  Where letters 'A' through 'D' are 8-bit values.  In English, this
  means each digit can have a value of 0 to 255.  Example:

129.56.4.234

  Digits are called octets.  Oct meaning 8, hence 8-bit values.  An
  octet cannot be greater than 255, and cannot be less than 0 (eg. a
  negative number).

  CIDR stands for "classless inter domain routing", details covered
  in RFC's 1518 and 1519. It was introduced mainly due to waste within
  A and B classes space. The goal was to make it possible to use
  smaller nets than it would seem from (above) IP classes, for instance
  by dividing one B class into 256 "C like" classes. The other goal was
  to allow aggregation of routing information, so that routers could use
  one aggregated route (like 194.145.96.0/20) instead of
  advertising 16 C classes.

  Class A are all these addresses which first bit is "0",
  bitmap: 0nnnnnnn.hhhhhhhh.hhhhhhhh.hhhhhhhh (n=net, h=host)
  IP range is 0.0.0.0 - 127.255.255.255

  Class B are all these addresses which first two bits are "10",
  bitmap: 10nnnnnn.nnnnnnnn.hhhhhhhh.hhhhhhhh (n=net, h=host)
  IP range is 128.0.0.0 - 191.255.255.255

  Class C are all these addresses which first three bits are "110",
  bitmap: 110nnnnn.nnnnnnnn.nnnnnnnn.hhhhhhhh (n=net, h=host)
  IP range is 192.0.0.0 - 223.255.255.255

  Class D are all these addresses which first four bits are "1110",
  this is multicast class and net/host bitmap doesn't apply here
  IP range is 224.0.0.0 - 239.255.255.255
  I bet they will never IRC, unless someone creates multicast IRC :)

  Class E are all these addresses which first five bits are "11110",
  this class is reserved for future use
  IP range is 240.0.0.0 - 247.255.255.255

  So, here is how CIDR notation comes into play.

  For those of you who have real basic exposure to how networks are
  set up, you should be aware of the term "netmask."  Basically, this
  is a IPv4 value which specifies the "size" of a network.  You can
  assume the word "size" means "range" if you want.

  A chart describing the different classes in CIDR format and their
  wildcard equivalents would probably help at this point:

CIDR version	dot notation (netmask)	Wildcard equivalent
-----------------------------------------------------------------
A.0.0.0/8	A.0.0.0/255.0.0.0	A.*.*.*  or  A.*
A.B.0.0/16	A.B.0.0/255.255.0.0	A.B.*.*  or  A.B.*
A.B.C.0/24	A.B.C.0/255.255.255.0	A.B.C.*  or  A.B.C.*
A.B.C.D/32	A.B.C.D/255.255.255.255	A.B.C.D


  The question on any newbies mind at this point is "So what do all
  of those values & numbers actually mean?"

  Everything relating to computers is based on binary values (1s and
  zeros).  Binary plays a *tremendous* role in CIDR notation.  Let's
  break it down to the following table:

          A            B            C            D
       --------     --------     --------     --------
/8  == 11111111  .  00000000  .  00000000  .  00000000  == 255.0.0.0
/16 == 11111111  .  11111111  .  00000000  .  00000000  == 255.255.0.0
/24 == 11111111  .  11111111  .  11111111  .  00000000  == 255.255.255.0
/32 == 11111111  .  11111111  .  11111111  .  11111111  == 255.255.255.255

  The above is basically a binary table for the most common netblock
  sizes.  The "1"s you see above are the 8-bit values for each octet.
  If you split an 8-bit value into each of it's bits, you find the
  following:

00000000
^^^^^^^^_ 1sts place  (1)
|||||||__ 2nds place  (2)
||||||___ 3rds place  (4)
|||||____ 4ths place  (8)
||||_____ 5ths place  (16)
|||______ 6ths place  (32)
||_______ 7ths place  (64)
|________ 8ths place  (128)

  Now, since computers consider zero a number, you pretty much have
  to subtract one (so-to-speak; this is not really how its done, but
  just assume it's -1 :-) ) from all the values possible.  Some
  examples of decimal values in binary:

15  == 00001111  (from left to right: 8+4+2+1)
16  == 00010000  (from left to right: 16)
53  == 00110101  (from left to right: 32+16+4+1)
79  == 01001111  (from left to right: 64+8+4+1)
254 == 11111110  (from left to right: 128+64+32+16+8+4+2)

  So, with 8 bits, the range (as I said before) is zero to 255.

  If none of this is making sense to you at this point, you should
  back up and re-read all of the above.  I realize it's a lot, but
  it'll do you some good to re-read it until you understand :-).

  So, let's modify the original table a bit by providing CIDR info
  for /1 through /8:

          A            B            C            D
       --------     --------     --------     --------
/1  == 10000000  .  00000000  .  00000000  .  00000000  == 128.0.0.0
/2  == 11000000  .  00000000  .  00000000  .  00000000  == 192.0.0.0
/3  == 11100000  .  00000000  .  00000000  .  00000000  == 224.0.0.0
/4  == 11110000  .  00000000  .  00000000  .  00000000  == 240.0.0.0
/5  == 11111000  .  00000000  .  00000000  .  00000000  == 248.0.0.0
/6  == 11111100  .  00000000  .  00000000  .  00000000  == 252.0.0.0
/7  == 11111110  .  00000000  .  00000000  .  00000000  == 254.0.0.0
/8  == 11111111  .  00000000  .  00000000  .  00000000  == 255.0.0.0

  At this point, all of this should making a lot of sense, and you
  should be able to see the precision that you can get by using CIDR
  at this point.  If not, well, I guess the best way to put it would
  be that wildcards always assume /8, /16, or /24 (yes hello Piotr,
  we can argue this later: I am referring to IPs *ONLY*, not domains
  or FQDNs :-) ).

  This table will provide a reference to all of the IPv4 CIDR values

cidr|netmask (dot notation)
----+---------------------
/1  | 128.0.0.0
/2  | 192.0.0.0
/3  | 224.0.0.0
/4  | 240.0.0.0
/5  | 248.0.0.0
/6  | 252.0.0.0
/7  | 254.0.0.0
/8  | 255.0.0.0
/9  | 255.128.0.0
/10 | 255.192.0.0
/11 | 255.224.0.0
/12 | 255.240.0.0
/13 | 255.248.0.0
/14 | 255.252.0.0
/15 | 255.254.0.0
/16 | 255.255.0.0
/17 | 255.255.128.0
/18 | 255.255.192.0
/19 | 255.255.224.0
/20 | 255.255.240.0
/21 | 255.255.248.0
/22 | 255.255.252.0
/23 | 255.255.254.0
/24 | 255.255.255.0
/25 | 255.255.255.128
/26 | 255.255.255.192
/27 | 255.255.255.224
/28 | 255.255.255.240
/29 | 255.255.255.248
/30 | 255.255.255.252
/31 | 255.255.255.254
/32 | 255.255.255.255

  So, let's take all of the information above, and apply it to a
  present-day situation on IRC.

  Let's say you have a set of flooding clients who all show up from
  the following hosts.  For lack-of a better example, I'll use a
  subnet here at Best:

nick1  (xyz@shell9.ba.best.com)  [206.184.139.140]
nick2  (abc@shell8.ba.best.com)  [206.184.139.139]
nick3  (foo@shell12.ba.best.com) [206.184.139.143]

  Most people will assume the  they were all in the same class C
  (206.184.139.0/24  or  206.184.139.*).

  This, as a matter of fact, is not true.  Now, the reason *I* know
  this is solely because I work on the network here; those IPs are
  not delegated to a class C, but two portions of a class C (128 IPs
  each).  That means the class C is actually split into these two
  portions:

Netblock               IP range
--------               --------
206.184.139.0/25       206.184.139.0   to 206.184.139.127
206.184.139.128/25     206.184.139.128 to 206.184.139.255

  For the record, 206.184.139.0 and 206.184.139.128 are both known as
  "network addresses" (not to be confused with "netblocks" or "Ethernet
  hardware addresses" or "MAC addresses").  Network addresses are
  *ALWAYS EVEN*.

  206.184.139.127 and 206.184.139.255 are what are known as broadcast
  addresses.  Broadcast addresses are *ALWAYS ODD*.

  Now, the aforementioned list of clients are in the 2nd subnet shown
  above, not the first.  The reason for this should be obvious.

  The remaining question is, "Well that's nice, you know what the netblock
  is for Best.  What about us?  We don't know that!"

  Believe it or not, you can find out the network block size by using
  whois -h WHOIS.ARIN.NET on the IP in question.  ARIN keeps a list of
  all network blocks and who owns them -- quite useful, trust me.  I
  think I use ARIN 5 or 6 times a day, especially when dealing with
  D-lines.  Example:

$ whois -h whois.arin.net 206.184.139.140
Best Internet Communications, Inc. (NETBLK-NBN-206-184-BEST)
345 East Middlefield Road
Mountain View, CA 94043

Netname: NBN-206-184-BEST
Netblock: 206.184.0.0 - 206.184.255.255
Maintainer: BEST

  Does this mean you should D-line 206.184.0.0/16?  Probably not.
  That's an entire class B-sized block, while you're only trying
  to deny access to a subnetted class C.

  So then how do you get the *real* info?  Well, truth is, you don't.
  You have to pretty much take a guess at what it is, if ARIN reports
  something that's overly vague.  Best, for example, was assigned the
  above class B-sized block.  We can subnet it however we want without
  reporting back to ARIN how we have it subnetted.  We own the block,
  and that's all that matters (to ARIN).

  Not all subnets are like this, however.  Smaller subnets you may
  find partitioned and listed on ARIN; I've seen /29 blocks for DSL
  customers show up in ARIN before.

  So, use ARIN any chance you get.  The more precision the better!

  Now, there is a small issue I want to address regarding use of CIDR
  notation.  Let's say you D-line the following in CIDR format (hi
  sion ;-) ):

205.100.132.18/24

  Entries like this really makes my blood boil, solely because it adds
  excessive confusion and is just basically pointless.  If you
  examine the above, you'll see the /24 is specifying an entire
  class C -- so then what's the purpose of using .18 versus .0?

  There IS no purpose.  The netmask itself will mask out the .18 and
  continue to successfully use 205.100.132.0/24.

  Doing things this way just adds confusion, especially on non-octet-
  aligned subnets (such as /8, /16, /24, or /32).  Seeing that on a
  /27 or a /19 might make people go "wtf?"

  I know for a fact this doc lacks a lot of necessary information,
  like how the actual netmask/CIDR value play a role in "masking out"
  the correct size, and what to do is WHOIS.ARIN.NET returns no
  netblock information but instead a few different company names with
  NIC handles.  I'm sure you can figure this stuff out on your own,
  or just ask an administrator friend of yours who DOES know.  A lot
  of us admins are BOFH types, but if you ask us the right questions,
  you'll benefit from the answer quite thoroughly.

  Oh, I almost forgot.  Most Linux systems use a different version of
  "whois" than FreeBSD does.  The syntax for whois on Linux is
  "whois <INFO>@whois.arin.net", while under FreeBSD it is
  "whois -h whois.arin.net <INFO>"  Debian uses yet another version
  of whois that is incompatible with the above syntax options.

  Note that the FreeBSD whois client has shortcuts for the most commonly
  used whois servers.  "whois -a <INFO>" is the shortcut for ARIN.

  Also note that ARIN is not authoritative for all IP blocks on the 
  Internet.  Take for example 212.158.123.66.  A whois query to ARIN
  will return the following information:

$ whois -h whois.arin.net 212.158.123.66
European Regional Internet Registry/RIPE NCC (NET-RIPE-NCC-)
   These addresses have been further assigned to European users.
   Contact information can be found in the RIPE database, via the
   WHOIS and TELNET servers at whois.ripe.net, and at
   http://www.ripe.net/db/whois.html

   Netname: RIPE-NCC-212
   Netblock: 212.0.0.0 - 212.255.255.255
   Maintainer: RIPE

  This query tells us that it is a European IP block, and is further
  handled by RIPE's whois server.  We must then query whois.ripe.net
  to get more information.

$ whois -h whois.ripe.net 212.158.123.66

% Rights restricted by copyright. See
  http://www.ripe.net/ripencc/pub-services/db/copyright.html

inetnum:     212.158.120.0 - 212.158.123.255
netname:     INSNET-P2P
descr:       Point to Point Links for for London Nodes
country:     GB
--snip--

  This tells us the actual IP block that the query was a part of.

  Other whois servers that you may see blocks referred to are: 
  whois.ripn.net for Russia, whois.apnic.net for Asia, Australia, and
  the Pacific, and whois.6bone.net for IPv6 blocks.

Contributed by Jeremy Chadwick <jdc@best.net>
Piotr Kucharski <chopin@sgh.waw.pl> 
W. Campbell <wcampbel@botbay.net> and
Ariel Biener <ariel@fireball.tau.ac.il>
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