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Script API

The scripts (rules and transformations) are written in Tcl, Lua or Python, and are executed by the embedded interpreter that has access to relevant state of the program. A set of commands is provided to enable easy read-only operation on the information that was gathered by parsing given source files.

In Tcl and Lua, the commands are usable without any prefix. In Python, the commands are available in the vera module. The vera module is already imported and does not need to be imported again in the rule code.

The following commands are provided:

  • getSourceFileNames - returns the list of file names that were provided to Vera++ as program parameters.
  • getLineCount fileName - returns the number of lines in the given source file.
  • getAllLines fileName - returns the list of lines, in their natural order, that form a give source file.
  • getLine fileName lineNumber - returns the selected line; line numbers are counted from 1.
  • getTokens fileName fromLine fromColumn toLine toColumn filter - returns the list of tokens, in their natural order, from the given source file and that match the given selection criteria.

    The meaning of arguments for selecting tokens is:

    • fromLine - the lowest line number (counted from 1), inclusive
    • fromColumn - the lowest column number (counted from 0), inclusive
    • toLine - the highest line number, inclusive; -1 means that the selected range spans to the end of the file
    • toColumn - the highest column number, exclusive; -1 means that the selected range spans to the end of the line defined by toLine.
    • filter - the list of selected token types, the recognized token types are listed below; if this list is empty, then all token types are allowed.

    With Tcl, the getTokens command returns a list of lists - the nested lists have the following elements:

    • value - the literal text of the token
    • lineNumber - the line number (from 1) where the token appears
    • columnNumber - the column number (from 0) where the token appears
    • name - the name or type of the token; see below for the list of recognized token types

    With Python and Lua, the getTokens command returns a list of token objects that have the following attributes:

    • value - the literal text of the token
    • line - the line number (from 1) where the token appears
    • column - the column number (from 0) where the token appears
    • name - the name or type of the token; see below for the list of recognized token types
    • type - same as name
  • getParameter name defaultValue - returns the value of the given parameter or the provided default value if no such parameter is defined.

  • report fileName lineNumber message - registers a report for the given file and line; this report is printed at the end of the program execution, sorted by file and line number. Use this command to generate output that is compatible with the warning/error output format of popular compilers.

Examples:

To process all lines from all source files, use the following code pattern:

Tcl:

foreach fileName [getSourceFileNames] {
    foreach line [getAllLines $fileName] {
        # ...
    }
}

Python:

for f in vera.getSourceFileNames():
  for line in vera.getAllLines(f):
    # ...

Lua:

for file in getSourceFileNames() do
  for line in getAllLines(file) do
    -- ...
  end
end

To process all tokens from all source files, use:

Tcl:

foreach fileName [getSourceFileNames] {
    foreach token [getTokens $fileName 1 0 -1 -1 {}] {
        set tokenValue [lindex $token 0]
        set lineNumber [lindex $token 1]
        set columnNumber [lindex $token 2]
        set tokenType [lindex $token 3]
        # ...
    }
}

Python:

for f in vera.getSourceFileNames():
  for t in vera.getTokens(f, 1, 0, -1, -1, []):
    # print t.line, t.type, ...

Lua:

for fileName in getSourceFileNames() do
  for t in getTokens(fileName, 1, 0, -1, -1, filter) do
    -- t.line, t.type, ...
  end
end

To process only curly braces from the given source file, use:

Tcl:

foreach token [getTokens $fileName 1 0 -1 -1 {leftbrace rightbrace}] {
    # ...
}

Python:

for t in for t in vera.getTokens(fileName, 1, 0, -1, -1, ["leftbrace", "rightbrace"]):
  # ...

Lua:

for t in getTokens(fileName, 1, 0, -1, -1, {"leftbrace", "rightbrace"}) do
  -- ...
end

The complete rule script for verifying that the lines are no longer than some limit (the limit can be provided as a parameter, but the default value is defined in by the script itself):

# Line cannot be too long

set maxLength [getParameter "max-line-length" 100]

foreach f [getSourceFileNames] {
    set lineNumber 1
    foreach line [getAllLines $f] {
        if {[string length $line] > $maxLength} {
            report $f $lineNumber "line is longer than ${maxLength} characters"
        }
        incr lineNumber
    }
}

The above script is actually the implementation of rule L004.

Notes about line splicing

As required by the C++ ISO standard, the line splicing (with the backslash at the end of the line) is performed before tokenizing. This means that the lists of tokens might not strictly fit the list of lines.

Due to the internal mechanisms of the parser, the line splicing freezes the line counter and forces the column counter to continue until the last line in the spliced block. This means that there might be physical non-empty lines that apparently don't have any tokens, as well as tokens that have column numbers not matching the physical source line lengths.

Recognized token types

The following token types are recognized by the parser and can be used for filter selection in the getTokens command (some of these token types are related to compiler extensions):

and
andand
andassign
any
arrow
arrowstar
asm
assign
auto
bool
break
case
catch
ccomment
char
charlit
class
colon
colon_colon
comma
compl
const
constcast
continue
contline
cppcomment
decimalint
default
delete
divide
divideassign
do
dot
dotstar
double
dynamiccast
ellipsis
else
enum
eof
eoi
equal
explicit
export
extern
false
float
floatlit
for
friend
goto
greater
greaterequal
hexaint
identifier
if
inline
int
intlit
leftbrace
leftbracket
leftparen
less
lessequal
long
longintlit
minus
minusassign
minusminus
msext_asm
msext_based
msext_cdecl
msext_declspec
msext_endregion
msext_except
msext_fastcall
msext_finally
msext_inline
msext_int16
msext_int32
msext_int64
msext_int8
msext_leave
msext_region
msext_stdcall
msext_try
mutable
namespace
new
newline
not
notequal
octalint
operator
or
orassign
oror
percent
percentassign
plus
plusassign
plusplus
pound
pound_pound
pp_define
pp_elif
pp_else
pp_endif
pp_error
pp_hheader
pp_if
pp_ifdef
pp_ifndef
pp_include
pp_line
pp_number
pp_pragma
pp_qheader
pp_undef
pp_warning
private
protected
public
question_mark
register
reinterpretcast
return
rightbrace
rightbracket
rightparen
semicolon
shiftleft
shiftleftassign
shiftright
shiftrightassign
short
signed
sizeof
space
space2
star
starassign
static
staticcast
stringlit
struct
switch
template
this
throw
true
try
typedef
typeid
typename
union
unsigned
using
virtual
void
volatile
wchart
while
xor
xorassign

Note

There is a predefined rule named DUMP that prints on the screen all tokens with their types and position. This rule can be helpful as a guideline for creating custom filtering criteria:

vera++ --rule DUMP myfile.cpp

Updated