flaskapp / werkzeug / contrib /

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

    This module implements a cookie that is not alterable from the client
    because it adds a checksum the server checks for.  You can use it as
    session replacement if all you have is a user id or something to mark
    a logged in user.

    Keep in mind that the data is still readable from the client as a
    normal cookie is.  However you don't have to store and flush the
    sessions you have at the server.

    Example usage:

    >>> from werkzeug.contrib.securecookie import SecureCookie
    >>> x = SecureCookie({"foo": 42, "baz": (1, 2, 3)}, "deadbeef")

    Dumping into a string so that one can store it in a cookie:

    >>> value = x.serialize()

    Loading from that string again:

    >>> x = SecureCookie.unserialize(value, "deadbeef")
    >>> x["baz"]
    (1, 2, 3)

    If someone modifies the cookie and the checksum is wrong the unserialize
    method will fail silently and return a new empty `SecureCookie` object.

    Keep in mind that the values will be visible in the cookie so do not
    store data in a cookie you don't want the user to see.

    Application Integration

    If you are using the werkzeug request objects you could integrate the
    secure cookie into your application like this::

        from werkzeug import BaseRequest, cached_property
        from werkzeug.contrib.securecookie import SecureCookie

        # don't use this key but a different one; you could just use
        # os.unrandom(20) to get something random
        SECRET_KEY = '\xfa\xdd\xb8z\xae\xe0}4\x8b\xea'

        class Request(BaseRequest):

            def client_session(self):
                data = self.cookies.get('session_data')
                if not data:
                    return SecureCookie(secret_key=SECRET_KEY)
                return SecureCookie.unserialize(data, SECRET_KEY)

        def application(environ, start_response):
            request = Request(environ, start_response)

            # get a response object here
            response = ...

            if request.client_session.should_save:
                session_data = request.client_session.serialize()
                response.set_cookie('session_data', session_data,
            return response(environ, start_response)

    A less verbose integration can be achieved by using shorthand methods::

        class Request(BaseRequest):

            def client_session(self):
                return SecureCookie.load_cookie(self, secret_key=COOKIE_SECRET)

        def application(environ, start_response):
            request = Request(environ, start_response)

            # get a response object here
            response = ...

            return response(environ, start_response)

    :copyright: (c) 2010 by the Werkzeug Team, see AUTHORS for more details.
    :license: BSD, see LICENSE for more details.
import sys
import cPickle as pickle
from hmac import new as hmac
from datetime import datetime
from time import time, mktime, gmtime
from werkzeug import url_quote_plus, url_unquote_plus
from werkzeug._internal import _date_to_unix
from werkzeug.contrib.sessions import ModificationTrackingDict

# rather ugly way to import the correct hash method.  Because
# hmac either accepts modules with a new method (sha, md5 etc.)
# or a hashlib factory function we have to figure out what to
# pass to it.  If we have 2.5 or higher (so not 2.4 with a
# custom hashlib) we import from hashlib and fail if it does
# not exist (have seen that in old OS X versions).
# in all other cases the now deprecated sha module is used.
_default_hash = None
if sys.version_info >= (2, 5):
        from hashlib import sha1 as _default_hash
    except ImportError:
if _default_hash is None:
    import sha as _default_hash

class UnquoteError(Exception):
    """Internal exception used to signal failures on quoting."""

class SecureCookie(ModificationTrackingDict):
    """Represents a secure cookie.  You can subclass this class and provide
    an alternative mac method.  The import thing is that the mac method
    is a function with a similar interface to the hashlib.  Required
    methods are update() and digest().

    Example usage:

    >>> x = SecureCookie({"foo": 42, "baz": (1, 2, 3)}, "deadbeef")
    >>> x["foo"]
    >>> x["baz"]
    (1, 2, 3)
    >>> x["blafasel"] = 23
    >>> x.should_save

    :param data: the initial data.  Either a dict, list of tuples or `None`.
    :param secret_key: the secret key.  If not set `None` or not specified
                       it has to be set before :meth:`serialize` is called.
    :param new: The initial value of the `new` flag.

    #: The hash method to use.  This has to be a module with a new function
    #: or a function that creates a hashlib object.  Such as `hashlib.md5`
    #: Subclasses can override this attribute.  The default hash is sha1.
    hash_method = _default_hash

    #: the module used for serialization.  Unless overriden by subclasses
    #: the standard pickle module is used.
    serialization_method = pickle

    #: if the contents should be base64 quoted.  This can be disabled if the
    #: serialization process returns cookie safe strings only.
    quote_base64 = True

    def __init__(self, data=None, secret_key=None, new=True):
        ModificationTrackingDict.__init__(self, data or ())
        # explicitly convert it into a bytestring because python 2.6
        # no longer performs an implicit string conversion on hmac
        if secret_key is not None:
            secret_key = str(secret_key)
        self.secret_key = secret_key = new

    def __repr__(self):
        return '<%s %s%s>' % (
            self.should_save and '*' or ''

    def should_save(self):
        """True if the session should be saved.  By default this is only true
        for :attr:`modified` cookies, not :attr:`new`.
        return self.modified

    def quote(cls, value):
        """Quote the value for the cookie.  This can be any object supported
        by :attr:`serialization_method`.

        :param value: the value to quote.
        if cls.serialization_method is not None:
            value = cls.serialization_method.dumps(value)
        if cls.quote_base64:
            value = ''.join(value.encode('base64').splitlines()).strip()
        return value

    def unquote(cls, value):
        """Unquote the value for the cookie.  If unquoting does not work a
        :exc:`UnquoteError` is raised.

        :param value: the value to unquote.
            if cls.quote_base64:
                value = value.decode('base64')
            if cls.serialization_method is not None:
                value = cls.serialization_method.loads(value)
            return value
            # unfortunately pickle and other serialization modules can
            # cause pretty every error here.  if we get one we catch it
            # and convert it into an UnquoteError
            raise UnquoteError()

    def serialize(self, expires=None):
        """Serialize the secure cookie into a string.

        If expires is provided, the session will be automatically invalidated
        after expiration when you unseralize it. This provides better
        protection against session cookie theft.

        :param expires: an optional expiration date for the cookie (a
                        :class:`datetime.datetime` object)
        if self.secret_key is None:
            raise RuntimeError('no secret key defined')
        if expires:
            self['_expires'] = _date_to_unix(expires)
        result = []
        mac = hmac(self.secret_key, None, self.hash_method)
        for key, value in sorted(self.items()):
            result.append('%s=%s' % (
            mac.update('|' + result[-1])
        return '%s?%s' % (

    def unserialize(cls, string, secret_key):
        """Load the secure cookie from a serialized string.

        :param string: the cookie value to unserialize.
        :param secret_key: the secret key used to serialize the cookie.
        :return: a new :class:`SecureCookie`.
        if isinstance(string, unicode):
            string = string.encode('utf-8', 'ignore')
            base64_hash, data = string.split('?', 1)
        except (ValueError, IndexError):
            items = ()
            items = {}
            mac = hmac(secret_key, None, cls.hash_method)
            for item in data.split('&'):
                mac.update('|' + item)
                if not '=' in item:
                    items = None
                key, value = item.split('=', 1)
                # try to make the key a string
                key = url_unquote_plus(key)
                    key = str(key)
                except UnicodeError:
                items[key] = value

            # no parsing error and the mac looks okay, we can now
            # sercurely unpickle our cookie.
                client_hash = base64_hash.decode('base64')
            except Exception:
                items = client_hash = None
            if items is not None and client_hash == mac.digest():
                    for key, value in items.iteritems():
                        items[key] = cls.unquote(value)
                except UnquoteError:
                    items = ()
                    if '_expires' in items:
                        if time() > items['_expires']:
                            items = ()
                            del items['_expires']
                items = ()
        return cls(items, secret_key, False)

    def load_cookie(cls, request, key='session', secret_key=None):
        """Loads a :class:`SecureCookie` from a cookie in request.  If the
        cookie is not set, a new :class:`SecureCookie` instanced is

        :param request: a request object that has a `cookies` attribute
                        which is a dict of all cookie values.
        :param key: the name of the cookie.
        :param secret_key: the secret key used to unquote the cookie.
                           Always provide the value even though it has
                           no default!
        data = request.cookies.get(key)
        if not data:
            return cls(secret_key=secret_key)
        return cls.unserialize(data, secret_key)

    def save_cookie(self, response, key='session', expires=None,
                    session_expires=None, max_age=None, path='/', domain=None,
                    secure=None, httponly=False, force=False):
        """Saves the SecureCookie in a cookie on response object.  All
        parameters that are not described here are forwarded directly
        to :meth:`~BaseResponse.set_cookie`.

        :param response: a response object that has a
                         :meth:`~BaseResponse.set_cookie` method.
        :param key: the name of the cookie.
        :param session_expires: the expiration date of the secure cookie
                                stored information.  If this is not provided
                                the cookie `expires` date is used instead.
        if force or self.should_save:
            data = self.serialize(session_expires or expires)
            response.set_cookie(key, data, expires=expires, max_age=max_age,
                                path=path, domain=domain, secure=secure,