Source

auctex / texi / quickstart.texi

@include macros.texi

@node Quick Start
@chapter Quick Start

@AUCTeX{} is a powerful program offering many features and configuration
options.  If you are new to @AUCTeX{} this might be deterrent.
Fortunately you do not have to learn everything at once.  This Quick
Start Guide will give you the knowledge of the most important commands
and enable you to prepare your first @LaTeX{} document with @AUCTeX{}
after only a few minutes of reading.

In this introduction, we assume that @AUCTeX{} is already installed on
your system.  If this is not the case, you should read the file
@file{INSTALL} in the base directory of the unpacked distribution
tarball.  These installation instructions are available in this manual
as well, @ref{Installation}.  We also assume that you are familiar with
the way keystrokes are written in Emacs manuals.  If not, have a look at
the Emacs Tutorial in the Help menu.

If @AUCTeX{} is installed, you might still need to activate it, by
inserting

@lisp
(require 'tex-site)
@end lisp

in your user init file.@footnote{This usually is a file in your home
directory called @file{.emacs} if you are utilizing GNU Emacs or
@file{.xemacs/init.el} if you are using XEmacs.}  In order to get
support for many of the @LaTeX{} packages you will use in your
documents, you should enable document parsing as well, which can be
achieved by putting

@lisp
(setq TeX-auto-save t)
(setq TeX-parse-self t)
@end lisp

into your init file.  Finally, if you often use @code{\include} or
@code{\input}, you should make @AUCTeX{} aware of the multi-file
document structure.  You can do this by inserting

@lisp
(setq-default TeX-master nil)
@end lisp

into your init file.  Each time you open a new file, @AUCTeX{} will then
ask you for a master file.

@menu
* Editing::                     Functions for editing TeX files
* Processing::                  Creating and viewing output, debugging
@end menu

@iftex
This Quick Start Guide covers two main topics: First we explain how
@AUCTeX{} helps you in editing your input file for @TeX{}, @LaTeX{}, and
some other formats.  Then we describe the functions that @AUCTeX{}
provides for processing the input files with @LaTeX{}, Bib@TeX{}, etc.,
and for viewing and debugging.
@end iftex

@node Editing
@section Functions for editing TeX files

@subsection Making your @TeX{} code more readable

@AUCTeX{} can do syntax highlighting of your source code, that means
commands will get special colors or fonts.  You can enable it locally by
typing @kbd{M-x font-lock-mode RET}.  If you want to have font locking
activated generally, enable @code{global-font-lock-mode}, e.g. with
@kbd{M-x customize-variable RET global-font-lock-mode RET}.

@AUCTeX{} will indent new lines to indicate their syntactical
relationship to the surrounding text.  For example, the text of a
@code{\footnote} or text inside of an environment will be indented
relative to the text around it.  If the indenting has gotten wrong after
adding or deleting some characters, use @key{TAB} to reindent the line,
@kbd{M-q} for the whole paragraph, or @kbd{M-x LaTeX-fill-buffer RET}
for the whole buffer.

@subsection Entering sectioning commands
@cindex Sectioning
@cindex Sections
@cindex Chapters
@cindex @code{\chapter}
@cindex @code{\section}
@cindex @code{\subsection}
@cindex @code{\label}

Insertion of sectioning macros, that is @samp{\chapter},
@samp{\section}, @samp{\subsection}, etc. and accompanying @samp{\label}
commands may be eased by using @kbd{C-c C-s}.  You will be asked for the
section level.  As nearly everywhere in @AUCTeX{}, you can use the
@key{TAB} or @key{SPC} key to get a list of available level names, and
to auto-complete what you started typing.  Next, you will be asked for
the printed title of the section, and last you will be asked for a label
to be associated with the section.

@subsection Inserting environments

Similarly, you can insert environments, that is
@samp{\begin@{@}}--@samp{\end@{@}} pairs: Type @kbd{C-c C-e}, and select
an environment type.  Again, you can use @key{TAB} or @key{SPC} to get a
list, and to complete what you type.  Actually, the list will not only
provide standard @LaTeX{} environments, but also take your
@samp{\documentclass} and @samp{\usepackage} commands into account if
you have parsing enabled by setting @code{TeX-parse-self} to @code{t}.
If you use a couple of environments frequently, you can use the up and
down arrow keys (or @kbd{M-p} and @kbd{M-n}) in the minibuffer to get
back to the previously inserted commands.

Some environments need additional arguments.  Often, @AUCTeX{} knows about
this and asks you to enter a value. 

@subsection Inserting macros

@kbd{C-c C-m}, or simply @kbd{C-c RET} will give you a prompt that asks
you for a @LaTeX{} macro.  You can use @key{TAB} for completion, or the
up/down arrow keys (or @kbd{M-p} and @kbd{M-n}) to browse the command
history.  In many cases, @AUCTeX{} knows which arguments a macro needs
and will ask you for that.  It even can differentiate between mandatory
and optional arguments---for details, see @ref{Completion}.

An additional help for inserting macros is provided by the possibility
to complete macros right in the buffer.  With point at the end of a
partially written macro, you can complete it by typing @kbd{M-TAB}.

@subsection Changing the font 

@AUCTeX{} provides convenient keyboard shortcuts for inserting macros
which specify the font to be used for typesetting certain parts of the
text.  They start with @kbd{C-c C-f}, and the last @kbd{C-} combination
tells @AUCTeX{} which font you want:

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-f C-b
@kindex C-c C-f C-b
@cindex @code{\textbf}
Insert @b{bold face} @samp{\textbf@{@point{}@}} text.

@item C-c C-f C-i
@kindex C-c C-f C-i
@cindex @code{\textit}
Insert @i{italics} @samp{\textit@{@point{}@}} text.

@item C-c C-f C-e
@kindex C-c C-f C-e
@cindex @code{\emph}
Insert @i{emphasized} @samp{\emph@{@point{}@}} text.

@item C-c C-f C-s
@kindex C-c C-f C-s
@cindex @code{\textsl}
Insert @i{slanted} @samp{\textsl@{@point{}@}} text.

@item C-c C-f C-r
@kindex C-c C-f C-r
@cindex @code{\textrm}
Insert roman @r{\textrm@{@point{}@}} text.

@item C-c C-f C-f
@kindex C-c C-f C-f
@cindex @code{\textsf}
Insert  @sans{sans serif} @samp{\textsf@{@point{}@}} text.

@item C-c C-f C-t
@kindex C-c C-f C-t
@cindex @code{\texttt}
Insert @t{typewriter} @samp{\texttt@{@point{}@}} text.

@item C-c C-f C-c
@kindex C-c C-f C-c
@cindex @code{\textsc}
Insert @sc{small caps} @samp{\textsc@{@point{}@}} text.

@item C-c C-f C-d
@kindex C-c C-f C-c
@cindex Deleting fonts
Delete the innermost font specification containing point.

@end table

If you want to change font attributes of existing text, mark it as a
region, and then invoke the commands.  If no region is selected, the
command will be inserted with empty braces, and you can start typing the
changed text.

Most of those commands will also work in math mode, but then macros like
@code{\mathbf} will be inserted.


@subsection Other useful features

@AUCTeX{} also tries to help you when inserting the right ``quote''
signs for your language, dollar signs to typeset math, or pairs of
braces.  It offers shortcuts for commenting out text (@kbd{C-c ;} for
the current region or @kbd{C-c %} for the paragraph you are in).  The
same keystrokes will remove the % signs, if the region or paragraph is
commented out yet.  With @code{TeX-fold-mode}, you can hide certain
parts (like footnotes, references etc.) that you do not edit currently.
Support for Emacs' outline mode is provided as well.  And there's more,
but this is beyond the scope of this Quick Start Guide.



@node Processing
@section Creating and viewing output, debugging

@subsection One Command for @LaTeX{}, helpers, viewers, and printing

If you have typed some text and want to run @LaTeX{} (or @TeX{}, or
other programs---see below) on it, type @kbd{C-c C-c}.  If applicable,
you will be asked whether you want to save changes, and which program
you want to invoke.  In many cases, the choice that @AUCTeX{} suggests
will be just what you want: first @command{latex}, then a viewer.  If a
@command{latex} run produces or changes input files for
@command{makeindex}, the next suggestion will be to run that program,
and @AUCTeX{} knows that you need to run @command{latex} again
afterwards---the same holds for Bib@TeX{}.

When no processor invocation is necessary anymore, @AUCTeX{} will
suggest to run a viewer, or you can chose to create a PostScript file
using @command{dvips}, or to directly print it.

At this place, a warning needs to be given: First, although @AUCTeX{} is
really good in detecting the standard situations when an additional
@command{latex} run is necessary, it cannot detect it always.  Second,
the creation of PostScript files or direct printing currently only works
when your output file is a @acronym{DVI} file, not a @acronym{PDF} file.

Ah, you didn't know you can do both?  That brings us to the next topic.

@subsection Choosing an output format

From a @LaTeX{} file, you can produce @acronym{DVI} output, or a
@acronym{PDF} file directly @i{via} @command{pdflatex}.  You can switch
on source specials for easier navigation in the output file, or tell
@command{latex} to stop after an error (usually @code{\noninteractive}
is used, to allow you to detect all errors in a single run).

These options are controlled by toggles, the keystrokes should be easy
to memorize:

@table @kbd
@item @kbd{C-c C-t C-p}
This command toggles between @acronym{DVI} and @acronym{PDF} output

@item @kbd{C-c C-t C-i}
toggles interactive mode

@item @kbd{C-c C-t C-s}
toggles source specials support

@item @kbd{C-c C-t C-o}
toggles usage of Omega/lambda.

@end table

@subsection Debugging @LaTeX{}

When @AUCTeX{} runs a program, it creates an output buffer in which it
displays the output of the command.  If there is a syntactical error in
your file, @command{latex} will not complete successfully. @AUCTeX{}
will tell you that, and you can get to the place where the first error
occured by pressing @kbd{C-c `} (the last character is a backtick).  The
view will be split in two windows, the output will be displayed in the
lower buffer, and both buffers will be centered around the place where
the error ocurred.  You can then try to fix it in the document buffer,
and use the same keystrokes to get to the next error.  This procedure
may be repeated until all errors have been dealt with.  By pressing
@kbd{C-c C-w} (@code{TeX-toggle-debug-boxes}) you can toggle whether
@AUCTeX{} should notify you of overfull and underfull boxes in addition
to regular errors.

If a command got stuck in a seemingly infinite loop, or you want to stop
execution for other reasons, you can use @kbd{C-c C-k} (for ``kill'').
Similar to @kbd{C-l}, which centers the buffer you are in around your
current position, @kbd{C-c C-l} centers the output buffer so that the
last lines added at the bottom become visible.

@subsection Running @LaTeX{} on parts of your document

If you want to check how some part of your text looks like, and do not
want to wait until the whole document has been typeset, then mark it as
a region and use @kbd{C-c C-r}.  It behaves just like @kbd{C-c C-c}, but
it only uses the document preamble and the region you marked.

If you are using @code{\include} or @code{\input} to structure your
document, try @kbd{C-c C-b} while you are editing one of the included
files.  It will run @command{latex} only on the current buffer, using the
preamble from the master file.
@c does this also work with input? why not?

@c Local Variables: 
@c mode: texinfo
@c TeX-master: "auctex"
@c End: