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\input texinfo
@setfilename auctex.info
@settitle AUCTeX
@dircategory Emacs
@dircategory TeX
@direntry
* AUCTeX: (auctex).     A much enhanced TeX/LaTeX mode for Emacs.
@end direntry
@c footnotestyle separate
@c paragraphindent 2
@comment %**end of header
@iftex
@tolerance 10000
@end iftex

@include macros.texi

@finalout
@titlepage
@title @AUCTeX{}
@subtitle A much enhanced @TeX{}/@LaTeX{} mode for Emacs.
@subtitle Version 11.55

@author by Kresten Krab Thorup
@author updates from 6.1 to 11.13 by Per Abrahamsen
@author updates from 11.14 by David Kastrup
@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
Copyright @copyright{} 1993, 1994, 1995,
                       2001, 2002, 2004, 2005 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Copyright @copyright{} 1992 Kresten Krab Thorup @*

Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of
this manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice
are preserved on all copies.

@ignore
Permission is granted to process this file through @TeX{} and print the
results, provided the printed document carries copying permission
notice identical to this one except for the removal of this paragraph
(this paragraph not being relevant to the printed manual).
@end ignore

Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this
manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided also that the
section entitled ``Copying'' is included exactly as in the original, and
provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the
terms of a permission notice identical to this one.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manual
into another language, under the above conditions for modified versions,
except that this permission notice may be stated in a translation
approved by the Free Software Foundation.
@end titlepage
@page

@c Use @ifinfo _and_ @ifhtml here because Texinfo 3 cannot cope with
@c @ifnottex around a top node.
@ifinfo
@node top
@top @AUCTeX{}
@end ifinfo
@ifhtml
@node top
@top @AUCTeX{}
@end ifhtml

@ifnottex
@AUCTeX{} is an integrated environment for editing @LaTeX{} and
@TeX{} files.

This file documents @AUCTeX{} version 11.55.

Although @AUCTeX{} contains a large number of features, there are no
reasons to despair.  You can continue to write @TeX{} and @LaTeX{}
documents the way you are used to, and only start using the multiple
features in small steps.  @AUCTeX{} is not monolithic, each feature
described in this manual is useful by itself, but together they provide
an environment where you will make very few @LaTeX{} errors, and makes it
easy to find the errors that may slip through anyway.

If you want to make @AUCTeX{} aware of style files and multi-file
documents right away, insert the following in your @file{.emacs} file.

@lisp
(setq TeX-auto-save t)
(setq TeX-parse-self t)
(setq-default TeX-master nil)
@end lisp

NOTE: This documentation is preliminary.  It should however cover most
important points.  Corrections or perhaps rewrites of sections
are VERY WELCOME.

Kresten Krab Thorup (6.0) @*
Per Abrahamsen (updates to 11.13) @*
David Kastrup (updates from 11.14)

There is a mailing list for discussion about @AUCTeX{} and announcement
of alpha releases, write to @samp{auc-tex-request@@sunsite.dk} to join
it.  Send contributions to @samp{auc-tex@@sunsite.dk}.

Bug reports, suggestions for new features, and pleas for help should go
to either @samp{auc-tex_mgr@@sunsite.dk} (the @AUCTeX{} managers), or
to @samp{auc-tex@@sunsite.dk} (the mailing list) if they might have
general interest.  Please use the command @kbd{M-x
TeX-submit-bug-report RET} to report bugs if possible.

@end ifnottex

@ifnothtml
@shortcontents
@contents
@end ifnothtml

@menu
* Copying::                     Copying
* Introduction::                Introduction to @AUCTeX{}
* Installation::                Installing @AUCTeX{}
* Quick Start::                 Quick Start
* Frequently Used Commands::    Inserting Frequently Used Commands
* Advanced Features::           Advanced Editing Features
* Display::                     Controlling the Display of Source Code
* Running TeX and friends::     Starting processors, viewers and other programs
* Multifile::                   Multifile Documents
* Parsing Files::               Automatic Parsing of @TeX{} files
* I18n::                        Internationalization
* Automatic::                   Automatic Customization
* Style Files::                 Writing Your own Style Support
* Changes::                     Changes and New Features
* ToDo::                        Future Development
* FAQ::                         Frequently Asked Questions
* Key Index::                   Key Index
* Function Index::              Function Index
* Variable Index::              Variable Index
* Concept Index::               Concept Index
@end menu

@node Copying
@unnumbered Copying
@cindex Copying
@cindex Copyright
@cindex GPL
@cindex General Public License
@cindex License
@cindex Free
@cindex Free software
@cindex Distribution
@cindex Right
@cindex Warranty

(This text stolen from the @TeX{}info 2.16 distribution).

The programs currently being distributed that relate to @AUCTeX{}
include lisp files for Emacs (and XEmacs).  These programs are
@dfn{free}; this means that everyone is free to use them and free to
redistribute them on a free basis.  The @AUCTeX{} related programs are
not in the public domain; they are copyrighted and there are
restrictions on their distribution, but these restrictions are designed
to permit everything that a good cooperating citizen would want to do.
What is not allowed is to try to prevent others from further sharing any
version of these programs that they might get from you.

Specifically, we want to make sure that you have the right to give
away copies of the programs that relate to @AUCTeX{}, that you receive
source code or else can get it if you want it, that you can change these
programs or use pieces of them in new free programs, and that you know
you can do these things.

To make sure that everyone has such rights, we have to forbid you to
deprive anyone else of these rights.  For example, if you distribute
copies of the @AUCTeX{} related programs, you must give the recipients
all the rights that you have.  You must make sure that they, too,
receive or can get the source code.  And you must tell them their
rights.

Also, for our own protection, we must make certain that everyone finds
out that there is no warranty for the programs that relate to @AUCTeX{}.
If these programs are modified by someone else and passed on, we want
their recipients to know that what they have is not what we distributed,
so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on our
reputation.

The precise conditions of the licenses for the programs currently
being distributed that relate to @AUCTeX{} are found in the General
Public Licenses that accompany them.

@include intro.texi

@include install.texi

@include quickstart.texi

@node Frequently Used Commands
@chapter Inserting Frequently Used Commands

The most commonly used commands/macros of @AUCTeX{} are those which
simply insert templates for often used @TeX{} and/or @LaTeX{}/@ConTeXt{}
constructs, like font changes, handling of environments, etc.  These
features are very simple, and easy to learn, and help you avoid stupid
mistakes like mismatched braces, or @samp{\begin@{@}}-@samp{\end@{@}}
pairs.

@menu
* Quotes::                      Inserting double quotes
* Font Specifiers::             Inserting Font Specifiers
* Sectioning::                  Inserting chapters, sections, etc.
* Environments::                Inserting Environment Templates
@end menu

@node Quotes
@section Insertion of Quotes, Dollars, and Braces

@cindex Quotes
@cindex Double quotes
@cindex Braces
@cindex Brackets
@cindex Dollars
@cindex Math mode delimiters
@cindex Matching dollar signs
@cindex Display math mode

In @TeX{}, literal double quotes @samp{"like this"} are seldom used,
instead two single quotes are used @samp{``like this''}.  To help you
insert these efficiently, @AUCTeX{} allows you to continue to press
@kbd{"} to insert two single quotes.  To get a literal double quote,
press @kbd{"} twice.

@deffn Command TeX-insert-quote @var{count}
@kindex "
(@kbd{"}) Insert the appropriate quote marks for @TeX{}.

Inserts the value of @code{TeX-open-quote} (normally @samp{``}) or
@code{TeX-close-quote} (normally @samp{''}) depending on the context.
With prefix argument, always inserts @samp{"} characters.
@end deffn

@defopt TeX-open-quote
String inserted by typing @kbd{"} to open a quotation.
@end defopt

@defopt TeX-close-quote
String inserted by typing @kbd{"} to close a quotation.
@end defopt

@defopt TeX-quote-after-quote
Determines the behavior of @kbd{"}.  If it is non-nil, typing @kbd{"}
will insert a literal double quote.  The respective values of
@code{TeX-open-quote} and @code{TeX-close-quote} will be inserted
after typing @kbd{"} once again.
@end defopt

@vindex LaTeX-german-open-quote
@vindex LaTeX-german-close-quote
@vindex LaTeX-german-quote-after-quote
If you include the style files @file{german} or @file{ngerman}
@code{TeX-open-quote} and @code{TeX-close-quote} will be set to the
values of @code{LaTeX-german-open-quote} and
@code{LaTeX-german-close-quote} respectively.
@code{TeX-quote-after-quote} will be set to the value of
@code{LaTeX-german-quote-after-quote}.  If you write texts which
facilitate the style files mentioned before, you should customize
those special variables instead of the standard variables.

@vindex LaTeX-csquotes-open-quote
@vindex LaTeX-csquotes-close-quote
@vindex LaTeX-csquotes-quote-after-quote
Similarly you should customize @code{LaTeX-csquotes-open-quote},
@code{LaTeX-csquotes-close-quote} and
@code{LaTeX-csquotes-quote-after-quote} if you use the @samp{csquotes}
package.  The quotation characters will only be used if both
variables---@code{LaTeX-csquotes-open-quote} and
@code{LaTeX-csquotes-close-quote}---are non-empty strings.  But then the
@samp{csquotes}-related values will take precedence over the
@samp{(n)german}-related ones.

In @AUCTeX{}, dollar signs should match like they do in @TeX{}.  This
has been partially implemented, we assume dollar signs always match
within a paragraph.  The first @samp{$} you insert in a paragraph will
do nothing special.  The second @samp{$} will match the first.  This
will be indicated by moving the cursor temporarily over the first dollar
sign.  If you enter a dollar sign that matches a double dollar sign
@samp{$$} @AUCTeX{} will automatically insert two dollar signs.  If you
enter a second dollar sign that matches a single dollar sign, the single
dollar sign will automatically be converted to a double dollar sign.

@deffn Command TeX-insert-dollar @var{arg}
@kindex $
(@kbd{$}) Insert dollar sign.

Show matching dollar sign if this dollar sign end the @TeX{} math mode.
Ensure double dollar signs match up correctly by inserting extra
dollar signs when needed.

With optional @var{arg}, insert that many dollar signs.
@end deffn

To avoid unbalanced braces, it is useful to insert them pairwise.  You
can do this by typing @kbd{C-c @{}.

@deffn Command TeX-insert-braces
@kindex C-c @{
(@kbd{C-c @{}) Make a pair of braces and position the cursor
to type inside of them.
@end deffn

@node Font Specifiers
@section Inserting Font Specifiers

@cindex Fonts
@cindex Font macros
@cindex Changing font
@cindex Specifying a font

Perhaps the most used keyboard commands of @AUCTeX{} are the short-cuts
available for easy insertion of font changing macros.

If you give an argument (that is, type @kbd{C-u}) to the font command,
the innermost font will be replaced, i.e. the font in the @TeX{} group
around point will be changed.  The following table shows the available
commands, with @code{@point{}} indicating the position where the text
will be inserted.

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-f C-b
@kindex C-c C-f C-b
@cindex @code{\textbf}
Insert @b{bold face} @samp{\textbf@{@point{}@}} text.

@item C-c C-f C-i
@kindex C-c C-f C-i
@cindex @code{\textit}
Insert @i{italics} @samp{\textit@{@point{}@}} text.

@item C-c C-f C-e
@kindex C-c C-f C-e
@cindex @code{\emph}
Insert @i{emphasized} @samp{\emph@{@point{}@}} text.

@item C-c C-f C-s
@kindex C-c C-f C-s
@cindex @code{\textsl}
Insert @i{slanted} @samp{\textsl@{@point{}@}} text.

@item C-c C-f C-r
@kindex C-c C-f C-r
@cindex @code{\textrm}
Insert roman @r{\textrm@{@point{}@}} text.

@item C-c C-f C-f
@kindex C-c C-f C-f
@cindex @code{\textsf}
Insert @sans{sans serif} @samp{\textsf@{@point{}@}} text.

@item C-c C-f C-t
@kindex C-c C-f C-t
@cindex @code{\texttt}
Insert @t{typewriter} @samp{\texttt@{@point{}@}} text.

@item C-c C-f C-c
@kindex C-c C-f C-c
@cindex @code{\textsc}
Insert @sc{small caps} @samp{\textsc@{@point{}@}} text.

@item C-c C-f C-d
@kindex C-c C-f C-c
@cindex Deleting fonts
Delete the innermost font specification containing point.

@end table

@deffn Command TeX-font @var{arg}
@kindex C-c C-f
(@kbd{C-c C-f}) Insert template for font change command.

If @var{replace} is not nil, replace current font.  @var{what}
determines the font to use, as specified by @code{TeX-font-list}.
@end deffn

@defopt TeX-font-list
List of fonts used by TeX-font.

Each entry is a list with three elements.  The first element is the
key to activate the font.  The second element is the string to insert
before point, and the third element is the string to insert after
point.  An optional fourth element means always replace if not nil.
@end defopt

@node Sectioning
@section Inserting chapters, sections, etc.
@cindex Sectioning
@cindex Sections
@cindex Chapters
@cindex @code{\chapter}
@cindex @code{\section}
@cindex @code{\subsection}
@cindex @code{\label}

Insertion of sectioning macros, that is @samp{\chapter},
@samp{\section}, @samp{\subsection}, etc. and accompanying
@samp{\label}'s may be eased by using @kbd{C-c C-s}.  This command is
highly customizable, the following describes the default behavior.

When invoking you will be asked for a section macro to insert.  An
appropriate default is automatically selected by @AUCTeX{}, that is
either: at the top of the document; the top level sectioning for that
document style, and any other place: The same as the last occurring
sectioning command.

Next, you will be asked for the actual name of that section, and
last you will be asked for a label to be associated with that section.
The label will be prefixed by the value specified in
@code{LaTeX-section-hook}.

@deffn Command LaTeX-section @var{arg}
@kindex C-c C-s
(@kbd{C-c C-s}) Insert a sectioning command.

Determine the type of section to be inserted, by the argument
@var{arg}.

@itemize @bullet
@item
If @var{arg} is nil or missing, use the current level.
@item
If @var{arg} is a list (selected by C-u), go downward one level.
@item
If @var{arg} is negative, go up that many levels.
@item
If @var{arg} is positive or zero, use absolute level:
@itemize +
@item
0 : part
@item
1 : chapter
@item
2 : section
@item
3 : subsection
@item
4 : subsubsection
@item
5 : paragraph
@item
6 : subparagraph
@end itemize
@end itemize

The following variables can be set to customize the function.

@vtable @code
@item LaTeX-section-hook
Hooks to be run when inserting a section.
@item LaTeX-section-label
Prefix to all section references.
@end vtable

@end deffn

The precise behavior of @code{LaTeX-section} is defined by the contents
of @code{LaTeX-section-hook}.

@defopt LaTeX-section-hook
List of hooks to run when a new section is inserted.

The following variables are set before the hooks are run

@table @var
@item level
Numeric section level, default set by prefix arg to @code{LaTeX-section}.
@item name
Name of the sectioning command, derived from @var{level}.
@item title
The title of the section, default to an empty string.
@item toc
Entry for the table of contents list, default nil.
@item done-mark
Position of point afterwards, default nil meaning after the inserted
text.
@end table

A number of hooks are already defined.  Most likely, you will be able to
get the desired functionality by choosing from these hooks.

@ftable @code
@item LaTeX-section-heading
Query the user about the name of the sectioning command.  Modifies
@var{level} and @var{name}.
@item LaTeX-section-title
Query the user about the title of the section. Modifies @var{title}.
@item LaTeX-section-toc
Query the user for the toc entry.  Modifies @var{toc}.
@item LaTeX-section-section
Insert @LaTeX{} section command according to @var{name}, @var{title},
and @var{toc}.  If @var{toc} is nil, no toc entry is inserted.  If
@var{toc} or @var{title} are empty strings, @var{done-mark} will be
placed at the point they should be inserted.
@item LaTeX-section-label
Insert a label after the section command.  Controlled by the variable
@code{LaTeX-section-label}.
@end ftable

To get a full featured @code{LaTeX-section} command, insert

@lisp
(setq LaTeX-section-hook
      '(LaTeX-section-heading
	LaTeX-section-title
	LaTeX-section-toc
	LaTeX-section-section
	LaTeX-section-label))
@end lisp

in your @file{.emacs} file.
@end defopt

The behavior of @code{LaTeX-section-label} is determined by the
variable @code{LaTeX-section-label}.

@defopt LaTeX-section-label
Default prefix when asking for a label.

If it is a string, it is used unchanged for all kinds of sections.
If it is nil, no label is inserted.
If it is a list, the list is searched for a member whose car is equal
to the name of the sectioning command being inserted.  The cdr is then
used as the prefix.  If the name is not found, or if the cdr is nil,
no label is inserted.

@cindex Prefix for labels
@cindex Label prefix
@cindex Labels
By default, chapters have a prefix of @samp{cha:} while sections and
subsections have a prefix of @samp{sec:}.  Labels are not automatically
inserted for other types of sections.
@end defopt

@node Environments
@section Inserting Environment Templates
@cindex Environments
@cindex @samp{\begin}
@cindex @samp{\end}

A large apparatus is available that supports insertions of environments,
that is @samp{\begin@{@}} --- @samp{\end@{@}} pairs.

@AUCTeX{} is aware of most of the actual environments available in a
specific document.  This is achieved by examining your
@samp{\documentclass} command, and consulting a precompiled list of
environments available in a large number of styles.

You insert an environment with @kbd{C-c C-e}, and select an environment
type.  Depending on the environment, @AUCTeX{} may ask more questions
about the optional parts of the selected environment type.  With
@kbd{C-u C-c C-e} you will change the current environment.

@deffn Command LaTeX-environment @var{arg}
@kindex C-c C-e
(@kbd{C-c C-e})  @AUCTeX{} will prompt you for an environment
to insert.  At this prompt, you may press @key{TAB} or @key{SPC} to
complete a partially written name, and/or to get a list of available
environments.  After selection of a specific environment @AUCTeX{} may
prompt you for further specifications.

If the optional argument @var{arg} is not-nil (i.e. you have given a
prefix argument), the current environment is modified and no new
environment is inserted.
@end deffn

As a default selection, @AUCTeX{} will suggest the environment last
inserted or, as the first choice the value of the variable
@code{LaTeX-default-environment}.

@defopt LaTeX-default-environment
Default environment to insert when invoking @samp{LaTeX-environment}
first time.
@end defopt

If the document is empty, or the cursor is placed at the top of the
document, @AUCTeX{} will default to insert a `document' environment.

Most of these are described further in the following sections, and you
may easily specify more.  @xref{Customizing environments}.

@menu
* Equations::                   Equations
* Floats::                      Floats
* Itemize-like::                Itemize-like
* Tabular-like::                Tabular-like
* Customizing environments::    Customizing environments
@end menu

You can close the current environment with @kbd{C-c ]}, but we suggest
that you use @kbd{C-c C-e} to insert complete environments instead.

@deffn Command LaTeX-close-environment
@kindex C-c ]
(@kbd{C-c ]}) Insert an @samp{\end} that matches the current environment.
@end deffn

@node Equations
@subsection Equations
@cindex Equations
@cindex Equation
@cindex Eqnarray
@cindex amsmath

When inserting equation-like environments, the @samp{\label} will have a
default prefix, which is controlled by the following variables:

@defopt LaTeX-equation-label
Prefix to use for `equation' labels.
@end defopt

@defopt LaTeX-eqnarray-label
Prefix to use for `eqnarray' labels.
@end defopt

@defopt LaTeX-amsmath-label
Prefix to use for amsmath equation labels.  Amsmath equations include
@samp{align}, @samp{alignat}, @samp{xalignat}, @samp{aligned},
@samp{flalign} and @samp{gather}.
@end defopt

@node Floats
@subsection Floats
@cindex Floats
@cindex Figures
@cindex Figure environment
@cindex Tables
@cindex Table environment

Figures and tables (i.e., floats) may also be inserted using @AUCTeX{}.
After choosing either `figure' or `table' in the environment list
described above, you will be prompted for a number of additional things.

@table @var
@item float position
This is the optional argument of float environments that controls how
they are placed in the final document.  In @LaTeX{} this is a sequence
of the letters @samp{htbp} as described in the @LaTeX{} manual.  The
value will default to the value of @code{LaTeX-float}.
@vindex LaTeX-float

@item caption
This is the caption of the float.

@item label
The label of this float.  The label will have a default prefix, which is
controlled by the variables @code{LaTeX-figure-label} and
@code{LaTeX-table-label}.
@vindex LaTeX-figure-label
@vindex LaTeX-table-label
@cindex Prefix for labels
@cindex Label prefix
@cindex Labels
@end table

Moreover, you will be asked if you want the contents of the float
environment to be horizontally centered.  Upon a positive answer a
@samp{\centering} macro will be inserted at the beginning of the float
environment.

@defopt LaTeX-float
Default placement for floats.
@end defopt

@defopt LaTeX-figure-label
Prefix to use for figure labels.
@end defopt

@defopt LaTeX-table-label
Prefix to use for table labels.
@end defopt

@node Itemize-like
@subsection Itemize-like
@cindex Itemize
@cindex Enumerates
@cindex Descriptions
@cindex Items
@cindex \item

In an itemize-like environment, nodes (i.e., @samp{\item}s) may be
inserted using @kbd{C-c @key{LFD}}.

@deffn Command LaTeX-insert-item
@kindex C-c @key{LFD}
(@kbd{C-c @key{LFD}}) Close the current item, move to the next line and
insert an appropriate @samp{\item} for the current environment. That is,
`itemize' and `enumerate' will have @samp{\item } inserted, while
`description' will have @samp{\item[]} inserted.
@end deffn

@node Tabular-like
@subsection Tabular-like

When inserting Tabular-like environments, that is, `tabular' `array'
etc., you will be prompted for a template for that environment.
Related variables:

@defopt LaTeX-default-format
Default format string for array and tabular environments.
@end defopt

@defopt LaTeX-default-position
Default position string for array and tabular environments.  If nil,
act like the empty string is given, but don't prompt for a position.
@end defopt

@node Customizing environments
@subsection Customizing environments

@xref{Adding Environments}, for how to customize the list of known
environments.

@node Advanced Features
@chapter Advanced Editing Features
@cindex Advanced features

The previous chapter described how to write the main body of the text
easily and with a minimum of errors.  In this chapter we will describe
some features for entering more specialized sorts of text, for
formatting the source by indenting and filling and for navigating
through the document.

@menu
* Mathematics::                 Entering Mathematics
* Completion::                  Completion of macros
* Commenting::                  Commenting text
* Indenting::                   Reflecting syntactic constructs with whitespace
* Filling::                     Automatic and manual line breaking
@end menu

@node Mathematics
@section Entering Mathematics
@cindex Mathematics
@cindex Symbols
@cindex Abbreviations

@TeX{} is written by a mathematician, and has always contained good
support for formatting mathematical text.  @AUCTeX{} supports this
tradition, by offering a special minor mode for entering text with many
mathematical symbols.  You can enter this mode by typing @kbd{C-c
~}.

@deffn Command LaTeX-math-mode
@kindex C-c ~
(@kbd{C-c ~}) Toggle LaTeX-math-mode.  This is a minor mode rebinding
the key @code{LaTeX-math-abbrev-prefix} to allow easy typing of
mathematical symbols.  @kbd{`} will read a character from the keyboard,
and insert the symbol as specified in @code{LaTeX-math-list}.  If given a
prefix argument, the symbol will be surrounded by dollar signs.
@end deffn

You can use another prefix key (instead of @kbd{`}) by  setting the
variable @code{LaTeX-math-abbrev-prefix}.

To enable LaTeX-math-mode by default, add the following in your
@file{.emacs} file:
@lisp
(add-hook 'LaTeX-mode-hook 'LaTeX-math-mode)
@end lisp

@defopt LaTeX-math-abbrev-prefix
A string containing the prefix of @code{LaTeX-math-mode} commands;
This value defaults to @kbd{`}.
@end defopt

The variable @code{LaTeX-math-list} holds the actual mapping.

@defopt LaTeX-math-list
A list containing key command mappings to use in @code{LaTeX-math-mode}.
The car of each element is the key and the cdr is the macro name.
@end defopt

@defopt LaTeX-math-menu-unicode
Whether the LaTeX menu should try using Unicode for effect.  Your Emacs
built must be able to display include Unicode characters in menus for
this feature.
@end defopt

@AUCTeX{}'s reference card @file{tex-ref.tex} includes a list of all
math mode commands.

@node Completion
@section Completion
@cindex Completion
@cindex Expansion
@cindex Macro expansion
@cindex Macro completion
@cindex Macro arguments
@cindex Arguments to @TeX{} macros

Emacs lisp programmers probably know the @code{lisp-complete-symbol}
command, usually bound to @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}.  Users of the wonderful
ispell mode know and love the @code{ispell-complete-word} command from
that package.  Similarly, @AUCTeX{} has a @code{TeX-complete-symbol}
command, usually bound to @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}.  Using
@code{LaTeX-complete-symbol} makes it easier to type and remember the
names of long @LaTeX{} macros.

In order to use @code{TeX-complete-symbol}, you should write a backslash
and the start of the macro.  Typing @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} will now complete
as much of the macro, as it unambiguously can.  For example, if you type
`@samp{\renewc}' and then @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}, it will expand to
`@samp{\renewcommand}'.

@deffn Command TeX-complete-symbol
@kindex M-@key{TAB}
(@kbd{M-@key{TAB}})  Complete @TeX{} symbol before point.
@end deffn

A more direct way to insert a macro is with @code{TeX-insert-macro},
bound to @kbd{C-c C-m}.  It has the advantage over completion that it
knows about the argument of most standard @LaTeX{} macros, and will
prompt for them.  It also knows about the type of the arguments, so it
will for example give completion for the argument to @samp{\include}.
Some examples are listed below.

@deffn Command TeX-insert-macro
@kindex C-c C-m
(@kbd{C-c C-m} or @kbd{C-c RET}) Prompt (with completion) for the name
of a @TeX{} macro, and if @AUCTeX{} knows the macro, prompt for each
argument.
@end deffn

As a default selection, @AUCTeX{} will suggest the macro last inserted
or, as the first choice the value of the variable
@code{TeX-default-macro}.

@defopt TeX-insert-macro-default-style
Specifies whether @code{TeX-insert-macro} will ask for all optional
arguments.

If set to the symbol @code{show-optional-args}, @code{TeX-insert-macro}
asks for optional arguments of @TeX{} macros.  If set to
@code{mandatory-args-only}, @code{TeX-insert-macro} asks only for
mandatory arguments.  When @code{TeX-insert-macro} is called with prefix
argument (@kbd{C-u}), it's the other way round.

Note that for some macros, there are special mechanisms, e.g.
@code{LaTeX-includegraphics-options-alist}.

@end defopt


@defopt TeX-default-macro
Default macro to insert when invoking @code{TeX-insert-macro} first time.
@end defopt

A faster alternative is to bind the function @code{TeX-electric-macro}
to @samp{\}.  This can be done by setting the variable
@code{TeX-electric-escape}

@defopt TeX-electric-escape
If this is non-nil when @AUCTeX{} is loaded, the @TeX{} escape
character @samp{\} will be bound to @code{TeX-electric-macro}
@end defopt

The difference between @code{TeX-insert-macro} and
@code{TeX-electric-macro} is that space will complete and exit from the
minibuffer in @code{TeX-electric-macro}.  Use @key{TAB} if you merely
want to complete.

@deffn Command TeX-electric-macro
Prompt (with completion) for the name of a @TeX{} macro,
and if @AUCTeX{} knows the macro, prompt for each argument.
Space will complete and exit.
@end deffn

By default @AUCTeX{} will put an empty set braces @samp{@{@}} after a
macro with no arguments to stop it from eating the next whitespace.
This can be stopped by entering @code{LaTeX-math-mode},
@pxref{Mathematics}, or by setting @code{TeX-insert-braces} to nil.

@defopt TeX-insert-braces
If non-nil, append a empty pair of braces after inserting a macro.
@end defopt

Completions work because @AUCTeX{} can analyze @TeX{} files, and store
symbols in emacs lisp files for later retrieval.  @xref{Automatic}, for
more information.

@cindex \cite, completion of
@cindex Bib@TeX{}, completion
@cindex cite, completion of
@cindex bibliography, completion
@cindex citations, completion of
@cindex \label, completion
@cindex \ref, completion
@cindex labels, completion of
@AUCTeX{} will also make completion for many macro arguments, for
example existing labels when you enter a @samp{\ref} macro with
@code{TeX-insert-macro} or @code{TeX-electric-macro}, and Bib@TeX{}
entries when you enter a @samp{\cite} macro.  For this kind of
completion to work, parsing must be enabled as described in
@pxref{Parsing Files}.  For @samp{\cite} you must also make sure that
the Bib@TeX{} files have been saved at least once after you enabled
automatic parsing on save, and that the basename of the Bib@TeX{} file
does not conflict with the basename of one of @TeX{} files.

@node Commenting
@section Commenting

It is often necessary to comment out temporarily a region of @TeX{} or
@LaTeX{} code.  This can be done with the commands @kbd{C-c ;} and
@kbd{C-c %}.  @kbd{C-c ;} will comment out all lines in the current
region, while @kbd{C-c %} will comment out the current paragraph.
Type @kbd{C-c ;} again to uncomment all lines of a commented region,
or @kbd{C-c %} again to uncomment all comment lines around point.
These commands will insert or remove a single @samp{%} respectively.

@deffn Command TeX-comment-or-uncomment-region
@kindex C-c ;
(@kbd{C-c ;}) Add or remove @samp{%} from the beginning of each line
in the current region.  Uncommenting works only if the region encloses
solely commented lines.  If @AUCTeX{} should not try to guess if the
region should be commented or uncommented the commands
@code{TeX-comment-region} and @code{TeX-uncomment-region} can be used
to explicitly comment or uncomment the region in concern.
@end deffn

@deffn Command TeX-comment-or-uncomment-paragraph
@kindex C-c %
(@kbd{C-c %}) Add or remove @samp{%} from the beginning of each line
in the current paragraph.  When removing @samp{%} characters the
paragraph is considered to consist of all preceding and succeeding
lines starting with a @samp{%}, until the first non-comment line.
@end deffn

@node Indenting
@section Indenting
@cindex Formatting
@cindex Indenting
@cindex Indentation
@cindex Reformatting
@cindex Reindenting

Indentation means the addition of whitespace at the beginning of lines
to reflect special syntactical constructs.  This makes it easier to see
the structure of the document, and to catch errors such as a missing
closing brace.  Thus, the indentation is done for precisely the same
reasons that you would indent ordinary computer programs.

Indentation is done by @LaTeX{} environments and by @TeX{} groups, that
is the body of an environment is indented by the value of
@code{LaTeX-indent-level} (default 2).  Also, items of an `itemize-like'
environment are indented by the value of @code{LaTeX-item-indent},
default @minus{}2.  If more environments are nested, they are indented
`accumulated' just like most programming languages usually are seen
indented in nested constructs.
@vindex LaTeX-indent-level
@vindex LaTeX-item-indent

You can explicitely indent single lines, usually by pressing @key{TAB},
or marked regions by calling @code{indent-region} on it.  If you have
@code{auto-fill-mode} enabled and a line is broken while you type it,
Emacs automatically cares about the indentation in the following line.
If you want to have a similar behavior upon typing @key{RET}, you can
customize the variable @code{TeX-newline-function} and change the
default of @code{newline} which does no indentation to
@code{newline-and-indent} which indents the new line or
@code{reindent-then-newline-and-indent} which indents both the current
and the new line.
@vindex TeX-newline-function

There are certain @LaTeX{} environments which should be indented in a
special way, like @samp{tabular} or @samp{verbatim}.  Those environments
may be specified in the variable @code{LaTeX-indent-environment-list}
together with their special indentation functions.  Taking the
@samp{verbatim} environment as an example you can see that
@code{current-indentation} is used as the indentation function.  This
will stop @AUCTeX{} from doing any indentation in the environment if you
hit @key{TAB} for example.
@vindex LaTeX-indent-environment-list

There are environments in @code{LaTeX-indent-environment-list} which do
not bring a special indentation function with them.  This is due to the
fact that first the respective functions are not implemented yet and
second that filling will be disabled for the specified environments.
This shall prevent the source code from being messed up by accidently
filling those environments with the standard filling routine.  If you
think that providing special filling routines for such environments
would be an appropriate and challenging task for you, you are invited to
contribute. (@xref{Filling}, for further information about the filling
functionality)
@vindex LaTeX-indent-environment-list

The check for the indentation function may be enabled or disabled by
customizing the variable @code{LaTeX-indent-environment-check}.
@vindex LaTeX-indent-environment-check

As a side note with regard to formatting special environments: Newer
Emacsen include @file{align.el} and therefore provide some support for
formatting @samp{tabular} and @samp{tabbing} environments with the
function @code{align-current} which will nicely align columns in the
source code.

@AUCTeX{} is able to format commented parts of your code just as any
other part.  This means @LaTeX{} environments and @TeX{} groups in
comments will be indented syntactically correct if the variable
@code{LaTeX-syntactic-comments} is set to t.  If you disable it,
comments will be filled like normal text and no syntactic indentation
will be done.
@vindex LaTeX-syntactic-comments

Following you will find a list of most commands and variables related
to indenting with a small summary in each case:

@table @kbd
@item @key{TAB}
@kindex @key{TAB}
@findex LaTeX-indent-line
@code{LaTeX-indent-line} will indent the current line.

@item @key{LFD}
@kindex @key{LFD}
@code{newline-and-indent} inserts a new line (much like @key{RET}) and
moves the cursor to an appropriate position by the left margin.

Most keyboards nowadays don't have a linefeed key and @kbd{C-j} is
tedious to type.  Therefore you can customize @AUCTeX{} to perform
indentation (or to make coffee) upon typing @key{RET} as well.  The
respective option is called @code{TeX-newline-function}.

@item C-j
@kindex C-j
Alias for @key{LFD}
@end table

@defopt LaTeX-indent-environment-list
List of environments with special indentation.  The second element in
each entry is the function to calculate the indentation level in
columns.

The filling code currently cannot handle tabular-like environments
which will be completely messed-up if you try to format them.  This is
why most of these environments are included in this customization
option without a special indentation function.  This will prevent that
they get filled.
@end defopt

@defopt LaTeX-indent-level
Number of spaces to add to the indentation for each @samp{\begin} not
matched by a @samp{\end}.
@end defopt

@defopt LaTeX-item-indent
Number of spaces to add to the indentation for @samp{\item}'s in list
environments.
@end defopt

@defopt TeX-brace-indent-level
Number of spaces to add to the indentation for each @samp{@{} not
matched by a @samp{@}}.
@end defopt

@defopt LaTeX-syntactic-comments
If non-nil comments will be filled and indented according to @LaTeX{}
syntax.  Otherwise they will be filled like normal text.
@end defopt

@defopt TeX-newline-function
Used to specify the function which is called when @key{RET} is pressed.
This will normally be @code{newline} which simply inserts a new line.
In case you want to have @AUCTeX{} do indentation as well when you press
@key{RET}, use the built-in functions @code{newline-and-indent} or
@code{reindent-then-newline-and-indent}.  The former inserts a new line
and indents the following line, i.e. it moves the cursor to the right
position and therefore acts as if you pressed @key{LFD}.  The latter
function additionally indents the current line.  If you choose
@samp{Other}, you can specify your own fancy function to be called when
@key{RET} is pressed.
@end defopt


@node Filling
@section Filling
@cindex Filling
@cindex Formatting
@cindex Reformatting
@cindex Refilling

Filling deals with the insertion of line breaks to prevent lines from
becoming wider than what is specified in @code{fill-column}.  The
linebreaks will be inserted automatically if @code{auto-fill-mode} is
enabled.  In this case the source is not only filled but also indented
automatically as you write it.

@c Describe hooks at another suitable place!

@code{auto-fill-mode} can be enabled for @AUCTeX{} by calling
@code{turn-on-auto-fill} in one of the hooks @AUCTeX{} is running.  For
all text modes with @code{text-mode-hook}, for all @AUCTeX{} modes with
@code{TeX-mode-hook} or for specific modes with
@code{plain-TeX-mode-hook}, @code{LaTeX-mode-hook},
@code{ConTeXt-mode-hook} or @code{docTeX-mode-hook}.  As an example, if
you want to enable @code{auto-fill-mode} in @code{LaTeX-mode}, put the
following into your init file:

@lisp
(add-hook 'LaTeX-mode-hook 'turn-on-auto-fill)
@end lisp

You can manually fill explicitely marked regions, paragraphs,
environments, complete sections, or the whole buffer.  (Note that manual
filling in @AUCTeX{} will indent the start of the region to be filled in
contrast to many other Emacs modes.)

There are some syntactical constructs which are handled specially with
regard to filling.  These are so-called code comments and paragraph
commands.

Code comments are comments preceded by code or text in the same line.
Upon filling a region, code comments themselves will not get filled.
Filling is done from the start of the region to the line with the code
comment and continues after it.  In order to prevent overfull lines in
the source code, a linebreak will be inserted before the last
non-comment word by default.  This can be changed by customizing
@code{LaTeX-fill-break-before-code-comments}.  If you have overfull
lines with code comments you can fill those explicitely by calling
@code{LaTeX-fill-paragraph} or pressing @kbd{M-q} with the cursor
positioned on them.  This will add linebreaks in the comment and indent
subsequent comment lines to the column of the comment in the first line
of the code comment.  In this special case @kbd{M-q} only acts on the
current line and not on the whole paragraph.

Lines with @samp{\par} are treated similarly to code comments,
i.e. @samp{\par} will be treated as paragraph boundary which should not
be followed by other code or text.  But it is not treated as a real
paragraph boundary like an empty line where filling a paragraph would
stop.

Paragraph commands like @samp{\section} or @samp{\noindent} (the list of
commands is defined by @code{LaTeX-paragraph-commands}) are often to be
placed in their own line(s).  This means they should not be consecuted
with any preceding or following adjacent lines of text.  @AUCTeX{} will
prevent this from happening if you do not put any text except another
macro after the end of the last brace of the respective macro.  If
there is other text after the macro, @AUCTeX{} regards this as a sign
that the macro is part of the following paragraph.
@vindex LaTeX-paragraph-commands

Here are some examples:

@example
\begin@{quote@}
  text text text text
@end example

@example
\begin@{quote@}\label@{foo@}
  text text text text
@end example

If you press @kbd{M-q} on the first line in both examples, nothing will
change.  But if you write

@example
\begin@{quote@} text
  text text text text
@end example

and press @kbd{M-q}, you will get

@example
\begin@{quote@} text text text text text
@end example

Besides code comments and paragraph commands, another speciality of
filling in @AUCTeX{} involves commented lines.  You should be aware that
these comments are treated as islands in the rest of the @LaTeX{} code
if syntactic filling is enabled.  This means, for example, if you try to
fill an environment with @code{LaTeX-fill-environment} and have the
cursor placed on a commented line which does not have a surrounding
environment inside the comment, @AUCTeX{} will report an error.
@findex LaTeX-fill-environment

The relevant commands and variables with regard to filling are:

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-q C-p
@kindex C-c C-q C-p
@findex LaTeX-fill-paragraph
@code{LaTeX-fill-paragraph} will fill and indent the current paragraph.

@item M-q
@kindex M-q
Alias for @kbd{C-c C-q C-p}

@item C-c C-q C-e
@kindex C-c C-q C-e
@findex LaTeX-fill-environment
@code{LaTeX-fill-environment} will fill and indent the current
environment.  This may e.g. be the `document' environment, in which case
the entire document will be formatted.

@item C-c C-q C-s
@kindex C-c C-q C-s
@findex LaTeX-fill-section
@code{LaTeX-fill-section} will fill and indent the current logical
sectional unit.

@item C-c C-q C-r
@kindex C-c C-q C-r
@findex LaTeX-fill-region
@code{LaTeX-fill-region} will fill and indent the current region.

@item M-g
@kindex M-g
Alias for @kbd{C-c C-q C-r}
@end table

@defopt LaTeX-fill-break-at-separators
List of separators before or after which respectively linebreaks will
be inserted if they do not fit into one line.  The separators can be
curly braces, brackets, switches for inline math (@samp{$}, @samp{\(},
@samp{\)}) and switches for display math (@samp{\[}, @samp{\]}).  Such
formatting can be useful to make macros and math more visible or to
prevent overfull lines in the @LaTeX{} source in case a package for
displaying formatted @TeX{} output inside the Emacs buffer, like
preview-latex, is used.
@end defopt

@defopt LaTeX-fill-break-before-code-comments
Code comments are comments preceded by some other text in the same line.
When a paragraph containing such a comment is to be filled, the comment
start will be seen as a border after which no line breaks will be
inserted in the same line.  If the option
@code{LaTeX-fill-break-before-code-comments} is enabled (which is the
default) and the comment does not fit into the line, a line break will
be inserted before the last non-comment word to minimize the chance that
the line becomes overfull.
@end defopt

@node Display
@chapter Controlling the Display of Source Code

It is often desirable to get visual help of what markup code in a text
actually does whithout having to decipher it explicitely.  For this
purpose Emacs and @AUCTeX{} provide font locking (also known as syntax
highlighting) which visually sets off markup code like macros or
environments by using different colors or fonts.  For example text to be
typeset in italics can be displayed with an italic font in the editor as
well, or labels and references get their own distinct color.

While font locking helps you grasp the purpose of markup code and
separate markup from content, the markup code can still be distracting.
@AUCTeX{} lets you hide those parts and show them again at request with
its built-in support for hiding macros and environments which we call
folding here.

Besides folding of macros and environments, @AUCTeX{} provides support
for Emacs' outline mode which lets you narrow the buffer content to
certain sections of your text by hiding the parts not belonging to these
sections.

@menu
* Font Locking::                Font Locking
* Folding::                     Folding Macros and Environments
* Outline::                     Outlining the Document
@end menu

@node Font Locking
@section Font Locking
@cindex Font Locking
@cindex Syntax Highlighting
@cindex font-latex

Font locking is supposed to improve readability of the source code by
highlighting certain keywords with different colors or fonts.  It
thereby lets you recognize the function of markup code to a certain
extent without having to read the markup command.  For general
information on controlling font locking with Emacs' font lock mode, see
@ref{Font Lock, , Font Lock Mode, emacs, GNU Emacs Manual}.

@defopt TeX-install-font-lock
Once font locking is enabled globally or for the major modes provided by
@AUCTeX{}, the font locking patterns and functionality of @fontlatex{}
are activated by default.  You can switch to a different font locking
scheme or disable font locking in @AUCTeX{} by customizing the variable
@code{TeX-install-font-lock}.

Besides @fontlatex{} @AUCTeX{} ships with a scheme which is derived
from Emacs' default @LaTeX{} mode and activated by choosing
@code{tex-font-setup}.  Be aware that this scheme is not coupled with
@AUCTeX{}'s style system and not the focus of development.  Therefore
and due to @fontlatex{} being much more feature-rich the following
explanations will only cover @fontlatex{}.

In case you want to hook in your own fontification scheme, you can
choose @code{other} and insert the name of the function which sets up
your font locking patterns.  If you want to disable fontification in
@AUCTeX{} completely, choose @code{ignore}.
@end defopt

@fontlatex{} provides many options for customization which are
accessible with @kbd{M-x customize-group RET font-latex RET}.  For this
description the various options are explained in conceptional groups.

@heading Macros

Highlighting of macros can be customized by adapting keyword lists which
can be found in the customization group @code{font-latex-keywords}.  The
lists contain names of macros without the leading backslash.

Three types of macros can be handled differently with respect to
fontification:

@enumerate
@item
Commands of the form @samp{\foo[bar]@{baz@}} which consist of the macro
itself, optional arguments in square brackets and mandatory arguments in
curly braces.  For the command itself the face
@code{font-lock-keyword-face} will be used and for the optional
arguments the face @code{font-lock-variable-name-face}.  The face
applied to the mandatory argument depends on the macro class represented
by the respective built-in variables.
@item
Declaration macros of the form @samp{@{\foo text@}} which consist of the
macro which may be enclosed in a @TeX{} group together with text to be
affected by the macro.  In case a @TeX{} group is present, the macro
will get the face @code{font-lock-keyword-face} and the text will get
the face configured for the respective macro class.  If no @TeX{} group
is present, the latter face will be applied to the macro itself.
@item
Simple macros of the form @samp{\foo} which do not have any arguments or
groupings.  The respective face will be applied to the macro itself.
@end enumerate

@subheading General macro classes

@fontlatex{} provides keyword lists for different macro classes which
are described in the following table:

@vindex font-latex-match-function-keywords
@vindex font-latex-match-reference-keywords
@vindex font-latex-match-textual-keywords
@vindex font-latex-match-variable-keywords
@vindex font-latex-match-warning-keywords
@table @code
@item font-latex-match-function-keywords
Keywords for macros defining or related to functions, like
@samp{\newcommand}.@*
Type: @samp{\macro[...]@{...@}}@*
Face: @code{font-lock-function-name-face}

@item font-latex-match-reference-keywords
Keywords for macros defining or related to references, like
@samp{\ref}.@*
Type: @samp{\macro[...]@{...@}}@*
Face: @code{font-lock-reference-face}

@item font-latex-match-textual-keywords
Keywords for macros specifying textual content, like @samp{\caption}.@*
Type: @samp{\macro[...]@{...@}}@*
Face: @code{font-lock-type-face}

@item font-latex-match-variable-keywords
Keywords for macros defining or related to variables, like
@samp{\setlength}.@*
Type: @samp{\macro[...]@{...@}@{...@}}@*
Face: @code{font-lock-variable-name-face}

@item font-latex-match-warning-keywords
Keywords for important macros, e.g. affecting line or page break, like
@samp{\clearpage}.@*
Type: @samp{\macro}@*
Face: @code{font-latex-warning-face}
@end table

@subheading Sectioning commands
@cindex Sectioning commands, fontification of

Sectioning commands are macros like @samp{\chapter} or @samp{\section}.
For these commands there are two fontification schemes which may be
selected by customizing the variable @code{font-latex-title-fontify}.

@defopt font-latex-title-fontify
Per default sectioning commands will be shown in a larger, proportional
font, which corresponds to the value @samp{height} for this variable.
The font size varies with the sectioning level, e.g. @samp{\part} will
have a larger font than @samp{\subsection}.  @fontlatex{} provides four
different levels.  The respective keyword lists are described in the
following table.  If you rather like to use the base font and a
different color, set the variable to @samp{color}.  In this case the
face @code{font-lock-type-face} will be used to fontify the argument of
the command.
@end defopt

@vindex font-latex-match-title-1-keywords
@vindex font-latex-match-title-2-keywords
@vindex font-latex-match-title-3-keywords
@vindex font-latex-match-title-4-keywords
@table @code
@item font-latex-match-title-1-keywords
Keywords for level 1 sectioning commands.@*
Face: @code{font-latex-title-1-face}

@item font-latex-match-title-2-keywords
Keywords for level 2 sectioning commands.@*
Face: @code{font-latex-title-2-face}

@item font-latex-match-title-3-keywords
Keywords for level 3 sectioning commands.@*
Face: @code{font-latex-title-3-face}

@item font-latex-match-title-4-keywords
Keywords for level 4 sectioning commands.@*
Face: @code{font-latex-title-4-face}
@end table

@subheading Commands for changing fonts

@LaTeX{} provides various macros for changing fonts or font attributes.
For example, you can select an italic font with @samp{\textit@{...@}} or
bold with @samp{\textbf@{...@}}.  An alternative way to specify these
fonts is to use special macros in @TeX{} groups, like @samp{@{\itshape
...@}} for italics and @samp{@{\bfseries ...@}} for bold.  As mentioned
above, we call the former variants commands and the latter
declarations.

Besides the macros for changing fonts provided by @LaTeX{} there is an
infinite number of other macros---either defined by yourself for logical
markup or defined by macro packages---which affect the font in the
typeset text.  While @LaTeX{}'s built-in macros and macros of packages
known by @AUCTeX{} are already handled by @fontlatex{}, different
keyword lists per type style and macro type are provided for entering
your own macros which are listed in the table below.

@vindex font-latex-match-bold-command-keywords
@vindex font-latex-match-italic-command-keywords
@vindex font-latex-match-math-command-keywords
@vindex font-latex-match-type-command-keywords
@vindex font-latex-match-bold-declaration-keywords
@vindex font-latex-match-italic-declaration-keywords
@vindex font-latex-match-type-declaration-keywords
@table @code
@item font-latex-match-bold-command-keywords
Keywords for commands specifying a bold type style.@*
Face: @code{font-latex-bold-face}
@item font-latex-match-italic-command-keywords
Keywords for commands specifying an italic font.@*
Face: @code{font-latex-italic-face}
@item font-latex-match-math-command-keywords
Keywords for commands specifying a math font.@*
Face: @code{font-latex-math-face}
@item font-latex-match-type-command-keywords
Keywords for commands specifying a typewriter font.@*
Face: @code{font-lock-type-face}
@item font-latex-match-bold-declaration-keywords
Keywords for declarations specifying a bold type style.@*
Face: @code{font-latex-bold-face}
@item font-latex-match-italic-declaration-keywords
Keywords for declarations specifying an italic font.@*
Face: @code{font-latex-italic-face}
@item font-latex-match-type-declaration-keywords
Keywords for declarations specifying a typewriter font.@*
Face: @code{font-latex-type-face}
@end table

@subheading User-defined keyword classes

In case the customization options explained above do not suffice for
your needs, you can specify your own keyword classes by customizing the
variable @code{font-latex-user-keyword-classes}.

@defopt font-latex-user-keyword-classes
Every keyword class consists of four parts, a name, a list of keywords,
a face and a specifier for the type of macros to be highlighted.

When adding new entries, you have to use unique values for the class
names, i.e. they must not clash with names of the built-in keyword
classes or other names given by you.  Additionally the names must not
contain spaces.

The keywords are names of commands you want to match omitting the
leading backslash.

The face argument can either be an existing face or font specifications
made by you.  (The latter option is not available on XEmacs.)

There are three alternatives for the type of keywords---``Command with
arguments'', ``Declaration inside @TeX{} group'' and ``Command without
arguments''---which correspond with the macro types explained above.
@end defopt

@heading Quotes
@cindex Quotes, fontification of

Text in quotation marks is displayed with the face
@code{font-latex-string-face}.  Besides the various forms of opening and
closing double and single quotation marks so-called guillemets (<<, >>)
can be used for quoting.  Because there are two styles of using
them---French style: << text >>; German style: >>text<<---you can
customize the variable @code{font-latex-quotes} to tell @fontlatex{}
which type you are using.

@defopt font-latex-quotes
Set the value to @samp{german} if you are using >>German quotes<< and to
@samp{french} if you are using << French quotes >>.  @fontlatex{} will
recognize the different ways these quotes can be given in your source
code, i.e. (@samp{"<}, @samp{">}), (@samp{<<}, @samp{>>}) and the
respective 8-bit variants.
@end defopt

@heading Subscript and superscript in math
@cindex Subscript, fontification of
@cindex Superscript, fontification of

In order to make math constructs more readable, @fontlatex{} displays
subscript and superscript parts in a smaller font and raised or lowered
respectively.  This fontification feature can be controlled with the
variables @code{font-latex-fontify-script} and
@code{font-latex-script-display}.

@defopt font-latex-fontify-script
If non-nil, fontify subscript and superscript strings.

Note that this feature is not available on XEmacs, for whicht it is
disabled per default.  In GNU Emacs raising and lowering is not enabled
for versions 21.3 and before due to it working not properly.
@end defopt

@defopt font-latex-script-display
Display specification for subscript and superscript content.  The car is
used for subscript, the cdr is used for superscript.  The feature is
implemented using so-called display properties.  For information on what
exactly to specify for the values, see @ref{Other Display Specs, , Other
Display Specifications, elisp, GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual}.
@end defopt

@heading Verbatim macros and environments
@cindex Verbatim, fontification of

Usually it is not desirable to have content to be typeset verbatim
highlighted according to @LaTeX{} syntax.  Therefore this content will
be fontified uniformly with the face @code{font-latex-verbatim-face}.

@fontlatex{} differentiates three different types of verbatim
constructs for fontification and consequently provides three keyword
lists for customization.

@defopt font-latex-verb-like-commands
List of commands with the form @samp{\foo|...|} to be fontified as
verbatim without the leading backslash.  (The delimiters for the
command's argument can be any character except an asterisk.)
@end defopt

@defopt font-latex-verbatim-macros
List of macros with the form @samp{\foo@{...@}} to be fontified as
verbatim without the leading backslash.  In contrast to
@code{font-latex-verb-like-commands} the macro's argument is enclosed in
a @TeX{} group and not two arbitrary characters.
@end defopt

@defopt font-latex-verbatim-environments
List of environments the content of which should be fontified as
verbatim.
@end defopt

@heading Multi-line fontification

Font locking in @LaTeX{} source code often involves constructs spanning
more than one line of text.  For these constructs to be handled
correctly GNU Emacs as well as @fontlatex{} provide mechanisms for
multi-line fontification which can be controlled by the variable
@code{font-latex-do-multi-line}.

@defopt font-latex-do-multi-line
Control multi-line fontification.

Setting the variable to t will enable @fontlatex{}'s mechanism, setting
it to nil will disable it.  Setting it to @samp{try-font-lock} (the
default) will use font-lock's mechanism if available and @fontlatex{}'s
method if not.

Setting this variable will only have effect after resetting buffers
controlled by @fontlatex{} or restarting Emacs.
@end defopt

@heading Faces
@cindex Faces

In case you want to change the colors and fonts used by @fontlatex{}
please refer to the faces mentioned in the explanations above and use
@kbd{M-x customize-face RET <face> RET}.  All faces defined by
@fontlatex{} are accessible through a customization group by typing
@kbd{M-x customize-group RET font-latex-highlighting-faces RET}.


@node Folding
@section Folding Macros and Environments
@cindex Outlining
@cindex Folding
@cindex Reveal
@cindex Auto-Reveal
@cindex Hide Macros

There can be macros and environments which have content that is not part
of the text body you are writing, like footnotes and citations.  Those
enclose text which you often only want to see while actually editing it
and which otherwise distract your view of the document body.  Similarly
there are macros where you are not interested in viewing the macro
besides its content but rather want to see the content only, like font
specifiers where the content might already be fontified in a special way
by font locking.

With @AUCTeX{}'s folding functionality you can collapse those items and
replace them by either a fixed string or the content of one of their
arguments instead.  If you want to make the original text visible again
temporarily in order to view or edit it, move point sideways onto the
placeholder (also called display string) or left-click with the mouse
pointer on it.  (The latter is currently only supported on GNU Emacs.)
The macro or environment will unfold automatically, stay open as long as
point is inside of it and collapse again once you move point out of it.
(Note that folding of environments currently does not work in every
@AUCTeX{} mode.)

In order to use this feature, you have to activate @code{TeX-fold-mode}
which will activate the auto-reveal feature and the necessary commands
to hide and show macros and environments.  You can activate the mode in
a certain buffer by typing the command @kbd{M-x TeX-fold-mode RET} or
using the keyboard shortcut @kbd{C-c C-o C-f}.  If you want to use it
every time you edit a @LaTeX{} document, add it to a hook:
@findex TeX-fold-mode
@kindex C-c C-o C-f

@lisp
(add-hook 'LaTeX-mode-hook '(lambda ()
                              (TeX-fold-mode 1)))
@end lisp

If it should be activated in all @AUCTeX{} modes, use
@code{TeX-mode-hook} instead of @code{LaTeX-mode-hook}.

Once the mode is active there are several commands available to hide
and show macros and environments:

@deffn Command TeX-fold-buffer
@kindex C-c C-o C-b
(@kbd{C-c C-o C-b}) Hide all macros specified in the variables
@code{TeX-fold-macro-spec-list} and @code{TeX-fold-env-spec-list}.  This
command can also be used to refresh the whole buffer and hide any new
macros and environments which were inserted after the last invocation of
the command.
@end deffn

@deffn Command TeX-fold-region
@kindex C-c C-o C-r
(@kbd{C-c C-o C-r}) Hide all configured macros in the marked region.
@end deffn

@deffn Command TeX-fold-paragraph
@kindex C-c C-o C-p
(@kbd{C-c C-o C-p}) Hide all configured macros in the paragraph
containing point.
@end deffn

@deffn Command TeX-fold-macro
@kindex C-c C-o C-m
(@kbd{C-c C-o C-m}) Hide the macro on which point currently is located.
If the name of the macro is found in @code{TeX-fold-macro-spec-list},
the respective display string will be shown instead.  If it is not
found, the name of the macro in sqare brackets or the default string for
unspecified macros (@code{TeX-fold-unspec-macro-display-string}) will be
shown, depending on the value of the variable
@code{TeX-fold-unspec-use-name}.
@end deffn

@deffn Command TeX-fold-env
@kindex C-c C-o C-e
(@kbd{C-c C-o C-e}) Hide the environment on which point currently is
located.  The behavior regarding the display string is analogous to
@code{TeX-fold-macro} and determined by the variables
@code{TeX-fold-env-spec-list} and
@code{TeX-fold-unspec-env-display-string} respectively.
@end deffn

@deffn Command TeX-fold-clearout-buffer
@kindex C-c C-o b
(@kbd{C-c C-o b}) Permanently unfold all macros and environments in the
current buffer.
@end deffn

@deffn Command TeX-fold-clearout-region
@kindex C-c C-o r
(@kbd{C-c C-o r}) Permanently unfold all macros and environments in the
marked region.
@end deffn

@deffn Command TeX-fold-clearout-paragraph
@kindex C-c C-o p
(@kbd{C-c C-o p}) Permanently unfold all macros and environments in the
paragraph containing point.
@end deffn

@deffn Command TeX-fold-clearout-item
@kindex C-c C-o i
(@kbd{C-c C-o i}) Permanently show the macro or environment on which
point currently is located.  In contrast to temporarily opening the
macro when point is moved sideways onto it, the macro will be
permanently unfolded and will not collapse again once point is leaving
it.
@end deffn

@deffn Command TeX-fold-dwim
@kindex C-c C-o C-o
(@kbd{C-c C-o C-o}) Hide or show items according to the current context.
If there is folded content, unfold it.  If there is a marked region,
fold all configured content in this region.  If there is no folded
content but a macro or environment, fold it.
@end deffn

The commands above will only take macros or environments into
consideration which are specified in the variable
@code{TeX-fold-macro-spec-list} or @code{TeX-fold-env-spec-list}
respectively.

@defopt TeX-fold-macro-spec-list
List of display strings or argument numbers and macros to fold.  If you
specify a number, the content of the first mandatory argument of a
@LaTeX{} macro will be used as the placeholder.

The placeholder is made by copying the text from the buffer together with
its properties, i.e. its face as well.  If fontification has not
happened when this is done (e.g. because of lazy font locking) the
intended fontification will not show up.  As a workaround you can leave
Emacs idle a few seconds and wait for stealth font locking to finish
before you fold the buffer.  Or you just re-fold the buffer with
@code{TeX-fold-buffer} when you notice a wrong fontification.
@end defopt

@defopt TeX-fold-env-spec-list
List of display strings or argument numbers and environments to fold.
Argument numbers refer to the @samp{\begin} statement.  That means if
you have e.g. @samp{\begin@{tabularx@}@{\linewidth@}@{XXX@} ...
\end@{tabularx@}} and specify 3 as the argument number, the resulting
display string will be ``XXX''.
@end defopt

@defopt TeX-fold-unspec-macro-display-string
Default display string for macros which are not specified in
@code{TeX-fold-macro-spec-list}.
@end defopt

@defopt TeX-fold-unspec-env-display-string
Default display string for environments which are not specified in
@code{TeX-fold-env-spec-list}.
@end defopt

@defopt TeX-fold-unspec-use-name
If non-nil the name of the macro or environment surrounded by square
brackets is used as display string, otherwise the defaults specified in
@code{TeX-fold-unspec-macro-display-string} or
@code{TeX-fold-unspec-env-display-string} respectively.
@end defopt

@node Outline
@section Outlining the Document
@cindex Outlining
@cindex Headers
@cindex Sections
@cindex Overview
@cindex Folding

@AUCTeX{} supports the standard outline minor mode using
@LaTeX{}/@ConTeXt{} sectioning commands as header lines.  @xref{Outline
Mode, , Outline Mode, emacs, GNU Emacs Manual}.

You can add your own headings by setting the variable
@code{TeX-outline-extra}.

@defvar TeX-outline-extra
List of extra @TeX{} outline levels.

Each element is a list with two entries.  The first entry is the regular
expression matching a header, and the second is the level of the header.
A @samp{^} is automatically prepended to the regular expressions in the
list, so they must match text at the beginning of the line.

See @code{LaTeX-section-list} or @code{ConTeXt-INTERFACE-section-list}
for existing header levels.
@end defvar

The following example add @samp{\item} and @samp{\bibliography} headers,
with @samp{\bibliography} at the same outline level as @samp{\section},
and @samp{\item} being below @samp{\subparagraph}.

@lisp
(setq TeX-outline-extra
      '(("[ \t]*\\\\\\(bib\\)?item\\b" 7)
	("\\\\bibliography\\b" 2)))
@end lisp

You may want to check out the unbundled @file{out-xtra} package for even
better outline support.  It is available from your favorite emacs lisp
archive.

@node Running TeX and friends
@chapter Starting Processors, Viewers and Other Programs

The most powerful features of @AUCTeX{} may be those allowing you to
run (La)@TeX{}/@ConTeXt{} and other external commands like Bib@TeX{} and
@code{makeindex} from within Emacs, viewing and printing the results,
and moreover allowing you to @emph{debug} your documents.

@menu
* Commands::                    Invoking external commands.
* Viewing::                     Invoking external viewers.
* Debugging::                   Debugging @TeX{} and @LaTeX{} output.
* Checking::                    Checking the document.
* Control::                     Controlling the processes.
@end menu

@node Commands
@section Executing Commands
@cindex Formatting
@cindex Running @LaTeX{}
@cindex Running @TeX{}
@cindex @LaTeX{}
@cindex @TeX{}
@cindex Running commands
@cindex Default command
@cindex Header
@cindex Trailer
@cindex Setting the header
@cindex Setting the trailer
@cindex Region
@cindex Region file
@cindex Setting the default command
@cindex Commands
@cindex External Commands
@cindex Indexing
@cindex Making an index
@cindex Running @code{makeindex}
@cindex @code{makeindex}
@cindex Bib@TeX{}
@cindex Bibliography
@cindex Literature
@cindex Running Bib@TeX{}
@cindex Making a bibliography
@cindex Printing
@cindex Writing to a printer

Formatting the document with @TeX{}, @LaTeX{} or @ConTeXt{}, viewing
with a previewer, printing the document, running Bib@TeX{}, making an
index, or checking the document with @command{lacheck} or
@command{chktex} all require running an external command.

There are two ways to run an external command, you can either run it on
all of the current documents with @code{TeX-command-master}, or on the
current region with @code{TeX-command-region}.  A special case of
running @TeX{} on a region is @code{TeX-command-buffer} which differs
from @code{TeX-command-master} if the current buffer is not its own
master file.

@deffn Command TeX-command-master
@kindex C-c C-c
(@kbd{C-c C-c})  Query the user for a command, and run it on the master
file associated with the current buffer.  The name of the master file is
controlled by the variable @code{TeX-master}.  The available commands are
controlled by the variable @code{TeX-command-list}.
@vindex TeX-master
@vindex TeX-command-list
@end deffn

@xref{Installation}, for a discussion about @code{TeX-command-list} and
@ref{Multifile} for a discussion about @code{TeX-master}.

@deffn Command TeX-command-region
@kindex C-c C-r
(@kbd{C-c C-r}) Query the user for a command, and run it on the ``region
file''.  Some commands (typically those invoking @TeX{} or @LaTeX{})
will write the current region into the region file, after extracting the
header and tailer from the master file.  If mark is inactive (which can
happen with @code{transient-mark-mode}), use the old region.  The name
of the region file is controlled by the variable @code{TeX-region}.  The
name of the master file is controlled by the variable @code{TeX-master}.
The header is all text up to the line matching the regular expression
@code{TeX-header-end}.  The trailer is all text from the line matching
the regular expression @code{TeX-trailer-start}.  The available commands
are controlled by the variable @code{TeX-command-list}.
@vindex TeX-region
@vindex TeX-header-end
@vindex TeX-trailer-start
@vindex TeX-master
@vindex TeX-command-list
@end deffn

@deffn Command TeX-pin-region
@kindex C-c C-t C-r
(@kbd{C-c C-t C-r}) If you don't have a mode like
@code{transient-mark-mode} active, where marks get disabled
automatically, the region would need to get properly set before each
call to @code{TeX-command-region}.  If you fix the current region with
@kbd{C-c C-t C-r}, then it will get used for more commands even though
mark and point may change.  An explicitly activated mark, however, will
always define a new region when calling @code{TeX-command-region}.
@end deffn

@deffn Command TeX-command-buffer
@kindex C-c C-b
(@kbd{C-c C-b}) Query the user for a command, and run it on the ``region
file''.  Some commands (typically those invoking @TeX{} or @LaTeX{})
will write the current buffer into the region file, after extracting the
header and tailer from the master file.  See above for details.
@end deffn

@AUCTeX{} will allow one process for each document, plus one process
for the region file to be active at the same time.  Thus, if you are
editing @var{n} different documents, you can have @var{n} plus one
processes running at the same time.  If the last process you started was
on the region, the commands described in @ref{Debugging} and
@ref{Control} will work on that process, otherwise they will work on the
process associated with the current document.

@defopt TeX-region
The name of the file for temporarily storing the text when formatting
the current region.
@end defopt

@defopt TeX-header-end
A regular expression matching the end of the header.  By default, this
is @samp{\begin@{document@}} in @LaTeX{} mode and @samp{%**end of
header} in @TeX{} mode.
@end defopt

@defopt TeX-trailer-start
A regular expression matching the start of the trailer.  By default,
this is @samp{\end@{document@}} in @LaTeX{} mode and @samp{\bye} in
@TeX{} mode.
@end defopt

@AUCTeX{} will try to guess what command you want to invoke, but by
default it will assume that you want to run @TeX{} in @TeX{} mode and
@LaTeX{} in @LaTeX{} mode.  You can overwrite this by setting the
variable @code{TeX-command-default}.

@defopt TeX-command-default
The default command to run in this buffer.  Must be an entry in
@code{TeX-command-list}.
@end defopt

If you want to overwrite the values of @code{TeX-header-end},
@code{TeX-trailer-start}, or @code{TeX-command-default}, you can do that
for all files by setting them in either @code{TeX-mode-hook},
@code{plain-TeX-mode-hook}, or @code{LaTeX-mode-hook}.  To overwrite
them for a single file, define them as file variables (@pxref{File
Variables,,,emacs,The Emacs Editor}).  You do this by putting special
formatted text near the end of the file.
@cindex Variables
@cindex File Variables
@cindex Local Variables

@example
%%% Local Variables:
%%% TeX-header-end: "% End-Of-Header"
%%% TeX-trailer-start: "% Start-Of-Trailer"
%%% TeX-command-default: "SliTeX"
%%% End:
@end example

@AUCTeX{} will try to save any buffers related to the document, and
check if the document needs to be reformatted.  If the variable
@code{TeX-save-query} is non-nil, @AUCTeX{} will query before saving
each file.  By default @AUCTeX{} will check emacs buffers associated
with files in the current directory, in one of the
@code{TeX-macro-private} directories, and in the @code{TeX-macro-global}
directories.  You can change this by setting the variable
@code{TeX-check-path}.

@defopt TeX-check-path
Directory path to search for dependencies.

If nil, just check the current file.
Used when checking if any files have changed.
@end defopt

@deffn Command TeX-PDF-mode
@kindex C-c C-t C-p
@vindex TeX-PDF-mode
(@kbd{C-c C-t C-p})
This command toggles the @acronym{PDF} mode of @AUCTeX{}, a buffer-local
minor mode.  You can customize @code{TeX-PDF-mode} to give it a
different default.  The default is used when @AUCTeX{} does not have
additional clue about what a document might want.  This option usually
results in calling either PDF@TeX{} or ordinary @TeX{}.
@end deffn

@defopt TeX-DVI-via-PDFTeX
If this is set, @acronym{DVI} will also be produced by calling
PDF@TeX{}, setting @code{\pdfoutput=0}.  This makes it possible to use
packages like @samp{pdfcprot} even when producing @acronym{DVI}
files. Some modern @TeX{} distributions, e.g. te@TeX{} 3.0, do this
anyway, so that you need not enable it within @AUCTeX{}.
@end defopt

@deffn Command TeX-interactive-mode
@kindex C-c C-t C-i
@vindex TeX-interactive-mode
(@kbd{C-c C-t C-i}) This command toggles the interactive mode of
@AUCTeX{}, a global minor mode.  You can customize
@code{TeX-interactive-mode} to give it a different default.  In
interactive mode, @TeX{} will pause with an error prompt when errors are
encountered and wait for the user to type something.
@end deffn

@deffn Command TeX-source-specials-mode
@kindex C-c C-t C-s
@vindex TeX-source-specials-mode
(@kbd{C-c C-t C-s}) toggles Source Special support.  Source Specials
will move the @acronym{DVI} viewer to the location corresponding to
point (forward search), and it will use @samp{emacsclient} or
@samp{gnuclient} to have the previewer move Emacs to a location
corresponding to a control-click in the previewer window.
@xref{Viewing}.

You can permanently activate @code{TeX-source-specials-mode} with
@lisp
(TeX-source-specials-mode 1)
@end lisp
or by customizing the variable @code{TeX-source-specials-mode}.
There is a bunch of customization options, use @code{customize-group} on
the group @samp{TeX-source-specials} to find out more.

It has to be stressed @emph{very} strongly however, that Source Specials
can cause differences in page breaks, in spacing, can seriously
interfere with various packages and should thus @emph{never} be used for
the final version of a document.  In particular, fine-tuning the page
breaks should be done with Source Specials switched off.
@end deffn

@deffn Command TeX-Omega-mode
@cindex Omega
@kindex C-c C-t C-o
@vindex TeX-Omega-mode
(@kbd{C-c C-t C-o})
This command toggles the use of the Omega @tex
(@math{\Omega})
@end tex
 mode of @AUCTeX{}, a buffer-local minor mode.  If it is switched on,
@command{omega} will be used instead of @command{tex}, and
@command{lambda} instead of @command{latex}.
@end deffn

@node Viewing
@section Viewing the formatted output
@cindex Viewing
@cindex Previewing
@cindex Starting a previewer

@AUCTeX{} allows you to start external programs for previewing your
document.  These are normally invoked by pressing @kbd{C-c C-c} once
the document is formatted or via the respective entry in the Command
menu.

@AUCTeX{} will try to guess which type of viewer (@acronym{DVI},
PostScript or @acronym{PDF}) has to be used and what options are to be
passed over to it.  This decision is based on the output files present
in the working directory as well as the class and style options used in
the document.  For example, if there is a @acronym{DVI} file in your
working directory, a @acronym{DVI} viewer will be invoked.  In case of a
@acronym{PDF} file it will be a @acronym{PDF} viewer.  If you specified
a special paper format like @samp{a5paper} or use the @samp{landscape}
option, this will be passed to the viewer by the appropriate options.
Especially some @acronym{DVI} viewers depend on this kind of information
in order to display your document correctly.  In case you are using
@samp{pstricks} or @samp{psfrag} in your document, a @acronym{DVI}
viewer cannot display the contents correctly and a PostScript viewer
will be invoked instead.

The information about which file types and style options are
associated with which viewers and options for them is stored in the
variables @code{TeX-output-view-style} and @code{TeX-view-style}.

@deffn Command TeX-view
@kindex C-c C-v
The command @code{TeX-view}, bound to @kbd{C-c C-v}, starts a viewer
without confirmation.  The viewer is started either on a region or the
master file, depending on the last command issued.  This is especially
useful for jumping to the location corresponding to point in the
@acronym{DVI} viewer when using @code{TeX-source-specials-mode}.
@end deffn

@defopt TeX-output-view-style
List of output file extensions, style options and view options.
@end defopt

@defopt TeX-view-style
List of style options and view options.  This is the predecessor of
@code{TeX-output-view-style} which does not allow the specification of
output file extensions.  It is used as a fallback in case none of the
alternatives specified in @code{TeX-output-view-style} match.  In case
none of the entries in @code{TeX-view-style} match either, no suggestion
for a viewer will be made.
@end defopt

@subsection Forward and inverse search

@cindex Source specials
@cindex Inverse search
@cindex Forward search
You can make use of forward and inverse searching if this is supported
by your @acronym{DVI} viewer and you enabled
@code{TeX-source-specials-mode} as described in @ref{Commands}.
@AUCTeX{} will automatically pass the
necessary command line options to the viewer in order to display the
page containing the content you are currently editing (forward search).
Upon opening the viewer you will be asked if you want to start a server
process (Gnuserv or Emacs server) which is necessary for inverse search.
This happens only if there is no server running already.  You can
customize the variable @code{TeX-source-specials-view-start-server} to
inhibit the question and always or never start the server respectively.
Once the server and the viewer are running you can use a mouse click in
the viewer to jump to the corresponding part of your document in Emacs
(inverse search).  Refer to the documentation of your viewer to find out
what you have to do exactly.  In xdvi you usually have to use
@kbd{C-down-mouse-1}.

@defopt TeX-source-specials-view-start-server
If @code{TeX-source-specials-mode} is active and a @acronym{DVI} viewer
is invoked, the default behavior is to ask if a server process should be
started.  Set this variable to @code{t} if the question should be
inhibited and the server should be started always.  Set it to @code{nil}
if the server should never be started.  Inverse search will not be
available in the latter case.
@end defopt

@node Debugging
@section Catching the errors
@cindex Debugging
@cindex Errors
@cindex Parsing errors
@cindex Parsing TeX output
@cindex Next error
@cindex Parsing @LaTeX{} errors
@cindex Overfull boxes
@cindex Bad boxes
@cindex Wonderful boxes

Once you've formatted your document you may `debug' it, i.e. browse
through the errors (La)@TeX{} reported.

@deffn Command TeX-next-error
@kindex C-c `
(@kbd{C-c `})  Go to the next error reported by @TeX{}.  The view will
be split in two, with the cursor placed as close as possible to the
error in the top view.  In the bottom view, the error message will be
displayed along with some explanatory text.
@end deffn

Normally @AUCTeX{} will only report real errors, but you may as well
ask it to report `bad boxes' as well.

@deffn Command TeX-toggle-debug-bad-boxes
@kindex C-c C-w
(@kbd{C-c C-w})  Toggle whether @AUCTeX{} should stop at bad boxes
(i.e. over/under full boxes) as well as at normal errors.
@end deffn

As default, @AUCTeX{} will display that special @samp{*help*} buffer
containing the error reported by @TeX{} along with the documentation.
There is however an `expert' option, which allows you to display the
real @TeX{} output.

@defopt TeX-display-help
When non-nil @AUCTeX{} will automatically display a help text whenever
an error is encountered using @code{TeX-next-error} (@kbd{C-c `}).
@end defopt

@node Checking
@section Checking for problems
@cindex Checking
@cindex @code{lacheck}
@cindex @code{chktex}
@cindex Finding errors
@cindex Running @code{lacheck}
@cindex Running @code{chktex}
@cindex Style
@cindex Problems

Running @TeX{} or @LaTeX{} will only find regular errors in the
document, not examples of bad style.  Furthermore, description of the
errors may often be confusing.  The utility @code{lacheck} can be used
to find style errors, such as forgetting to escape the space after an
abbreviation or using @samp{...} instead of @samp{\ldots} and many other
problems like that.  You start @code{lacheck} with @kbd{C-c C-c Check
@key{RET}}.  The result will be a list of errors in the
@samp{*compilation*} buffer.  You can go through the errors with
@kbd{C-x `} (@code{next-error}, @pxref{Compilation,,,emacs,The Emacs
Editor}), which will move point to the location of the next error.

Another newer program which can be used to find errors is @code{chktex}.
It is much more configurable than @code{lacheck}, but doesn't find all
the problems @code{lacheck} does, at least in its default configuration.
You must install the programs before using them, and for @code{chktex}
you must also modify @code{TeX-command-list}.  You can get
@code{lacheck} from
@file{<URL:ftp://ftp.ctan.org/tex-archive/support/lacheck/>} or
alternatively @code{chktex} from
@file{<URL:ftp://ftp.ctan.org/tex-archive/support/chktex/>}.  Search for
`chktex' in @file{tex.el} to see how to switch between them.

@node Control
@section Controlling the output
@cindex Controlling the output
@cindex Output
@cindex Redisplay output
@cindex Processes
@cindex Killing a process
@cindex Finding the master file
@cindex Master file
@cindex Stopping a process
@cindex Current file
@cindex Finding the current file

A number of commands are available for controlling the output of an
application running under @AUCTeX{}

@deffn Command TeX-kill-job
@kindex C-c C-k
(@kbd{C-c C-k})  Kill currently running external application.
This may be either of @TeX{}, @LaTeX{}, previewer, Bib@TeX{}, etc.
@end deffn

@deffn Command TeX-recenter-output-buffer
@kindex C-c C-l
(@kbd{C-c C-l})  Recenter the output buffer so that the bottom line is
visible.
@end deffn

@deffn Command TeX-home-buffer
@kindex C-c ^
(@kbd{C-c ^}) Go to the `master' file in the document associated with
the current buffer, or if already there, to the file where the current
process was started.
@end deffn

@node Multifile
@chapter Multifile Documents
@cindex Multifile Documents
@cindex Documents
@cindex Documents with multiple files
@cindex Multiple Files
@cindex Many Files
@cindex Including
@cindex \include
@cindex Inputing
@cindex \input
@cindex Master file

You may wish to spread a document over many files (as you are likely to do if
there are multiple authors, or if you have not yet discovered the power
of the outline commands (@pxref{Outline})).  This can be done by having a
``master'' file in which you include the various files with the @TeX{}
macro @samp{\input} or the @LaTeX{} macro @samp{\include}.  These
files may also include other files themselves.  However, to format the
document you must run the commands on the top level master file.

When you, for example, ask @AUCTeX{} to run a command on the master file,
it has no way of knowing the name of the master file.  By default,
it will assume that the current file is the master file.  If you insert
the following in your @file{.emacs} file @AUCTeX{} will use a more
advanced algorithm.

@lisp
(setq-default TeX-master nil) ; Query for master file.
@end lisp

If @AUCTeX{} finds the line indicating the end of the header in a master
file (@code{TeX-header-end}), it can figure out for itself that this is
a master file.  Otherwise, it will ask for the name of the master file
associated with the buffer.  To avoid asking you again, @AUCTeX{} will
automatically insert the name of the master file as a file variable
(@pxref{File Variables,,,emacs,The Emacs Editor}).  You can also insert
the file variable yourself, by putting the following text at the end of
your files.
@findex TeX-header-end

@example
%%% Local Variables:
%%% TeX-master: "master"
%%% End:
@end example

You should always set this variable to the name of the top level document.  If
you always use the same name for your top level documents, you can set
@code{TeX-master} in your @file{.emacs} file.

@lisp
(setq-default TeX-master "master") ; All master files called "master".
@end lisp

@defopt TeX-master
The master file associated with the current buffer.  If the file being
edited is actually included from another file, then you can tell @AUCTeX{}
the name of the master file by setting this variable.  If there are
multiple levels of nesting, specify the top level file.

If this variable is @code{nil}, @AUCTeX{} will query you for the
name.

If the variable is @code{t}, then @AUCTeX{} will assume the file is a master
file itself.

If the variable is @code{shared}, then @AUCTeX{} will query for the name,
but will not change the file.
@end defopt

@defopt TeX-one-master
Regular expression matching ordinary @TeX{} files.

You should set this variable to match the name of all files, for which
it is a good idea to append a @code{TeX-master} file variable entry
automatically.  When @AUCTeX{} adds the name of the master file as a
file variable, it does not need to ask next time you edit the file.

If you dislike @AUCTeX{} automatically modifying your files, you can
set this variable to @samp{"<none>"}.  By default, @AUCTeX{} will modify
any file with an extension of @samp{.tex}.
@end defopt

@deffn Command TeX-master-file-ask
@kindex C-c _
(@kbd{C-c _}) Query for the name of a master file and add the respective
File Variables (@pxref{File Variables,,,emacs,The Emacs Editor}) to the
file for setting this variable permanently.

@AUCTeX{} will not ask for a master file when it encounters existing
files.  This function shall give you the possibility to insert the
variable manually.
@end deffn

@AUCTeX{} keeps track of macros, environments, labels, and style
files that are used in a given document.  For this to work with
multifile documents, @AUCTeX{} has to have a place to put the
information about the files in the document.  This is done by having an
@file{auto} subdirectory placed in the directory where your document is
located.  Each time you save a file, @AUCTeX{} will write information
about the file into the @file{auto} directory.  When you load a file,
@AUCTeX{} will read the information in the @file{auto} directory
about the file you loaded @emph{and the master file specified by
@code{TeX-master}}.  Since the master file (perhaps indirectly) includes
all other files in the document, @AUCTeX{} will get information from
all files in the document.  This means that you will get from each file,
for example, completion for all labels defined anywhere in the document.

@AUCTeX{} will create the @file{auto} directory automatically if
@code{TeX-auto-save} is non-nil.  Without it, the files in the document
will not know anything about each other, except for the name of the
master file.  @xref{Automatic Local}.

@deffn Command TeX-save-document
@kindex C-c C-d
(@kbd{C-c C-d}) Save all buffers known to belong to the current document.
@end deffn

@defopt TeX-save-query
If non-nil, then query the user before saving each file with
@code{TeX-save-document}.
@end defopt


@node Parsing Files
@chapter Automatic Parsing of @TeX{} files
@cindex Parsing @TeX{}
@cindex Automatic Parsing
@cindex Tabs
@cindex Tabify
@cindex Untabify

@AUCTeX{} depends heavily on being able to extract information from the
buffers by parsing them.  Since parsing the buffer can be somewhat slow,
the parsing is initially disabled.  You are encouraged to enable them by
adding the following lines to your @file{.emacs} file.

@lisp
(setq TeX-parse-self t) ; Enable parse on load.
(setq TeX-auto-save t) ; Enable parse on save.
@end lisp

The latter command will make @AUCTeX{} store the parsed information in
an @file{auto} subdirectory in the directory each time the @TeX{} files
are stored, @pxref{Automatic Local}.  If @AUCTeX{} finds the pre-parsed
information when loading a file, it will not need to reparse the buffer.
The information in the @file{auto} directory is also useful for
multifile documents @pxref{Multifile}, since it allows each file to
access the parsed information from all the other files in the document.
This is done by first reading the information from the master file, and
then recursively the information from each file stored in the master
file.

The variables can also be done on a per file basis, by changing the file
local variables.

@example
%%% Local Variables:
%%% TeX-parse-self: t
%%% TeX-auto-save: t
%%% End:
@end example

Even when you have disabled the automatic parsing, you can force the
generation of style information by pressing @kbd{C-c C-n}.  This is
often the best choice, as you will be able to decide when it is
necessary to reparse the file.

@defopt TeX-parse-self
Parse file after loading it if no style hook is found for it.
@end defopt

@defopt TeX-auto-save
Automatically save style information when saving the buffer.
@end defopt

@deffn Command TeX-normal-mode @var{arg}
@kindex C-c C-n
(@kbd{C-c C-n}) Remove all information about this buffer, and apply the
style hooks again.  Save buffer first including style information.  With
optional argument, also reload the style hooks.
@end deffn

When @AUCTeX{} saves your buffer, it can optionally convert all tabs in
your buffer into spaces.
Tabs confuse @AUCTeX{}'s error message parsing and so should generally be
avoided.  However, tabs are significant in some environments, and so by
default @AUCTeX{} does not remove them.
To convert tabs to spaces when saving a buffer, insert the
following in your @file{.emacs} file:

@lisp
(setq TeX-auto-untabify t)
@end lisp

@defopt TeX-auto-untabify
Automatically remove all tabs from a file before saving it.
@end defopt

Instead of disabling the parsing entirely, you can also speed it
significantly up by limiting the information it will search for (and
store) when parsing the buffer.  You can do this by setting the default
values for the buffer local variables @code{TeX-auto-regexp-list} and
@code{TeX-auto-parse-length} in your @file{.emacs} file.

@lisp
;; Only parse \documentstyle information.
(setq-default TeX-auto-regexp-list 'LaTeX-auto-minimal-regexp-list)
;; The documentstyle command is usually near the beginning.
(setq-default TeX-auto-parse-length 2000)
@end lisp

This example will speed the parsing up significantly, but @AUCTeX{}
will no longer be able to provide completion for labels, macros,
environments, or bibitems specified in the document, nor will it know
what files belong to the document.

These variables can also be specified on a per file basis, by changing
the file local variables.

@example
%%% Local Variables:
%%% TeX-auto-regexp-list: TeX-auto-full-regexp-list
%%% TeX-auto-parse-length: 999999
%%% End:
@end example

@defopt TeX-auto-regexp-list
List of regular expressions used for parsing the current file.
@end defopt

@defopt TeX-auto-parse-length
Maximal length of @TeX{} file that will be parsed.
@end defopt

The pre-specified lists of regexps are defined below.  You can use these
before loading @AUCTeX{} by quoting them, as in the example above.

@defvr Constant TeX-auto-empty-regexp-list
Parse nothing
@end defvr

@defvr Constant LaTeX-auto-minimal-regexp-list
Only parse documentstyle.
@end defvr

@defvr Constant LaTeX-auto-label-regexp-list
Only parse @LaTeX{} labels.
@end defvr

@defvr Constant LaTeX-auto-regexp-list
Parse common @LaTeX{} commands.
@end defvr

@defvr Constant plain-TeX-auto-regexp-list
Parse common plain @TeX{} commands.
@end defvr

@defvr Constant TeX-auto-full-regexp-list
Parse all @TeX{} and @LaTeX{} commands that @AUCTeX{} can use.
@end defvr

@node I18n
@chapter Internationalization
@cindex Internationalization
@cindex Character set
@cindex National letters

There are several problems associated with editing non-English @TeX{}
with GNU Emacs.  Modern versions of GNU Emacs and @TeX{} are usable for
European (Latin, Cyrillic, Greek) based languages, but special versions
of @TeX{} and Emacs are needed for Korean, Japanese, and Chinese.

@c FIXME: Is Emacs 21.4 able to deal with CJK?

@menu
* European::                    Using @AUCTeX{} with European Languages
* Japanese::                    Japanese @TeX{}
@end menu

@node European
@section Using @AUCTeX{} with European Languages
@cindex Europe
@cindex European Characters
@cindex ISO 8859 Latin 1
@cindex Latin 1
@cindex ISO 8859 Latin 2
@cindex Latin 2
@cindex ANSI

First you will need a way to write non-ASCII characters.  You can either
use macros, or teach @TeX{} about the ISO character sets.  I prefer the
latter, it has the advantage that the usual standard emacs word
movement and case change commands will work.

With @LaTeX{}2e, just add @samp{\usepackage[latin1]@{inputenc@}}.  Other
languages than Western European ones will probably have other encoding
needs.

To be able to display non-ASCII characters you will need an appropriate
font and a version of GNU Emacs capable of displaying 8-bit characters
(e.g. Emacs 21).  The manner in which this is supported differs between
Emacsen, so you need to take a look at your respective documentation.

A compromise is to use an European character set when editing the file,
and convert to @TeX{} macros when reading and writing the files.

@table @file
@item iso-cvt.el
@cindex @file{iso-cvt.el}
Much like @file{iso-tex.el} but is bundled with Emacs 19.23 and later.

@item x-compose.el
@cindex @file{x-compose.el}
Similar package bundled with new versions of XEmacs.

@item X-Symbol
@cindex X-Symbol
a much more complete package for both Emacs and XEmacs that can also
handle a lot of mathematical characters and input methods.

@end table

@cindex ispell
@AUCTeX{} supports style files for several languages.  Each style file
may modify @AUCTeX{} to better support the language, and will run
a language specific hook that will allow you to for example change
ispell dictionary, or run code to change the keyboard remapping.  The
following will for example choose a Danish dictionary for documents
including @samp{\usepackage[danish]@{babel@}}.
This requires parsing to be enabled, @pxref{Parsing Files}.

@lisp
(add-hook 'TeX-language-dk-hook
	  (function (lambda () (ispell-change-dictionary "danish"))))
@end lisp

The following style files are recognized.
@c In alphabetic order of the hooks:
@vindex TeX-language-cz-hook
@vindex TeX-language-dk-hook
@vindex TeX-language-nl-hook
@vindex TeX-language-de-hook
@vindex TeX-language-it-hook
@vindex TeX-language-pl-hook
@vindex TeX-language-sk-hook
@vindex TeX-language-sv-hook
@cindex Czech
@cindex Italy
@cindex Denmark
@cindex Danish
@cindex Holland
@cindex Dutch
@cindex Germany
@cindex Poland
@cindex Slovakia
@cindex Sweden
@table @file
@item czech
Runs style hook @code{TeX-language-cz-hook}.  Pressing @key{"} will
insert @samp{\uv@{} and @samp{@}} depending on context.

@c Is the difference between dk and danish really intented?
@item danish
Runs style hook @code{TeX-language-dk-hook}.  Pressing @key{"} will
insert @samp{"`} and @samp{"'} depending on context.
@c dk.sty seems to be obsolete, so we don't want to encourage using it.
@c @item dk
@c Runs style hook @code{TeX-language-dk-hook}.

@item dutch
Runs style hook @code{TeX-language-nl-hook}.

@item german
@itemx ngerman
Runs style hook @code{TeX-language-de-hook}.  Gives @samp{"} word
syntax, makes the @key{"} key insert a literal @samp{"}, and pressing it
twice will give you opening or closing german quotes (@samp{"`} or
@samp{"'}), if you have configured @code{TeX-open-quote} and
@code{TeX-close-quote} accordingly.  @xref{Quotes}.

@item italian
Runs style hook @code{TeX-language-it-hook}.  Pressing @key{"} will
insert @samp{"<} (@code{LaTeX-italian-open-quote}) and @samp{">}
(@code{LaTeX-italian-close-quote}) depending on context.

@item plfonts
@itemx plhb
Runs style hook @code{TeX-language-pl-hook}.
Gives  @samp{"} word syntax and makes the @key{"} key insert a literal
@samp{"}.  Pressing @key{"} twice will insert @samp{"<} or @samp{">}
depending on context.

@item slovak
Runs style hook @code{TeX-language-sk-hook}.  Pressing @key{"} will
insert @samp{\uv@{} and @samp{@}} depending on context.

@item swedish
Runs style hook @code{TeX-language-sv-hook}.  Pressing @key{"} will
insert @samp{''}.
@end table

@node Japanese
@section Japanese @TeX{}
@cindex Japan
@cindex Japanese
@cindex Nippon
@cindex MULE
@cindex j@TeX{}
@cindex j@LaTeX{}
@cindex p@TeX{}
@cindex p@LaTeX{}
@vindex TeX-default-mode
@vindex japanese-TeX-command-default
@vindex japanese-LaTeX-command-default
@vindex japanese-LaTeX-default-style

To write Japanese text with @AUCTeX{} you need to have versions of
@TeX{} and Emacs that support Japanese.  There exist at least two
variants of @TeX{} for Japanese text (j@TeX{} and p@TeX{}), and
@AUCTeX{} can be used with MULE supported Emacsen.

To install Japanese support for @AUCTeX{}, copy @file{tex-jp.el} to
@AUCTeX{} installed directory.  Next two commands will automatically
install contributed files.

@example
make contrib
make install-contrib
@end example

See @file{INSTALL} and @file{Makefile} for more information.

To use the Japanese @TeX{} variants, simply enter @code{japanese-tex-mode},
@code{japanese-latex-mode}, or @code{japanese-slitex-mode}, and
everything should work.  If not, send mail to Shinji Kobayashi
@samp{<koba@@flab.fujitsu.co.jp>}, who kindly donated the code for
supporting Japanese in @AUCTeX{}.  None of the primary @AUCTeX{}
maintainers understand Japanese, so they can not help you.

If you usually use @AUCTeX{} in Japanese, setting following variables
is useful.

@defopt TeX-default-mode
Mode to enter for a new file when it can't be determined whether
the file is plain @TeX{} or @LaTeX{} or what.

To use Japanese @TeX{} always, set japanese command for example:
@lisp
(setq TeX-default-mode 'japanese-latex-mode)
@end lisp
@end defopt

@defopt japanese-TeX-command-default
The default command for TeX-command in japanese @TeX{} mode.

The default value is @samp{jTeX}.
@end defopt

@defopt japanese-LaTeX-command-default
The default command for TeX-command in japanese @LaTeX{} mode.

The default value is @samp{jLaTeX}.
@end defopt

@defopt japanese-LaTeX-default-style
The default style/class when creating new japanese @LaTeX{} document.

The default value is @samp{j-article}.
@end defopt

See @file{tex-jp.el} for more information.

@node Automatic
@chapter Automatic Customization
@cindex Automatic Customization
@cindex Extracting @TeX{} symbols
@cindex Automatic
@cindex @file{auto} directories.
@cindex Parsing @TeX{}
@cindex @TeX{} parsing
@cindex Generating symbols

Since @AUCTeX{} is so highly customizable, it makes sense that it is able
to customize itself.  The automatic customization consists of scanning
@TeX{} files and extracting symbols, environments, and things like that.

The automatic customization is done on three different levels.  The
global level is the level shared by all users at your site, and consists
of scanning the standard @TeX{} style files, and any extra styles added
locally for all users on the site.  The private level deals with those
style files you have written for your own use, and use in different
documents.  You may have a @file{~/lib/TeX/} directory where you store
useful style files for your own use.  The local level is for a specific
directory, and deals with writing customization for the files for your
normal @TeX{} documents.

If compared with the environment variable @code{TEXINPUTS}, the
global level corresponds to the directories built into @TeX{}.  The
private level corresponds to the directories you add yourself, except for
@file{.}, which is the local level.

@menu
* Automatic Global::            Automatic Customization for the Site
* Automatic Private::           Automatic Customization for a User
* Automatic Local::             Automatic Customization for a Directory
@end menu

By default @AUCTeX{} will search for customization files in all the
global, private, and local style directories, but you can also set the
path directly.  This is useful if you for example want to add another
person's style hooks to your path.  Please note that all matching files
found in @code{TeX-style-path} are loaded, and all hooks defined in the
files will be executed.

@defopt TeX-style-path
List of directories to search for @AUCTeX{} style files.
Each must end with a slash.
@end defopt

By default, when @AUCTeX{} searches a directory for files, it will
recursively search through subdirectories.

@defopt TeX-file-recurse
Whether to search @TeX{} directories recursively: nil means do not
recurse, a positive integer means go that far deep in the directory
hierarchy, t means recurse indefinitely.
@end defopt

By default, @AUCTeX{} will ignore files name @file{.}, @file{..},
@file{SCCS}, @file{RCS}, and @file{CVS}.

@defopt TeX-ignore-file
Regular expression matching file names to ignore.

These files or directories will not be considered when searching for
@TeX{} files in a directory.
@end defopt

@node Automatic Global
@section Automatic Customization for the Site
@cindex Global style hook directory
@cindex Global macro directory
@cindex Site macro directory
@cindex Global @TeX{} macro directory
@cindex Site @TeX{} macro directory
@cindex Global directories
@cindex Site information

Assuming that the automatic customization at the global level was done
when @AUCTeX{} was installed, your choice is now: will you use it?  If
you use it, you will benefit by having access to all the symbols and
environments available for completion purposes.  The drawback is slower
load time when you edit a new file and perhaps too many confusing
symbols when you try to do a completion.

You can disable the automatic generated global style hooks by setting
the variable @code{TeX-auto-global} to nil.

@defopt TeX-macro-global
Directories containing the site's @TeX{} style files.
@end defopt

@defopt TeX-style-global
Directory containing hand generated @TeX{} information.
Must end with a slash.

These correspond to @TeX{} macros shared by all users of a site.
@end defopt

@defopt TeX-auto-global
Directory containing automatically generated information.

For storing automatic extracted information about the @TeX{} macros
shared by all users of a site.
@end defopt

@node Automatic Private
@section Automatic Customization for a User
@cindex Private style hook directory
@cindex Private macro directory
@cindex Personal macro directory
@cindex Private @TeX{} macro directory
@cindex Personal @TeX{} macro directory
@cindex Private directories
@cindex Personal information

You should specify where you store your private @TeX{} macros, so
@AUCTeX{} can extract their information.  The extracted information will
go to the directories listed in @code{TeX-auto-private}

Use @kbd{M-x TeX-auto-generate} to extract the information.

@defopt TeX-macro-private
Directories where you store your personal @TeX{} macros.
Each must end with a slash.

This defaults to the directories listed in the @samp{TEXINPUTS} and
@samp{BIBINPUTS} environment variables.
@end defopt

@defopt TeX-auto-private
List of directories containing automatically generated information.
Must end with a slash.

These correspond to the personal @TeX{} macros.
@end defopt

@deffn Command TeX-auto-generate @var{TEX} @var{AUTO}
(@kbd{M-x TeX-auto-generate}) Generate style hook for @var{TEX} and
store it in @var{AUTO}.  If @var{TEX} is a directory, generate style
hooks for all files in the directory.
@end deffn

@defopt TeX-style-private
List of directories containing hand generated information.
Must end with a slash.

These correspond to the personal @TeX{} macros.
@end defopt

@node Automatic Local
@section Automatic Customization for a Directory
@cindex Local style hooks
@cindex Updating style hooks
@cindex Automatic updating style hooks
@cindex Local style hooks
@cindex Local style directory

@AUCTeX{} can update the style information about a file each time you
save it, and it will do this if the directory @code{TeX-auto-local}
exist. @code{TeX-auto-local} is by default set to @samp{"auto/"}, so
simply creating an @file{auto} directory will enable automatic saving of
style information.

The advantage of doing this is that macros, labels, etc. defined in any
file in a multifile document will be known in all the files in the
document.  The disadvantage is that saving will be slower.  To disable,
set @code{TeX-auto-local} to nil.

@defopt TeX-style-local
Directory containing hand generated @TeX{} information.
Must end with a slash.

These correspond to @TeX{} macros found in the current directory.
@end defopt

@defopt TeX-auto-local
Directory containing automatically generated @TeX{} information.
Must end with a slash.

These correspond to @TeX{} macros found in the current directory.
@end defopt

@node Style Files
@chapter Writing Your own Style Support
@cindex Style files
@cindex Style hooks
@cindex @file{style}

@xref{Automatic}, for a discussion about automatically generated global,
private, and local style files.  The hand generated style files are
equivalent, except that they by default are found in @file{style}
directories instead of @file{auto} directories.

@menu
* Simple Style::                A Simple Style File
* Adding Macros::               Adding Support for Macros
* Adding Environments::         Adding Support for Environments
* Adding Other::                Adding Other Information
* Hacking the Parser::          Automatic Extraction of New Things
@end menu

If you write some useful support for a public @TeX{} style file, please
send it to us.

@node Simple Style
@section A Simple Style File
@cindex @file{book.el}
@cindex Sample style file
@cindex Style file
@cindex Example of a style file.
@cindex Style hook
@cindex Adding a style hook

Here is a simple example of a style file.

@lisp
;;; book.el - Special code for book style.

(TeX-add-style-hook "book"
 (function (lambda () (setq LaTeX-largest-level
			    (LaTeX-section-level ("chapter"))))))

@end lisp

This file specifies that the largest kind of section in a @LaTeX{} document
using the book document style is chapter.  The interesting thing to
notice is that the style file defines an (anonymous) function, and adds it
to the list of loaded style hooks by calling @code{TeX-add-style-hook}.

The first time the user indirectly tries to access some style specific
information, such as the largest sectioning command available, the style
hooks for all files directly or indirectly read by the current document
is executed.  The actual files will only be evaluated once, but the
hooks will be called for each buffer using the style file.

@defun TeX-add-style-hook @var{style} @var{hook}
Add @var{hook} to the list of functions to run when we use the @TeX{}
file @var{style}.
@end defun

@node Adding Macros
@section Adding Support for Macros
@cindex Adding macros
@cindex Macros, adding
@cindex Defining macros in style hooks

The most common thing to define in a style hook is new symbols (@TeX{}
macros).  Most likely along with a description of the arguments to the
function, since the symbol itself can be defined automatically.

Here are a few examples from @file{latex.el}.

@lisp
(TeX-add-style-hook "latex"
 (function
  (lambda ()
     (TeX-add-symbols
     '("arabic" TeX-arg-counter)
     '("label" TeX-arg-define-label)
     '("ref" TeX-arg-label)
     '("newcommand" TeX-arg-define-macro [ "Number of arguments" ] t)
     '("newtheorem" TeX-arg-define-environment
       [ TeX-arg-environment "Numbered like" ]
       t [ TeX-arg-counter "Within counter" ])))))
@end lisp

@defun TeX-add-symbols @var{symbol} @dots{}
Add each @var{symbol} to the list of known symbols.
@end defun

Each argument to @code{TeX-add-symbols} is a list describing one symbol.
The head of the list is the name of the symbol, the remaining elements
describe each argument.

If there are no additional elements, the symbol will be inserted with
point inside braces.  Otherwise, each argument of this function should
match an argument of the @TeX{} macro.  What is done depends on the argument
type.

If a macro is defined multiple times, @AUCTeX{} will chose the one with
the longest definition (i.e. the one with the most arguments).

Thus, to overwrite
@example
	'("tref" 1) ; one argument
@end example
you can specify
@example
	'("tref" TeX-arg-label ignore) ; two arguments
@end example

@code{ignore} is a function that does not do anything, so when you
insert a @samp{tref} you will be prompted for a label and no more.

@table @code
@item string
Use the string as a prompt to prompt for the argument.

@item number
Insert that many braces, leave point inside the first.

@item nil
Insert empty braces.

@item t
Insert empty braces, leave point between the braces.

@item other symbols
Call the symbol as a function.  You can define your
own hook, or use one of the predefined argument hooks.

@item list
If the car is a string, insert it as a prompt and the next
element as initial input.  Otherwise, call the car of the list with
the remaining elements as arguments.

@item vector
Optional argument.  If it has more than one element, parse it
as a list, otherwise parse the only element as above.  Use square
brackets instead of curly braces, and is not inserted on empty user
input.
@end table

A lot of argument hooks have already been defined.  The first argument to
all hooks is a flag indicating if it is an optional argument.  It is up
to the hook to determine what to do with the remaining arguments, if
any.  Typically the next argument is used to overwrite the default
prompt.

@ftable @code
@item TeX-arg-conditional
Implements if EXPR THEN ELSE.  If EXPR evaluates to true, parse THEN as an
argument list, else parse ELSE as an argument list.

@item TeX-arg-literal
Insert its arguments into the buffer.  Used for specifying extra syntax
for a macro.

@item TeX-arg-free
Parse its arguments but use no braces when they are inserted.

@item TeX-arg-eval
Evaluate arguments and insert the result in the buffer.

@item TeX-arg-file
Prompt for a tex or sty filename, and use it without the extension. Run
the file hooks defined for it.

@item TeX-arg-label
Prompt for a label completing with known labels.

@item TeX-arg-macro
Prompt for a @TeX{} macro with completion.

@item TeX-arg-environment
Prompt for a @LaTeX{} environment with completion.

@item TeX-arg-cite
Prompt for a Bib@TeX{} citation.

@item TeX-arg-counter
Prompt for a @LaTeX{} counter.

@item TeX-arg-savebox
Prompt for a @LaTeX{} savebox.

@item TeX-arg-file
Prompt for a filename in the current directory, and use it without the
extension.

@item TeX-arg-input-file
Prompt for a filename in the current directory, and use it without the
extension.  Run the style hooks for the file.

@item TeX-arg-define-label
Prompt for a label completing with known labels.  Add label to list of
defined labels.

@item TeX-arg-define-macro
Prompt for a @TeX{} macro with completion.  Add macro to list of defined
macros.

@item TeX-arg-define-environment
Prompt for a @LaTeX{} environment with completion.  Add environment to
list of defined environments.

@item TeX-arg-define-cite
Prompt for a Bib@TeX{} citation.

@item TeX-arg-define-counter
Prompt for a @LaTeX{} counter.

@item TeX-arg-define-savebox
Prompt for a @LaTeX{} savebox.

@item TeX-arg-corner
Prompt for a @LaTeX{} side or corner position with completion.

@item TeX-arg-lr
Prompt for a @LaTeX{} side with completion.

@item TeX-arg-tb
Prompt for a @LaTeX{} side with completion.

@item TeX-arg-pagestyle
Prompt for a @LaTeX{} pagestyle with completion.

@item TeX-arg-verb
Prompt for delimiter and text.

@item TeX-arg-pair
Insert a pair of numbers, use arguments for prompt. The numbers are
surrounded by parentheses and separated with a comma.

@item TeX-arg-size
Insert width and height as a pair.  No arguments.

@item TeX-arg-coordinate
Insert x and y coordinates as a pair.  No arguments.
@end ftable

If you add new hooks, you can assume that point is placed directly after
the previous argument, or after the macro name if this is the first
argument.  Please leave point located after the argument you are
inserting.  If you want point to be located somewhere else after all
hooks have been processed, set the value of @code{exit-mark}.  It will
point nowhere, until the argument hook sets it.

@node Adding Environments
@section Adding Support for Environments
@cindex Adding environments
@cindex Environments, adding
@cindex Defining environments in style hooks

Adding support for environments is very much like adding support for
@TeX{} macros, except that each environment normally only takes one
argument, an environment hook.  The example is again a short version of
@file{latex.el}.

@lisp
(TeX-add-style-hook "latex"
 (function
  (lambda ()
    (LaTeX-add-environments
     '("document" LaTeX-env-document)
     '("enumerate" LaTeX-env-item)
     '("itemize" LaTeX-env-item)
     '("list" LaTeX-env-list)))))
@end lisp

@findex LaTeX-env-item
The only hook that is generally useful is @code{LaTeX-env-item}, which is
used for environments that contain items.  It is completely up to the
environment hook to insert the environment, but the function
@code{LaTeX-insert-environment} may be of some help.  The hook will be
called with the name of the environment as its first argument, and extra
arguments can be provided by adding them to a list after the hook.

For simple environments with arguments, for example defined with
@samp{\newenvironment}, you can make @AUCTeX{} prompt for the arguments
by giving the prompt strings in the call to
@code{LaTeX-add-environments}.  For example, if you have defined a
@code{loop} environment with the three arguments @var{from}, @var{to},
and @var{step}, you can add support for them in a style file.

@example
%% loop.sty

\newenvironment@{loop@}[3]@{...@}@{...@}
@end example

@lisp
;; loop.el

(TeX-add-style-hook "loop"
 (function
  (lambda ()
    (LaTeX-add-environments
     '("loop" "From" "To" "Step")))))
@end lisp

If an environment is defined multiple times, @AUCTeX{} will chose the
one with the longest definition.  Thus, if you have an enumerate style
file, and want it to replace the standard @LaTeX{} enumerate hook above,
you could define an @file{enumerate.el} file as follows, and place it in
the appropriate style directory.

@lisp
(TeX-add-style-hook "latex"
 (function
  (lambda ()
    (LaTeX-add-environments
     '("enumerate" LaTeX-env-enumerate foo)))))

(defun LaTeX-env-enumerate (environment &optional ignore) ...)
@end lisp

The symbol @code{foo} will be passed to @code{LaTeX-env-enumerate} as
the second argument, but since we only added it to overwrite the
definition in @file{latex.el} it is just ignored.

@defun LaTeX-add-environments @var{env} @dots{}
Add each @var{env} to list of loaded environments.
@end defun

@defun LaTeX-insert-environment @var{env} [ @var{extra} ]
Insert environment of type @var{env}, with optional argument @var{extra}.
@end defun

@node Adding Other
@section Adding Other Information
@cindex Adding bibliographies
@cindex Bibliographies, adding
@cindex Defining bibliographies in style hooks
@cindex Adding labels
@cindex Labels, adding
@cindex Defining labels in style hooks
@cindex Adding other information
@cindex Other information, adding
@cindex Defining other information in style hooks

You can also specify bibliographical databases and labels in the style
file.  This is probably of little use, since this information will
usually be automatically generated from the @TeX{} file anyway.

@defun LaTeX-add-bibliographies @var{bibliography} @dots{}
Add each @var{bibliography} to list of loaded bibliographies.
@end defun

@defun LaTeX-add-labels @var{label} @dots{}
Add each @var{label} to the list of known labels.
@end defun

@node Hacking the Parser
@section Automatic Extraction of New Things
@cindex Parsing new macros
@cindex @file{macro.tex}
@cindex @file{macro.el}
@cindex Changing the parser

The automatic @TeX{} information extractor works by searching for
regular expressions in the @TeX{} files, and storing the matched
information.  You can add support for new constructs to the parser,
something that is needed when you add new commands to define symbols.

For example, in the file @file{macro.tex} I define the following macro.

@example
\newcommand@{\newmacro@}[5]@{%
\def#1@{#3\index@{#4@@#5~cite@{#4@}@}\nocite@{#4@}@}%
\def#2@{#5\index@{#4@@#5~cite@{#4@}@}\nocite@{#4@}@}%
@}
@end example

@AUCTeX{} will automatically figure out that @samp{newmacro} is a macro
that takes five arguments.  However, it is not smart enough to
automatically see that each time we use the macro, two new macros are
defined.  We can specify this information in a style hook file.

@lisp
;;; macro.el - Special code for my own macro file.

;;; Code:

(defvar TeX-newmacro-regexp
  '("\\\\newmacro@{\\\\\\([a-zA-Z]+\\)@}@{\\\\\\([a-zA-Z]+\\)@}"
    (1 2) TeX-auto-multi)
  "Matches \newmacro definitions.")

(defvar TeX-auto-multi nil
  "Temporary for parsing \\newmacro definitions.")

(defun TeX-macro-cleanup ()
  ;; Move symbols from `TeX-auto-multi' to `TeX-auto-symbol'.
  (mapcar (function (lambda (list)
	    (mapcar (function (lambda (symbol)
		      (setq TeX-auto-symbol
			    (cons symbol TeX-auto-symbol))))
		    list)))
	  TeX-auto-multi))

(defun TeX-macro-prepare ()
  ;; Clear `Tex-auto-multi' before use.
  (setq TeX-auto-multi nil))

(add-hook 'TeX-auto-prepare-hook 'TeX-macro-prepare)
(add-hook 'TeX-auto-cleanup-hook 'TeX-macro-cleanup)

(TeX-add-style-hook "macro"
 (function
  (lambda ()
    (TeX-auto-add-regexp TeX-newmacro-regexp)
    (TeX-add-symbols '("newmacro"
		       TeX-arg-macro
		       (TeX-arg-macro "Capitalized macro: \\")
		       t
		       "BibTeX entry: "
		       nil)))))

;;; macro.el ends here
@end lisp

When this file is first loaded, it adds a new entry to
@code{TeX-newmacro-regexp}, and defines a function to be called before
the parsing starts, and one to be called after the parsing is done.  It
also declares a variable to contain the data collected during parsing.
Finally, it adds a style hook which describes the @samp{newmacro} macro,
as we have seen it before.

So the general strategy is: Add a new entry to @code{TeX-newmacro-regexp}.
Declare a variable to contain intermediate data during parsing.  Add hook
to be called before and after parsing.  In this case, the hook before
parsing just initializes the variable, and the hook after parsing
collects the data from the variable, and adds them to the list of symbols
found.

@defvar TeX-auto-regexp-list
List of regular expressions matching @TeX{} macro definitions.

The list has the following format ((REGEXP MATCH TABLE) @dots{}), that
is, each entry is a list with three elements.

REGEXP.  Regular expression matching the macro we want to parse.

MATCH.  A number or list of numbers, each representing one
parenthesized subexpression matched by REGEXP.

TABLE.  The symbol table to store the data.  This can be a function, in
which case the function is called with the argument MATCH.  Use
@code{TeX-match-buffer} to get match data.  If it is not a function, it
is presumed to be the name of a variable containing a list of match
data.  The matched data (a string if MATCH is a number, a list of
strings if MATCH is a list of numbers) is put in front of the table.
@end defvar

@defvar TeX-auto-prepare-hook nil
List of functions to be called before parsing a @TeX{} file.
@end defvar

@defvar TeX-auto-cleanup-hook nil
List of functions to be called after parsing a @TeX{} file.
@end defvar

@node Changes
@appendix Changes and New Features

@include changes.texi

@heading Older versions
See the file @file{history.texi} for older changes.

@node ToDo
@appendix Future Development
@include todo.texi

@node FAQ
@appendix Frequently Asked Questions
@include faq.texi

@node Key Index
@unnumbered Key Index

@printindex ky

@node Function Index
@unnumbered Function Index

@printindex fn

@node Variable Index
@unnumbered Variable Index

@printindex vr

@node Concept Index
@unnumbered Concept Index

@printindex cp

@bye